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Wikipedia

Vinegar

Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace compounds that may include flavorings. Vinegar typically contains 5–8% acetic acid by volume. Usually, the acetic acid is produced by a double fermentation; converting simple sugars to ethanol using yeast and ethanol to acetic acid by acetic acid bacteria. Many types of vinegar are available, depending on source materials. It is now mainly used in the culinary arts as a flavorful, acidic cooking ingredient, or in pickling. Various types of vinegar are also used as condiments or garnishes, including balsamic vinegar and malt vinegar.

Fast aerobic fermentation stainless steel vessels

The word "vinegar" arrived in Middle English from Old French (vyn egre; sour wine), which in turn derives from Latin: vinum (wine) + acer (sour).

The conversion of ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and oxygen (O2) to acetic acid (CH3COOH) takes place by the following reaction:

CH3CH2OH + O2 → CH3COOH + H2O

Polyphenols

Vinegar contains numerous flavonoids, phenolic acids, and aldehydes, which vary in content depending on the source material used to make the vinegar, such as orange peel or various fruit juice concentrates.

While vinegar making may be as old as alcoholic brewing, the first documented evidence of vinegar making and use was by the ancient Babylonians around 3000 BC. They primarily made vinegar from dates, figs, and beer and used it for both culinary and medicinal purposes. Traces of it also have been found in Egyptian urns. In East Asia, the Chinese began professionalizing vinegar production in the Zhou dynasty. The book Zhou Li mentions many noble or royal households had a "vinegar maker" as a specialized position. Most vinegar making then was concentrated in what is now Shanxi province near the city Taiyuan, which remains a famous vinegar-making region today. Many Chinese vinegars and their uses for culinary and medicinal purposes were written down in the agricultural manual Qimin Yaoshu (齊民要術).

The Greeks and Romans frequently used vinegars made from wine. The Spartans had vinegar as a part of their traditional broth melas zomos. The Roman Columella described the ingredients and process for making several types of vinegars in his work Res Rustica.

In the late Middle Ages, vinegar making was slowly being professionalized in Europe, with the French city of Orléans becoming particularly famous for the quality of its vinegars through a formalized fermentation and aging process, which became known as the Orléans process. During this time, malt vinegar also began to develop in England, where it was first known as alegar. Balsamic vinegar also began its evolution in the Duchy of Modena in Italy, though it would not become widely known until the Napoleonic Wars after being sold abroad by French troops.

In the 19th century, vinegar production underwent many dramatic changes, such as rapid industrialization and scientific analysis. The first large-scale industrial process for vinegar production was invented by Karl Sebastian Schüzenbach in the Kingdom of Baden in 1823. Known as the packed generator, it circulated alcohol over beechwood shavings to reduce fermentation times from several months down to 1–2 weeks. This process also facilitated the rise of vinegar made from pure alcohol called spirit vinegar or distilled white vinegar. Japan also began industrializing vinegar production during the last days of the Tokugawa shogunate, when Matazaemon Nakano, a man from a traditional sake brewing family, discovered sake lees could be used to make rice vinegar. This helped provide an ample supply of vinegar for the burgeoning popularity of sushi in Japan. The company he founded, now known as Mizkan, is headquartered in Kyoto, and is the largest vinegar producer in the world.

Likewise, vinegar fermentation became understood as a natural and biological process. Louis Pasteur made the decisive discovery that a special type of bacteria, later known as acetic acid bacteria, were the agents of fermentation for vinegar production.

In the 20th century, vinegar production again was revolutionized by the invention of the submerged fermentation process that cut production times down to 1–2 days. This allowed the mass production of cheap vinegar around the world.

Commercial vinegar is produced either by a fast or a slow fermentation process. In general, slow methods are used in traditional vinegars, where fermentation proceeds over the course of a few months to a year. The longer fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a nontoxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria.

Fast methods add mother of vinegar (bacterial culture) to the source liquid before adding air to oxygenate and promote the fastest fermentation. In fast production processes, vinegar may be produced in 1-3 days.

The source materials for making vinegar are varied - different fruits, grains, alcoholic beverages, and other fermentable materials are used.

Fruit

Raisin vinegar

Fruit vinegars are made from fruit wines, usually without any additional flavoring. Common flavors of fruit vinegar include apple, blackcurrant, raspberry, quince, and tomato. Typically, the flavors of the original fruits remain in the final product. Most fruit vinegars are produced in Europe, where a market exists for high-priced vinegars made solely from specific fruits (as opposed to nonfruit vinegars that are infused with fruits or fruit flavors). Several varieties are produced in Asia. Persimmon vinegar, called gam sikcho, is common in South Korea. Jujube vinegar, called zaocu or hongzaocu, and wolfberry vinegar are produced in China.

Persimmon vinegar produced in South Korea

Apple cider vinegar is made from cider or apple must, and has a brownish-gold color. It is sometimes sold unfiltered and unpasteurized with the mother of vinegar present. It can be diluted with fruit juice or water or sweetened (usually with honey) for consumption.

A byproduct of commercial kiwifruit growing is a large amount of waste in the form of misshapen or otherwise-rejected fruit (which may constitute up to 30% of the crop) and kiwifruit pomace. One of the uses for pomace is the production of kiwifruit vinegar, produced commercially in New Zealand since at least the early 1990s, and in China in 2008.

Vinegar made from raisins is used in cuisines of the Middle East. It is cloudy and medium brown in color, with a mild flavor. Vinegar made from dates is a traditional product of the Middle East, and used in Eastern Arabia.

