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Virgil

This article is about the ancient Roman poet. For the grammarian, see Virgilius Maro Grammaticus. For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation).

Publius Vergilius Maro (Classical Latin: ; traditional dates 15 October 70 – 21 September 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil ( ) in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He composed three of the most famous poems in Latin literature: the Eclogues (or Bucolics), the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, were attributed to him in ancient times, but modern scholars consider his authorship of these poems as dubious.

Virgil
Bust depicting Virgil
BornPublius Vergilius Maro
15 October 70 BC
Near Mantua, Cisalpine Gaul, Roman Republic
Died21 September 19 BC (age 50)
Brundisium, Italy, Roman Empire
OccupationPoet
NationalityRoman
GenreEpic poetry, didactic poetry, pastoral poetry
Literary movementAugustan poetry

Virgil's work has had wide and deep influence on Western literature, most notably Dante's Divine Comedy, in which Virgil appears as the author's guide through Hell and Purgatory.

Virgil has been traditionally ranked as one of Rome's greatest poets. His Aeneid is also considered a national epic of ancient Rome, a title held since composition.

Contents

Birth and biographical tradition

Virgil's biographical tradition is thought to depend on a lost biography by the Roman poet Varius. This biography was incorporated into an account by the historian Suetonius, as well as the later commentaries of Servius and Donatus (the two great commentators on Virgil's poetry). Although the commentaries record much factual information about Virgil, some of their evidence can be shown to rely on allegorizing and on inferences drawn from his poetry. For this reason, details regarding Virgil's life story are considered somewhat problematic.: 1602

According to these accounts, Publius Vergilius Maro was born in the village of Andes, near Mantua in Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy, added to Italy proper during his lifetime). Analysis of his name has led some to believe that he descended from earlier Roman colonists. Modern speculation, however, ultimately is not supported by narrative evidence from either his own writings or his later biographers. Macrobius says that Virgil's father was of a humble background, though scholars generally believe that Virgil was from an equestrian landowning family who could afford to give him an education. He attended schools in Cremona, Mediolanum, Rome, and Naples. After briefly considering a career in rhetoric and law, the young Virgil turned his talents to poetry.

According to Robert Seymour Conway, the only ancient source which reports the actual distance between Andes and Mantua is a surviving fragment from the works of Marcus Valerius Probus. Probus flourished during the reign of Nero (AD 54–68). Probus reports that Andes was located 30 Roman miles from Mantua. Conway translated this to a distance of about 45 kilometres or 28 miles.

Relatively little is known about the family of Virgil. His father reportedly belonged to gens Vergilia, and his mother belonged to gens Magia. According to Conway, gens Vergilia is poorly attested in inscriptions from the entire Northern Italy, where Mantua is located. Among thousands of surviving ancient inscriptions from this region, there are only 8 or 9 mentions of individuals called "Vergilius" (masculine) or "Vergilia" (feminine). Out of these mentions, three appear in inscriptions from Verona, and one in an inscription from Calvisano.

Conway theorized that the inscription from Calvisano had to do with a kinswoman of Virgil. Calvisano is located 30 Roman miles from Mantua, and would fit with Probus' description of Andes. The inscription, in this case, is a votive offering to the Matronae (a group of deities) by a woman called Vergilia, asking the goddesses to deliver from danger another woman, called Munatia. Conway notes that the offering belongs to a common type for this era, where women made requests for deities to preserve the lives of female loved ones who were pregnant and were about to give birth. In most cases, the woman making the request was the mother of a woman who was pregnant or otherwise in danger. Though there is another inscription from Calvisano, where a woman asks the deities to preserve the life of her sister. Munatia, the woman whom Vergilia wished to protect, was likely a close relative of Vergilia, possibly her daughter. The name "Munatia" indicates that this woman was a member of gens Munatia, and makes it likely that Vergilia married into this family.

Other studies claim that today's consideration for ancient Andes should be sought in the area of Castel Goffredo.

Early works

Main article: Appendix Vergiliana

According to the commentators, Virgil received his first education when he was five years old and he later went to Cremona, Milan, and finally Rome to study rhetoric, medicine, and astronomy, which he soon abandoned for philosophy. From Virgil's admiring references to the neoteric writers Pollio and Cinna, it has been inferred that he was, for a time, associated with Catullus' neoteric circle. According to Servius, schoolmates considered Virgil extremely shy and reserved, and he was nicknamed "Parthenias" or "maiden" because of his social aloofness. Virgil also seems to have suffered bad health throughout his life and in some ways lived the life of an invalid. According to the Catalepton, he began to write poetry while in the Epicurean school of Siro in Naples. A group of small works attributed to the youthful Virgil by the commentators survive collected under the title Appendix Vergiliana, but are largely considered spurious by scholars. One, the Catalepton, consists of fourteen short poems,: 1602 some of which may be Virgil's, and another, a short narrative poem titled the Culex ("The Gnat"), was attributed to Virgil as early as the 1st century AD.

The Eclogues

Main article: Eclogues
Page from the beginning of the Eclogues in the 5th-century Vergilius Romanus

