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Viktor Orbán

The native form of this personal name is Orbán Viktor Mihály. This article uses Western name order when mentioning individuals.

Viktor Mihály Orbán (Hungarian: (); born 31 May 1963) is a Hungarian politician who has served as Prime Minister of Hungary since 2010, previously holding the office from 1998 to 2002. He has presided over Fidesz, a national conservative political party, since 1993, with a brief break between 2000 and 2003.

Viktor Orbán
Orbán in 2019
Prime Minister of Hungary
Assumed office
29 May 2010
President
Deputy
Preceded byGordon Bajnai
In office
6 July 1998 – 27 May 2002
President
Preceded byGyula Horn
Succeeded byPéter Medgyessy
President of Fidesz
Assumed office
17 May 2003
Preceded byJános Áder
In office
18 April 1993 – 29 January 2000
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byLászló Kövér
Member of the National Assembly
Assumed office
2 May 1990
Personal details
Born
Viktor Mihály Orbán

(1963-05-31)31 May 1963 (age 58)
Székesfehérvár, Hungary
Political partyFidesz (1988–present)
Spouse(s)
Anikó Lévai
(m. 1986)​
Children5, including Gáspár
Parents
  • Erzsébet Sípos
  • Győző Bálint Orbán
ResidenceCarmelite Church of Buda
Alma mater
Signature
WebsiteViktor Orbán website

Orbán studied at Eötvös Loránd University and, briefly, at the University of Oxford before entering politics in the wake of the Revolutions of 1989. He headed the reformist student movement the Alliance of Young Democrats (Fiatal Demokraták Szövetsége), the nascent Fidesz. Orbán became nationally known after giving an address at the 1989 reburial of Imre Nagy and other martyrs of the 1956 revolution, in which he openly demanded that Soviet troops leave the country. After Hungary's transition to multiparty democracy in 1990, he was elected to the National Assembly and led Fidesz's parliamentary caucus until 1993. Under his leadership, Fidesz shifted away from its original centre-right, classical liberal, pro-European platform toward right-wing national conservatism.

Orbán's first term as Prime Minister, from 1998 to 2002 at the head of a conservative coalition government, was dominated by the economy and Hungary's accession to NATO. He served as Leader of the Opposition from 2002 to 2010. In 2010, Orbán again became Prime Minister after Fidesz's supermajority victory in coalition with the Christian Democrats. Central issues during Orbán's second premiership have included major constitutional and legislative reforms, the European migrant crisis, the lex CEU, and the COVID-19 pandemic. He has won reelection twice, in 2014 and 2018, and in November 2020 became the country's longest-serving Prime Minister.

Because of Orbán's curtailing of press freedom, erosion of judicial independence and undermining of multiparty democracy, many political scientists and watchdogs consider Hungary to have experienced democratic backsliding during Orbán's tenure. Orbán's attacks on the European Union while accepting its money and funneling it to his allies and family have also led to characterizations of his government as a kleptocracy. Between 2010 to 2020, Hungary dropped 69 places in the Press Freedom Index and 11 places in the Democracy Index; Freedom House has downgraded the country from "free" to "partly free." Orbán defends his policies as "illiberal democracy." As a result, Fidesz was suspended from the European People's Party from March 2019 until March 2021, when Fidesz left the EPP over a dispute over new rule-of-law language in the latter's bylaws.

Contents

Orbán was born on 31 May 1963 in Székesfehérvár into a rural middle-class family, as the eldest son of the entrepreneur and agronomist Győző Orbán (born 1940) and the special educator and speech therapist, Erzsébet Sípos (born 1944). He has two younger brothers, both entrepreneurs, Győző, Jr. (born 1965) and Áron (born 1977). His paternal grandfather, Mihály Orbán, practiced farming and animal husbandry. Orbán spent his childhood in two nearby villages, Alcsútdoboz and Felcsút in Fejér County; he attended school there and in Vértesacsa. In 1977, his family moved permanently to Székesfehérvár.

Orbán graduated from Blanka Teleki High School in Székesfehérvár in 1981, where he studied English. After completing two years of military service, he studied law at Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest, writing his thesis on the Polish Solidarity movement. After obtaining his JD degree (equivalent to a Master study) in 1987, he lived in Szolnok for two years, commuting to his job in Budapest as a sociologist at the Management Training Institute of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food.

In 1989, Orbán received a scholarship from the Soros Foundation to study political science at Pembroke College, Oxford. His personal tutor was the Hegelian political philosopher Zbigniew Pełczyński. In January 1990, he left Oxford and returned to Hungary to run for a seat in Hungary's first post-communist parliament.

At the age of 14 and 15, he was a secretary of the communist youth organization, KISZ, of his secondary grammar school (KISZ membership was mandatory in order to matriculate to a university). Orbán said in a later interview that his political views had radically changed during the military service: earlier he had considered himself a "naive and devoted supporter" of the Communist regime.

Orbán and Gábor Fodor at the Szárszó meeting of 1993

On 30 March 1988, Orbán was one of the founding members of Fidesz (originally an acronym for Fiatal Demokraták Szövetsége, "Alliance of Young Democrats") and served as its first spokesperson. The first members of the party, including Orbán, were mostly students from the Bibó István College for Advanced Studies who opposed the Communist regime. At the college, itself a part of Eötvös Loránd University, Orbán also co-founded the dissidenting social science journal Századvég.

On 16 June 1989, Orbán gave a speech in Heroes' Square, Budapest, on the occasion of the reburial of Imre Nagy and other national martyrs of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution. In his speech, he demanded free elections and the withdrawal of Soviet troops. The speech brought him wide national and political acclaim. In summer 1989, he took part in the opposition round table talks, representing Fidesz alongside László Kövér.

Orbán in 1997 as leader of the opposition

On returning home from Oxford, he was elected Member of Parliament from his party's Pest County Regional List during the 1990 parliamentary election. He was appointed leader of the Fidesz's parliamentary group, serving in this capacity until May 1993.

On 18 April 1993, Orbán became the first president of Fidesz, replacing the national board that had served as a collective leadership since its founding. Under his leadership, Fidesz gradually transformed from a radical liberal student organization to a center-right people's party.

The conservative turn caused a severe split in the membership. Several members left the party, including Péter Molnár, Gábor Fodor and Zsuzsanna Szelényi. Fodor and others later joined the liberal Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ), initially a strong ally of Fidesz, but later a political opponent.

During the 1994 parliamentary election, Fidesz barely reached the 5% threshold. Orbán became MP from his party's Fejér County Regional List. He served as chairman of the Committee on European Integration Affairs between 1994 and 1998. He was also a member of the Immunity, Incompatibility and Credentials Committee for a short time in 1995. Under his presidency, Fidesz adopted "Hungarian Civic Party" (Magyar Polgári Párt) to its shortened name in 1995. His party gradually became dominant in the right-wing of the political spectrum, while the former ruling conservative Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF) had lost much of its support. From April 1996, Orbán was chairman of the Hungarian National Committee of the New Atlantic Initiative (NAI).

In September 1992, Orbán was elected vice chairman of the Liberal International. In November 2000, however, Fidesz left the Liberal International and joined the European People's Party (EPP). During the time, Orbán worked hard to unite the center-right liberal conservative parties in Hungary. At the EPP's Congress in Estoril in October 2002, he was elected vice-president, an office he held until 2012.

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In 1998, Orbán formed a successful coalition with the Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF) and the Independent Smallholders' Party (FKGP) and won the 1998 parliamentary elections with 42% of the national vote. Orbán became the second youngest Prime Minister of Hungary at the age of 35 (after András Hegedüs), serving between 1998 and 2002.

The new government immediately launched a radical reform of state administration, reorganizing ministries and creating a superministry for the economy. In addition, the boards of the social security funds and centralized social security payments were dismissed. Following the German model, Orbán strengthened the Prime Minister's office and named a new minister to oversee the work of his Cabinet. In the process, thousands of civil servants were replaced (no distinction is made between political and civil servant posts, resulting in a strong "winner takes all" practice). The overall direction was towards centralized control.[citation needed]

Orbán with Tamás Deutsch in 2000

Despite vigorous protests from the opposition parties, in February the government decided that plenary sessions of the unicameral National Assembly would be held only every third week. As a result, according to opposition arguments, parliament's legislative efficiency and ability to supervise the government were reduced. In late March, the government tried to replace the National Assembly rule that requires a two-thirds majority vote with one of a simple majority, but the Constitutional Court ruled this unconstitutional.

The year saw only minor changes in top government officials. Two of Orbán's state secretaries in the Prime Minister's office had to resign in May, due to their implication in a bribery scandal involving the American military manufacturer Lockheed Martin Corporation. Before bids on a major jet-fighter contract, the two secretaries, along with 32 other deputies of Orbán's party, had sent a letter to two US senators to lobby for the appointment of a Budapest-based Lockheed manager to be the US ambassador to Hungary. On 31 August, the head of the Tax Office also resigned, succumbing to protracted attacks by the opposition on his earlier, allegedly suspicious, business dealings.[citation needed] The tug-of-war between the Budapest City Council and the government continued over the government's decision in late 1998 to cancel two major urban projects: the construction of a new national theatre and of the fourth subway line.[citation needed]

Relations between the Fidesz-led coalition government and the opposition worsened in the National Assembly, where the two seemed to have abandoned all attempts at consensus-seeking politics. The government pushed to swiftly replace the heads of key institutions (such as the Hungarian National Bank chairman, the Budapest City Chief Prosecutor and the Hungarian Radio) with partisan figures. Although the opposition resisted, for example by delaying their appointing of members of the supervising boards, the government ran the institutions without the stipulated number of directors. In a similar vein, Orbán failed to show up for question time in parliament, for periods of up to 10 months. His statements of the kind that "The parliament works without opposition too..." also contributed to the image of an arrogant and aggressive governance.

A later report in March by the Brussels-based International Federation of Journalists criticized the Hungarian government for improper political influence in the media, as the country's public service broadcaster teetered close to bankruptcy. Numerous political scandals during 2001 led to a de facto, if not actual, breakup of the coalition that held power in Budapest. A bribery scandal in February triggered a wave of allegations and several prosecutions against the Independent Smallholders' Party. The affair resulted in the ousting of József Torgyán from both the FKGP presidency and the top post in the Ministry of Agriculture. The FKGP disintegrated and more than a dozen of its MPs joined the government faction.

Economy

Orbán's economic policy was aimed at cutting taxes and social insurance contributions over four years, while reducing inflation and unemployment. Among the new government's first measures was to abolish university tuition fees and reintroduce universal maternity benefits. The government announced its intention to continue the Socialist–Liberal stabilization program and pledged to narrow the budget deficit, which had grown to 4.5% of GDP. The previous Cabinet had almost completed the privatization of government-run industries and had launched a comprehensive pension reform. However, the Socialists had avoided two major socioeconomic issues—reform of health care and agriculture, these remained to be tackled by Orbán's government.[citation needed]

Economic successes included a drop in inflation from 15% in 1998 to 10.0% in 1999, 9.8% in 2000 and 7.8% in 2001. GDP growth rates were fairly steady: 4.4% in 1999, 5.2% in 2000, and 3.8% in 2001. The fiscal deficit fell from 3.9% in 1999, to 3.5% in 2000 and 3.4% in 2001 and the ratio of the national debt decreased to 54% of GDP. Under the Orbán cabinet, there were realistic hopes that Hungary would be able to join the Eurozone by 2009. However, negotiations for entry into the European Union slowed in the fall of 1999, after the EU included six more countries (in addition to the original six) in the accession discussions. Orbán repeatedly criticized the EU for its delay.[citation needed]

Orbán, Mikuláš Dzurinda and Günter Verheugen during the opening of the Mária Valéria Bridge across the Danube, connecting the Slovak town of Štúrovo with Esztergom in Hungary in November 2001

Orbán also came under criticism for pushing through an unprecedented two-year budget and for failing to curb inflation, which only dropped a half point, from 10% in 1999 to 9.5% in 2000, despite the tight monetary policy of the Central Bank. However, investments continued to grow.