Palm

Coconut vinegar from the Philippines

Coconut vinegar, made from fermented coconut water or sap, is used extensively in Southeast Asian cuisine (notably the Philippines, where it is known as sukang tuba), as well as in some cuisines of India and Sri Lanka, especially Goan cuisine. A cloudy, white liquid, it has a particularly sharp, acidic taste with a slightly yeasty note.

In the Philippines, other types of vinegar are made from palm sap. Like coconut vinegar, they are by-products of tubâ (palm wine) production. The two of the most widely produced are nipa palm vinegar (sukang nipa or sukang sasa) and kaong palm vinegar (sukang kaong or sukang irok). Along with coconut and cane vinegar, they are the four main traditional vinegar types in the Philippines and are an important part of Filipino cuisine. Nipa palm vinegar is made from the sap of the leaf stalks of nipa palm. It has a citrusy flavor note to it and imparts a distinctly musky aroma. Kaong palm vinegar is made from the sap of flower stalks of the kaong palm. It is sweeter than all the other Philippine vinegar types and is commonly used in salad dressing. Vinegar from the buri palm sap is also produced, but not the same prevalence as coconut, nipa, and kaong vinegars. Kaong palm vinegar is also produced in Indonesia and Malaysia, though it is not as prevalent as in the Philippines because the palm wine industry is not as widespread in these Muslim-majority countries.

Balsamic

Balsamic vinegar is an aromatic, aged vinegar produced in the Modena and Reggio Emilia provinces of Italy. The original product — traditional balsamic vinegar — is made from the concentrated juice, or must, of white Trebbiano grapes. It is dark brown, rich, sweet, and complex, with the finest grades being aged in successive casks made variously of oak, mulberry, chestnut, cherry, juniper, and ash wood. Originally a costly product available to only the Italian upper classes, traditional balsamic vinegar is marked tradizionale or "DOC" to denote its protected designation of origin status, and is aged for 12 to 25 years. A cheaper non-DOC commercial form described as aceto balsamico di Modena (balsamic vinegar of Modena) became widely known and available around the world in the late 20th century, typically made with concentrated grape juice mixed with a strong vinegar, then coloured and slightly sweetened with caramel and sugar.

Balsamic vinegar is made from a grape product. It contains no balsam, though was traditionally aged in balsam as one of the steps. A high acidity level is somewhat hidden by the sweetness of the other ingredients, making it mellow. In terms of its nutrition content, balsamic vinegar contains the carbohydrates of grape sugars (some 17% of total composition), making it some five times higher in caloric content than typical distilled or wine vinegar.

Cane

Vinegar made from sugarcane juice is most popular in the Philippines, in particular in the northern Ilocos Region (where it is called sukang Iloko or sukang basi), although it also is produced in France and the United States. It ranges from dark yellow to golden brown in color, and has a mellow flavor, similar in some respects to rice vinegar, though with a somewhat "fresher" taste. Because it contains no residual sugar, it is no sweeter than any other vinegar. In the Philippines, it often is labeled as sukang maasim (Tagalog for "sour vinegar").

Cane vinegars from Ilocos are made in two different ways. One way is to simply place sugar cane juice in large jars; it becomes sour by the direct action of bacteria on the sugar. The other way is through fermentation to produce a local wine known as basi. Low-quality basi is then allowed to undergo acetic acid fermentation that converts alcohol into acetic acid. Contaminated basi also becomes vinegar.

A white variation has become quite popular in Brazil in recent years, where it is the cheapest type of vinegar sold. It is now common for other types of vinegar (made from wine, rice, and apple cider) to be sold mixed with cane vinegar to lower the cost.[citation needed]

Sugarcane sirka is made from sugarcane juice in Punjab, India. During summer, people put cane juice in earthenware pots with iron nails. The fermentation takes place due to the action of wild yeast. The cane juice is converted to vinegar having a blackish color (from ferrous oxide and acetate). The sirka is used to preserve pickles and for flavoring curries.

Grains

Malt vinegar made from ale, also called "alegar", is made by malting barley, causing the starch in the grain to turn to maltose. Then an ale is brewed from the maltose and allowed to turn into vinegar, which is then aged. It is typically light-brown in color. In the United Kingdom and Canada, malt vinegar (along with salt) is a traditional seasoning for fish and chips. Some fish and chip shops replace it with non-brewed condiment. Salt and vinegar are combined as a common, traditional flavouring for potato crisps; in some varieties this involves the conversion of the vinegar to sodium acetate or sodium diacetate, to avoid dampening the product in manufacture.

Chinese black vinegar is an aged product made from rice, wheat, millet, sorghum, or a combination thereof. It has an inky black color and a complex, malty flavor. The recipe is not fixed, so some Chinese black vinegars may contain added sugar, spices, or caramel color. The most popular variety, Zhenjiang vinegar, originates in the city of Zhenjiang in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. Shanxi mature vinegar is another popular type of Chinese vinegar that is made exclusively from sorghum and other grains. Nowadays in Shanxi province, some traditional vinegar workshops still produce handmade vinegar with a high acidity that is aged for at least five years. Only the vinegars made in Taiyuan and some counties in Jinzhong and aged for at least three years are considered authentic Shanxi mature vinegar according to the latest national standard. A somewhat lighter form of black vinegar, made from rice, is produced in Japan, where it is called kurozu.

Rice vinegar is most popular in the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. It is available in "white" (light yellow), red, and black varieties. The Japanese prefer a light rice vinegar for the preparation of sushi rice and salad dressings. Red rice vinegar traditionally is colored with red yeast rice. Black rice vinegar (made with black glutinous rice) is most popular in China, and it is also widely used in other East Asian countries. White rice vinegar has a mild acidity with a somewhat "flat" and uncomplex flavor. Some varieties of rice vinegar are sweetened or otherwise seasoned with spices or other added flavorings.