The biographical tradition asserts that Virgil began the hexameter Eclogues (or Bucolics) in 42 BC and it is thought that the collection was published around 39–38 BC, although this is controversial.: 1602 The Eclogues (from the Greek for "selections") are a group of ten poems roughly modeled on the bucolic (that is, "pastoral" or "rural") poetry of the Hellenistic poet Theocritus, which were written in dactylic hexameter. After defeating the army led by the assassins of Julius Caesar in the Battle of Philippi (42 BC), Octavian tried to pay off his veterans with land expropriated from towns in northern Italy, which—according to tradition—included an estate near Mantua belonging to Virgil. The loss of Virgil's family farm and the attempt through poetic petitions to regain his property have traditionally been seen as his motives in the composition of the Eclogues. This is now thought to be an unsupported inference from interpretations of the Eclogues. In Eclogues 1 and 9, Virgil indeed dramatizes the contrasting feelings caused by the brutality of the land expropriations through pastoral idiom but offers no indisputable evidence of the supposed biographic incident. While some readers have identified the poet himself with various characters and their vicissitudes, whether gratitude by an old rustic to a new god (Ecl. 1), frustrated love by a rustic singer for a distant boy (his master's pet, Ecl. 2), or a master singer's claim to have composed several eclogues (Ecl. 5), modern scholars largely reject such efforts to garner biographical details from works of fiction, preferring to interpret an author's characters and themes as illustrations of contemporary life and thought. The ten Eclogues present traditional pastoral themes with a fresh perspective. Eclogues 1 and 9 address the land confiscations and their effects on the Italian countryside. 2 and 3 are pastoral and erotic, discussing both homosexual love (Ecl. 2) and attraction toward people of any gender (Ecl. 3). Eclogue 4, addressed to Asinius Pollio, the so-called "Messianic Eclogue", uses the imagery of the golden age in connection with the birth of a child (who the child was meant to be has been subject to debate). 5 and 8 describe the myth of Daphnis in a song contest, 6, the cosmic and mythological song of Silenus; 7, a heated poetic contest, and 10 the sufferings of the contemporary elegiac poet Cornelius Gallus. Virgil is credited[by whom?] in the Eclogues with establishing Arcadia as a poetic ideal that still resonates in Western literature and visual arts, and setting the stage for the development of Latin pastoral by Calpurnius Siculus, Nemesianus and later writers.

The Georgics

Main article: Georgics

Sometime after the publication of the Eclogues (probably before 37 BC),: 1603 Virgil became part of the circle of Maecenas, Octavian's capable agent d'affaires who sought to counter sympathy for Antony among the leading families by rallying Roman literary figures to Octavian's side. Virgil came to know many of the other leading literary figures of the time, including Horace, in whose poetry he is often mentioned, and Varius Rufus, who later helped finish the Aeneid.

Late 17th-century illustration of a passage from the Georgics by Jerzy Siemiginowski-Eleuter

At Maecenas' insistence (according to the tradition) Virgil spent the ensuing years (perhaps 37–29 BC) on the long didactic hexameter poem called the Georgics (from Greek, "On Working the Earth") which he dedicated to Maecenas. The ostensible theme of the Georgics is instruction in the methods of running a farm. In handling this theme, Virgil follows in the didactic ("how to") tradition of the Greek poet Hesiod's Works and Days and several works of the later Hellenistic poets. The four books of the Georgics focus respectively on raising crops and trees (1 and 2), livestock and horses (3), and beekeeping and the qualities of bees (4). Well-known passages include the beloved Laus Italiae of Book 2, the prologue description of the temple in Book 3, and the description of the plague at the end of Book 3. Book 4 concludes with a long mythological narrative, in the form of an epyllion which describes vividly the discovery of beekeeping by Aristaeus and the story of Orpheus' journey to the underworld. Ancient scholars, such as Servius, conjectured that the Aristaeus episode replaced, at the emperor's request, a long section in praise of Virgil's friend, the poet Gallus, who was disgraced by Augustus, and who committed suicide in 26 BC.

The Georgics' tone wavers between optimism and pessimism, sparking critical debate on the poet's intentions,: 1605 but the work lays the foundations for later didactic poetry. Virgil and Maecenas are said to have taken turns reading the Georgics to Octavian upon his return from defeating Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC.

The Aeneid

Main article: Aeneid
A 1st-century terracotta expressing the pietas of Aeneas, who carries his aged father and leads his young son

The Aeneid is widely considered Virgil's finest work, and is regarded as one of the most important poems in the history of Western literature (T. S. Eliot referred to it as 'the classic of all Europe'). The work (modelled after Homer's Iliad and Odyssey) chronicles a refugee of the Trojan War, named Aeneas, as he struggles to fulfill his destiny. His intentions are to reach Italy, where his descendants Romulus and Remus are to found the city of Rome.

Virgil worked on the Aeneid during the last eleven years of his life (29–19 BC), commissioned, according to Propertius, by Augustus. The epic poem consists of 12 books in dactylic hexameter verse which describe the journey of Aeneas, a warrior fleeing the sack of Troy, to Italy, his battle with the Italian prince Turnus, and the foundation of a city from which Rome would emerge. The Aeneid's first six books describe the journey of Aeneas from Troy to Rome. Virgil made use of several models in the composition of his epic;: 1603 Homer, the pre-eminent author of classical epic, is everywhere present, but Virgil also makes special use of the Latin poet Ennius and the Hellenistic poet Apollonius of Rhodes among the various other writers to which he alludes. Although the Aeneid casts itself firmly into the epic mode, it often seeks to expand the genre by including elements of other genres such as tragedy and aetiological poetry. Ancient commentators noted that Virgil seems to divide the Aeneid into two sections based on the poetry of Homer; the first six books were viewed as employing the Odyssey as a model while the last six were connected to the Iliad.

Book 1 (at the head of the Odyssean section) opens with a storm which Juno, Aeneas' enemy throughout the poem, stirs up against the fleet. The storm drives the hero to the coast of Carthage, which historically was Rome's deadliest foe. The queen, Dido, welcomes the ancestor of the Romans, and under the influence of the gods falls deeply in love with him. At a banquet in Book 2, Aeneas tells the story of the sack of Troy, the death of his wife, and his escape, to the enthralled Carthaginians, while in Book 3 he recounts to them his wanderings over the Mediterranean in search of a suitable new home. Jupiter in Book 4 recalls the lingering Aeneas to his duty to found a new city, and he slips away from Carthage, leaving Dido to commit suicide, cursing Aeneas and calling down revenge in symbolic anticipation of the fierce wars between Carthage and Rome. In Book 5, funeral games are celebrated for Aeneas' father Anchises, who had died a year before. On reaching Cumae, in Italy in Book 6, Aeneas consults the Cumaean Sibyl, who conducts him through the Underworld where Aeneas meets the dead Anchises who reveals Rome's destiny to his son.