Foreign policy

In March 1999, after Russian objections were overruled, Hungary joined NATO along with the Czech Republic and Poland. The Hungarian membership to NATO demanded its involvement in Federal Republic of Yugoslavia's Kosovo crisis and modernization of its army. NATO membership also gave a blow to the economy because of a trade embargo imposed on Yugoslavia.

Hungary attracted international media attention in 1999 for passing the "status law" concerning estimated three-million ethnic Hungarian minorities in neighbouring Romania, Slovakia, Serbia and Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia and Ukraine. The law aimed to provide education, health benefits and employment rights to those, and was said to heal the negative effects of the disastrous 1920 Trianon Treaty.

Governments in neighbouring states, particularly Romania, claimed to be insulted by the law, which they saw as an interference in their domestic affairs. The proponents of the status law countered that several of the countries criticizing the law themselves have similar constructs to provide benefits for their own minorities. Romania acquiesced after amendments following a December 2001 agreement between Orbán and Romanian Prime Minister Adrian Năstase; Slovakia accepted the law after further concessions made by the new government after the 2002 elections.

Orbán with George W. Bush at the White House in 2001
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The level of public support for political parties generally stagnated, even with general elections coming in 2002. Fidesz and the main opposition Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) ran neck and neck in the opinion polls for most of the year, both attracting about 26% of the electorate. According to a September 2001 poll by the Gallup organization, however, support for a joint Fidesz – Hungarian Democratic Forum party list would run up to 33% of the voters, with the Socialists drawing 28% and other opposition parties 3% each.

Meanwhile, public support for the FKGP plunged from 14% in 1998 to 1% in 2001. As many as 40% of the voters remained undecided, however. Although the Socialists had picked their candidate for Prime Minister—former finance minister Péter Medgyessy—the opposition largely remained unable to increase its political support.[citation needed] The dark horse of the election was the radical nationalist Hungarian Justice and Life Party (MIÉP), with its leader, István Csurka's radical rhetoric. MIÉP could not be ruled out as the key to a new term for Orbán and his party, should they be forced into a coalition after the 2002 elections.[citation needed]

The elections of 2002 were the most heated Hungary had experienced in more than a decade, and an unprecedented cultural-political division formed in the country. In the event, Viktor Orbán's group lost the April parliamentary elections to the opposition Hungarian Socialist Party, which set up a coalition with its longtime ally, the liberal Alliance of Free Democrats. Turnout was a record-high 70.5%. Beyond these parties, only deputies of the Hungarian Democratic Forum made it into the National Assembly. The populist Independent Smallholders' Party and the right Hungarian Justice and Life Party lost all their seats. Thus, the number of political parties in the new assembly was reduced from six to four.

MIÉP challenged the government's legitimacy, demanded a recount, complained of election fraud, and generally kept the country in election mode until the October municipal elections. The socialist-controlled Central Elections Committee ruled that a recount was unnecessary, a position supported by observers from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, whose only substantive criticism of the election conduct was that the state television carried a consistent bias in favour of Fidesz.

Orbán received the Freedom Award of the American Enterprise Institute and the New Atlantic Initiative (2001), the Polak Award (2001), the Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit (2001), the "Förderpreis Soziale Marktwirtschaft" (Price for the Social Market Economy, 2002) and the Mérite Européen prize (2004). In April 2004, he received the Papal Grand Cross of the Order of St. Gregory the Great.

In the 2004 European Parliament election, the ruling Hungarian Socialist Party was heavily defeated by the opposition conservative Fidesz. Fidesz gained 47.4% of the vote and 12 of Hungary's 24 seats.

Orbán and Hans-Gert Pöttering in 2006

Orbán was the Fidesz candidate for the parliamentary election in 2006. Fidesz and its new-old candidate failed again to gain a majority in this election, which initially put Orbán's future political career as the leader of Fidesz in question. However, after fighting with Socialist-Liberal coalition, Orbán's position solidified again, and he was elected president of Fidesz yet again for another term in May 2007.

On 17 September 2006, an audio recording surfaced from a closed-door Hungarian Socialist Party meeting, which was held on 26 May 2006, in which Hungarian Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány gave an obscenity-laden speech. The leak ignited mass protests.[citation needed] On 1 November, Orbán and his party announced their plans to stage several large-scale demonstrations across Hungary on the anniversary of the Soviet suppression of the 1956 Revolution. The events were intended to serve as a memorial to the victims of the Soviet invasion and a protest against police brutality during the 23 October unrest in Budapest. Planned events included a candlelight vigil march across Budapest. However, the demonstrations were small and petered out by the end of the year. A new round of demonstrations expected in the spring of 2007 did not materialize.[citation needed]

On 1 October 2006, Fidesz won the municipal elections, which counterbalanced the MSZP-led government's power to some extent. Fidesz won 15 of 23 mayoralties in Hungary's largest cities—although it narrowly lost Budapest to the Liberal Party—and majorities in 18 of 20 regional assemblies.

On 9 March 2008, a national referendum took place on revoking government reforms which introduced doctor fees per visit and medical fees paid per number of days spent in hospital as well as tuition fees in higher education. Fidesz initiated the referendum against the ruling MSZP. The procedure for the referendum started on 23 October 2006, when Orbán announced they would hand in seven questions to the National Electorate Office, three of which (on abolishing copayments, daily fees and college tuition fees) were officially approved on 17 December 2007 and called on 24 January 2008. The referendum passed, a significant victory for Fidesz.

In the 2009 European Parliament election, Fidesz won by a large margin, garnering 56.36% of votes and 14 of Hungary's 22 seats.

Orbán at a press conference following the meeting of leaders of the Visegrád Group, Germany and France on 6 March 2013
"Hungarians won’t live according to the commands of foreign powers", Orbán told the crowd at Kossuth square on 15 March 2012

During the 2010 parliamentary elections, Orbán's party won 52.73% of the popular vote, with a two-thirds majority of seats, which gave Orbán enough authority to change the Constitution. As a result, Orbán's government drafted and passed a new constitution in 2011. Among other changes, it includes support for traditional values, nationalism, references to Christianity, and a controversial electoral reform, which lowered the number of seats in the Parliament of Hungary from 386 to 199. The new constitution entered into force on 1 January 2012 and was later amended further.

In his second term as Prime Minister, he garnered controversy for his statements against liberal democracy, for proposing an "internet tax", and for his perceived corruption. His second premiership has seen numerous protests against his government, including one in Budapest in November 2014 against the proposed "internet tax".

In terms of domestic legislation, Orbán's government implemented a flat tax on personal income. This tax is set at 16%. Orbán has called his government "pragmatic", citing restrictions on early retirement in the police force and military, making welfare more transparent, and a central banking law that "gives Hungary more independence from the European Central Bank".

After the 2014 parliamentary election, Fidesz won a majority, garnering 133 of the 199 seats in the National Assembly. While he won a large majority, he garnered 44.54% of the national vote, down from 52.73% in 2010.[citation needed]

During the 2015 European migrant crisis, Orbán ordered the erection of the Hungary–Serbia barrier to block entry of illegal immigrants so that Hungary could register all the migrants arriving from Serbia, which is the country's responsibility under the Dublin Regulation, a European Union law. Under Orbán, Hungary took numerous actions to combat illegal immigration and reduce refugee levels. In May 2020, the European Court of Justice ruled against Hungary's policy of migrants transit zones, which Orbán subsequently abolished while also making the country's asylum rules stricter.

Orbán questioned Nord Stream II, a new Russia–Germany natural gas pipeline. He said he wants to hear a "reasonable argument why South Stream was bad and Nord Stream is not". "South Stream" refers to the Balkan pipeline cancelled by Russia in December 2014 after obstacles from the EU.

Since 2017, Hungary's relations with Ukraine rapidly deteriorated over the issue of the Hungarian minority in Ukraine. Orbán and his cabinet ministers repeatedly criticized Ukraine's 2017 education law, which makes Ukrainian the only language of education in state schools, and threatened to block further Ukraine's EU and NATO integration until it is modified or repealed.

In July 2018, Orbán travelled to Turkey to attend the inauguration ceremony of re-elected Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. In October 2018, Orbán said after talks with President Erdoğan in Budapest that "A stable Turkish government and a stable Turkey are a precondition for Hungary not to be endangered in any way due to overland migration."

Poland's Law and Justice (PiS) leader Jarosław Kaczyński with Orbán on 22 September 2017

In April 2019, Orbán attended China's Belt and Road forum in Beijing, where he met the Chinese President Xi Jinping. In June 2019, Orbán met Myanmar’s State Counsellor and Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi. They discussed bilateral ties and illegal migration.

On 30 March 2020, the Hungarian parliament voted 137 to 53 in favor of passing legislation that would create a state of emergency without a time limit, grant the Prime Minister the ability to rule by decree, the suspension of by-elections, and possibly prison sentences for spreading fake news and sanctions for leaving quarantine. Two and a half months later, on 16 June 2020, the Hungarian parliament passed a bill that ended the state of emergency effective 19 June. However, on the same day the parliament passed a new law removing the requirement of parliamentary approval for future "medical" states of emergencies, allowing the government to declare them by decree.

In 2021, the parliament transferred control of 11 state universities to foundations led by allies of Orbán. The Mathias Corvinus Collegium, a residential college, received an influx of government funds and assets equal to about 1% of Hungary's gross domestic product, reportedly as part of a mission to train future right-wing intellectuals.

Due to a combination of unfavourable conditions, which involved soaring demand of natural gas, its diminished supply from Russia and Norway to the European markets, and less power generation by renewable energy sources such as wind, water and solar energy, Europe faced steep increases in energy prices in 2021. In October 2021, Orbán blamed a record-breaking surge in energy prices on the European Commission’s Green Deal plans.

Anti-LGBT policies

Since his election as prime minister in 2010, Orbán has led initiatives and laws to hinder human rights of LGBT+ people, regarding those as "not compatible with Christian values".

In 2020, Orbán's government ended legal recognition of transgender people, receiving widespread criticism both in Hungary and abroad.

In 2021 his party proposed legislation to censor any "LGBT+ positive content" in movies, books or public advertisements and to severely restrict sex education in school forbidding any information thought to "encourage gender change or homosexuality". The law has been likened to Russia's restriction on "homosexual propaganda". German Chancellor Angela Merkel and European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen harshly criticized the law, while a letter from sixteen EU leaders including Pedro Sánchez and Mario Draghi warned against “threats against fundamental rights and in particular the principle of non-discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation”.

His anti-LGBT+ positions came under more scrutiny after the revelation that one of the European deputies of his party, József Szájer, had participated in a gay sex party in Brussels, despite the ongoing COVID 19 pandemic quarantine restrictions. Szájer was one of the major architects behind the 2011 Constitution of Hungary. This new constitution has been criticized by Human Rights Watch for being discriminatory towards the LGBT+ community.