Spirits

The term "spirit vinegar" is sometimes reserved for the stronger variety (5 to 24% acetic acid) made from sugar cane or from chemically produced acetic acid. To be called "spirit vinegar", the product must come from an agricultural source and must be made by "double fermentation". The first fermentation is sugar to alcohol and the second is alcohol to acetic acid. Product made from synthetically produced acetic acid cannot be called "vinegar" in the UK, where the term allowed is "non-brewed condiment".

Sherry vinegar is linked to the production of sherry wines of Jerez. Dark mahogany in color, it is made exclusively from the acetic fermentation of wines. It is concentrated and has generous aromas, including a note of wood, ideal for vinaigrettes and flavoring various foods. Wine vinegar is made from red or white wine, and is the most commonly used vinegar in Southern and Central Europe, Cyprus, and Israel. As with wine, the range in quality is considerable. Better-quality wine vinegars are matured in wood for up to two years, and exhibit a complex, mellow flavor. Wine vinegar tends to have a lower acidity than white or cider vinegars. More expensive wine vinegars are made from individual varieties of wine, such as champagne, sherry, or pinot gris.

The term "distilled vinegar" as used in the United States (called "spirit vinegar" in the UK, "white vinegar" in Canada) is something of a misnomer because it is not produced by distillation, but by fermentation of distilled alcohol. The fermentate is diluted to produce a colorless solution of 5 to 8% acetic acid in water, with a pH of about 2.6. This is variously known as distilled spirit, "virgin" vinegar, or white vinegar, and is used in cooking, baking, meat preservation, and pickling, as well as for medicinal, laboratory, and cleaning purposes. The most common starting material in some regions, because of its low cost, is barley malt, or in the United States, corn. It is sometimes derived from petroleum. Distilled vinegar is used predominantly for cooking, although in the UK it is used as an alternative to brown or light malt vinegar. White distilled vinegar can also be used for cleaning, and some types are sold specifically for this purpose.

Vinegar is commonly used in food preparation, in particular pickling liquids, and vinaigrettes and other salad dressings. It is an ingredient in sauces, such as hot sauce, mustard, ketchup, and mayonnaise. Vinegar is sometimes used in chutneys. It is often used as a condiment on its own, or as a part of other condiments. Marinades often contain vinegar. Soups sometimes have vinegar added to them, as is the case with hot and sour soup. In terms of its shelf life, vinegar's acidic nature allows it to last indefinitely without the use of refrigeration; it is essentially already "spoiled".

Beverages

A beverage made from apple vinegar in China

Several beverages are made using vinegar, for instance posca in ancient Rome. The ancient Greek drink oxymel is made from vinegar and honey, and sekanjabin is a traditional Persian drink similar to oxymel. Other preparations, known colloquially as "shrubs", range from simply mixing sugar water or honey water with small amounts of fruity vinegar, to making syrup by laying fruit or mint in vinegar for several days, then sieving off solid parts and adding considerable amounts of sugar. Some prefer to boil the "shrub" as a final step. These recipes have lost much of their popularity with the rise of carbonated beverages, such as soft drinks.

Diet and metabolism

Preliminary research indicates that consuming 2-4 tablespoons of vinegar may cause small reductions in post-meal levels of blood glucose and insulin in people with diabetes.

Nutrition

Distilled or red wine vinegar is 95% water, with no fat or protein. In a 100-millilitre (3+12-US-fluid-ounce) reference amount, distilled vinegar supplies 75 kJ (18 kcal) of food energy and no micronutrients in significant content. The composition (and absence of nutrient content) for red wine vinegar and apple cider vinegar are the same, whereas balsamic vinegar is 77% water with 17% carbohydrates, 370 kJ (88 kcal) per 100 ml, and contains no fat, protein, or micronutrients.

Since antiquity, folk medicine treatments have used vinegar, but no conclusive evidence from clinical research supports health claims of benefits for diabetes, weight loss, cancer, or use as a probiotic. However, a systematic review and meta-analysis on vinegar for diabetes came out in favor for using vinegar as "dietary advice for patients with diabetes." Some treatments with vinegar pose risks to health. Esophageal injury by apple cider vinegar has been reported, and because vinegar products sold for medicinal purposes are neither regulated nor standardized, such products may vary widely in content and acidity.

White vinegar is often used as a household cleaning agent. For most uses, dilution with water is recommended for safety and to avoid damaging the surfaces being cleaned. Because it is acidic, it can dissolve mineral deposits from glass, coffee makers, and other smooth surfaces. Vinegar is known as an effective cleaner of stainless steel and glass. Malt vinegar sprinkled onto crumpled newspaper is a traditional, and still-popular, method of cleaning grease-smeared windows and mirrors in the United Kingdom.

Vinegar can be used for polishing copper, brass, bronze or silver. It is an excellent solvent for cleaning epoxy resin as well as the gum on sticker-type price tags. It has been reported as an effective drain cleaner.

Twenty percent acetic acid vinegar can be used as a herbicide, but acetic acid is not absorbed into root systems so the vinegar will only kill the top growth and perennial plants may reshoot.

Applying vinegar to common jellyfish stings deactivates the nematocysts, although not as effectively as hot water. This also applies to the Portuguese man o' war, which, although generally considered to be a jellyfish, is not (it is a siphonophore).

