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Aidin Vilayet

For other users, see Aydin Province (disambiguation).

The Vilayet of Aidin or Aydin (Ottoman Turkish:ولايت ايدين‎, romanized: Vilâyet-i Aidin, French: vilayet d'Aïdin) also known as Vilayet of Smyrna or Izmir after its administrative centre, was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire in the south-west of Asia Minor, including the ancient regions of Lydia, Ionia, Caria and western Lycia. It was described by the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica as the "richest and most productive province of Asiatic Turkey".

ولايت ايدين
Vilâyet-i Aidin (Velâyat-e Aydın)
Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire
1867–1922

The Aidin Vilayet in 1894
CapitalSmyrna (Izmir)
Area
• Coordinates38°04′N28°15′E /38.06°N 28.25°E /38.06; 28.25Coordinates: 38°04′N28°15′E /38.06°N 28.25°E /38.06; 28.25
History
History
1867
• Disestablished
1922
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Today part ofTurkey

At the beginning of the 20th century, Aidin Vilayet reportedly had an area of 17,370 square miles (45,000 km2), while the preliminary results of the first Ottoman census of 1885 (published in 1908) gave the population as 1,390,783. The stated accuracy of the population figures ranges from "approximate" to "merely conjectural" depending on the region from which they were gathered. As of 1920, the vilayet had an "exceptionally large" Christian population.

Contents

The British described Aidin Vilayet as having a "remarkable variety of agriculture", as of 1920. They produced grains and cotton, specifically in Aydın and Nazilli. The region also produced opium, tobacco, and valonia oak. Fruit was one of the most popular exports, with figs and grapes being popular. Before World War I, fig production was up, with an expansive increase in production and exportation via railway. Grapes were used to produce raisins and licorice was also produced in the region. It was noted as growing wild along the Büyük Menderes River. It was exported to the United States and United Kingdom.

Aidin, as of 1920, was considered to be the world's supply center for emery, specifically in the areas between Tire and Söke. In the early 20th century, Aidin was also noted for large deposits of chromium, specifically near Mount Olympus and in the southwestern region of the vilayet. Antimony and mercury were also found in the area.

Carpet was manufactured in Vilayet, mainly in Smyrna, but with carpet being made throughout the region, including in Kula, Uşak, Gördes and Isparta. After World War I, sales declined, however, Britain remained a major importer of Turkish carpets from Aidin. Carpets were mainly produced by women.

As of 1920, the region was noted as having 6,000 square kilometers of forest. The west and southwest had the most thickly forested areas. The British described Makri as being "rich in excellent timber." Cedars were found in Makri, with oak and pine throughout the vilayet. In the early 20th-century, deforestation had begun via private companies of the vilayet. Sawmills had been erected, with Makri having its own steam-run sawmill. Most trees were felled by hand at this time. Tavas also had a timber economy during this period.


Before 1914, the vilayet was subdivided into:

  1. Smyrna Sanjak, subdivided into the kazas of Smyrna (İzmir, seat of the Vali), Nif, Karaburun, Kuşadası, Çeşme, Ödemiş, Urla, Foça, Bayındır, Menemen, Bergama, Seferihisar and Tire.
  2. Sarukhan Sanjak, subdivided into the kazas of Manisa, Alaşehir, Kula, Akhisar, Salihli, Gördes, Demirci, Eşme, Kırkağaç, Soma and Kasaba (Turgutlu).
  3. Aidin Sanjak, subdivided into the kazas of Aydın, Nazilli, Bozdoğan, Söke and Çine.
  4. Menteshe Sanjak, subdivided into the kazas of Muğla, Milas, Meğri, Bodrum, Köyceğiz and Marmaris.
  5. Denizli Sanjak, subdivided into the kazas of Denizli, Tavas, Çal, Buldan, Sarayköy and Garbikaraağaç (Acıpayam).

In 1893, there were in total 39 Kaza (districts). According to the Ottoman census of that year, in the 35 kazas Muslims were the majority. In the kaza of Izmir there was no majority but Muslims were the largest group. In the kaza of Foça, Urla and Çesme, comprising the Karaburun Peninsula, Greeks were the majority. However, according to American pre-Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922) estimates, the Greek element was the most numerous in Smyrna Sanjak with 375,000 inhabitants, while other groups included Muslims (325,000), Jews (40,000) and Armenians (18,000).