Orbán with José Manuel Barroso and Stavros Lambrinidis in January 2011

Orbán's blend of soft Euroscepticism, populism, and national conservatism has seen him compared to politicians and political parties as diverse as Jarosław Kaczyński's Law and Justice, Silvio Berlusconi's Forza Italia, Matteo Salvini's League, Marine Le Pen's National Rally, Donald Trump, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Vladimir Putin. Orbán has sought to make Hungary an "ideological center for ... an international conservative movement."

According to Politico, Orbán's political philosophy "echoes the resentments of what were once the peasant and working classes" by promoting an "uncompromising defense of national sovereignty and a transparent distrust of Europe's ruling establishments".

Orbán had a close relationship with the former Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, having known him for decades. He is described as "one of Mr Netanyahu's closest allies in Europe." Orbán received personal advice on economic reforms from Netanyahu, while the latter was Finance Minister of Israel (2003–2005). In February 2019, Netanyahu thanked Orbán for "deciding to extend the embassy of Hungary in Israel to Jerusalem".

Orbán is seen as having laid out his political views most concretely in a widely cited 2014 public address at Băile Tușnad (known in Hungary as the Tusnádfürdői beszéd, or "Tusnádfürdő speech"). In the address, Orbán repudiated the classical liberal theory of the state as a free association of atomistic individuals, arguing for the use of the state as the means of organizing, invigorating, or even constructing the national community. Although this kind of state respects traditionally liberal concepts like civic rights, it is properly called "illiberal" because it views the community, and not the individual, as the basic political unit. In practice, Orbán claimed, such a state should promote national self-sufficiency, national sovereignty, familialism, full employment and the preservation of cultural heritage, and cited countries such as Turkey, India, Singapore, Russia, and China as models.

Orbán and Angela Merkel, Congress of the European People's Party in Madrid on 21 October 2015
Orbán with Vladimir Putin in February 2016

Orbán's second and third premierships have been the subject of significant international controversy, and reception of his political views is mixed. The 2011 constitutional changes enacted under his leadership were, in particular, accused of centralizing legislative and executive power, curbing civil liberties, restricting freedom of speech, and weakening the Constitutional Court and judiciary. For these reasons, critics have described him as "irredentist", "right-wing populist", "authoritarian", "autocratic", "Putinist", as a "strongman", and as a "dictator".

Orbán with Mike Pompeo in Budapest in February 2019

Other commentators, however, noted that the European migrant crisis, coupled with continued Islamist terrorism in the European Union, have popularized Orbán's nationalist, protectionist policies among European conservative leaders. "Once ostracized" by Europe's political elite, writes Politico, Orbán "is now the talisman of Europe's mainstream right". As other Visegrád Group leaders, Orbán opposes any compulsory EU long-term quota on redistribution of migrants.

He wrote in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung: "Europe's response is madness. We must acknowledge that the European Union's misguided immigration policy is responsible for this situation". He also demanded an official EU list of "safe countries" to which migrants can be returned. According to Orbán, Turkey should be considered a safe third country.

Orbán has promoted the Great Replacement conspiracy theory. Le Journal du Dimanche reported on Orbán's explicit adoption of the conspiracy theory, after he claimed; "if we let tens of millions of migrants travel to Europe from Africa and the Middle East... the young people of Western Europe will know the day when they will be in a minority in their own country".

During a press conference in January 2019, Orbán praised Brazil's president Jair Bolsonaro, saying that currently "the most apt definition of modern Christian democracy can be found in Brazil, not in Europe."

Despite the anti-immigration rhetoric from Orbán, it has been reported that Hungary has actually increased immigration of foreign workers into the country.

As stated by The Guardian, the "Hungarian government doubled family spending between 2010 and 2019", intending to achieve "a lasting turn in demographic processes by 2030". Orbán has espoused an anti-immigration platform, and has also advocated for increased investment into "Family First". Orbán has disregarded the European Union's attempts to promote integration as a key solution to population distribution problems in Europe. He has also supported investments into the country's low birth rates. Orbán has tapped into the "great replacement theory" which emulates a nativist approach to rejecting foreign immigration out of fear of replacement by immigrants. He has stated that "If Europe is not going to be populated by Europeans in the future and we take this as given, then we are speaking about an exchange of populations, to replace the population of Europeans with others." The Guardian stated that "This year the Hungarian government introduced a 10 million forint (£27,000) interest-free loan for families, which does not have to be paid back if the couple has three children."

In July 2020, Orbán expressed that he still expects arguments over linking of disbursement of funds of the European Union to rule-of-law criteria but remarked in a state radio interview that they "didn't win the war, we (they) won an important battle." In August 2020, Orbán whilst speaking at an event to inaugurate a monument commemorating the Treaty of Trianon, said Central European nations should come together to preserve their Christian roots as western Europe experiments with same-sex families, immigration and atheism.

Criticism

Orbán's critics have included domestic and foreign leaders (including former United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, and the Presidents of the European Commission José Manuel Barroso, and Jean-Claude Juncker), intergovernmental organisations, non-governmental organisations. Specifically, he has been accused of pursuing anti-democratic reforms; attacking human rights of LGBT people; reducing the independence of Hungary's press, judiciary and central bank; amending Hungary's constitution to prevent amendments to Fidesz-backed legislation; and of cronyism and nepotism.

He was accused of pork barrel politics for building a 4,000-seat stadium in the village in which he grew up, Felcsút, at a distance of some 20 feet (6.1 m) from his country house.

Some opposition parties and critics also consider Orbán an opponent of European integration. In 2000, opposition parties MSZP and SZDSZ and the left-wing press presented Orbán's comment that "there's life outside the EU" as proof of his anti-Europeanism and sympathies with the radical right. In the same press conference, Orbán clarified that "[w]e're trying to make the accession fast because it may boost the growth of Hungary's economy."[citation needed]

Hungarian-American business magnate and political activist George Soros criticized Orbán's handling of the European migrant crisis in 2015, saying: "His plan treats the protection of national borders as the objective and the refugees as an obstacle. Our plan treats the protection of refugees as the objective and national borders as the obstacle."

The Orbán government began to attack Soros and his NGOs in early 2017, particularly for his support for more open immigration. In July 2017, the Israeli ambassador in Hungary joined Jewish groups and others in denouncing a billboard campaign backed by the government. Orbán's critics claimed it "evokes memories of the Nazi posters during the Second World War". The ambassador stated that the campaign "evokes sad memories but also sows hatred and fear", an apparent reference to the Holocaust. Hours later, Israel's Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a "clarification", denouncing Soros, stating that he "continuously undermines Israel's democratically elected governments" and funded organizations "that defame the Jewish state and seek to deny it the right to defend itself". The clarification came a few days before an official visit to Hungary by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. The anti-Soros messages became key elements of the government's communication and campaign since then, which, among others, also targeted the Central European University (CEU).

Following a decade of Fidesz–KDNP rule led by Orbán, Freedom House's Nations in Transit 2020 report reclassified Hungary from a democracy to a transitional or hybrid regime.

Orbán and his wife, Anikó Lévai, at the funeral of President Árpád Göncz in November 2015.

Orbán married jurist Anikó Lévai in 1986; the couple have five children. Their eldest daughter, Ráhel, is married to entrepreneur Tiborcz István [hu], whose company, Elios, was accused of receiving unfair advantages when winning public tenders. (see Elios case [hu]) Orbán's son, Gáspár, is a retired footballer, who played for Ferenc Puskás Football Academy in 2014. He is also the founder of a religious community called Felház.[citation needed] Orbán has three younger daughters (Sára, Róza, Flóra) and three granddaughters (Ráhel's children Aliz and Anna Adél; Sára's daughter Johanna).[citation needed]

Orbán is a member of the Calvinist Hungarian Reformed Church, while his wife and their five children are Roman Catholic.

Football interests

Orbán is very fond of sports, especially of football; he was a signed player of the Felcsút football team, and as a result he also appears in Football Manager 2006.

Orbán has played football from his early childhood. He was a professional player with FC Felcsút. After ending his football career, he became one of the main financiers of the Hungarian football and his hometown's club, Felcsút FC, later renamed the Ferenc Puskás Football Academy. He had a prominent role in the foundation of Puskás Akadémia in Felcsút, creating one of the most modern training facilities for young Hungarian footballers.

He played an important role in establishing the annually organised international youth cup, the Puskás Cup, at Pancho Aréna, which he also helped build, in his hometown of Felcsút. His only son, Gáspár, learned and trained there.

Orbán is said to watch as many as six games a day. His first trip abroad as prime minister in 1998 was to the World Cup final in Paris; according to inside sources, he has not missed a World Cup or Champions League final since.

Then FIFA president Sepp Blatter visited the facilities at the Puskás Academy in 2009. Blatter, together with the widow of Ferenc Puskás, as well as Orbán, founder of the Academy, announced the creation of the new FIFA Puskás Award during that visit. He played the bit part of a footballer in the Hungarian family film Szegény Dzsoni és Árnika (1983).

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  • Toomey, Michael. "History, nationalism and democracy: myth and narrative in Viktor Orbán’s ‘illiberal Hungary’." New Perspectives. Interdisciplinary Journal of Central & East European Politics and International Relations 26.1 (2018): 87–108 online.
  • Hollós, János – Kondor, Katalin: Szerda reggel – Rádiós beszélgetések Orbán Viktor miniszterelnökkel, 1998. szeptember – 2000. december; ISBN 963-9337-32-3
  • Hollós, János – Kondor, Katalin: Szerda reggel – Rádiós beszélgetések Orbán Viktor miniszterelnökkel, 2001–2002; ISBN 963-9337-61-7
  • A történelem főutcáján – Magyarország 1998–2002, Orbán Viktor miniszterelnök beszédei és beszédrészletei, Magyar Egyetemi Kiadó; ISBN 963-8638-31-1
  • 20 év – Beszédek, írások, interjúk, 1986–2006, Heti Válasz Kiadó, ISBN 963-9461-22-9
  • Egy az ország. Helikon Könyvkiadó, Budapest, 2007. (translated into Polish as Ojczyzna jest jedna in 2009).
  • Rengéshullámok. Helikon Könyvkiadó, Budapest, 2010.
  • Janke, Igor: Hajrá, magyarok! – Az Orbán Viktor-sztori egy lengyel újságíró szemével Rézbong Kiadó, 2013. (English:Igor Janke: Forward! – The Story of Hungarian Prime Minister, Viktor Orbán, German: Viktor Orbán: Ein Stürmer in der Politik).
Political offices
Preceded by
Prime Minister of Hungary
1998–2002
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Prime Minister of Hungary
2010–present
Incumbent
Party political offices
New title President of Fidesz
1993–2000
Succeeded by
Preceded by
President of Fidesz
2003–present
Incumbent