Most commercial vinegar solutions available to consumers for household use do not exceed 5%. Solutions above 10% require careful handling, as they are corrosive and damaging to the skin.

When a bottle of vinegar is opened, mother of vinegar may develop. It is considered harmless and can be removed by filtering.

Vinegar eels (Turbatrix aceti), a form of nematode, may occur in some forms of vinegar unless the vinegar is kept covered. These feed on the mother of vinegar and can occur in naturally fermenting vinegar.

Some countries prohibit the sale of vinegar over a certain percentage of acidity. As an example, the government of Canada limits the acetic acid of vinegars to between 4.1% and 12.3%, unless it is sold only for manufacturing use and identified as such.

When baking soda and vinegar are combined, the bicarbonate ion of the baking soda reacts to form carbonic acid, which decomposes into carbon dioxide, water and sodium carbonate completing the carbon cycle.

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Media related to Vinegar at Wikimedia Commons

Vinegar
Vinegar Language Watch Edit Vinegar is an aqueous solution of acetic acid and trace compounds that may include flavorings Vinegar typically contains 5 8 acetic acid by volume 1 Usually the acetic acid is produced by a double fermentation converting simple sugars to ethanol using yeast and ethanol to acetic acid by acetic acid bacteria 2 Many types of vinegar are available depending on source materials It is now mainly used in the culinary arts as a flavorful acidic cooking ingredient or in pickling Various types of vinegar are also used as condiments or garnishes including balsamic vinegar and malt vinegar A variety of flavored vinegars for culinary use on sale in France As the most easily manufactured mild acid it has a wide variety of industrial and domestic uses including use as a household cleaner 1 Contents 1 Etymology 2 Chemistry 2 1 Polyphenols 3 History 4 Production 5 Varieties 5 1 Fruit 5 2 Palm 5 3 Balsamic 5 4 Cane 5 5 Grains 5 6 Spirits 6 Culinary uses 6 1 Beverages 6 2 Diet and metabolism 6 3 Nutrition 7 In folk medicine 8 Cleaning 9 Herbicide and sting relief 10 Reactions byproducts and regulation 11 See also 12 References 13 External linksEtymology Edit Fast aerobic fermentation stainless steel vessels The word vinegar arrived in Middle English from Old French vyn egre sour wine which in turn derives from Latin vinum wine acer sour 1 3 Chemistry EditThe conversion of ethanol CH3CH2OH and oxygen O2 to acetic acid CH3COOH takes place by the following reaction 4 CH3CH2OH O2 CH3COOH H2OPolyphenols Edit Vinegar contains numerous flavonoids phenolic acids and aldehydes 5 which vary in content depending on the source material used to make the vinegar such as orange peel or various fruit juice concentrates 6 7 History EditWhile vinegar making may be as old as alcoholic brewing the first documented evidence of vinegar making and use was by the ancient Babylonians around 3000 BC 8 They primarily made vinegar from dates figs and beer and used it for both culinary and medicinal purposes Traces of it also have been found in Egyptian urns In East Asia the Chinese began professionalizing vinegar production in the Zhou dynasty 9 The book Zhou Li mentions many noble or royal households had a vinegar maker as a specialized position Most vinegar making then was concentrated in what is now Shanxi province near the city Taiyuan which remains a famous vinegar making region today Many Chinese vinegars and their uses for culinary and medicinal purposes were written down in the agricultural manual Qimin Yaoshu 齊民要術 9 The Greeks and Romans frequently used vinegars made from wine The Spartans had vinegar as a part of their traditional broth melas zomos The Roman Columella described the ingredients and process for making several types of vinegars in his work Res Rustica 9 In the late Middle Ages vinegar making was slowly being professionalized in Europe with the French city of Orleans becoming particularly famous for the quality of its vinegars through a formalized fermentation and aging process which became known as the Orleans process 8 9 During this time malt vinegar also began to develop in England where it was first known as alegar 10 Balsamic vinegar also began its evolution in the Duchy of Modena in Italy though it would not become widely known until the Napoleonic Wars after being sold abroad by French troops 11 In the 19th century vinegar production underwent many dramatic changes such as rapid industrialization and scientific analysis The first large scale industrial process for vinegar production was invented by Karl Sebastian Schuzenbach in the Kingdom of Baden in 1823 9 Known as the packed generator it circulated alcohol over beechwood shavings to reduce fermentation times from several months down to 1 2 weeks This process also facilitated the rise of vinegar made from pure alcohol called spirit vinegar or distilled white vinegar Japan also began industrializing vinegar production during the last days of the Tokugawa shogunate when Matazaemon Nakano a man from a traditional sake brewing family discovered sake lees could be used to make rice vinegar This helped provide an ample supply of vinegar for the burgeoning popularity of sushi in Japan The company he founded now known as Mizkan is headquartered in Kyoto and is the largest vinegar producer in the world 9 Likewise vinegar fermentation became understood as a natural and biological process Louis Pasteur made the decisive discovery that a special type of bacteria later known as acetic acid bacteria were the agents of fermentation for vinegar production 12 In the 20th century vinegar production again was revolutionized by the invention of the submerged fermentation process that cut production times down to 1 2 days 13 This allowed the mass production of cheap vinegar around the world Production EditMain article Acetic acid Production Commercial vinegar is produced either by a fast or a slow