Book 7 (beginning the Iliadic half) opens with an address to the muse and recounts Aeneas' arrival in Italy and betrothal to Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus. Lavinia had already been promised to Turnus, the king of the Rutulians, who is roused to war by the Fury Allecto, and Amata Lavinia's mother. In Book 8, Aeneas allies with King Evander, who occupies the future site of Rome, and is given new armor and a shield depicting Roman history. Book 9 records an assault by Nisus and Euryalus on the Rutulians; Book 10, the death of Evander's young son Pallas; and 11 the death of the Volscian warrior princess Camilla and the decision to settle the war with a duel between Aeneas and Turnus. The Aeneid ends in Book 12 with the taking of Latinus' city, the death of Amata, and Aeneas' defeat and killing of Turnus, whose pleas for mercy are spurned. The final book ends with the image of Turnus' soul lamenting as it flees to the underworld.

Reception of the Aeneid

Virgil Reading the Aeneid to Augustus, Octavia, and Livia by Jean-Baptiste Wicar, Art Institute of Chicago

Critics of the Aeneid focus on a variety of issues. The tone of the poem as a whole is a particular matter of debate; some see the poem as ultimately pessimistic and politically subversive to the Augustan regime, while others view it as a celebration of the new imperial dynasty. Virgil makes use of the symbolism of the Augustan regime, and some scholars see strong associations between Augustus and Aeneas, the one as founder and the other as re-founder of Rome. A strong teleology, or drive towards a climax, has been detected in the poem. The Aeneid is full of prophecies about the future of Rome, the deeds of Augustus, his ancestors, and famous Romans, and the Carthaginian Wars; the shield of Aeneas even depicts Augustus' victory at Actium against Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII in 31 BC. A further focus of study is the character of Aeneas. As the protagonist of the poem, Aeneas seems to waver constantly between his emotions and commitment to his prophetic duty to found Rome; critics note the breakdown of Aeneas' emotional control in the last sections of the poem where the "pious" and "righteous" Aeneas mercilessly slaughters Turnus.

The Aeneid appears to have been a great success. Virgil is said to have recited Books 2, 4, and 6 to Augustus;: 1603 and Book 6 apparently caused the emperor's sister Octavia to faint. Although the truth of this claim is subject to scholarly skepticism, it has served as a basis for later art, such as Jean-Baptiste Wicar's Virgil Reading the Aeneid.

Unfortunately, some lines of the poem were left unfinished, and the whole was unedited, at Virgil's death in 19 BC.

Virgil's death and editing of the Aeneid

According to the tradition, Virgil traveled to the senatorial province of Achaea in Greece in about 19 BC to revise the Aeneid. After meeting Augustus in Athens and deciding to return home, Virgil caught a fever while visiting a town near Megara. After crossing to Italy by ship, weakened with disease, Virgil died in Brundisium harbor on 21 September 19 BC. Augustus ordered Virgil's literary executors, Lucius Varius Rufus and Plotius Tucca, to disregard Virgil's own wish that the poem be burned, instead ordering it to be published with as few editorial changes as possible.: 112 As a result, the text of the Aeneid that exists may contain faults which Virgil was planning to correct before publication. However, the only obvious imperfections are a few lines of verse that are metrically unfinished (i.e. not a complete line of dactylic hexameter). Some scholars have argued that Virgil deliberately left these metrically incomplete lines for dramatic effect. Other alleged imperfections are subject to scholarly debate.

A 3rd-century Roman mosaic of Virgil seated between Clio and Melpomene (from Hadrumetum [Sousse], Tunisia)
A 5th-century portrait of Virgil from the Vergilius Romanus
Virgil in His Basket, Lucas van Leyden, 1525

Antiquity

The works of Virgil almost from the moment of their publication revolutionized Latin poetry. The Eclogues, Georgics, and above all the Aeneid became standard texts in school curricula with which all educated Romans were familiar. Poets following Virgil often refer intertextually to his works to generate meaning in their own poetry. The Augustan poet Ovid parodies the opening lines of the Aeneid in Amores 1.1.1–2, and his summary of the Aeneas story in Book 14 of the Metamorphoses, the so-called "mini-Aeneid", has been viewed as a particularly important example of post-Virgilian response to the epic genre. Lucan's epic, the Bellum Civile, has been considered an anti-Virgilian epic, disposing of the divine mechanism, treating historical events, and diverging drastically from Virgilian epic practice. The Flavian poet Statius in his 12-book epic Thebaid engages closely with the poetry of Virgil; in his epilogue he advises his poem not to "rival the divine Aeneid, but follow afar and ever venerate its footsteps." In Silius Italicus, Virgil finds one of his most ardent admirers. With almost every line of his epic Punica, Silius references Virgil. Indeed, Silius is known to have bought Virgil's tomb and worshipped the poet. Partially as a result of his so-called "Messianic" Fourth Eclogue – widely interpreted later to have predicted the birth of Jesus Christ – Virgil was in later antiquity imputed to have the magical abilities of a seer; the Sortes Vergilianae, the process of using Virgil's poetry as a tool of divination, is found in the time of Hadrian, and continued into the Middle Ages. In a similar vein Macrobius in the Saturnalia credits the work of Virgil as the embodiment of human knowledge and experience, mirroring the Greek conception of Homer.: 1603 Virgil also found commentators in antiquity. Servius, a commentator of the 4th century AD, based his work on the commentary of Donatus. Servius' commentary provides us with a great deal of information about Virgil's life, sources, and references; however, many modern scholars find the variable quality of his work and the often simplistic interpretations frustrating.

Late antiquity

The verse inscription at Virgil's tomb was supposedly composed by the poet himself: Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc Parthenope. Cecini pascua, rura, duces. ("Mantua gave me life, the Calabrians took it away, Naples holds me now; I sang of pastures, farms, and commanders" [transl. Bernard Knox])

Even as the Western Roman Empire collapsed, literate men acknowledged that Virgil was a master poet – Saint Augustine, for example, confessing how he had wept at reading the death of Dido. The best-known surviving manuscripts of Virgil's works include manuscripts from late antiquity such as the Vergilius Augusteus, the Vergilius Vaticanus and the Vergilius Romanus.