Viktor Orbán
Viktor Orban Language Watch Edit The native form of this personal name is Orban Viktor Mihaly This article uses Western name order when mentioning individuals Viktor Mihaly Orban 1 Hungarian ˈviktor ˈorbaːn listen born 31 May 1963 is a Hungarian politician who has served as Prime Minister of Hungary since 2010 previously holding the office from 1998 to 2002 He has presided over Fidesz a national conservative political party since 1993 with a brief break between 2000 and 2003 Viktor OrbanOrban in 2019Prime Minister of HungaryIncumbentAssumed office 29 May 2010PresidentLaszlo Solyom Pal Schmitt Janos AderDeputySandor Pinter Zsolt Semjen Mihaly VargaPreceded byGordon BajnaiIn office 6 July 1998 27 May 2002PresidentArpad Goncz Ferenc MadlPreceded byGyula HornSucceeded byPeter MedgyessyPresident of FideszIncumbentAssumed office 17 May 2003Preceded byJanos AderIn office 18 April 1993 29 January 2000Preceded byOffice establishedSucceeded byLaszlo KoverMember of the National AssemblyIncumbentAssumed office 2 May 1990Personal detailsBornViktor Mihaly Orban 1963 05 31 31 May 1963 age 58 Szekesfehervar HungaryPolitical partyFidesz 1988 present Spouse s Aniko Levai m 1986 wbr Children5 including GasparParentsErzsebet Sipos Gyozo Balint OrbanResidenceCarmelite Church of BudaAlma materEotvos Lorand University J D Pembroke College OxfordSignatureWebsiteViktor Orban website Orban studied at Eotvos Lorand University and briefly at the University of Oxford before entering politics in the wake of the Revolutions of 1989 He headed the reformist student movement the Alliance of Young Democrats Fiatal Demokratak Szovetsege the nascent Fidesz Orban became nationally known after giving an address at the 1989 reburial of Imre Nagy and other martyrs of the 1956 revolution in which he openly demanded that Soviet troops leave the country After Hungary s transition to multiparty democracy in 1990 he was elected to the National Assembly and led Fidesz s parliamentary caucus until 1993 Under his leadership Fidesz shifted away from its original centre right classical liberal pro European platform toward right wing national conservatism Orban s first term as Prime Minister from 1998 to 2002 at the head of a conservative coalition government was dominated by the economy and Hungary s accession to NATO He served as Leader of the Opposition from 2002 to 2010 In 2010 Orban again became Prime Minister after Fidesz s supermajority victory in coalition with the Christian Democrats Central issues during Orban s second premiership have included major constitutional and legislative reforms the European migrant crisis the lex CEU and the COVID 19 pandemic He has won reelection twice in 2014 and 2018 and in November 2020 became the country s longest serving Prime Minister 2 Because of Orban s curtailing of press freedom erosion of judicial independence and undermining of multiparty democracy many political scientists and watchdogs consider Hungary to have experienced democratic backsliding during Orban s tenure 3 4 5 6 7 Orban s attacks on the European Union while accepting its money and funneling it to his allies and family have also led to characterizations of his government as a kleptocracy 8 Between 2010 to 2020 Hungary dropped 69 places in the Press Freedom Index 9 10 and 11 places in the Democracy Index 11 12 Freedom House has downgraded the country from free to partly free 13 Orban defends his policies as illiberal democracy 14 15 As a result Fidesz was suspended from the European People s Party from March 2019 16 until March 2021 when Fidesz left the EPP over a dispute over new rule of law language in the latter s bylaws 17 Contents 1 Early life 2 Early career 1988 1998 3 First premiership 1998 2002 3 1 Economy 3 2 Foreign policy 4 Leader of the Opposition 2002 2010 5 Second premiership 2010 present 5 1 Anti LGBT policies 6 Views and public image 6 1 Criticism 7 Personal life 7 1 Football interests 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 Further reading 12 External linksEarly lifeOrban was born on 31 May 1963 in Szekesfehervar into a rural middle class family as the eldest son of the entrepreneur and agronomist Gyozo Orban born 1940 18 and the special educator and speech therapist Erzsebet Sipos born 1944 19 He has two younger brothers both entrepreneurs Gyozo Jr born 1965 and Aron born 1977 His paternal grandfather Mihaly Orban practiced farming and animal husbandry Orban spent his childhood in two nearby villages Alcsutdoboz and Felcsut in Fejer County 20 he attended school there and in Vertesacsa 21 22 In 1977 his family moved permanently to Szekesfehervar 23 Orban graduated from Blanka Teleki High School in Szekesfehervar in 1981 where he studied English After completing two years of military service he studied law at Eotvos Lorand University in Budapest writing his thesis on the Polish Solidarity movement 24 After obtaining his JD degree equivalent to a Master study 25 in 1987 26 27 he lived in Szolnok for two years commuting to his job in Budapest as a sociologist at the Management Training Institute of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food 28 In 1989 Orban received a scholarship from the Soros Foundation to study political science at Pembroke College Oxford 22 His personal tutor was the Hegelian political philosopher Zbigniew Pelczynski 29 In January 1990 he left Oxford and returned to Hungary to run for a seat in Hungary s first post communist parliament 30 At the age of 14 and 15 he was a secretary of the communist youth organization KISZ of his secondary grammar school KISZ membership was mandatory in order to matriculate to a university 31 32 Orban said in a later interview that his political views had radically changed during the military service earlier he had considered himself a naive and devoted supporter of the Communist regime 33 Early career 1988 1998 Orban and Gabor Fodor at the Szarszo meeting of 1993 On 30 March 1988 Orban was one of the founding members of Fidesz originally an acronym for Fiatal Demokratak Szovetsege Alliance of Young Democrats 34 and served as its first spokesperson The first members of the party including Orban were mostly students from the Bibo Istvan College for Advanced Studies who opposed the Communist regime 35 At the college itself a part of Eotvos Lorand University 36 Orban also co founded the dissidenting social science journal Szazadveg 37 On 16 June 1989 Orban gave a speech in Heroes Square Budapest on the occasion of the reburial of Imre Nagy and other national martyrs of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution In his speech he demanded free elections and the withdrawal of Soviet troops The speech brought him wide national and political acclaim In summer 1989 he took part in the opposition round table talks representing Fidesz alongside Laszlo Kover 38 Orban in 1997 as leader of the opposition On returning home from Oxford he was elected Member of Parliament from his party s Pest County Regional List during the 1990 parliamentary election He was appointed leader of the Fidesz s parliamentary group serving in this capacity until May 1993 39 On 18 April 1993 Orban became the first president of Fidesz replacing the national board that had served as a collective leadership since its founding Under his leadership Fidesz gradually transformed from a radical liberal student organization to a center right people s party 40 The conservative turn caused a severe split in the membership Several members left the party including Peter Molnar Gabor Fodor and Zsuzsanna Szelenyi Fodor and others later joined the liberal Alliance of Free Democrats SZDSZ initially a strong ally of Fidesz but later a political opponent 41 During the 1994 parliamentary election Fidesz barely reached the 5 threshold 42 Orban became MP from his party s Fejer County Regional List 39 He served as chairman of the Committee on European Integration Affairs between 1994 and 1998 39 He was also a member of the Immunity Incompatibility and Credentials Committee for a short time in 1995 39 Under his presidency Fidesz adopted Hungarian Civic Party Magyar Polgari Part to its shortened name in 1995 His party gradually became dominant in the right wing of the political spectrum while the former ruling conservative Hungarian Democratic Forum MDF had lost much of its support 42 From April 1996 Orban was chairman of the Hungarian National Committee of the New Atlantic Initiative NAI 43 In September 1992 Orban was elected vice chairman of the Liberal International 44 In November 2000 however Fidesz left the Liberal International and joined the European People s Party EPP During the time Orban worked hard to unite the center right liberal conservative parties in Hungary At the EPP s Congress in Estoril in October 2002 he was elected vice president an office he held until 2012 45 First premiership 1998 2002 Main article 1998 Hungarian parliamentary electionThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Viktor Orban news newspapers books scholar JSTOR April 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message In 1998 Orban formed a successful coalition with the Hungarian Democratic Forum MDF and the Independent Smallholders Party FKGP and won the 1998 parliamentary elections with 42 of the national vote 45 Orban became the second youngest Prime Minister of Hungary at the age of 35 after Andras Hegedus serving between 1998 and 2002 46 The new government immediately launched a radical reform of state administration reorganizing ministries and creating a superministry for the economy In addition the boards of the social security funds and centralized social security payments were dismissed Following the German model Orban strengthened the Prime Minister s office and named a new minister to oversee the work of his Cabinet 47 In the process thousands of civil servants were replaced no distinction is made between political and civil servant posts resulting in a strong winner takes all practice The overall direction was towards centralized control citation needed Orban with Tamas Deutsch in 2000 Despite vigorous protests from the opposition parties 48 49 50 in February the government decided that plenary sessions of the unicameral National Assembly would be held only every third week 51 As a result according to opposition arguments parliament s legislative efficiency and ability to supervise the government were reduced 52 In late March the government tried to replace the National Assembly rule that requires a two thirds majority vote with one of a simple majority but the Constitutional Court ruled this unconstitutional 53 The year saw only minor changes in top government officials Two of Orban s state secretaries in the Prime Minister s office had to resign in May due to their implication in a bribery scandal involving the American military manufacturer Lockheed Martin Corporation Before bids on a major jet fighter contract the two secretaries along with 32 other deputies of Orban s party had sent a letter to two US senators to lobby for the appointment of a Budapest based Lockheed manager to be the US ambassador to Hungary 54 On 31 August the head of the Tax Office also resigned succumbing to protracted attacks by the opposition on his earlier allegedly suspicious business dealings citation needed The tug of war between the Budapest City Council and the government continued over the government s decision in late 1998 to cancel two major urban projects the construction of a new national theatre 55 and of the fourth subway line citation needed Relations between the Fidesz led coalition government and the opposition worsened in the National Assembly where the two seemed to have abandoned all attempts at consensus seeking politics The government pushed to swiftly replace the heads of key institutions such as the Hungarian National Bank chairman the Budapest City Chief Prosecutor and the Hungarian Radio with partisan figures Although the opposition resisted for example by delaying their appointing of members of the supervising boards the government ran the institutions without the stipulated number of directors In a similar vein Orban failed to show up for question time in parliament for periods of up to 10 months His statements of the kind that The parliament works without opposition too also contributed to the image of an arrogant and aggressive governance 56 A later report in March by the Brussels based International Federation of Journalists criticized the Hungarian government for improper political influence in the media as the country s public service broadcaster teetered close to bankruptcy 57 Numerous political scandals during 2001 led to a de facto if not actual breakup of the