fermentation process In general slow methods are used in traditional vinegars where fermentation proceeds over the course of a few months to a year The longer fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a nontoxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria Fast methods add mother of vinegar bacterial culture to the source liquid before adding air to oxygenate and promote the fastest fermentation In fast production processes vinegar may be produced in 1 3 days Varieties EditThe source materials for making vinegar are varied different fruits grains alcoholic beverages and other fermentable materials are used 1 Fruit Edit Raisin vinegar Fruit vinegars are made from fruit wines usually without any additional flavoring Common flavors of fruit vinegar include apple blackcurrant raspberry quince and tomato Typically the flavors of the original fruits remain in the final product Most fruit vinegars are produced in Europe where a market exists for high priced vinegars made solely from specific fruits as opposed to nonfruit vinegars that are infused with fruits or fruit flavors 14 Several varieties are produced in Asia Persimmon vinegar called gam sikcho is common in South Korea Jujube vinegar called zaocu or hongzaocu and wolfberry vinegar are produced in China Persimmon vinegar produced in South Korea Apple cider vinegar is made from cider or apple must and has a brownish gold color It is sometimes sold unfiltered and unpasteurized with the mother of vinegar present It can be diluted with fruit juice or water or sweetened usually with honey for consumption A byproduct of commercial kiwifruit growing is a large amount of waste in the form of misshapen or otherwise rejected fruit which may constitute up to 30 of the crop and kiwifruit pomace One of the uses for pomace is the production of kiwifruit vinegar produced commercially in New Zealand since at least the early 1990s and in China in 2008 15 16 Vinegar made from raisins is used in cuisines of the Middle East It is cloudy and medium brown in color with a mild flavor Vinegar made from dates is a traditional product of the Middle East and used in Eastern Arabia 17 18 Palm Edit Coconut vinegar from the Philippines Coconut vinegar made from fermented coconut water or sap is used extensively in Southeast Asian cuisine notably the Philippines where it is known as sukang tuba as well as in some cuisines of India and Sri Lanka especially Goan cuisine A cloudy white liquid it has a particularly sharp acidic taste with a slightly yeasty note 19 In the Philippines other types of vinegar are made from palm sap Like coconut vinegar they are by products of tuba palm wine production The two of the most widely produced are nipa palm vinegar sukang nipa or sukang sasa and kaong palm vinegar sukang kaong or sukang irok Along with coconut and cane vinegar they are the four main traditional vinegar types in the Philippines and are an important part of Filipino cuisine 20 Nipa palm vinegar is made from the sap of the leaf stalks of nipa palm It has a citrusy flavor note to it and imparts a distinctly musky aroma 21 19 Kaong palm vinegar is made from the sap of flower stalks of the kaong palm It is sweeter than all the other Philippine vinegar types and is commonly used in salad dressing 20 Vinegar from the buri palm sap is also produced but not the same prevalence as coconut nipa and kaong vinegars 22 Kaong palm vinegar is also produced in Indonesia and Malaysia though it is not as prevalent as in the Philippines because the palm wine industry is not as widespread in these Muslim majority countries 23 24 Balsamic Edit Main articles Traditional Balsamic Vinegar and Balsamic vinegar Balsamic vinegar is an aromatic aged vinegar produced in the Modena and Reggio Emilia provinces of Italy The original product traditional balsamic vinegar is made from the concentrated juice or must of white Trebbiano grapes It is dark brown rich sweet and complex with the finest grades being aged in successive casks made variously of oak mulberry chestnut cherry juniper and ash wood Originally a costly product available to only the Italian upper classes traditional balsamic vinegar is marked tradizionale or DOC to denote its protected designation of origin status and is aged for 12 to 25 years A cheaper non DOC commercial form described as aceto balsamico di Modena balsamic vinegar of Modena 25 became widely known and available around the world in the late 20th century typically made with concentrated grape juice mixed with a strong vinegar then coloured and slightly sweetened with caramel and sugar Balsamic vinegar is made from a grape product It contains no balsam though was traditionally aged in balsam as one of the steps A high acidity level is somewhat hidden by the sweetness of the other ingredients making it mellow In terms of its nutrition content balsamic vinegar contains the carbohydrates of grape sugars some 17 of total composition making it some five times higher in caloric content than typical distilled or wine vinegar 26 Cane Edit Vinegar made from sugarcane juice is most popular in the Philippines in particular in the northern Ilocos Region where it is called sukang Iloko or sukang basi although it also is produced in France and the United States It ranges from dark yellow to golden brown in color and has a mellow flavor similar in some respects to rice vinegar though with a somewhat fresher taste Because it contains no residual sugar it is no sweeter than any other vinegar In the Philippines it often is labeled as sukang maasim Tagalog for sour vinegar Cane vinegars from Ilocos are made in two different ways One way is to simply place sugar cane juice in large jars it becomes sour by the direct action of bacteria on the sugar The other way is through fermentation to produce a local wine known as basi Low quality basi is then allowed to undergo acetic acid fermentation that converts alcohol into acetic acid Contaminated basi also becomes vinegar A white variation has become quite