Middle Ages

Gregory of Tours read Virgil, whom he quotes in several places, along with some other Latin poets, though he cautions that "we ought not to relate their lying fables, lest we fall under sentence of eternal death". In the Renaissance of the 12th century, Alexander Neckham placed the "divine" Aeneid on his standard arts curriculum, and Dido became the romantic heroine of the age. Monks like Maiolus of Cluny might repudiate what they called "the luxurious eloquence of Virgil", but they could not deny the power of his appeal.

Dante made Virgil his guide in Hell and the greater part of Purgatory in the Divine Comedy. Dante also mentions Virgil in De vulgari eloquentia, along with Ovid, Lucan and Statius, as one of the four regulati poetae (ii, vi, 7).

Renaissance and early modernity

The Renaissance saw a number of authors inspired to write epic in Virgil's wake: Edmund Spenser called himself the English Virgil; Paradise Lost was influenced by the example of the Aeneid; and later artists influenced by Virgil include Berlioz and Hermann Broch.

Legends

The legend of "Virgil in his basket" arose in the Middle Ages, and is often seen in art and mentioned in literature as part of the Power of Women literary topos, demonstrating the disruptive force of female attractiveness on men. In this story Virgil became enamored of a beautiful woman, sometimes described as the emperor's daughter or mistress and called Lucretia. She played him along and agreed to an assignation at her house, which he was to sneak into at night by climbing into a large basket let down from a window. When he did so he was hoisted only halfway up the wall and then left trapped there into the next day, exposed to public ridicule. The story paralleled that of Phyllis riding Aristotle. Among other artists depicting the scene, Lucas van Leyden made a woodcut and later an engraving.

In the Middle Ages, Virgil's reputation was such that it inspired legends associating him with magic and prophecy. From at least the 3rd century, Christian thinkers interpreted Eclogue 4, which describes the birth of a boy ushering in a golden age, as a prediction of Jesus' birth. In consequence, Virgil came to be seen on a similar level to the Hebrew prophets of the Bible as one who had heralded Christianity. Relatedly, The Jewish Encyclopedia argues that medieval legends about the golem may have been inspired by Virgilian legends about the poet's apocryphal power to bring inanimate objects to life.

Possibly as early as the second century AD, Virgil's works were seen as having magical properties and were used for divination. In what became known as the Sortes Vergilianae ('Virgilian Lots'), passages would be selected at random and interpreted to answer questions. In the 12th century, starting around Naples but eventually spreading widely throughout Europe, a tradition developed in which Virgil was regarded as a great magician. Legends about Virgil and his magical powers remained popular for over two hundred years, arguably becoming as prominent as his writings themselves. Virgil's legacy in medieval Wales was such that the Welsh version of his name, Fferyllt or Pheryllt, became a generic term for magic-worker, and survives in the modern Welsh word for pharmacist, fferyllydd.

Tomb of Virgil in Naples, Italy

Virgil's tomb

The structure known as "Virgil's tomb" is found at the entrance of an ancient Roman tunnel (aka grotta vecchia) in Piedigrotta, a district 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from the centre of Naples, near the Mergellina harbor, on the road heading north along the coast to Pozzuoli. While Virgil was already the object of literary admiration and veneration before his death, in the Middle Ages his name became associated with miraculous powers, and for a couple of centuries his tomb was the destination of pilgrimages and veneration.

By the fourth or fifth century AD the original spelling Vergilius had been changed to Virgilius, and then the latter spelling spread to the modern European languages. The later spelling persisted even though, as early as the 15th century, the classical scholar Poliziano had shown Vergilius to be the original spelling. Today, the anglicizations Vergil and Virgil are both acceptable.

There is some speculation that the spelling Virgilius might have arisen due to a pun, since virg- carries an echo of the Latin word for 'wand' (uirga), Vergil being particularly associated with magic in the Middle Ages. There is also a possibility that virg- is meant to evoke the Latin virgo ('virgin'); this would be a reference to the fourth Eclogue, which has a history of Christian, and specifically Messianic, interpretations.

Notes

  1. The epitaph on his tomb in Posilipo near Naples read Mantua me genuit; Calabri rapuere; tenet nunc Parthenope. Cecini pascua, rura, duces ("Mantua gave birth to me, the Calabrians took me, now Naples holds me; I sang of pastures [the Eclogues], country [the Georgics] and leaders [the Aeneid]").
  2. For a succinct summary, see Globalnet.co.uk Archived 18 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  3. For a bibliography and summary see Fowler, pp. 1605–1606
  4. For more discussion on the spelling of Virgil's name, see Flickinger, R. C. 1930. "Vergil or Virgil?." The Classical Journal 25(9):658–60.