coalition that held power in Budapest A bribery scandal in February triggered a wave of allegations and several prosecutions against the Independent Smallholders Party The affair resulted in the ousting of Jozsef Torgyan from both the FKGP presidency and the top post in the Ministry of Agriculture The FKGP disintegrated and more than a dozen of its MPs joined the government faction 58 Economy Orban s economic policy was aimed at cutting taxes and social insurance contributions over four years while reducing inflation and unemployment Among the new government s first measures was to abolish university tuition fees and reintroduce universal maternity benefits The government announced its intention to continue the Socialist Liberal stabilization program and pledged to narrow the budget deficit which had grown to 4 5 of GDP 59 The previous Cabinet had almost completed the privatization of government run industries and had launched a comprehensive pension reform However the Socialists had avoided two major socioeconomic issues reform of health care and agriculture these remained to be tackled by Orban s government citation needed Economic successes included a drop in inflation from 15 in 1998 to 10 0 in 1999 9 8 in 2000 and 7 8 in 2001 GDP growth rates were fairly steady 4 4 in 1999 5 2 in 2000 and 3 8 in 2001 The fiscal deficit fell from 3 9 in 1999 to 3 5 in 2000 and 3 4 in 2001 and the ratio of the national debt decreased to 54 of GDP 59 Under the Orban cabinet there were realistic hopes that Hungary would be able to join the Eurozone by 2009 However negotiations for entry into the European Union slowed in the fall of 1999 after the EU included six more countries in addition to the original six in the accession discussions Orban repeatedly criticized the EU for its delay citation needed Orban Mikulas Dzurinda and Gunter Verheugen during the opening of the Maria Valeria Bridge across the Danube connecting the Slovak town of Sturovo with Esztergom in Hungary in November 2001 Orban also came under criticism for pushing through an unprecedented two year budget and for failing to curb inflation which only dropped a half point from 10 in 1999 to 9 5 in 2000 despite the tight monetary policy of the Central Bank However investments continued to grow 60 Foreign policy In March 1999 after Russian objections were overruled Hungary joined NATO along with the Czech Republic and Poland 61 The Hungarian membership to NATO demanded its involvement in Federal Republic of Yugoslavia s Kosovo crisis and modernization of its army NATO membership also gave a blow to the economy because of a trade embargo imposed on Yugoslavia 62 Hungary attracted international media attention in 1999 for passing the status law concerning estimated three million ethnic Hungarian minorities in neighbouring Romania Slovakia Serbia and Montenegro Croatia Slovenia and Ukraine The law aimed to provide education health benefits and employment rights to those and was said to heal the negative effects of the disastrous 1920 Trianon Treaty 63 Governments in neighbouring states particularly Romania claimed to be insulted by the law which they saw as an interference in their domestic affairs The proponents of the status law countered that several of the countries criticizing the law themselves have similar constructs to provide benefits for their own minorities Romania acquiesced after amendments following a December 2001 agreement between Orban and Romanian Prime Minister Adrian Năstase 64 Slovakia accepted the law after further concessions made by the new government after the 2002 elections 65 Orban with George W Bush at the White House in 2001Leader of the Opposition 2002 2010 Main articles 2002 Hungarian parliamentary election and 2006 Hungarian parliamentary electionThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Viktor Orban news newspapers books scholar JSTOR April 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message The level of public support for political parties generally stagnated even with general elections coming in 2002 Fidesz and the main opposition Hungarian Socialist Party MSZP ran neck and neck in the opinion polls for most of the year both attracting about 26 of the electorate According to a September 2001 poll by the Gallup organization however support for a joint Fidesz Hungarian Democratic Forum party list would run up to 33 of the voters with the Socialists drawing 28 and other opposition parties 3 each 66 Meanwhile public support for the FKGP plunged from 14 in 1998 to 1 in 2001 As many as 40 of the voters remained undecided however Although the Socialists had picked their candidate for Prime Minister former finance minister Peter Medgyessy the opposition largely remained unable to increase its political support citation needed The dark horse of the election was the radical nationalist Hungarian Justice and Life Party MIEP with its leader Istvan Csurka s radical rhetoric MIEP could not be ruled out as the key to a new term for Orban and his party should they be forced into a coalition after the 2002 elections citation needed The elections of 2002 were the most heated Hungary had experienced in more than a decade and an unprecedented cultural political division formed in the country In the event Viktor Orban s group lost the April parliamentary elections to the opposition Hungarian Socialist Party which set up a coalition with its longtime ally the liberal Alliance of Free Democrats Turnout was a record high 70 5 Beyond these parties only deputies of the Hungarian Democratic Forum made it into the National Assembly The populist Independent Smallholders Party and the right Hungarian Justice and Life Party lost all their seats Thus the number of political parties in the new assembly was reduced from six to four 67 MIEP challenged the government s legitimacy demanded a recount complained of election fraud and generally kept the country in election mode until the October municipal elections The socialist controlled Central Elections Committee ruled that a recount was unnecessary a position supported by observers from the Organization for Security and Co operation in Europe whose only substantive criticism of the election conduct was that the state television carried a consistent bias in favour of Fidesz 68 Orban received the Freedom Award of the American Enterprise Institute and the New Atlantic Initiative 2001 the Polak Award 2001 the Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit 2001 the Forderpreis Soziale Marktwirtschaft Price for the Social Market Economy 2002 and the Merite Europeen prize 2004 In April 2004 he received the Papal Grand Cross of the Order of St Gregory the Great In the 2004 European Parliament election the ruling Hungarian Socialist Party was heavily defeated by the opposition conservative Fidesz Fidesz gained 47 4 of the vote and 12 of Hungary s 24 seats 69 70 Orban and Hans Gert Pottering in 2006 Orban and Romanian President Traian Băsescu in 2008 Orban was the Fidesz candidate for the parliamentary election in 2006 Fidesz and its new old candidate failed again to gain a majority in this election which initially put Orban s future political career as the leader of Fidesz in question 71 However after fighting with Socialist Liberal coalition Orban s position solidified again and he was elected president of Fidesz yet again for another term in May 2007 72 On 17 September 2006 an audio recording surfaced from a closed door Hungarian Socialist Party meeting which was held on 26 May 2006 in which Hungarian Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsany gave an obscenity laden speech The leak ignited mass protests citation needed On 1 November Orban and his party announced their plans to stage several large scale demonstrations across Hungary on the anniversary of the Soviet suppression of the 1956 Revolution The events were intended to serve as a memorial to the victims of the Soviet invasion and a protest against police brutality during the 23 October unrest in Budapest Planned events included a candlelight vigil march across Budapest However the demonstrations were small and petered out by the end of the year 73 A new round of demonstrations expected in the spring of 2007 did not materialize citation needed On 1 October 2006 Fidesz won the municipal elections which counterbalanced the MSZP led government s power to some extent Fidesz won 15 of 23 mayoralties in Hungary s largest cities although it narrowly lost Budapest to the Liberal Party and majorities in 18 of 20 regional assemblies 74 75 On 9 March 2008 a national referendum took place on revoking government reforms which introduced doctor fees per visit and medical fees paid per number of days spent in hospital as well as tuition fees in higher education Fidesz initiated the referendum against the ruling MSZP 76 77 The procedure for the referendum started on 23 October 2006 when Orban announced they would hand in seven questions to the National Electorate Office three of which on abolishing copayments daily fees and college tuition fees were officially approved on 17 December 2007 and called on 24 January 2008 The referendum passed a significant victory for Fidesz 78 In the 2009 European Parliament election Fidesz won by a large margin garnering 56 36 of votes and 14 of Hungary s 22 seats 79 Second premiership 2010 present Main articles 2010 Hungarian parliamentary election 2014 Hungarian parliamentary election and 2018 Hungarian parliamentary election Orban at a press conference following the meeting of leaders of the Visegrad Group Germany and France on 6 March 2013 Hungarians won t live according to the commands of foreign powers Orban told the crowd at Kossuth square on 15 March 2012 During the 2010 parliamentary elections Orban s party won 52 73 of the popular vote with a two thirds majority of seats which gave Orban enough authority to change the Constitution 80 As a result Orban s government drafted and passed a new constitution in 2011 81 82 83 84 Among other changes it includes support for traditional values nationalism references to Christianity and a controversial electoral reform which lowered the number of seats in the Parliament of Hungary from 386 to 199 85 86 The new constitution entered into force on 1 January 2012 and was later amended further In his second term as Prime Minister he garnered controversy for his statements against liberal democracy for proposing an internet tax and for his perceived corruption 87 His second premiership has seen numerous protests against his government including one in Budapest in November 2014 against the proposed internet tax 88 In terms of domestic legislation Orban s government implemented a flat tax on personal income This tax is set at 16 89 Orban has called his government pragmatic citing restrictions on early retirement in the police force and military making welfare more transparent and a central banking law that gives Hungary more independence from the European Central Bank 90 After the 2014 parliamentary election Fidesz won a majority garnering 133 of the 199 seats in the National Assembly 91 While he won a large majority he garnered 44 54 of the national vote down from 52 73 in 2010 citation needed During the 2015 European migrant crisis Orban ordered the erection of the Hungary Serbia barrier to block entry of illegal immigrants 92 so that Hungary could register all the migrants arriving from Serbia which is the country s responsibility under the Dublin Regulation a European Union law Under Orban Hungary took numerous actions to combat illegal immigration and reduce refugee levels 93 In May 2020 the European Court of Justice ruled against Hungary s policy of migrants transit zones which Orban subsequently abolished while also making the country s asylum rules stricter 94 Orban questioned Nord Stream II a new Russia Germany natural gas pipeline He said he wants to hear a reasonable argument why South Stream was bad and Nord Stream is not 95 South Stream refers to the Balkan pipeline cancelled by Russia in December 2014 after obstacles from the EU 96 Since 2017 Hungary s relations with Ukraine rapidly deteriorated over the issue of the Hungarian minority in Ukraine 97 Orban and his cabinet ministers repeatedly criticized Ukraine s 2017 education law which makes Ukrainian the only language of education in state schools 98 99 and threatened to block further Ukraine s EU and NATO integration until it is modified or repealed 100 In July 2018 Orban travelled to Turkey to attend the inauguration ceremony of re elected Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan 101 In October 2018 Orban said after talks with President Erdogan in Budapest that A stable Turkish government and a