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Viral vector vaccine

A viral vector vaccine is a vaccine that uses a viral vector to deliver genetic material coding for a desired antigen into the recipient's host cells. As of April 2021[update], six viral vector vaccines have been authorized for use in humans in at least one country: four COVID-19 vaccines and two Ebola vaccines.

Viral vector vaccines use a modified version of one virus as a vector to deliver to a cell a nucleic acid coding for an antigen for another infectious agent. Viral vector vaccines do not cause infection with either the virus used as the vector, or the source of the antigen. The genetic material it delivers does not integrate into a person's genome.

Viral vector vaccines enable antigen expression within cells and induce a robust cytotoxic T cell response, unlike subunit vaccines which only confer humoral immunity. Most viral vectors are designed to be incapable of replication because the necessary genes are removed.

Adenovirus

Adenovirus vectors have the advantage of high transduction efficiency, transgene expression, and broad viral tropism, and can infect both dividing and non-dividing cells. A disadvantage is that many people have pre-existing immunity to adenoviruses due to previous exposure. Human adenovirus serotype 5 is often used because it can be easily produced in high titers.

As of April 2021, four adenovirus vector vaccines for COVID-19 have been authorized in at least one country:

Zabdeno, the first dose of the Zabdeno/Mvabea Ebola vaccine, is derived from human adenovirus serotype 26 expressing the glycoprotein of the Ebola virus Mayinga variant. Both doses are non-replicating vectors and carry the genetic code of several Ebola virus proteins.

Others

The rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine is an Ebola vaccine. It is a recombinant, replication-competent vaccine consisting of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) genetically engineered so that the gene for the natural VSV envelope glycoprotein is replaced with that from the Kikwit 1995 Zaire strain Ebola virus.

Mvabea, the second dose of the Zabdeno/Mvabea Ebola vaccine, is a modified vaccinia Ankara vector, a type of poxvirus. Both doses are non-replicating vectors and carry the genetic code of several Ebola virus proteins.

Other viruses that have been investigated as vaccine vectors include adeno-associated virus, retrovirus (including lentivirus), cytomegalovirus, and Sendai virus, as well as influenza virus and measles virus.

Human clinical trials were conducted for viral vector vaccines against several infectious diseases including Zika virus, influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, HIV, and malaria, before the vaccines targeting SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19.

Two Ebola vaccines using viral vector technology were used in Ebola outbreaks in West Africa (2013–2016) and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2018–2020). The rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine was approved for medical use in the European Union in November 2019, and in the United States in December 2019. Zabdeno/Mvabea was approved for medical use in the European Union in July 2020.