popular in Brazil in recent years where it is the cheapest type of vinegar sold It is now common for other types of vinegar made from wine rice and apple cider to be sold mixed with cane vinegar to lower the cost citation needed Sugarcane sirka is made from sugarcane juice in Punjab India During summer people put cane juice in earthenware pots with iron nails The fermentation takes place due to the action of wild yeast The cane juice is converted to vinegar having a blackish color from ferrous oxide and acetate The sirka is used to preserve pickles and for flavoring curries Grains Edit Malt vinegar made from ale also called alegar 27 is made by malting barley causing the starch in the grain to turn to maltose Then an ale is brewed from the maltose and allowed to turn into vinegar which is then aged 27 It is typically light brown in color In the United Kingdom and Canada malt vinegar along with salt is a traditional seasoning for fish and chips Some fish and chip shops replace it with non brewed condiment Salt and vinegar are combined as a common traditional flavouring for potato crisps 28 29 30 in some varieties this involves the conversion of the vinegar to sodium acetate or sodium diacetate to avoid dampening the product in manufacture 31 Chinese black vinegar Chinese black vinegar is an aged product made from rice wheat millet sorghum or a combination thereof It has an inky black color and a complex malty flavor The recipe is not fixed so some Chinese black vinegars may contain added sugar spices or caramel color The most popular variety Zhenjiang vinegar originates in the city of Zhenjiang in Jiangsu Province eastern China 32 Shanxi mature vinegar is another popular type of Chinese vinegar that is made exclusively from sorghum and other grains Nowadays in Shanxi province some traditional vinegar workshops still produce handmade vinegar with a high acidity that is aged for at least five years Only the vinegars made in Taiyuan and some counties in Jinzhong and aged for at least three years are considered authentic Shanxi mature vinegar according to the latest national standard A somewhat lighter form of black vinegar made from rice is produced in Japan where it is called kurozu Rice vinegar is most popular in the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia It is available in white light yellow red and black varieties The Japanese prefer a light rice vinegar for the preparation of sushi rice and salad dressings Red rice vinegar traditionally is colored with red yeast rice Black rice vinegar made with black glutinous rice is most popular in China and it is also widely used in other East Asian countries White rice vinegar has a mild acidity with a somewhat flat and uncomplex flavor Some varieties of rice vinegar are sweetened or otherwise seasoned with spices or other added flavorings Spirits Edit Sherry vinegar The term spirit vinegar is sometimes reserved for the stronger variety 5 to 24 33 acetic acid made from sugar cane or from chemically produced acetic acid 34 To be called spirit vinegar the product must come from an agricultural source and must be made by double fermentation The first fermentation is sugar to alcohol and the second is alcohol to acetic acid Product made from synthetically produced acetic acid cannot be called vinegar in the UK where the term allowed is non brewed condiment Sherry vinegar is linked to the production of sherry wines of Jerez Dark mahogany in color it is made exclusively from the acetic fermentation of wines It is concentrated and has generous aromas including a note of wood ideal for vinaigrettes and flavoring various foods 35 Wine vinegar is made from red or white wine and is the most commonly used vinegar in Southern and Central Europe Cyprus and Israel As with wine the range in quality is considerable Better quality wine vinegars are matured in wood for up to two years and exhibit a complex mellow flavor Wine vinegar tends to have a lower acidity than white or cider vinegars More expensive wine vinegars are made from individual varieties of wine such as champagne sherry or pinot gris The term distilled vinegar as used in the United States called spirit vinegar in the UK white vinegar in Canada 36 is something of a misnomer because it is not produced by distillation but by fermentation of distilled alcohol The fermentate is diluted to produce a colorless solution of 5 to 8 acetic acid in water with a pH of about 2 6 This is variously known as distilled spirit virgin vinegar 37 or white vinegar and is used in cooking baking meat preservation and pickling as well as for medicinal laboratory and cleaning purposes 34 The most common starting material in some regions because of its low cost is barley malt 38 or in the United States corn It is sometimes derived from petroleum 39 Distilled vinegar is used predominantly for cooking although in the UK it is used as an alternative to brown or light malt vinegar White distilled vinegar can also be used for cleaning and some types are sold specifically for this purpose Culinary uses EditVinegar is commonly used in food preparation 1 in particular pickling liquids and vinaigrettes and other salad dressings It is an ingredient in sauces such as hot sauce mustard ketchup and mayonnaise Vinegar is sometimes used in chutneys It is often used as a condiment on its own or as a part of other condiments Marinades often contain vinegar Soups sometimes have vinegar added to them as is the case with hot and sour soup In terms of its shelf life vinegar s acidic nature allows it to last indefinitely without the use of refrigeration it is essentially already spoiled 40 Beverages Edit A beverage made from apple vinegar in China Several beverages are made using vinegar for instance posca in ancient Rome The ancient Greek drink oxymel is made from vinegar and honey and sekanjabin is a traditional Persian drink similar to oxymel Other preparations known colloquially as shrubs range from simply mixing sugar water or honey water with small