stable Turkey are a precondition for Hungary not to be endangered in any way due to overland migration 102 Poland s Law and Justice PiS leader Jaroslaw Kaczynski with Orban on 22 September 2017 In April 2019 Orban attended China s Belt and Road forum in Beijing 103 where he met the Chinese President Xi Jinping 104 In June 2019 Orban met Myanmar s State Counsellor and Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi They discussed bilateral ties and illegal migration 105 106 On 30 March 2020 the Hungarian parliament voted 137 to 53 in favor of passing legislation that would create a state of emergency without a time limit grant the Prime Minister the ability to rule by decree the suspension of by elections and possibly prison sentences for spreading fake news and sanctions for leaving quarantine 107 108 109 Two and a half months later on 16 June 2020 the Hungarian parliament passed a bill that ended the state of emergency effective 19 June 110 However on the same day the parliament passed a new law removing the requirement of parliamentary approval for future medical states of emergencies allowing the government to declare them by decree 111 112 In 2021 the parliament transferred control of 11 state universities to foundations led by allies of Orban 113 114 The Mathias Corvinus Collegium a residential college received an influx of government funds and assets equal to about 1 of Hungary s gross domestic product reportedly as part of a mission to train future right wing intellectuals 115 Due to a combination of unfavourable conditions which involved soaring demand of natural gas its diminished supply from Russia and Norway to the European markets and less power generation by renewable energy sources such as wind water and solar energy Europe faced steep increases in energy prices in 2021 In October 2021 Orban blamed a record breaking surge in energy prices on the European Commission s Green Deal plans 116 Anti LGBT policies Since his election as prime minister in 2010 Orban has led initiatives and laws to hinder human rights of LGBT people regarding those as not compatible with Christian values In 2020 Orban s government ended legal recognition of transgender people receiving widespread criticism both in Hungary and abroad 117 In 2021 his party proposed legislation to censor any LGBT positive content in movies books or public advertisements and to severely restrict sex education in school forbidding any information thought to encourage gender change or homosexuality The law has been likened to Russia s restriction on homosexual propaganda 118 German Chancellor Angela Merkel and European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen harshly criticized the law 119 while a letter from sixteen EU leaders including Pedro Sanchez and Mario Draghi warned against threats against fundamental rights and in particular the principle of non discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation 120 His anti LGBT positions came under more scrutiny after the revelation that one of the European deputies of his party Jozsef Szajer had participated in a gay sex party in Brussels despite the ongoing COVID 19 pandemic quarantine restrictions 121 122 123 Szajer was one of the major architects behind the 2011 Constitution of Hungary This new constitution has been criticized by Human Rights Watch for being discriminatory towards the LGBT community 124 125 Views and public image Orban with Jose Manuel Barroso and Stavros Lambrinidis in January 2011 Orban s blend of soft Euroscepticism populism 126 127 128 and national conservatism has seen him compared to politicians and political parties as diverse as Jaroslaw Kaczynski s Law and Justice Silvio Berlusconi s Forza Italia Matteo Salvini s League Marine Le Pen s National Rally Donald Trump 129 Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Vladimir Putin 130 Orban has sought to make Hungary an ideological center for an international conservative movement 131 According to Politico Orban s political philosophy echoes the resentments of what were once the peasant and working classes by promoting an uncompromising defense of national sovereignty and a transparent distrust of Europe s ruling establishments 129 Orban had a close relationship with the former Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu having known him for decades He is described as one of Mr Netanyahu s closest allies in Europe 132 Orban received personal advice on economic reforms from Netanyahu while the latter was Finance Minister of Israel 2003 2005 133 In February 2019 Netanyahu thanked Orban for deciding to extend the embassy of Hungary in Israel to Jerusalem 134 Orban is seen as having laid out his political views most concretely in a widely cited 2014 public address at Băile Tușnad known in Hungary as the Tusnadfurdoi beszed or Tusnadfurdo speech In the address Orban repudiated the classical liberal theory of the state as a free association of atomistic individuals arguing for the use of the state as the means of organizing invigorating or even constructing the national community Although this kind of state respects traditionally liberal concepts like civic rights it is properly called illiberal because it views the community and not the individual as the basic political unit 135 In practice Orban claimed such a state should promote national self sufficiency national sovereignty familialism full employment and the preservation of cultural heritage and cited countries such as Turkey India Singapore Russia and China as models 135 Orban and Angela Merkel Congress of the European People s Party in Madrid on 21 October 2015 Orban with Vladimir Putin in February 2016 Orban s second and third premierships have been the subject of significant international controversy and reception of his political views is mixed The 2011 constitutional changes enacted under his leadership were in particular accused of centralizing legislative and executive power curbing civil liberties restricting freedom of speech and weakening the Constitutional Court and judiciary 136 For these reasons critics have described him as irredentist 137 right wing populist 138 authoritarian 139 autocratic 140 Putinist 141 as a strongman 142 and as a dictator 143 Orban with Mike Pompeo in Budapest in February 2019 Other commentators however noted that the European migrant crisis coupled with continued Islamist terrorism in the European Union have popularized Orban s nationalist protectionist policies among European conservative leaders Once ostracized by Europe s political elite writes Politico Orban is now the talisman of Europe s mainstream right 129 As other Visegrad Group leaders Orban opposes any compulsory EU long term quota on redistribution of migrants 144 He wrote in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung Europe s response is madness We must acknowledge that the European Union s misguided immigration policy is responsible for this situation 145 He also demanded an official EU list of safe countries to which migrants can be returned 146 According to Orban Turkey should be considered a safe third country 147 Orban has promoted the Great Replacement conspiracy theory Le Journal du Dimanche reported on Orban s explicit adoption of the conspiracy theory after he claimed if we let tens of millions of migrants travel to Europe from Africa and the Middle East the young people of Western Europe will know the day when they will be in a minority in their own country 148 During a press conference in January 2019 Orban praised Brazil s president Jair Bolsonaro saying that currently the most apt definition of modern Christian democracy can be found in Brazil not in Europe 149 Despite the anti immigration rhetoric from Orban it has been reported that Hungary has actually increased immigration of foreign workers into the country 150 151 152 As stated by The Guardian the Hungarian government doubled family spending between 2010 and 2019 intending to achieve a lasting turn in demographic processes by 2030 Orban has espoused an anti immigration platform and has also advocated for increased investment into Family First Orban has disregarded the European Union s attempts to promote integration as a key solution to population distribution problems in Europe He has also supported investments into the country s low birth rates Orban has tapped into the great replacement theory which emulates a nativist approach to rejecting foreign immigration out of fear of replacement by immigrants He has stated that If Europe is not going to be populated by Europeans in the future and we take this as given then we are speaking about an exchange of populations to replace the population of Europeans with others The Guardian stated that This year the Hungarian government introduced a 10 million forint 27 000 interest free loan for families which does not have to be paid back if the couple has three children 153 In July 2020 Orban expressed that he still expects arguments over linking of disbursement of funds of the European Union to rule of law criteria but remarked in a state radio interview that they didn t win the war we they won an important battle 154 In August 2020 Orban whilst speaking at an event to inaugurate a monument commemorating the Treaty of Trianon said Central European nations should come together to preserve their Christian roots as western Europe experiments with same sex families immigration and atheism 155 Criticism Orban s critics have included domestic and foreign leaders including former United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton 156 German Chancellor Angela Merkel 157 and the Presidents of the European Commission Jose Manuel Barroso 158 and Jean Claude Juncker 159 intergovernmental organisations non governmental organisations Specifically he has been accused of pursuing anti democratic reforms attacking human rights of LGBT people reducing the independence of Hungary s press judiciary and central bank amending Hungary s constitution to prevent amendments to Fidesz backed legislation and of cronyism and nepotism 160 161 162 He was accused of pork barrel politics for building a 4 000 seat stadium in the village in which he grew up Felcsut 163 at a distance of some 20 feet 6 1 m from his country house 163 Some opposition parties and critics also consider Orban an opponent of European integration In 2000 opposition parties MSZP and SZDSZ and the left wing press presented Orban s comment that there s life outside the EU as proof of his anti Europeanism and sympathies with the radical right 164 165 In the same press conference Orban clarified that w e re trying to make the accession fast because it may boost the growth of Hungary s economy citation needed Hungarian American business magnate and political activist George Soros criticized Orban s handling of the European migrant crisis in 2015 saying His plan treats the protection of national borders as the objective and the refugees as an obstacle Our plan treats the protection of refugees as the objective and national borders as the obstacle 166 The Orban government began to attack Soros and his NGOs in early 2017 particularly for his support for more open immigration In July 2017 the Israeli ambassador in Hungary joined Jewish groups and others in denouncing a billboard campaign backed by the government Orban s critics claimed it evokes memories of the Nazi posters during the Second World War The ambassador stated that the campaign evokes sad memories but also sows hatred and fear an apparent reference to the Holocaust Hours later Israel s Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a clarification denouncing Soros stating that he continuously undermines Israel s democratically elected governments and funded organizations that defame the Jewish state and seek to deny it the right to defend itself The clarification came a few days before an official visit to Hungary by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu 167 The anti Soros messages became key elements of the government s communication and campaign since then which among others also targeted the Central European University CEU 168 169 170 171 Following a decade of Fidesz KDNP rule led by Orban Freedom House s Nations in Transit 2020 report reclassified Hungary from a democracy to a transitional or hybrid regime 172 Personal life Orban and his wife Aniko Levai at the funeral of President Arpad Goncz in November 2015 Orban married jurist Aniko Levai in 1986 the couple have five children 173 Their eldest daughter Rahel is married to entrepreneur Tiborcz Istvan hu whose company Elios was accused of receiving unfair advantages when winning public tenders 174 see Elios case hu Orban s son