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Viktor Dyk

Viktor Dyk (Czech pronunciation: ) (31 December 1877 – 14 May 1931) was a nationalist Czech poet, prose writer, playwright, politician and political writer. He was sent to jail during the First World War for opposing the Austro-Hungarian empire. He was one of the signatories of the Manifesto of Czech writers. Dyk co-founded a political party and entered politics. He died at age 53, leaving his many poems, plays and writings.

Viktor Dyk
Photograph of Dyk, circa 1917
Born(1877-12-31)31 December 1877
Pšovka u Mělníka, Kingdom of Bohemia, Austria-Hungary
Died14 May 1931(1931-05-14) (aged 53)
Lopud, Yugoslavia
OccupationPoet, politician, playwright, prose writer, journalist
Literary movementCzech nationalist

Contents

Dyk's birthplace

Dyk was born in Pšovka u Mělníka in the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1877. His family moved to Prague in 1888 where he began to write. His family settled in the Prague suburb of Vinohrady in 1904 and that year he published a novel titled The End of Hackenschmid which was anti-Austrian. Dyk had taken part in the Czech Chess Championship the year before and he was to remain interested in the game for at least the next twenty years. He was most active in 1913 and seven of his games between 1903 and 1927 are recorded but, of these, only one is a victory.

Viktor Dyk studied at a gymnasium in Prague (one of his teachers was Alois Jirásek). Dyk completed his education at Charles University in Prague where he achieved a degree in law. However law and politics were to dominate his life.

Photo taken in 1899, aged 22
Funeral procession, 1931

In 1911, he became involved in politics and joined the Státoprávně pokroková strana. He stood for office in the 1911 elections, but received just 205 votes in Vinohrady and placed fourth overall of five candidates.

Dyk together with Franz Kafka spoke of a "Great Wall" which, like the Great Wall of China or the Tower of Babel, became a metaphor for the cultural and linguistic division that they believed was required between Czech and Germanic culture. Dyk wrote in the magazine Lumír, where he was known to state that Bohemia had to become Czech or they should die in the attempt. On April 13, 1913, he composed a tirade in reply to an article published by Franz Werfel. Dyk stated that his group had not built the "Great Wall" as they were not opposed per se to German ideas, however they did see the dangers. Dyk saw no problem with communicating with Germans but he warned against "surrender" to ensure that they did not become "Czech speaking Germans".

During the First World War, he continued to write and he became involved in helping write a libretto for an opera by Leoš Janáček. Janáček's fifth opera, The Excursions of Mr. Brouček to the Moon and to the 15th Century went through a number of librettists and Dyk worked on Janáček's opera which was based on a story by Svatopluk Čech. In 1915 he started working with Vinohrady Theatre. Later he was imprisoned in Vienna for his resistance activities against Austria-Hungary. He was in jail in 1916 and 1917 for suggesting that Moravia and Bohemia could secede from the empire. In May 1917 Dyk was one of the signatories of the Manifesto of Czech writers. This was an important document created by Jaroslav Kvapil who was the director of Czech National Theatre. Kvapil managed to get 200 writers to sign the manifesto and it was designed to encourage the Czech deputies to the Imperial Council in Vienna to support Czech self-determination. In 1918, he co-founded the Czechoslovak National Democratic Party (Czech: Československá národní demokracie).

His writings were designed to inspire nationalism in the fight to reclaim the Kingdom of Bohemia from Austrian rule. In 1907 he became the editor of the magazine Lumír. He was to lead this magazine for the rest of his life. The magazine's followers were known by the same name as the magazine. The writers and artists involved started a new direction in Czech culture. Previously, the culture was seen as coming from Germans and sources in German. For instance, German poets like Heinrich Heine were translated poem by poem from German to Czech. With the emergence of the Lumír group writers like Vrchlický, Dyk himself and Julius Zeyer the focus turned away from German culture. This change of focus is said to have led other Czech intellectuals to also look in this new direction for scientific, economic and social ideas.

His political views were conservative and nationalist and in 1920 he was elected to parliament. In the times of the First Republic of Czechoslovakia, Viktor Dyk was one of the prominent intellectual opponents of President Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. In 1928 he married the writer Zdenka Hásková. In the 1929 parliamentary election, Dyk became a senator of Czechoslovakia, representing the Czechoslovak Democratic Party.