amounts of fruity vinegar to making syrup by laying fruit or mint in vinegar for several days then sieving off solid parts and adding considerable amounts of sugar Some prefer to boil the shrub as a final step These recipes have lost much of their popularity with the rise of carbonated beverages such as soft drinks Diet and metabolism Edit Preliminary research indicates that consuming 2 4 tablespoons of vinegar may cause small reductions in post meal levels of blood glucose and insulin in people with diabetes 41 Nutrition Edit Distilled or red wine vinegar is 95 water with no fat or protein 42 In a 100 millilitre 3 1 2 US fluid ounce reference amount distilled vinegar supplies 75 kJ 18 kcal of food energy and no micronutrients in significant content 42 The composition and absence of nutrient content for red wine vinegar and apple cider vinegar are the same whereas balsamic vinegar is 77 water with 17 carbohydrates 370 kJ 88 kcal per 100 ml and contains no fat protein or micronutrients 26 In folk medicine EditSince antiquity folk medicine treatments have used vinegar but no conclusive evidence from clinical research supports health claims of benefits for diabetes weight loss cancer or use as a probiotic 1 However a systematic review and meta analysis on vinegar for diabetes came out in favor for using vinegar as dietary advice for patients with diabetes 43 Some treatments with vinegar pose risks to health 44 Esophageal injury by apple cider vinegar has been reported and because vinegar products sold for medicinal purposes are neither regulated nor standardized such products may vary widely in content and acidity 45 Cleaning EditWhite vinegar is often used as a household cleaning agent 1 For most uses dilution with water is recommended for safety and to avoid damaging the surfaces being cleaned Because it is acidic it can dissolve mineral deposits from glass coffee makers and other smooth surfaces 46 Vinegar is known as an effective cleaner of stainless steel and glass Malt vinegar sprinkled onto crumpled newspaper is a traditional and still popular method of cleaning grease smeared windows and mirrors in the United Kingdom 47 Vinegar can be used for polishing copper brass bronze or silver It is an excellent solvent for cleaning epoxy resin as well as the gum on sticker type price tags It has been reported as an effective drain cleaner 48 Herbicide and sting relief EditTwenty percent acetic acid vinegar can be used as a herbicide 49 but acetic acid is not absorbed into root systems so the vinegar will only kill the top growth and perennial plants may reshoot 50 Applying vinegar to common jellyfish stings deactivates the nematocysts although not as effectively as hot water 51 This also applies to the Portuguese man o war which although generally considered to be a jellyfish is not it is a siphonophore 52 Reactions byproducts and regulation EditMost commercial vinegar solutions available to consumers for household use do not exceed 5 Solutions above 10 require careful handling as they are corrosive and damaging to the skin 53 When a bottle of vinegar is opened mother of vinegar may develop It is considered harmless and can be removed by filtering 54 Vinegar eels Turbatrix aceti a form of nematode may occur in some forms of vinegar unless the vinegar is kept covered These feed on the mother of vinegar and can occur in naturally fermenting vinegar 55 Some countries prohibit the sale of vinegar over a certain percentage of acidity As an example the government of Canada limits the acetic acid of vinegars to between 4 1 and 12 3 unless it is sold only for manufacturing use and identified as such 56 When baking soda and vinegar are combined the bicarbonate ion of the baking soda reacts to form carbonic acid which decomposes into carbon dioxide water and sodium carbonate completing the carbon cycle 57 See also Edit Food portal Food additive List of condiments Vinegar tastersReferences Edit a b c d e f g Vinegar TH Chan School of Public Health Harvard University 1 October 2019 Retrieved 4 March 2020 Nakayama T 1959 Studies on acetic acid bacteria I Biochemical studies on ethanol oxidation J Biochem 46 9 1217 25 Archived from the original on 27 June 2011 Definition of vinegar in English by Oxford Dictionaries Oxford Dictionaries Saladin Kenneth S 2015 Anatomy amp Physiology The Unity of Form and Function McGraw Hill Education p 55 ISBN 978 9814646437 Cerezo Ana B Tesfaye Wendu Torija M Jesus Mateo Estibaliz Garcia Parrilla M Carmen Troncoso Ana M 2008 The phenolic composition of red wine vinegar produced in barrels made from different woods Food Chemistry 109 3 606 615 doi 10 1016 j foodchem 2008 01 013 Cejudo Bastante C Castro Mejias R Natera Marin R Garcia Barroso C Duran Guerrero E 2016 Chemical and sensory characteristics of orange based vinegar Journal of Food Science and Technology 53 8 3147 3156 doi 10 1007 s13197 016 2288 7 PMC 5055879 PMID 27784909 Coelho E Genisheva Z Oliveira J M Teixeira J A Domingues L 2017 Vinegar production from fruit concentrates Effect on volatile composition and antioxidant activity Journal of Food Science and Technology 54 12 4112 4122 doi 10 1007 s13197 017 2783 5 PMC 5643795 PMID 29085154 a b Bourgeois Jacques Barja Francois December 2009 The history of vinegar and of its acetification systems PDF Archives des Sciences 62 2 147 160 a b c d e f Smith Reginald 2019 Vinegar the Eternal Condiment Southport NC Spikehorn Press pp 29 31 ISBN 978 1 943015 03 0 Smith Reginald 2019 From Alegar to Sarson s A History of Malt Vinegar Petits Propos Culinaires 113 95 119 Giudici P Lemmetti F Mazza S 2015 Balsamic Vinegars Tradition Technology Trade Cham Springer ISBN 978 3319137575 Berche P October 2012 Louis Pasteur from crystals of life to vaccination Clinical Microbiology and Infection 18 1 6 doi 10 1111 j 1469 0691 2012 03945 x PMID 22882766 Yun Jeong Hyun Kim Jae Ho Lee Jang Eun 3 April 2019 Surface Film Formation in Static Fermented Rice Vinegar A Case Study Mycobiology 47 2 250 255 doi 10 1080 12298093 