Gaspar is a retired footballer who played for Ferenc Puskas Football Academy in 2014 175 He is also the founder of a religious community called Felhaz citation needed Orban has three younger daughters Sara Roza Flora and three granddaughters Rahel s children Aliz and Anna Adel Sara s daughter Johanna citation needed Orban is a member of the Calvinist Hungarian Reformed Church while his wife and their five children are Roman Catholic 176 Football interests Orban is very fond of sports especially of football he was a signed player of the Felcsut football team and as a result he also appears in Football Manager 2006 177 178 Orban has played football from his early childhood He was a professional player with FC Felcsut After ending his football career he became one of the main financiers of the Hungarian football and his hometown s club Felcsut FC later renamed the Ferenc Puskas Football Academy 179 He had a prominent role in the foundation of Puskas Akademia in Felcsut creating one of the most modern training facilities for young Hungarian footballers 180 He played an important role in establishing the annually organised international youth cup the Puskas Cup at Pancho Arena which he also helped build 181 182 in his hometown of Felcsut His only son Gaspar learned and trained there 183 Orban is said to watch as many as six games a day His first trip abroad as prime minister in 1998 was to the World Cup final in Paris according to inside sources he has not missed a World Cup or Champions League final since 184 Then FIFA president Sepp Blatter visited the facilities at the Puskas Academy in 2009 Blatter together with the widow of Ferenc Puskas as well as Orban founder of the Academy announced the creation of the new FIFA Puskas Award during that visit 185 He played the bit part of a footballer in the Hungarian family film Szegeny Dzsoni es Arnika 1983 186 See alsoFirst Orban Government Second Orban Government Third Orban Government Fourth Orban Government OrbanomicsReferences Orbannak kiutottek az elso ket fogat Origo in Hungarian 20 December 2012 Retrieved 30 August 2012 Szurovecz Illes 30 November 2020 Varga Judittol kellett megtudnunk hogy Orban Viktor tobbet volt hatalmon mint barmelyik magyar miniszterelnok a tortenelemben 444 hu in Hungarian Retrieved 10 August 2021 Lee Frances E 3 September 2019 Populism and the American Party System Opportunities and Constraints Perspectives on Politics 18 2 371 doi 10 1017 s1537592719002664 ISSN 1537 5927 What to do when Viktor Orban erodes democracy The Economist Retrieved 17 December 2017 Kingsley Patrick 10 February 2018 As West Fears the Rise of Autocrats Hungary Shows What s Possible The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved 10 February 2018 Kelemen R Daniel 2017 Europe s Other Democratic Deficit National Authoritarianism in Europe s Democratic Union Government and Opposition 52 2 211 238 doi 10 1017 gov 2016 41 ISSN 0017 257X Maerz Seraphine F Luhrmann Anna Hellmeier Sebastian Grahn Sandra Lindberg Staffan I 2020 State of the world 2019 autocratization surges resistance grows Democratization 27 6 909 927 doi 10 1080 13510347 2020 1758670 ISSN 1351 0347 The EU is tolerating and enabling authoritarian kleptocracy in Hungary The Economist 5 April 2018 ISSN 0013 0613 Retrieved 5 July 2021 World Press Freedom Index 2010 RSF 20 April 2016 Retrieved 5 July 2021 2020 World Press Freedom Index Reporters Without Borders RSF Retrieved 5 July 2021 Democracy Index 2010 democracy in retreat PDF Economist Intelligence Unit 2010 Retrieved 5 April 2021 Democracy Index 2020 In sickness and in health Economist Intelligence Unit 2020 Kelemen R Daniel 8 February 2019 Hungary s democracy just got a failing grade The Washington Post Retrieved 5 July 2021 Full text of Viktor Orban s speech at Băile Tusnad Tusnadfurdo of 26 July 2014 The Budapest Beacon 30 July 2014 Hungarian PM sees shift to illiberal Christian democracy in 2019 European vote Reuters 28 July 2018 Retrieved 29 July 2020 Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban said on Saturday that European parliament elections next year could bring about a shift toward illiberal Christian democracy in the European Union that would end the era of multiculturalism Hungary Orban Europe s centre right EPP suspends Fidesz BBC 20 March 2019 Retrieved 26 March 2021 Hungary Viktor Orban s ruling Fidesz party quits European People s Party Deutsche Welle 18 March 2021 Retrieved 26 March 2021 A Kozgep is hizlalhatja Orban Gyozo ceget Heti Vilaggazdasag 11 July 2012 Erzsebet Sipos Geni com Retrieved 19 March 2019 Lendvai 2017 pp 11 12 Punkosti Arpad 13 May 2000 Szeplotelen fogantatas 7 Nepszabadsag in Hungarian Retrieved 19 March 2019 a b Orban Viktor Viktor Orban biography in Hungarian Hungary arlament 1996 Lendvai 2017 pp 14 265 Kenney Padraic 2002 A Carnival of Revolution Central Europe 1989 Princeton Princeton University Press p 138 ISBN 0 691 05028 7 Faculty of Law website of Eotvos Lorand University Curriculum vitae of Viktor Orban website of the Hungarian government Dr Orban Viktor website of the Hungarian parlament Orban Viktor Viktor Orban PDF biography in Hungarian Hungary National Assembly Fulbright report PDF Rhodes House Oxford United Kingdom archived from the original PDF on 15 December 2014 Lendvai 2017 p 23 Punkosti Arpad Szeplotelen fogantatas Nepszabadsag Konyvek Budapest 2005 pp 138 139 Debreczeni Jozsef 2002 Orban Viktor in Hungarian Budapest Osiris Debreczeni Jozsef Orban Viktor Osiris Kiado Budapest 2002 Lendvai 2017 p 21 Lendvai 2017 pp 17 21 Schwartzburg Rosa Szijarto Imre 24 July 2019 When Orban Was a Liberal Jacobin Retrieved 1 April 2020 LeBor Adam 11 September 2015 How Hungary s Prime Minister Turned From Young Liberal Into Refugee Bashing Autocrat The Intercept Retrieved 1 April 2020 Martens 2009 pp 192 193 a b c d Register Orszaggyules Hungary under Orban Can Central Planning Revive Its Economy Simeon Djankov Peterson Institute for International Economics July 2015 accessed 20 January 2015 Petocz Gyorgy Csak a narancs volt Irodalom Kft 2001 ISBN 963 00 8876 2 a b Vida Istvan 2011 Magyarorszagi politikai partok lexikona 1846 2010 Encyclopedia of the Political Parties in Hungary 1846 2010 in Hungarian Gondolat Kiado pp 346 350 ISBN 978 963 693 276 3 Orban Viktor eletrajza Government of Hungary accessed 2020 04 04 Lendvai 2017 p 26 a b Martens 2009 p 193 Kormanyfoi multidezes a jogaszok a nyerok Zona hu Stumpf lesz a miniszterelnok helyettes Origo in Hungarian 21 November 2001 Retrieved 15 March 2014 A parlamenti partokat meg mindig megosztja a haromhetes ulesezes Nepszava 3 March 2000 Biraljak az uj munkarendet A haromhetes ciklus miatt osszeomolhat a torvenygyartas gepezete Nepszava 4 March 1999 Bodnar Lajos 23 July 2001 Marad a haromhetes munkarend Az ellenzeknek az oszi parlamenti ulesszak idejen sem lesz ereje a valtoztatashoz Magyar Hirlap Istvan Kukorelli Peter Smuk A Magyar Orszaggyules 1990 2010 Orszaggyules Hivatala Budapest 2011 pp 47 48 Tamas Bauer A parlament megcsonkitasa Nepszava 8 February 1999 4 1999 III 31 AB hatarozat Magyar Kozlony 1999 evi 27 szam and AB kozlony VIII evf 3 szam Orban nem gyanit korrupciot a Lockheed botrany mogott Origo 26 May 1999 accessed 24 July 2012 Torteneti attekintes Archived 13 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine National Theatre accessed 17 June 2018 in Hungarian Nepszabadsag Archivum Nepszabadsag accessed 15 March 2014 Nemzetkozi Ujsagiro szovetseg vizsgalna a magyar mediat Index in Hungarian 13 January 2001 Retrieved 15 March 2014 Torgyan lemondott Index 8 February 2001 accessed 15 March 2014 a b Gazdag Laszlo Igy kormanyoztak a magyar gazdasagot FN hu 12 February 2012 accessed 15 March 2014 Keteves koltsegvetes keszul a PM ben Origo 31 July 2001 accessed 15 March 2014 Magyarorszag teljes jogu NATO tag Origo 12 March 1999 accessed 15 March 2014 Bell 2003 p 315 Michael Toomey History nationalism and democracy myth and narrative in Viktor Orban s illiberal Hungary New Perspectives Interdisciplinary Journal of Central amp East European Politics and International Relations 26 1 2018 87 108 1 Nastase Orban egyezseg keszul a statustorvenyrol Transindex 17 December 2001 accessed 15 March 2014 A magyar statustorveny fogadtatasa es alkalmazasa a Szlovak Koztarsasagban Center for Legal Analyses Kalligram Foundation accessed 15 March 2014 Gallup nott a Fidesz MDF kozos lista elonye Origo 15 November 2001 accessed 15 March 2014 Dieter Nohlen amp Philip Stover 2010 Elections in Europe A data handbook p 899 ISBN 978 3 8329 5609 7 A MIEP cselekvesre szolit a csalas miatt Index 22 April 2002 accessed 15 March 2014 Hack Peter 18 June 2004 A vereseg tanulsagai Hetek in Hungarian Retrieved 19 March 2019 A Fidesz gyozott es a legnagyobb europai frakcio tagja lesz 24 hu in Hungarian 14 June 2004 Retrieved 19 March 2019 Orszagos Valasztasi Iroda 2006 Orszaggyulesi Valasztasok eredmenyei National Election Office 2006 parliamentary elections in Hungarian Valasztas Ismet Orban Viktor lett a Fidesz elnoke Archived 25 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine Politaktika hu accessed 12 April 2018 Gorondi Pablo 27 February 2007 Hungary s prime minister expects political tension but no riots on 15 March commemorations Associated Press Vokscentrum a valasztasok univerzuma Vokscentrum hu 2006 Archived from the original on 18 August 2007 Retrieved 17 April 2010 Opposition makes substantial gains in Hungarian elections Taipei Times 3 October 2006 Retrieved 11 May 2017 Hungarian president announces referendum date Xinhua People s Daily 24 January 2008 Hungary s ruling MSZP vows to stick to medical reforms despite referendum People s Daily Online People s Daily Retrieved 12 April 2018 Edelenyi Mark Toth Andras Neumann Laszlo 18 May 2008 Majority vote yes in referendum to abolish medical and higher education fees European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions Retrieved 23 November 2020 EP valasztas A jobboldal diadalmenete EURACTIV 8 June 2009 Archived from the original on 26 September 2011 Retrieved 8 June 2011 Q amp A Hungary s controversial constitutional changes BBC News Judy Dempsey Hungarian Parliament Approves New Constitution The New York Times 18 April 2011 accessed April 25 2011 Hungarian lawmakers approve socially and fiscally conservative new constitution The Washington Post 18 April 2011 accessed April 25 2011 Margit Feher Hungary Passes New Constitution Amid Concerns The Wall Street Journal 18 April 2011 accessed April 26 2011 Hungarian president signs new constitution despite human rights concerns Deutsche Welle 25 April 2011 accessed April 25 2011 New electoral system in the home stretch PDF Valasztasirendszer Hungary s parliament passes controversial new constitution Deutsche Welle 18 April 2011 Retrieved 9 July 2020 Lyman Rick Smale Alison 7 November 2014 Defying Soviets Then Pulling Hungary to Putin The New York Times Retrieved 10 August 2021 Opposing Orban The Economist 20 November 2014 Retrieved 10 August 2021 Eder Marton Hungary s personal income tax still under fire The Wall Street Journal June 2012 Hungary PM Viktor Orban Antagonising Europe since 2010 BBC News 4 September 2015 Retrieved 11 August 2021 Hungary election PM Viktor Orban declares victory BBC News 6 April 2014 Retrieved 11 August 2021 Troianovski Anton 19 August 2015 Migration crisis pits EU s East against West The Wall Street Journal Retrieved 19 August 2015 Savitsky Shane 1 February 2017 Border fences and refugee bans Hungary did it fast Axios Retrieved 3 December 2017 Dunai Marton Komuves Anita 21 May 2020 Hungary tightens asylum rules as it ends migrant detention zones Reuters Retrieved 22 May 2020 Steinhauser Gabriele 18 December 2015 Germany s Merkel defends Russian gas pipeline plan The Wall Street Journal Szpala Marta Gniazdowski Mateusz Groszkowski Jakub Loskot Strachota Agata Sadecki Andrzej 17 December 2014 Central and South Eastern Europe after the cancellation of South Stream Centre for Eastern Studies Retrieved 19 March 2019 McLaughlin Daniel 27 September 2017 Ukraine defends education reform as Hungary promises pain The Irish Times Rusheva Violetta 26 March 2018 Hungary Ukraine relations hit new low over troop deployment New Europe Retrieved 11 August 2021 Ukrainian language bill facing barrage of criticism from minorities foreign capitals Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty 24 September 2017 Prentice Alessandra 8 December 2017 Criticism of Ukraine s language law justified rights body Reuters PM Orban attends Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdogan s inauguration ceremony in Ankara About Hungary 10 July 2018 Orban Hungarian Security Turkish Stability Directly Linked Hungary Today 9 October 2018 