Citations

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  • Quinn, S., ed. 2000. Why Vergil? A Collection of Interpretations. Wauconda: Bolchazy-Carducci.
  • Rossi, A. 2004. Contexts of War: Manipulation of Genre in Virgilian Battle Narrative. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Sondrup, Steven P. 2009. "Virgil: From Farms to Empire: Kierkegaard's Understanding of a Roman Poet." In Kierkegaard and the Roman World, edited by J. B. Stewart. Farnham: Ashgate.
  • Syed, Y. 2005. Vergil's Aeneid and the Roman Self: Subject and Nation in Literary Discourse. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Syson, A. 2013. Fama and Fiction in Vergil's 'Aeneid'. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
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Virgil
Virgil Language Watch Edit This article is about the ancient Roman poet For the grammarian see Virgilius Maro Grammaticus For other uses see Virgil disambiguation Publius Vergilius Maro Classical Latin ˈpuːbliʊs wɛrˈɡɪliʊs ˈmaroː traditional dates 15 October 70 21 September 19 BC 1 usually called Virgil or Vergil ˈ v ɜːr dʒ ɪ l VUR jil in English was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period He composed three of the most famous poems in Latin literature the Eclogues or Bucolics the Georgics and the epic Aeneid A number of minor poems collected in the Appendix Vergiliana were attributed to him in ancient times but modern scholars consider his authorship of these poems as dubious 2 VirgilBust depicting VirgilBornPublius Vergilius Maro 15 October 70 BC Near Mantua Cisalpine Gaul Roman RepublicDied21 September 19 BC age 50 Brundisium Italy Roman EmpireOccupationPoetNationalityRomanGenreEpic poetry didactic poetry pastoral poetryLiterary movementAugustan poetry Virgil s work has had wide and deep influence on Western literature most notably Dante s Divine Comedy in which Virgil appears as the author s guide through Hell and Purgatory 3 Virgil has been traditionally ranked as one of Rome s greatest poets His Aeneid is also considered a national epic of ancient Rome a title held since composition Contents 1 Life and works 1 1 Birth and biographical tradition 1 2 Early works 1 3 The Eclogues 1 4 The Georgics 1 5 The Aeneid 1 6 Reception of the Aeneid 1 7 Virgil s death and editing of the Aeneid 2 Legacy and reception 2 1 Antiquity 2 2 Late antiquity 2 3 Middle Ages 2 4 Renaissance and early modernity 2 5 Legends 2 6 Virgil s tomb 3 Spelling of name 4 See also 5 References 5 1 Notes 5 2 Citations 6 Further reading 7 External linksLife and works EditBirth and biographical tradition Edit Virgil s biographical tradition is thought to depend on a lost biography by the Roman poet Varius This biography was incorporated into an account by the historian Suetonius as well as the later commentaries of Servius and Donatus the two great commentators on Virgil s poetry Although the commentaries record much factual information about Virgil some of their evidence can be shown to rely on allegorizing and on inferences drawn from his poetry For this reason details regarding Virgil s life story are considered somewhat problematic 4 1602 According to these accounts Publius Vergilius Maro was born in the village of Andes near Mantua i in Cisalpine Gaul northern Italy added to Italy proper during his lifetime 5 Analysis of his name has led some to believe that he descended from earlier Roman colonists Modern speculation however ultimately is not supported by narrative evidence from either his own writings or his later biographers Macrobius says that Virgil s father was of a humble background though scholars generally believe that Virgil was from an equestrian landowning family who could afford to give him an education He attended schools in Cremona Mediolanum Rome and Naples After briefly considering a career in rhetoric and law the young Virgil turned his talents to poetry 6 According to Robert Seymour Conway the only ancient source which reports the actual distance between Andes and Mantua is a surviving fragment from the works of Marcus Valerius Probus Probus flourished during the reign of Nero AD 54 68 7 Probus reports that Andes was located 30 Roman miles from Mantua Conway translated this to a distance of about 45 kilometres or 28 miles 7 Relatively little is known about the family of Virgil His father reportedly belonged to gens Vergilia and his mother belonged to gens Magia 7 According to Conway gens Vergilia is poorly attested in inscriptions from the entire Northern Italy where Mantua is located Among thousands of surviving ancient inscriptions from this region there are only 8 or 9 mentions of individuals called Vergilius masculine or Vergilia feminine Out of these mentions three appear in inscriptions from Verona and one in an inscription from Calvisano 7 Conway theorized that the inscription from Calvisano had to do with a kinswoman of Virgil Calvisano is located 30 Roman miles from Mantua and would fit with Probus description of Andes 7 The inscription in this case is a votive offering to the Matronae a group of deities by a woman called Vergilia asking the goddesses to deliver from danger another woman called Munatia Conway notes that the offering belongs to a common type for this era where women made requests for deities to preserve the lives of female loved ones who were pregnant and were about to give birth In most cases the woman making the request was the mother of a woman who was pregnant or otherwise in danger Though there is another inscription from Calvisano where a woman asks the deities to preserve the life of her sister 7 Munatia the woman whom Vergilia wished to protect was likely a close relative of Vergilia possibly her daughter The name Munatia indicates that this woman was a member of gens Munatia and makes it likely that Vergilia married into this family 7 Other studies 8 claim that today s consideration for ancient Andes should be sought in the area of Castel Goffredo 9 Early works Edit Main article Appendix Vergiliana According to the commentators Virgil received his first education when he was five years old and he later went to Cremona Milan and finally Rome to study rhetoric medicine and astronomy which he soon abandoned for philosophy From Virgil s admiring references to the neoteric writers Pollio and Cinna it has been inferred that he was for a time associated with Catullus neoteric circle According to Servius schoolmates considered Virgil extremely shy and reserved and he was nicknamed Parthenias or maiden because of his social aloofness Virgil also seems to have suffered bad health throughout his life and in some ways lived the life of an invalid According to the Catalepton he began to write poetry while in the Epicurean school of Siro in Naples A group of small works attributed to the youthful Virgil by the commentators survive collected under the title Appendix Vergiliana but are largely considered spurious by scholars One the Catalepton consists of fourteen short poems 4 1602 some of which may be Virgil s and another a short narrative poem titled the Culex The Gnat was attributed to Virgil as early as the 1st century AD The Eclogues