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Viral vector vaccine
Viral vector vaccine Language Watch Edit A viral vector vaccine is a vaccine that uses a viral vector to deliver genetic material coding for a desired antigen into the recipient s host cells As of April 2021 update six viral vector vaccines have been authorized for use in humans in at least one country four COVID 19 vaccines and two Ebola vaccines COVID 19 Vaccine Vial Prop Contents 1 Technology 2 Vector viruses 2 1 Adenovirus 2 2 Others 3 History 4 References 5 Further readingTechnology EditViral vector vaccines use a modified version of one virus as a vector to deliver to a cell a nucleic acid coding for an antigen for another infectious agent Viral vector vaccines do not cause infection with either the virus used as the vector or the source of the antigen The genetic material it delivers does not integrate into a person s genome 1 Viral vector vaccines enable antigen expression within cells and induce a robust cytotoxic T cell response unlike subunit vaccines which only confer humoral immunity Most viral vectors are designed to be incapable of replication because the necessary genes are removed 2 Vector viruses EditAdenovirus Edit Adenovirus vectors have the advantage of high transduction efficiency transgene expression and broad viral tropism and can infect both dividing and non dividing cells A disadvantage is that many people have pre existing immunity to adenoviruses due to previous exposure Human adenovirus serotype 5 is often used because it can be easily produced in high titers 2 As of April 2021 four adenovirus vector vaccines for COVID 19 have been authorized in at least one country The Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine uses the modified chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdOx1 3 4 Sputnik V uses human adenovirus serotype 26 for the first shot and serotype 5 for the second 5 6 The Janssen vaccine uses serotype 26 7 8 wbr 9 Convidecia uses serotype 5 10 11 Zabdeno the first dose of the Zabdeno Mvabea Ebola vaccine is derived from human adenovirus serotype 26 expressing the glycoprotein of the Ebola virus Mayinga variant 12 Both doses are non replicating vectors and carry the genetic code of several Ebola virus proteins 13 Others Edit The rVSV ZEBOV vaccine is an Ebola vaccine It is a recombinant replication competent vaccine 14 consisting of vesicular stomatitis virus VSV genetically engineered 15 so that the gene for the natural VSV envelope glycoprotein is replaced with that from the Kikwit 1995 Zaire strain Ebola virus 16 17 18 Mvabea the second dose of the Zabdeno Mvabea Ebola vaccine is a modified vaccinia Ankara vector a type of poxvirus 12 Both doses are non replicating vectors and carry the genetic code of several Ebola virus proteins 13 Other viruses that have been investigated as vaccine vectors include adeno associated virus retrovirus including lentivirus cytomegalovirus and Sendai virus 2 as well as influenza virus and measles virus 1 History EditHuman clinical trials were conducted for viral vector vaccines against several infectious diseases including Zika virus influenza viruses respiratory syncytial virus HIV and malaria before the vaccines targeting SARS CoV 2 which causes COVID 19 1 Two Ebola vaccines using viral vector technology were used in Ebola outbreaks in West Africa 2013 2016 and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo 2018 2020 1 The rVSV ZEBOV vaccine was approved for medical use in the European Union in November 2019 19 and in the United States in December 2019 20 21 Zabdeno Mvabea was approved for medical use in the European Union in July 2020 13 22 23 References Edit a b c d Understanding and Explaining Viral Vector COVID 19 Vaccines U S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 25 February 2021 Retrieved 2 April 2021 a b c Ura T Okuda K Shimada M July 2014 Developments in Viral Vector Based Vaccines Vaccines 2 3 624 41 doi 10 3390 vaccines2030624 PMC 4494222 PMID 26344749 Clinical trial number NCT04400838 for Investigating a Vaccine Against COVID 19 at ClinicalTrials gov A Phase 2 3 study to determine the efficacy safety and immunogenicity of the candidate Coronavirus Disease COVID 19 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV 19 EU Clinical Trials Register European Union 21 April 2020 EudraCT 2020 001228 32 Archived from the original on 5 October 2020 Retrieved 3 August 2020 Corum J Carl Z 8 January 2021 How Gamaleya s Vaccine Works The New York Times Retrieved 27 January 2021 Clinical trial number NCT04436471 for An Open Study of the Safety Tolerability and Immunogenicity of the Drug Gam COVID Vac Vaccine Against COVID 19 at ClinicalTrials gov Clinical trial number NCT04436276 for A Study of Ad26 COV2 S in Adults at ClinicalTrials gov Clinical trial number NCT04505722 for A Study of Ad26 COV2 S for the Prevention of SARS CoV 2 Mediated COVID 19 in Adult Participants at ClinicalTrials gov FDA Briefing Document Janssen Ad26 COV2 S Vaccine for the Prevention of COVID 19 PDF Report U S Food and Drug Administration FDA Lay summary Zhu FC Guan XH Li YH Huang JY Jiang T Hou LH et al August 2020 Immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant adenovirus type 5 vectored COVID 19 vaccine in healthy adults aged 18 years or older a randomised double blind placebo controlled phase 2 trial Lancet 396 10249 479 88 doi 10 1016 S0140 6736 20 31605 6 PMC 7836858 PMID 32702299 Clinical trial number NCT04566770 for Phase IIb Clinical Trial of A COVID 19 Vaccine Named Recombinant Novel Coronavirus Vaccine Adenovirus Type 5 Vector at ClinicalTrials gov a b Clinical trial number NCT02313077 for A Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Heterologous Prime Boost Ebola Vaccine Regimens in Healthy Participants at ClinicalTrials gov a b c Johnson amp Johnson Announces European Commission Approval for Janssen s Preventive Ebola Vaccine Press release Johnson amp Johnson 1 July 2020 Retrieved 16 July 2020 Marzi A Ebihara H Callison J Groseth A Williams KJ Geisbert TW Feldmann H November 2011 Vesicular stomatitis virus based Ebola vaccines with improved cross protective efficacy The Journal of Infectious Diseases 204 Suppl 3 suppl 3 S1066 74 doi 10 1093 infdis jir348 PMC 3203393 PMID 21987743 Ervebo Ebola Zaire Vaccine Live Suspension for intramuscular injection PDF Merck Sharp amp Dohme Martinez Romero C Garcia Sastre A November 2015 Against the clock towards new Ebola virus therapies Virus Research 209 4 10 doi 10 1016 j virusres 2015 05 025 PMID 26057711 Choi WY Hong KJ Hong JE Lee WJ January 2015 Progress of vaccine and drug development for Ebola preparedness Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research 4 1 11 16 doi 10 7774 cevr 2015 4 1 11 PMC 4313103 PMID 25648233 Regules JA Beigel JH Paolino KM Voell J Castellano AR Hu Z et al January 2017 A Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Ebola Vaccine The New England Journal of Medicine 376 4 330 41 doi 10 1056 NEJMoa1414216 PMC 5408576 PMID 25830322 Ervebo EPAR European Medicines Agency EMA 12 December 2019 Retrieved 1 July 2020 Text was copied from this source which is c European Medicines Agency Reproduction is authorized provided the source is acknowledged First FDA approved vaccine for the prevention of Ebola virus disease marking a critical milestone in public health preparedness and response U S Food and Drug Administration FDA 19 December 2019 Archived from the original on 20 December 2019 Retrieved 19 December 2019 This article incorporates text from this source which is in the public domain Ervebo U S Food and Drug Administration FDA 19 December 2019 Retrieved 1 July 2020 Zabdeno EPAR European Medicines Agency EMA 26 May 2020 Retrieved 23 July 2020 Mvabea EPAR European Medicines Agency EMA 26 May 2020 Retrieved 23 July 2020 Further reading EditEwer KJ Lambe T Rollier CS Spencer AJ Hill AV Dorrell L August 2016 Viral vectors as vaccine platforms from immunogenicity to impact Current Opinion in Immunology 41 47 54 doi 10 1016 j coi 2016 05 014 PMID 27286566 Medicine portal Viruses portal Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Viral vector vaccine amp oldid 1052572481, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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