Viktor Dyk died of heart failure on 14 May 1931 while swimming in the sea near the island of Lopud, near Dubrovnik in Croatia. He was replaced as senator by Jan Kapras. Dyk's funeral attracted many mourners. He was buried at Olšany Cemetery in Prague.

Dyk has a number of monuments including one in Vinohrady, where he lived most of his life. Jirí Jíle created a life-sized bronze bust on a granite plinth in his birthplace of Mělník in the Bohemian area of the Czech Republic. The statue is on the street Vilohrady Karla IV by the Štefánik observation point. The statue does not mention his career or life span but merely says "Viktor Dyk".

There is also a monument to Dyk on the Island of Lopud created by Nikola Dobrović in 1936. The concrete monument is on hill where three paths meet and it was paid for by the former government of Czechoslovakia.

Dyk's book Krysař (English: Rat-catcher) was the basis for a 2003 film of the same name by director F.A. Brabec. The film was shot in under 24 hours, leading to producers of the film claiming it to be a world record for the fastest-ever film shooting. The same book was also used by Jiří Barta in creating the base story for his 1986 animation The Pied Piper. Barta notes that it is Dyk's book which is the basis of the average Czech's understanding of the Pied Piper story.

Czech President Václav Klaus cited one of Dyk's poems in his 2011 New Year's address to the nation, urging Czech citizens not to emigrate. Klaus's speech was directed at the Czechs who were finding the fiscal restrictions of the economy difficult to bear. Klaus appealed to nationalists with Dyk's suggestion of what the nation would think: "I will survive if you leave me – but without me you will surely die."

Monument to Viktor Dyk in Mělník
Memorial plaque, Vinohrady
Grave of Viktor Dyk at the Olšanské hřbitovy
Memorial of Viktor Dyk at the island of Lopud where he drowned – photo from 1981 before renovation

Opera

Poetry

  • A porta inferi, 1897
  • Síla života, 1898
  • Marnosti, 1900
  • Satiry a sarkasmy, 1905
  • Milá sedmi loupežníků, 1906
  • Pohádky z naší vesnice, 1910
  • Giuseppe Moro, 1911
  • Zápas Jiřího Macků, 1916
  • Noci chiméry, 1917
  • Devátá vlna 1930
  • Lehké a těžké kroky 1915
  • Anebo 1917
  • Okno 1921
  • Poslední rok 1922

Prose

  • Stud, 1900
  • Hučí jez a jiné prózy, 1903
  • Konec Hackenschmidův, (The End of Hackenschmid) 1904
  • Prosinec, 1906
  • Prsty Habakukovy, 1906
  • Píseň o vrbě, 1908
  • Příhody, 1911
  • Krysař, 1915
  • Tajemná dobrodružství Alexeje Iványče Kozulinova, 1923
  • Tichý dům, 1921
  • Zlý vítr, 1922
  • Prsty Habakukovy, 1925
  • Můj přítel Čehona, 1925
  • Dědivadelní hra, 1927
  • Holoubek Kuzma, 1928
  • Soykovy děti, 1929

Political literature

  • Ad usum pana presidenta republiky (1929 – criticism of Edvard Beneš and Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
  • O národní stát (posthumously 1932–1938, 7 books of Dyk's political writing from 1917 to 1931)

Dramas

  • Epizoda, 1906
  • Posel, 1907
  • Zmoudření Dona Quijota, 1913
  • Veliký mág, 1914
  • Zvěrstva, 1919
  • Ondřej a drak, 1919
  • Revoluční trilogie, 1921
  • Napravený plukovník Švec, 1929 – support of Rudolf Medek