Edit Main article Eclogues Page from the beginning of the Eclogues in the 5th century Vergilius Romanus The biographical tradition asserts that Virgil began the hexameter Eclogues or Bucolics in 42 BC and it is thought that the collection was published around 39 38 BC although this is controversial 4 1602 The Eclogues from the Greek for selections are a group of ten poems roughly modeled on the bucolic that is pastoral or rural poetry of the Hellenistic poet Theocritus which were written in dactylic hexameter After defeating the army led by the assassins of Julius Caesar in the Battle of Philippi 42 BC Octavian tried to pay off his veterans with land expropriated from towns in northern Italy which according to tradition included an estate near Mantua belonging to Virgil The loss of Virgil s family farm and the attempt through poetic petitions to regain his property have traditionally been seen as his motives in the composition of the Eclogues This is now thought to be an unsupported inference from interpretations of the Eclogues In Eclogues 1 and 9 Virgil indeed dramatizes the contrasting feelings caused by the brutality of the land expropriations through pastoral idiom but offers no indisputable evidence of the supposed biographic incident While some readers have identified the poet himself with various characters and their vicissitudes whether gratitude by an old rustic to a new god Ecl 1 frustrated love by a rustic singer for a distant boy his master s pet Ecl 2 or a master singer s claim to have composed several eclogues Ecl 5 modern scholars largely reject such efforts to garner biographical details from works of fiction preferring to interpret an author s characters and themes as illustrations of contemporary life and thought The ten Eclogues present traditional pastoral themes with a fresh perspective Eclogues 1 and 9 address the land confiscations and their effects on the Italian countryside 2 and 3 are pastoral and erotic discussing both homosexual love Ecl 2 and attraction toward people of any gender Ecl 3 Eclogue 4 addressed to Asinius Pollio the so called Messianic Eclogue uses the imagery of the golden age in connection with the birth of a child who the child was meant to be has been subject to debate 5 and 8 describe the myth of Daphnis in a song contest 6 the cosmic and mythological song of Silenus 7 a heated poetic contest and 10 the sufferings of the contemporary elegiac poet Cornelius Gallus Virgil is credited by whom in the Eclogues with establishing Arcadia as a poetic ideal that still resonates in Western literature and visual arts and setting the stage for the development of Latin pastoral by Calpurnius Siculus Nemesianus and later writers The Georgics Edit Main article Georgics Sometime after the publication of the Eclogues probably before 37 BC 4 1603 Virgil became part of the circle of Maecenas Octavian s capable agent d affaires who sought to counter sympathy for Antony among the leading families by rallying Roman literary figures to Octavian s side Virgil came to know many of the other leading literary figures of the time including Horace in whose poetry he is often mentioned 10 and Varius Rufus who later helped finish the Aeneid Late 17th century illustration of a passage from the Georgics by Jerzy Siemiginowski Eleuter At Maecenas insistence according to the tradition Virgil spent the ensuing years perhaps 37 29 BC on the long didactic hexameter poem called the Georgics from Greek On Working the Earth which he dedicated to Maecenas The ostensible theme of the Georgics is instruction in the methods of running a farm In handling this theme Virgil follows in the didactic how to tradition of the Greek poet Hesiod s Works and Days and several works of the later Hellenistic poets The four books of the Georgics focus respectively on raising crops and trees 1 and 2 livestock and horses 3 and beekeeping and the qualities of bees 4 Well known passages include the beloved Laus Italiae of Book 2 the prologue description of the temple in Book 3 and the description of the plague at the end of Book 3 Book 4 concludes with a long mythological narrative in the form of an epyllion which describes vividly the discovery of beekeeping by Aristaeus and the story of Orpheus journey to the underworld Ancient scholars such as Servius conjectured that the Aristaeus episode replaced at the emperor s request a long section in praise of Virgil s friend the poet Gallus who was disgraced by Augustus and who committed suicide in 26 BC The Georgics tone wavers between optimism and pessimism sparking critical debate on the poet s intentions 4 1605 but the work lays the foundations for later didactic poetry Virgil and Maecenas are said to have taken turns reading the Georgics to Octavian upon his return from defeating Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC The Aeneid Edit Main article Aeneid A 1st century terracotta expressing the pietas of Aeneas who carries his aged father and leads his young son The Aeneid is widely considered Virgil s finest work and is regarded as one of the most important poems in the history of Western literature T S Eliot referred to it as the classic of all Europe 11 The work modelled after Homer s Iliad and Odyssey chronicles a refugee of the Trojan War named Aeneas as he struggles to fulfill his destiny His intentions are to reach Italy where his descendants Romulus and Remus are to found the city of Rome Virgil worked on the Aeneid during the last eleven years of his life 29 19 BC commissioned according to Propertius by Augustus 12 The epic poem consists of 12 books in dactylic hexameter verse which describe the journey of Aeneas a warrior fleeing the sack of Troy to Italy his battle with the Italian prince Turnus and the foundation of a city from which Rome would emerge The Aeneid s first six books describe the journey of Aeneas from Troy to Rome Virgil made use of several models in the composition of his epic 4 1603 Homer the pre eminent author of classical epic is everywhere present but Virgil also makes special use of the Latin poet Ennius and the Hellenistic poet Apollonius of Rhodes among the various other writers to which he alludes Although the Aeneid casts itself firmly into the epic mode it often seeks to expand the genre by including elements of other genres such as tragedy and aetiological poetry Ancient commentators noted that Virgil seems to divide the Aeneid into two sections based on the poetry of Homer the first six books were viewed as employing the Odyssey as a model while the last six were connected to the Iliad 13 Book 1 ii at the head of the Odyssean section opens with a storm which Juno Aeneas enemy throughout the poem stirs up against the fleet The storm drives the hero to the coast of Carthage which historically was Rome s deadliest foe The queen Dido welcomes the ancestor of the Romans and under the influence of the gods falls deeply in love with him At a banquet in Book 2 Aeneas tells the story of the sack of Troy the death of his wife and his escape to the enthralled Carthaginians while in Book 3 he recounts to them his wanderings over the Mediterranean in search of a suitable new home Jupiter