Second Belt and Road Forum Top Level Attendees The Diplomat 27 April 2019 Xi meets individually with leaders at forum China Daily 26 April 2019 Orban to Myanmar State Counsellor Hungarian Govt Rejects Export of Democracy Hungary Today 5 June 2019 Ellis Petersen Hannah 6 June 2019 Aung San Suu Kyi finds common ground with Orban over Islam The Guardian Hungary passes law allowing Viktor Orban to rule by decree Deutsche Welle 30 March 2020 Archived from the original on 30 March 2020 Bayer Lili 30 March 2020 Hungary s Viktor Orban wins vote to rule by decree Politico Retrieved 30 March 2020 Silvia Amaro 31 March 2020 Coronavirus in Hungary Viktor Orban rules by decree indefinitely Cnbc com Retrieved 4 April 2020 Megszunt a veszelyhelyzet de eletbe lepett a jarvanyugyi keszultseg koronavirus gov hu in Hungarian 18 June 2020 Retrieved 11 August 2021 Skoric Toni 29 June 2020 Is the State of Emergency in Hungary Really Over Friedrich Naumann Stiftung fur die Freiheit Retrieved 16 February 2021 Lehotai Orsolya Hungary s Democracy Is Still Under Threat Foreign Policy Retrieved 16 February 2021 Novak Benjamin 28 April 2021 Hungary Transfers 11 Universities to Foundations Led by Orban Allies The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved 3 August 2021 Hungary s Orban extends dominance through university reform Reuters 27 April 2021 Retrieved 3 August 2021 Hopkins Valerie 28 June 2021 Campus in Hungary is Flagship of Orban s Bid to Create a Conservative Elite The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Retrieved 3 August 2021 The Green Brief East West EU split again over climate Euractiv 20 October 2021 Walker Shaun 19 May 2020 Hungary votes to end legal recognition of trans people The Guardian Retrieved 10 August 2021 Nattrass William 11 June 2021 Orban s LGBT crackdown extends to schools The Independent Retrieved 10 August 2021 Strozewski Zoe 23 June 2021 Angela Merkel Joins Other EU Leaders in Criticizing Hungary s LGBT Law This Law is Wrong Newsweek Retrieved 10 August 2021 Rankin Jennifer 24 June 2021 EU leaders to confront Hungary s Viktor Orban over LGBTQ rights The Guardian Retrieved 10 August 2021 Chastand Jean Baptiste Stroobants Jean Pierre 2 December 2020 Jozsef Szajer eurodepute du parti de Viktor Orban demissionne apres une soiree de debauche sexuelle en plein confinement Le Monde in French Retrieved 11 June 2021 Walker Shaun 2 December 2020 Hungary s rightwing rulers downplay MEP gay orgy scandal amid hypocrisy accusations The Guardian Retrieved 11 June 2021 Berretta Emmanuel 4 December 2020 Hongrie Viktor Orban gene par les frasques du depute Jozsef Szajer Le Point in French Retrieved 11 June 2021 Wrong Direction on Rights Human Rights Watch 16 May 2013 Retrieved 11 June 2021 Jozsef Szajer Hungary MEP quits after allegedly fleeing gay orgy BBC News 1 December 2020 Retrieved 11 June 2021 Hungary One party rule The Guardian editorial London 5 January 2011 Castle Stephen 22 April 2002 Populist premier set for defeat in Hungarian election The Independent London A populist s lament Viktor Orban has made Hungary a ripe target for doubters Politics hu Hungary 22 November 2011 archived from the original on 16 November 2017 retrieved 3 September 2018 a b c Waller Luke Viktor Orban The conservative subversive Politico Retrieved 9 May 2016 Simonyi Andras 12 October 2014 Putin Erdogan and Orban Band of Brothers The Huffington Post Retrieved 9 May 2016 Novak Benjamin Grynbaum Michael M 7 August 2021 Conservative Fellow Travelers Tucker Carlson Drops In On Viktor Orban The New York Times Retrieved 7 August 2021 Binyamin Netanyahu is soft on anti Semitism when it suits him The Economist Retrieved 30 September 2017 Hungarian PM We share the same security concerns as Israel Israel Hayom Retrieved 30 September 2017 Ahren Raphael 19 February 2019 Hungary to open office with diplomatic status in Jerusalem The Times of Israel a b Orban Viktor Prime Minister Viktor Orban s speech at the 25th Balvanyos Summer Free University and Student Camp Government of Hungary Retrieved 9 May 2016 Q amp A Hungary s controversial constitutional changes BBC 11 March 2013 Retrieved 9 May 2016 Pack Jason The Hungary model Resurgent nationalism The National Interest Retrieved 9 May 2016 Playing with fear The Economist 12 December 2015 Retrieved 9 May 2016 Schliefer Yigal October 2014 Hungary at the turning point Moment Slate Retrieved 9 May 2016 Veer Harmen van der Meijers Maurits 3 May 2017 Analysis Hungary s government is increasingly autocratic What is the European Parliament doing about it The Washington Post Retrieved 12 April 2018 Zakaria Fareed 31 July 2014 The rise of Putinism The Washington Post Retrieved 9 May 2016 Faris Stephan 22 January 2015 Power Hungary How Viktor Orban became Europe s new strongman Bloomberg Retrieved 23 September 2013 Woodard Colin 17 June 2015 Europe s new dictator Politico Retrieved 9 May 2016 Traynor Ian 5 September 2015 Refugee crisis East and West split as leaders resent Germany for waiving rules The Guardian Retrieved 11 August 2021 Traynor Ian 3 September 2015 Migration crisis Hungary PM says Europe in grip of madness The Guardian Hungary PM rejects Merkel s moral imperialism in refugee crisis Yahoo News 23 September 2015 Birnbaum Michael Witte Griff 3 September 2015 People in Europe are full of fear over refugee influx The Washington Post Retrieved 11 August 2020 Wauquiez is not embarrassed by Viktor Orban s speech on immigration Le Journal du Dimanche 12 July 2017 Gorondi Pablo 10 January 2019 Hungary s Orban wants anti migration forces to control EU Associated Press Hungary Bojan Pancevski in Budapest and Adam Bihari in Mor 8 September 2019 Hungary Loudly Opposed to Immigration Opens Doors to More Foreign Workers Wall Street Journal Vass Abraham 24 September 2019 Number of Foreigners Coming to Hungary to Work Growing Hungary Today In Orban s Hungary more migrants due to labor shortage InfoMigrants 30 September 2019 Walker Shaun 6 September 2019 Viktor Orban trumpets Hungary s procreation not immigration policy The Guardian Retrieved 3 May 2020 Simon Zoltan 24 July 2020 Viktor Orban Expects More Battles Over Rule of Law Bloomberg Retrieved 24 July 2020 Hungary s Orban calls for central Europe to unite around Christian roots NBC News 20 August 2020 Retrieved 20 August 2020 Letter to the Prime Minister of Hungary from the Secretary of State of the United States of America PDF 23 December 2011 Archived from the original PDF on 7 May 2016 Retrieved 5 May 2016 Angela Merkel criticized Viktor Orban behind closed doors Daily News Hungary 9 October 2015 The European Commission reiterates its serious concerns over the Fourth Amendment to the Constitution of Hungary ec europa eu 12 April 2013 Retrieved 5 May 2016 Happy slaps rambling speeches and jaw dropping insults this is the man who RUNS the EU Daily Express 28 June 2016 Press freedom a loser in Viktor Orban s winner take all Hungary 2 December 2011 Retrieved 5 May 2016 Bayer Lili 24 September 2020 How Orban broke the EU and got away with it Politico Retrieved 7 February 2021 Bayer Lili 23 June 2021 It s Hungary vs Everyone after attacks on LGBTQ rights Politico Retrieved 6 July 2021 a b Hakim Danny 3 April 2014 A village stadium is a symbol of power for Hungary s premier The New York Times Retrieved 1 May 2016 Orban van elet az EU n kivul is Uj Szo 1 February 2002 Archived from the original on 11 November 2014 Retrieved 19 March 2019 Orban Viktor Wikidezet Wikiquote in Hungarian Retrieved 30 September 2017 Gergely Andras 30 October 2015 Orban accuses Soros of stoking refugee wave to weaken Europe Bloomberg Retrieved 12 August 2021 Baker Luke 10 July 2017 Israel backs Hungary says financier Soros is a threat Reuters Retrieved 13 August 2021 Gorondi Pablo 3 April 2017 Hungary Parliament to rush bill targeting Soros school Associated Press Archived from the original on 2 April 2017 Retrieved 3 April 2017 Witte Griff 17 March 2018 Once fringe Soros conspiracy theory takes center stage in Hungarian election The Washington Post Herszenhorn David M 27 April 2017 Hungary s Freudian political fight Orban vs Soros Politico Retrieved 10 August 2021 Walker Shaun 22 June 2017 A useful punching bag why Hungary s Viktor Orban has turned on George Soros The Guardian Hungary Freedom House 2020 Retrieved 6 May 2020 Csaladja Orban Viktor Viktor Orban family Official Website in Hungarian Hungary Viktor Orban s son in law awarded billions in state and local contracts The Budapest Beacon 22 December 2014 Orban Gaspar jatszott az NB I ben Blikk in Hungarian 8 March 2014 Retrieved 9 March 2014 Istvan Sebestyen Orban hite The faith of Orban Hetek in Hungarian Retrieved 3 November 2013 Top ten footballers turned politicians Goal 9 May 2010 Goldblatt David Nolan Daniel 11 January 2018 Viktor Orban s reckless football obsession The Guardian Retrieved 19 January 2018 Orban lenne a felcsuti focimese hose Origo accessed 12 April 2018 in Hungarian Puskas Academy Vidi hu accessed 12 April 2018 in Hungarian Foster Peter 7 October 2016 A village fit for a king How Viktor Orban had a football stadium and a railway built on his doorstep The Daily Telegraph Retrieved 19 January 2018 Buckley Neil Byrne Andrew 20 December 2017 Viktor Orban s oligarchs a new elite emerges in Hungary Financial Times Retrieved 19 January 2018 NB II Orban fia orult meccsen debutalt a Fradi Dragonerrel ikszelt eredmenyek Archived from the original on 26 October 2010 Viktor Orban s reckless football obsession the Guardian 11 January 2018 Retrieved 21 April 2021 Sepp Blatter az Akademian Puskas Akademia official website accessed 17 June 2018 in Hungarian Szegeny Dzsoni es Arnika 1983 IMDb accessed 17 June 2018 BibliographyBell Imogen 2003 Central and South Eastern Europe 2004 Routledge ISBN 978 1857431865 Fabry Adam Neoliberalism crisis and authoritarian ethnicist reaction The ascendancy of the Orban regime Competition amp Change 23 2 2019 165 191 online Lendvai Paul 2017 Orban Hungary s Strongman Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0190874865 Martens Wilfried 2009 Europe I Struggle I Overcome Springer ISBN 978 3540892885 Metz Rudolf and Daniel Oross Strong Personalities Impact on Hungarian Party Politics Viktor Orban and Gabor Vona in Party Leaders in Eastern Europe Palgrave Macmillan Cham 2020 pp 145 170 doi 10 1007 978 3 030 32025 6 7 Rydlinski Bartosz Viktor Orban First among Illiberals Hungarian and Polish Steps towards Populist Democracy Online Journal Modelling the New Europe 26 2018 95 107 online Szikra D Democracy and welfare in hard times the social policy of the Orban Government in Hungary between 2010 and 2014 Journal of European Social Policy 2014 24 5 486 500 Szilagyi Anna and Andras Bozoki Playing it again in post communism the revolutionary rhetoric of Viktor Orban in Hungary Advances in the History of Rhetoric 18 sup1 2015 S153 S166 online Toomey Michael History nationalism and democracy myth and narrative in Viktor Orban s illiberal Hungary New Perspectives Interdisciplinary Journal of Central amp East European Politics and International Relations 26 1 2018 87 108 online Further readingHollos Janos Kondor Katalin Szerda reggel Radios beszelgetesek Orban Viktor miniszterelnokkel 1998 szeptember 2000 december ISBN 963 9337 32 3 Hollos Janos Kondor Katalin Szerda reggel Radios beszelgetesek Orban Viktor miniszterelnokkel 2001 2002 ISBN 963 9337 61 7 A tortenelem foutcajan Magyarorszag 1998 2002 Orban Viktor miniszterelnok beszedei es beszedreszletei Magyar Egyetemi Kiado ISBN 963 8638 31 1 20 ev Beszedek irasok interjuk 1986 2006 Heti Valasz Kiado ISBN 963 9461 22 9 Egy az orszag Helikon Konyvkiado Budapest 2007 translated into Polish as Ojczyzna jest jedna in 2009 Rengeshullamok Helikon Konyvkiado Budapest 2010 Janke Igor Hajra magyarok Az Orban Viktor sztori egy lengyel ujsagiro szemevel Rezbong Kiado 2013 English Igor Janke Forward The Story of Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban German Viktor Orban Ein Sturmer in der Politik External links Quotations related to Viktor Orban at Wikiquote Media related to Viktor Orban at Wikimedia Commons Official website News from the BBC 2002 Hungarian PM puts football first BBC Orban in 1989 in Hungarian Political officesPreceded by Gyula Horn Prime Minister of Hungary 1998 2002 Succeeded by Peter MedgyessyPreceded by Gordon Bajnai Prime Minister of Hungary 2010 present IncumbentParty political officesNew title President of Fidesz 1993 2000 Succeeded by Laszlo KoverPreceded by Janos Ader President of Fidesz 2003 present Incumbent Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Viktor Orban amp oldid 1051585937, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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