Memoirs

  • Vzpomínky a komentáře, 1927
Wikimedia Commons has media related toViktor Dyk.
  1. Viktor Dyk, spisovatele.cz, retrieved 12 April 2014
  2. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). 2010 The Gale Group, Inc, retrieved 13 April 2014
  3. Viktor Dyk, Chessgames.com, retrieved 13 April 2014
  4. Viktor Dyk Archived 2014-04-13 at the Wayback Machine, Plamen Press, retrieved 13 April 2014
  5. Kadlečík, Martin (31 August 2008). "Viktor Dyk a nacionalismus" (in Czech). Mladá fronta DNES. Retrieved14 April 2014.
  6. Nekula, Marek. "The Divided City: Prague's Public Space and Franz Kafka's Readings of Prague"(PDF). bohemicum.de. Retrieved13 April 2014.
  7. Sadie, Stanley; Macy, Laura, eds. (2006).The Grove book of operas (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0195309072.
  8. Manifesto of Czech writers, Czech Wikisource, retrieved 14 April 2014
  9. "Viktor Dyk." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. 6th Edition. Columbia University Press. New York. November 1, 2011.
  10. Krejčí ; [translation, Martin C.Styan], Oskar (2005). Geopolitics of the Central European region : the view from Prague and Bratislava (1st ed.). Bratislava: VEDA, Pub. House of the Slovak Academy of Sciences. p. 308. ISBN 978-8022408523.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. "Akci Vlastenecké fronty narušil drobný incident" (in Czech). Mladá fronta DNES. 30 June 2001. Retrieved14 April 2014.
  12. "Společná česko-slovenská digitální parlamentní knihovna" (in Czech). Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic. Archived from the original on 2 July 2007.
  13. Viktor Dyk, WayMarking.com, retrieved 14 April 2014
  14. Bacic, D (December 2003). "Monument to Viktor Dyk by Nicholas Dobrovic on the Island of Lopud". Prostor : Znanstveni časopis za Arhitekturu i Urbanizam. 11 (1). Retrieved13 April 2014.
  15. Viktor Dyk, Geocaching, retrieved 14 April 2014
  16. "Press Review". Radio Prague. 2 January 2003. Retrieved14 April 2014.
  17. Jiri Barta and the Pied Piper, Animator Mag 1988, retrieved 14 April 2014
  18. "President tells Czechs to grit their teeth and support pro-reform government". Radio Prague. 3 January 2011. Retrieved14 April 2014.