  1. "1914 Census Statistics"(PDF). Turkish General Staff. pp. 605–606. Archived from the original(PDF) on 7 October 2011. Retrieved29 January 2011.
  2. Geographical Dictionary of the World, p. 1796, at Google Books
  3. Salname-yi Vilâyet-i Aidin ("Yearbook of the Vilayet of Aidin"), Aydın vilâyet matbaası, Aydın, 1313 [1895]. in the website of Hathi Trust Digital Library.
  4. Ramsay, William Mitchell; Hogarth, David George (1911)."Smyrna" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 281–282.
  5. Asia by A. H. Keane, p. 459
  6. Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
  7. Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 105.
  8. Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 103.
  9. Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 104.
  10. Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 106.
  11. Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 110.
  12. Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 111.
  13. Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. p. 97.
  14. A handbook of Asia Minor Published 1919 by Naval staff, Intelligence dept. in London. Page 215
  15. Ottoman Population, 1830-1914: Demographic and Social Characteristics, Kemal H. Karpat, pages 122–123, 1985
  16. Gaillard, Gaston (1921). The Turks and Europe, Greco-Turkish War (1919–22). Thomas Murby & Co. p. 194.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toAidin Vilayet.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article "Aidin".

Aidin Vilayet
Aidin Vilayet Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Vilayet of Aydin For other users see Aydin Province disambiguation The Vilayet of Aidin 2 or Aydin Ottoman Turkish ولايت ايدين romanized Vilayet i Aidin 3 French vilayet d Aidin also known as Vilayet of Smyrna or Izmir after its administrative centre was a first level administrative division vilayet of the Ottoman Empire in the south west of Asia Minor including the ancient regions of Lydia Ionia Caria and western Lycia 4 It was described by the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica as the richest and most productive province of Asiatic Turkey 4 ولايت ايدين Vilayet i Aidin Velayat e Aydin Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire1867 1922The Aidin Vilayet in 1894CapitalSmyrna Izmir Area Coordinates38 04 N 28 15 E 38 06 N 28 25 E 38 06 28 25 Coordinates 38 04 N 28 15 E 38 06 N 28 25 E 38 06 28 25HistoryHistory Vilayet Law1867 Disestablished1922Preceded by Succeeded byAydin Eyalet TurkeyToday part of Turkey At the beginning of the 20th century Aidin Vilayet reportedly had an area of 17 370 square miles 45 000 km2 while the preliminary results of the first Ottoman census of 1885 published in 1908 gave the population as 1 390 783 5 The stated accuracy of the population figures ranges from approximate to merely conjectural depending on the region from which they were gathered 5 As of 1920 the vilayet had an exceptionally large Christian population 6 Contents 1 Economy 2 Environment 3 1881 Census 4 Governors 5 Administrative divisions 6 Demographics 7 References 8 External linksEconomy EditThe British described Aidin Vilayet as having a remarkable variety of agriculture as of 1920 They produced grains and cotton specifically in Aydin and Nazilli The region also produced opium tobacco and valonia oak Fruit was one of the most popular exports with figs and grapes being popular Before World War I fig production was up with an expansive increase in production and exportation via railway Grapes were used to produce raisins and licorice was also produced in the region It was noted as growing wild along the Buyuk Menderes River It was exported to the United States and United Kingdom 6 Aidin as of 1920 was considered to be the world s supply center for emery specifically in the areas between Tire and Soke 7 In the early 20th century Aidin was also noted for large deposits of chromium specifically near Mount Olympus and in the southwestern region of the vilayet 8 9 Antimony and mercury were also found in the area 10 Carpet was manufactured in Vilayet mainly in Smyrna but with carpet being made throughout the region including in Kula Usak Gordes and Isparta 11 After World War I sales declined however Britain remained a major importer of Turkish carpets from Aidin Carpets were mainly produced by women 12 Environment EditAs of 1920 the