in Book 4 recalls the lingering Aeneas to his duty to found a new city and he slips away from Carthage leaving Dido to commit suicide cursing Aeneas and calling down revenge in symbolic anticipation of the fierce wars between Carthage and Rome In Book 5 funeral games are celebrated for Aeneas father Anchises who had died a year before On reaching Cumae in Italy in Book 6 Aeneas consults the Cumaean Sibyl who conducts him through the Underworld where Aeneas meets the dead Anchises who reveals Rome s destiny to his son Book 7 beginning the Iliadic half opens with an address to the muse and recounts Aeneas arrival in Italy and betrothal to Lavinia daughter of King Latinus Lavinia had already been promised to Turnus the king of the Rutulians who is roused to war by the Fury Allecto and Amata Lavinia s mother In Book 8 Aeneas allies with King Evander who occupies the future site of Rome and is given new armor and a shield depicting Roman history Book 9 records an assault by Nisus and Euryalus on the Rutulians Book 10 the death of Evander s young son Pallas and 11 the death of the Volscian warrior princess Camilla and the decision to settle the war with a duel between Aeneas and Turnus The Aeneid ends in Book 12 with the taking of Latinus city the death of Amata and Aeneas defeat and killing of Turnus whose pleas for mercy are spurned The final book ends with the image of Turnus soul lamenting as it flees to the underworld Reception of the Aeneid Edit Virgil Reading the Aeneid to Augustus Octavia and Livia by Jean Baptiste Wicar Art Institute of Chicago Critics of the Aeneid focus on a variety of issues iii The tone of the poem as a whole is a particular matter of debate some see the poem as ultimately pessimistic and politically subversive to the Augustan regime while others view it as a celebration of the new imperial dynasty Virgil makes use of the symbolism of the Augustan regime and some scholars see strong associations between Augustus and Aeneas the one as founder and the other as re founder of Rome A strong teleology or drive towards a climax has been detected in the poem The Aeneid is full of prophecies about the future of Rome the deeds of Augustus his ancestors and famous Romans and the Carthaginian Wars the shield of Aeneas even depicts Augustus victory at Actium against Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII in 31 BC A further focus of study is the character of Aeneas As the protagonist of the poem Aeneas seems to waver constantly between his emotions and commitment to his prophetic duty to found Rome critics note the breakdown of Aeneas emotional control in the last sections of the poem where the pious and righteous Aeneas mercilessly slaughters Turnus The Aeneid appears to have been a great success Virgil is said to have recited Books 2 4 and 6 to Augustus 4 1603 and Book 6 apparently caused the emperor s sister Octavia to faint Although the truth of this claim is subject to scholarly skepticism it has served as a basis for later art such as Jean Baptiste Wicar s Virgil Reading the Aeneid Unfortunately some lines of the poem were left unfinished and the whole was unedited at Virgil s death in 19 BC Virgil s death and editing of the Aeneid Edit According to the tradition Virgil traveled to the senatorial province of Achaea in Greece in about 19 BC to revise the Aeneid After meeting Augustus in Athens and deciding to return home Virgil caught a fever while visiting a town near Megara After crossing to Italy by ship weakened with disease Virgil died in Brundisium harbor on 21 September 19 BC Augustus ordered Virgil s literary executors Lucius Varius Rufus and Plotius Tucca to disregard Virgil s own wish that the poem be burned instead ordering it to be published with as few editorial changes as possible 14 112 As a result the text of the Aeneid that exists may contain faults which Virgil was planning to correct before publication However the only obvious imperfections are a few lines of verse that are metrically unfinished i e not a complete line of dactylic hexameter Some scholars have argued that Virgil deliberately left these metrically incomplete lines for dramatic effect 15 Other alleged imperfections are subject to scholarly debate Legacy and reception Edit A 3rd century Roman mosaic of Virgil seated between Clio and Melpomene from Hadrumetum Sousse Tunisia A 5th century portrait of Virgil from the Vergilius Romanus Virgil in His Basket Lucas van Leyden 1525 Antiquity Edit The works of Virgil almost from the moment of their publication revolutionized Latin poetry The Eclogues Georgics and above all the Aeneid became standard texts in school curricula with which all educated Romans were familiar Poets following Virgil often refer intertextually to his works to generate meaning in their own poetry The Augustan poet Ovid parodies the opening lines of the Aeneid in Amores 1 1 1 2 and his summary of the Aeneas story in Book 14 of the Metamorphoses the so called mini Aeneid has been viewed as a particularly important example of post Virgilian response to the epic genre Lucan s epic the Bellum Civile has been considered an anti Virgilian epic disposing of the divine mechanism treating historical events and diverging drastically from Virgilian epic practice The Flavian poet Statius in his 12 book epic Thebaid engages closely with the poetry of Virgil in his epilogue he advises his poem not to rival the divine Aeneid but follow afar and ever venerate its footsteps 16 In Silius Italicus Virgil finds one of his most ardent admirers With almost every line of his epic Punica Silius references Virgil Indeed Silius is known to have bought Virgil s tomb and worshipped the poet 17 Partially as a result of his so called Messianic Fourth Eclogue widely interpreted later to have predicted the birth of Jesus Christ Virgil was in later antiquity imputed to have the magical abilities of a seer the Sortes Vergilianae the process of using Virgil s poetry as a tool of divination is found in the time of Hadrian and continued into the Middle Ages In a similar vein Macrobius in the Saturnalia credits the work of Virgil as the embodiment of human knowledge and experience mirroring the Greek conception of Homer 4 1603 Virgil also found commentators in antiquity Servius a commentator of the 4th century AD based his work on the commentary of Donatus Servius commentary provides us with a great deal of information about Virgil s life sources and references however many modern scholars find the variable quality of his work and the often simplistic interpretations frustrating Late antiquity Edit The verse inscription at Virgil s tomb was supposedly composed by the poet himself Mantua me genuit Calabri rapuere tenet nunc Parthenope Cecini pascua rura duces Mantua gave me life the Calabrians took it away Naples holds me now I sang of pastures farms and commanders transl Bernard Knox Even as the Western Roman Empire collapsed literate men acknowledged that Virgil was a master poet Saint Augustine for example confessing how he had wept at reading the death of Dido 18 The best known surviving manuscripts of Virgil s works include manuscripts from late antiquity such