Viktor Dyk
Viktor Dyk Language Watch Edit Viktor Dyk Czech pronunciation ˈvɪktor ˈdɪk 31 December 1877 14 May 1931 was a nationalist Czech poet prose writer playwright politician and political writer He was sent to jail during the First World War for opposing the Austro Hungarian empire He was one of the signatories of the Manifesto of Czech writers Dyk co founded a political party and entered politics He died at age 53 leaving his many poems plays and writings Viktor DykPhotograph of Dyk circa 1917Born 1877 12 31 31 December 1877 Psovka u Melnika Kingdom of Bohemia Austria HungaryDied14 May 1931 1931 05 14 aged 53 Lopud YugoslaviaOccupationPoet politician playwright prose writer journalistLiterary movementCzech nationalist Contents 1 Life 2 Legacy 3 Works 3 1 Opera 3 2 Poetry 3 3 Prose 3 4 Political literature 3 5 Dramas 3 6 Memoirs 4 See also 5 ReferencesLife Edit Dyk s birthplace Dyk was born in Psovka u Melnika in the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1877 His family moved to Prague in 1888 1 where he began to write His family settled in the Prague suburb of Vinohrady in 1904 and that year he published a novel titled The End of Hackenschmid which was anti Austrian 2 Dyk had taken part in the Czech Chess Championship the year before and he was to remain interested in the game for at least the next twenty years He was most active in 1913 and seven of his games between 1903 and 1927 are recorded but of these only one is a victory 3 Viktor Dyk studied at a gymnasium in Prague one of his teachers was Alois Jirasek Dyk completed his education at Charles University in Prague where he achieved a degree in law However law and politics were to dominate his life 4 Photo taken in 1899 aged 22 Funeral procession 1931 In 1911 he became involved in politics and joined the Statopravne pokrokova strana He stood for office in the 1911 elections but received just 205 votes in Vinohrady and placed fourth overall of five candidates 5 Dyk together with Franz Kafka spoke of a Great Wall which like the Great Wall of China or the Tower of Babel became a metaphor for the cultural and linguistic division that they believed was required between Czech and Germanic culture Dyk wrote in the magazine Lumir where he was known to state that Bohemia had to become Czech or they should die in the attempt On April 13 1913 he composed a tirade in reply to an article published by Franz Werfel Dyk stated that his group had not built the Great Wall as they were not opposed per se to German ideas however they did see the dangers Dyk saw no problem with communicating with Germans but he warned against surrender to ensure that they did not become Czech speaking Germans 6 During the First World War he continued to write and he became involved in helping write a libretto for an opera by Leos Janacek Janacek s fifth opera The Excursions of Mr Broucek to the Moon and to the 15th Century went through a number of librettists and Dyk worked on Janacek s opera which was based on a story by Svatopluk Cech 7 In 1915 he started working with Vinohrady Theatre 1 Later he was imprisoned in Vienna for his resistance activities against Austria Hungary He was in jail in 1916 and 1917 for suggesting that Moravia and Bohemia could secede from the empire 4 In May 1917 Dyk was one of the signatories of the Manifesto of Czech writers This was an important document created by Jaroslav Kvapil who was the director of Czech National Theatre Kvapil managed to get 200 writers to sign the manifesto and it was designed to encourage the Czech deputies to the Imperial Council in Vienna to support Czech self determination 8 In 1918 he co founded the Czechoslovak National Democratic Party Czech Ceskoslovenska narodni demokracie 4 His writings were designed to inspire nationalism in the fight to reclaim the Kingdom of Bohemia from Austrian rule 9 In 1907 he became the editor of the magazine Lumir He was to lead this magazine for the rest of his life The magazine s followers were known by the same name as the magazine The writers and artists involved started a new direction in Czech culture Previously the culture was seen as coming from Germans and sources in German For instance German poets like Heinrich Heine were translated poem by poem from German to Czech With the emergence of the Lumir group writers like Vrchlicky Dyk himself and Julius Zeyer the focus turned away from German culture This change of focus is said to have led other Czech intellectuals to also look in this new direction for scientific economic and social ideas 10 His political views were conservative and nationalist and in 1920 he was elected to parliament In the times of the First Republic of Czechoslovakia Viktor Dyk was one of the prominent intellectual opponents of President Tomas Garrigue Masaryk 4 In 1928 he married the writer Zdenka Haskova 1 In the 1929 parliamentary election Dyk became a senator of Czechoslovakia representing the Czechoslovak Democratic Party 11 Viktor Dyk died of heart failure on 14 May 1931 while swimming in the sea near the island of Lopud near Dubrovnik in Croatia 5 12 He was replaced as senator by Jan Kapras 12 Dyk s funeral attracted many mourners He was