region was noted as having 6 000 square kilometers of forest The west and southwest had the most thickly forested areas The British described Makri as being rich in excellent timber Cedars were found in Makri with oak and pine throughout the vilayet In the early 20th century deforestation had begun via private companies of the vilayet Sawmills had been erected with Makri having its own steam run sawmill Most trees were felled by hand at this time Tavas also had a timber economy during this period 13 1881 Census Edit Governors EditMehmed Sabri Pasha 1867 1868 Hekim Ismail Pasha 1868 1869 Veliuddin Pasha 1869 1870 Mehmed Sadik Pasha 1870 1872 Hussein Avni Pasha 1872 1872 Mustafa Sureyya Pasha 1872 1873 Hamdi Pasha 1873 1874 Ahmed Rasim Pasha 1874 1875 Ahmed Pasha 1875 1875 Ahmed Esad Pasha 1875 1875 Hurshit Pasha 1875 1876 Sabri Pasha 1876 1880 Midhat Pasha 1880 1881 Ali Pasha 1881 1882 Kamil Pasha 1883 1883 Nashit Pasha 1883 1885 Halil Rifat Pasha 1885 1886 Nafiz Pasha 1886 1889 Halil Rifat Pasha 1889 1891 Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha 1891 1893 Hasan Fehmi Pasha 1893 1895 Kamil Pasha 1895 1907 Faik Bey 1907 1908 Sherif Mehmed Rauf Pasha 1908 1909 Ali Galib Bey 1909 1909 Mehmed Ferid Pasha 1909 1909 Kiazim Pasha 1909 1909 Mahmud Muhtar Pasha 1909 1910 Hussein Nazim Pasha 1910 1911 Celal Bey 1911 1912 Ahmed Reshid Rey 1912 1912 Hussein Nazim Pasha 1913 1913 Rahmi Arslan 1913 1917 Hasan Tahsin Uzer 1918 1918 Edhem Bey 1918 1919 Nureddin Pasha 1919 1919 Kambur Izzeddin 1919 1919 Administrative divisions EditBefore 1914 the vilayet was subdivided into 14 Smyrna Sanjak subdivided into the kazas of Smyrna Izmir seat of the Vali Nif Karaburun Kusadasi Cesme Odemis Urla Foca Bayindir Menemen Bergama Seferihisar and Tire Sarukhan Sanjak subdivided into the kazas of Manisa Alasehir Kula Akhisar Salihli Gordes Demirci Esme Kirkagac Soma and Kasaba Turgutlu Aidin Sanjak subdivided into the kazas of Aydin Nazilli Bozdogan Soke and Cine Menteshe Sanjak subdivided into the kazas of Mugla Milas Megri Bodrum Koycegiz and Marmaris Denizli Sanjak subdivided into the kazas of Denizli Tavas Cal Buldan Saraykoy and Garbikaraagac Acipayam Demographics EditIn 1893 there were in total 39 Kaza districts According to the Ottoman census of that year in the 35 kazas Muslims were the majority In the kaza of Izmir there was no majority but Muslims were the largest group 15 In the kaza of Foca Urla and Cesme comprising the Karaburun Peninsula Greeks were the majority 15 However according to American pre Greco Turkish War 1919 1922 estimates the Greek element was the most numerous in Smyrna Sanjak with 375 000 inhabitants while other groups included Muslims 325 000 Jews 40 000 and Armenians 18 000 16 References Edit 1914 Census Statistics PDF Turkish General Staff pp 605 606 Archived from the original PDF on 7 October 2011 Retrieved 29 January 2011 Geographical Dictionary of the World p 1796 at Google Books Salname yi Vilayet i Aidin Yearbook of the Vilayet of Aidin Aydin vilayet matbaasi Aydin 1313 1895 in the website of Hathi Trust Digital Library a b Ramsay William Mitchell Hogarth David George 1911 Smyrna In Chisholm Hugh ed Encyclopaedia Britannica 25 11th ed Cambridge University Press pp 281 282 a b Asia by A H Keane p 459 a b Prothero G W 1920 Anatolia London H M Stationery Office Prothero G W 1920 Anatolia London H M Stationery Office p 105 Prothero G W 1920 Anatolia London H M Stationery Office p 103 Prothero G W 1920 Anatolia London H M Stationery Office p 104 Prothero G W 1920 Anatolia London H M Stationery Office p 106 Prothero G W 1920 Anatolia London H M Stationery Office p 110 Prothero G W 1920 Anatolia London H M Stationery Office p 111 Prothero G W 1920 Anatolia London H M Stationery Office p 97 A handbook of Asia Minor Published 1919 by Naval staff Intelligence dept in London Page 215 a b Ottoman Population 1830 1914 Demographic and Social Characteristics Kemal H Karpat pages 122 123 1985 Gaillard Gaston 1921 The Turks and Europe Greco Turkish War 1919 22 Thomas Murby amp Co p 194 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Aidin Vilayet Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica article Aidin Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Aidin Vilayet amp oldid 1047623015, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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