2019 1575585 ISSN 1229 8093 PMC 6691759 PMID 31448145 What is Fruit Vinegar vinegarbook net Retrieved 10 June 2010 Biotechnology in New Zealand PDF Archived from the original PDF on 17 July 2011 Retrieved 15 March 2010 The Vinegar Institute Versatilevinegar org 20 October 2008 Archived from the original on 29 March 2010 Retrieved 15 March 2010 Das Bhagwan Sarin J L 1936 Vinegar from Dates Industrial amp Engineering Chemistry 28 7 814 doi 10 1021 ie50319a016 Forbes Robert James 1971 Studies in Ancient Technology Cite journal requires journal help a b Edgie Polistico 2017 Philippine Food Cooking amp Dining Dictionary Anvil Publishing Incorporated ISBN 9786214200870 a b Lim Castillo Pia 2006 Traditional Philippine Vinegars and their Role in Shaping the Culinary Culture In Hosking Richard ed Authenticity in the Kitchen Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 2005 Prospect Books p 296 298 ISBN 9781903018477 Lumpia Burnt 17 May 2009 I m Gonna Git You Suka Filipino Vinegar Burntlumpiablog com Retrieved 3 January 2015 Dagoon Jesse D 1989 Applied nutrition and food technology Rex Book Store p 273 ISBN 9789712305054 Siebert Stephen F 1999 Where There is no Beer Arenga pinnata and Sagueir in Sulawesi Indones PDF Palms 43 4 177 181 Retrieved 23 December 2018 Toddy Palm Sugar Palm Clove Garden Retrieved 23 December 2018 Balsamic vinegar BBC Good Food a b Nutrition facts for balsamic vinegar Nutritiondata com Conde Nast from the US Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database standard reference 21 2018 Retrieved 18 March 2019 a b Alegar Oxford Dictionaries Oxford University Press 2018 Retrieved 2 March 2018 Joe Spud Murphy The Man Who Gave Potato Chips Flavor Huffington Post 20 April 2012 Archived from the original on 31 October 2014 31 Wacky and Weird Flavors of British Potato Crisps BBC America Retrieved 4 July 2019 Walkers launches six new limited edition crisp flavours to mark 70th anniversary Independent Retrieved 4 July 2019 Austen Ian 8 June 2018 The Secret Story of Salt and Vinegar Chips the Canada Letter via NYTimes com AsianWeek com Archived from the original on 20 February 2008 Perstorps 24 Acetic Vinegar 300ml Retrieved 11 April 2021 a b Sinclair C International Dictionary of Food and Cooking Peter Collin Publishing 1998 ISBN 0 948549 87 4 page needed Clutton Angela 7 March 2019 The vinegar cupboard recipes and history of an everyday ingredient London ISBN 9781472958099 OCLC 1100963349 List of Ingredients and Allergens Requirements Exemptions Prepackaged Products that Do Not Require a List of Ingredients Standardized vinegars B 01 008 2 g FDR Canadian Food Inspection Agency 29 July 2016 Retrieved 20 April 2017 Allgeier RJ et al Newer Developments in Vinegar Manufacture 1960 manufacture of white or spirit vinegar in Umbreit WW Advances in Microbiology Volume 2 Elsevier Academic Press Inc ISBN 0 12 002602 3 accessed at Google Books 2009 04 22 page needed Bateman Michael 2 May 2016 Bliss and vinegar why malt makes a pretty pickle It s time for a revival of a very British condiment The Independent Independent Digital News amp Media London UK Retrieved 2 September 2016 CPG Sec 555 100 Alcohol Use of Synthetic Alcohol in Foods Fda gov 18 September 2014 Retrieved 3 January 2015 Shelf Life of Vinegar Eatbydate com Shishehbor F Mansoori A Shirani F 2017 Vinegar consumption can attenuate postprandial glucose and insulin responses a systematic review and meta analysis of clinical trials Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 127 1 9 doi 10 1016 j diabres 2017 01 021 PMID 28292654 a b Nutrition facts for distilled vinegar Nutritiondata com Conde Nast from the US Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database standard reference 21 2018 Retrieved 18 March 2019 Cheng L J Jiang Y Wu V X Wang W 2020 A systematic review and meta analysis Vinegar consumption on glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus Journal of Advanced Nursing 76 2 459 474 doi 10 1111 jan 14255 PMID 31667860 S2CID 204975904 Johnston Carol S Gaas Cindy A 2006 Vinegar medicinal uses and antiglycemic effect MedGenMed 8 2 61 PMC 1785201 PMID 16926800 Hill L Woodruff L Foote J Barreto Alcoba M 2005 Esophageal Injury by Apple Cider Vinegar Tablets and Subsequent Evaluation of Products Journal of the American Dietetic Association 105 7 1141 4 doi 10 1016 j jada 2005 04 003 PMID 15983536 My Environment Cleaning Products Ontario Ministry of the Environment Trade Secrets Betty s Tips BBC Lifestyle Homes Housekeeping Retrieved 2009 04 22 95 Household Uses for Vinegar Reader s Digest Rd com Retrieved 3 January 2015 Spray Weeds With Vinegar Ars usda gov Retrieved 15 March 2010 Vinegar as herbicide Cahe nmsu edu 10 April 2004 Archived from the original on 4 May 2008 Retrieved 15 March 2010 Nomura J Sato RL Ahern RM Snow JL Kuwaye TT Yamamoto LG 2002 A randomized paired comparison trial of cutaneous treatments for acute jellyfish Carybdea alata stings The American Journal of Emergency Medicine 20 7 624 6 doi 10 1053 ajem 2002 35710 PMID 12442242 UH scientists scrutinize first aid for man o war stings hawaii edu Retrieved 17 July 2020 Conquer Weeds with Vinegar Hort purdue edu 24 March 2006 Retrieved 15 March 2010 Vinegar Information Reinhart Foods 1 January 2004 Archived from the original on 28 December 2012 Retrieved 23 June 2013 FDA Sec 525 825 Vinegar Definitions Adulteration with Vinegar Eels CPG 7109 22 Food and Drug Administration 27 July 2009 Retrieved 15 March 2010 Departmental Consolidation of the Food and Drugs Act and the Food and Drug Regulations Part B Division 19 PDF Health Canada March 2003 Retrieved 2 September 2008 Kitchen Chemistry The Chemical Reaction Powered Car engineering oregonstate edu External links Edit Media related to Vinegar at Wikimedia Commons Wikisource has the text of The New Student s Reference Work article Vinegar Food portal Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vinegar amp oldid 1054637303, wikipedia, 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