buried at Olsany Cemetery in Prague Legacy EditDyk has a number of monuments including one in Vinohrady where he lived most of his life Jiri Jile created a life sized bronze bust on a granite plinth in his birthplace of Melnik in the Bohemian area of the Czech Republic The statue is on the street Vilohrady Karla IV by the Stefanik observation point The statue does not mention his career or life span but merely says Viktor Dyk 13 There is also a monument to Dyk on the Island of Lopud created by Nikola Dobrovic in 1936 14 The concrete monument is on hill where three paths meet and it was paid for by the former government of Czechoslovakia 15 Dyk s book Krysar English Rat catcher was the basis for a 2003 film of the same name by director F A Brabec The film was shot in under 24 hours leading to producers of the film claiming it to be a world record for the fastest ever film shooting 16 The same book was also used by Jiri Barta in creating the base story for his 1986 animation The Pied Piper Barta notes that it is Dyk s book which is the basis of the average Czech s understanding of the Pied Piper story 17 Czech President Vaclav Klaus cited one of Dyk s poems in his 2011 New Year s address to the nation urging Czech citizens not to emigrate Klaus s speech was directed at the Czechs who were finding the fiscal restrictions of the economy difficult to bear Klaus appealed to nationalists with Dyk s suggestion of what the nation would think I will survive if you leave me but without me you will surely die 18 Works Edit Monument to Viktor Dyk in Melnik Memorial plaque Vinohrady Grave of Viktor Dyk at the Olsanske hrbitovy Memorial of Viktor Dyk at the island of Lopud where he drowned photo from 1981 before renovation Opera Edit The Excursions of Mr Broucek to the Moon and to the 15th Century part credit for librettoPoetry Edit A porta inferi 1897 Sila zivota 1898 Marnosti 1900 Satiry a sarkasmy 1905 Mila sedmi loupezniku 1906 Pohadky z nasi vesnice 1910 Giuseppe Moro 1911 Zapas Jiriho Macku 1916 Noci chimery 1917 Devata vlna 1930 Lehke a tezke kroky 1915 Anebo 1917 Okno 1921 Posledni rok 1922Prose Edit Stud 1900 Huci jez a jine prozy 1903 Konec Hackenschmiduv The End of Hackenschmid 1904 Prosinec 1906 Prsty Habakukovy 1906 Pisen o vrbe 1908 Prihody 1911 Krysar 1915 Tajemna dobrodruzstvi Alexeje Ivanyce Kozulinova 1923 Tichy dum 1921 Zly vitr 1922 Prsty Habakukovy 1925 Muj pritel Cehona 1925 Dedivadelni hra 1927 Holoubek Kuzma 1928 Soykovy deti 1929Political literature Edit Ad usum pana presidenta republiky 1929 criticism of Edvard Benes and Tomas Garrigue Masaryk O narodni stat posthumously 1932 1938 7 books of Dyk s political writing from 1917 to 1931 Dramas Edit Epizoda 1906 Posel 1907 Zmoudreni Dona Quijota 1913 Veliky mag 1914 Zverstva 1919 Ondrej a drak 1919 Revolucni trilogie 1921 Napraveny plukovnik Svec 1929 support of Rudolf MedekMemoirs Edit Vzpominky a komentare 1927See also Edit conservatism portal Poetry portal Wikimedia Commons has media related to Viktor Dyk List of Czech writersReferences Edit a b c Viktor Dyk spisovatele cz retrieved 12 April 2014 The Great Soviet Encyclopedia 3rd Edition 1970 1979 2010 The Gale Group Inc retrieved 13 April 2014 Viktor Dyk Chessgames com retrieved 13 April 2014 a b c d Viktor Dyk Archived 2014 04 13 at the Wayback Machine Plamen Press retrieved 13 April 2014 a b Kadlecik Martin 31 August 2008 Viktor Dyk a nacionalismus in Czech Mlada fronta DNES Retrieved 14 April 2014 Nekula Marek The Divided City Prague s Public Space and Franz Kafka s Readings of Prague PDF bohemicum de Retrieved 13 April 2014 Sadie Stanley Macy Laura eds 2006 The Grove book of operas 2nd ed Oxford Oxford University Press p 193 ISBN 978 0195309072 Manifesto of Czech writers Czech Wikisource retrieved 14 April 2014 Viktor Dyk Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 6th Edition Columbia University Press New York November 1 2011 Krejci translation Martin C Styan Oskar 2005 Geopolitics of the Central European region the view from Prague and Bratislava 1st ed Bratislava VEDA Pub House of the Slovak Academy of Sciences p 308 ISBN 978 8022408523 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Akci Vlastenecke fronty narusil drobny incident in Czech Mlada fronta DNES 30 June 2001 Retrieved 14 April 2014 a b Spolecna cesko slovenska digitalni parlamentni knihovna in Czech Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic Archived from the original on 2 July 2007 Viktor Dyk WayMarking com retrieved 14 April 2014 Bacic D December 2003 Monument to Viktor Dyk by Nicholas Dobrovic on the Island of Lopud Prostor Znanstveni casopis za Arhitekturu i Urbanizam 11 1 Retrieved 13 April 2014 Viktor Dyk Geocaching retrieved 14 April 2014 Press Review Radio Prague 2 January 2003 Retrieved 14 April 2014 Jiri Barta and the Pied Piper Animator Mag 1988 retrieved 14 April 2014 President tells Czechs to grit their teeth and support pro reform government Radio Prague 3 January 2011 Retrieved 14 April 2014 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Viktor Dyk amp oldid 1022109721, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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