as the Vergilius Augusteus the Vergilius Vaticanus and the Vergilius Romanus Middle Ages Edit Gregory of Tours read Virgil whom he quotes in several places along with some other Latin poets though he cautions that we ought not to relate their lying fables lest we fall under sentence of eternal death 19 In the Renaissance of the 12th century Alexander Neckham placed the divine Aeneid on his standard arts curriculum 20 and Dido became the romantic heroine of the age 21 Monks like Maiolus of Cluny might repudiate what they called the luxurious eloquence of Virgil 22 but they could not deny the power of his appeal Dante made Virgil his guide in Hell and the greater part of Purgatory in the Divine Comedy 23 Dante also mentions Virgil in De vulgari eloquentia along with Ovid Lucan and Statius as one of the four regulati poetae ii vi 7 Renaissance and early modernity Edit The Renaissance saw a number of authors inspired to write epic in Virgil s wake Edmund Spenser called himself the English Virgil Paradise Lost was influenced by the example of the Aeneid and later artists influenced by Virgil include Berlioz and Hermann Broch 24 Legends Edit The legend of Virgil in his basket arose in the Middle Ages and is often seen in art and mentioned in literature as part of the Power of Women literary topos demonstrating the disruptive force of female attractiveness on men In this story Virgil became enamored of a beautiful woman sometimes described as the emperor s daughter or mistress and called Lucretia She played him along and agreed to an assignation at her house which he was to sneak into at night by climbing into a large basket let down from a window When he did so he was hoisted only halfway up the wall and then left trapped there into the next day exposed to public ridicule The story paralleled that of Phyllis riding Aristotle Among other artists depicting the scene Lucas van Leyden made a woodcut and later an engraving 25 In the Middle Ages Virgil s reputation was such that it inspired legends associating him with magic and prophecy From at least the 3rd century Christian thinkers interpreted Eclogue 4 which describes the birth of a boy ushering in a golden age as a prediction of Jesus birth In consequence Virgil came to be seen on a similar level to the Hebrew prophets of the Bible as one who had heralded Christianity 26 Relatedly The Jewish Encyclopedia argues that medieval legends about the golem may have been inspired by Virgilian legends about the poet s apocryphal power to bring inanimate objects to life 27 Possibly as early as the second century AD Virgil s works were seen as having magical properties and were used for divination In what became known as the Sortes Vergilianae Virgilian Lots passages would be selected at random and interpreted to answer questions 28 In the 12th century starting around Naples but eventually spreading widely throughout Europe a tradition developed in which Virgil was regarded as a great magician Legends about Virgil and his magical powers remained popular for over two hundred years arguably becoming as prominent as his writings themselves 28 Virgil s legacy in medieval Wales was such that the Welsh version of his name Fferyllt or Pheryllt became a generic term for magic worker and survives in the modern Welsh word for pharmacist fferyllydd 29 Tomb of Virgil in Naples Italy Virgil s tomb Edit The structure known as Virgil s tomb is found at the entrance of an ancient Roman tunnel aka grotta vecchia in Piedigrotta a district 3 kilometres 1 9 mi from the centre of Naples near the Mergellina harbor on the road heading north along the coast to Pozzuoli While Virgil was already the object of literary admiration and veneration before his death in the Middle Ages his name became associated with miraculous powers and for a couple of centuries his tomb was the destination of pilgrimages and veneration 30 Spelling of name EditBy the fourth or fifth century AD the original spelling Vergilius had been changed to Virgilius and then the latter spelling spread to the modern European languages 31 The later spelling persisted even though as early as the 15th century the classical scholar Poliziano had shown Vergilius to be the original spelling 32 Today the anglicizations Vergil and Virgil are both acceptable 33 There is some speculation that the spelling Virgilius might have arisen due to a pun since virg carries an echo of the Latin word for wand uirga Vergil being particularly associated with magic in the Middle Ages There is also a possibility that virg is meant to evoke the Latin virgo virgin this would be a reference to the fourth Eclogue which has a history of Christian and specifically Messianic interpretations iv See also EditQuintus Caecilius EpirotaReferences EditNotes Edit The epitaph on his tomb in Posilipo near Naples read Mantua me genuit Calabri rapuere tenet nunc Parthenope Cecini pascua rura duces Mantua gave birth to me the Calabrians took me now Naples holds me I sang of pastures the Eclogues country the Georgics and leaders the Aeneid For a succinct summary see Globalnet co uk Archived 18 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine For a bibliography and summary see Fowler pp 1605 1606 For more discussion on the spelling of Virgil s name see Flickinger R C 1930 Vergil or Virgil The Classical Journal 25 9 658 60 Citations Edit Jones Peter 2011 Reading Virgil Aeneid I and II Cambridge University Press pp 1 4 ISBN 978 0521768665 Retrieved 23 November 2016 Bunson Matthew 2014 Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire Infobase Publishing p 28 ISBN 978 1438110271 Retrieved 15 July 2021 Ruud Jay 2008 Critical Companion to Dante Infobase Publishing p 376 ISBN 978 1438108414 Retrieved 23 November 2016 a b c d e f g h Fowler Don 1996 Virgil Publius Vergilius Maro In The Oxford Classical Dictionary 3rd ed Oxford Oxford University Press Map of Cisalpine Gaul gottwein de Archived from the original on 28 May 2008 Damen Mark 2002 2004 Vergil and The Aeneid Ch 11 in A Guide to Writing in History and Classics Utah State University Archived from the original on 16 February 2017 Retrieved 28 May 2020 a b c d e f g Conway Robert Seymour 1967 Where Was Vergil s Farm Harvard Lectures on the Vergilian Age Biblo amp Tannen ISBN 978 0819601827 pp 14 41 The article was originally sourced from Nupedia and is open content Nardoni Davide 1986 La terra di Virgilio Archeologia Viva in Italian january february ed pp 71 76 Gualtierotti Piero 2008 Castel Goffredo dalle origini ai Gonzaga in Italian Mantua pp 96 100 Horace Satires 1 5 1 6 Horace Odes 1 3 Eliot T S 1944 What Is a Classic London Faber amp Faber Avery W T 1957 Augustus and the Aeneid The Classical Journal 52 5 225 29 Jenkyns p 53 Sellar William Young Glover Terrot Reaveley Bryant Margaret 1911 Virgil In Chisholm Hugh ed Encyclopaedia Britannica 28 11th ed Cambridge University Press pp 111 116 Miller F J 1909 Evidences of Incompleteness in the Aeneid of Vergil The Classical Journal 4 11 341 55 JSTOR 3287376 Theb 12 816 817 Pliny Ep 3 7 8 K W Gransden Virgil The Aeneid Cambridge 1990 p 105 Gregory of Tours 1916 p xiii sfn error no target CITEREFGregory of Tours1916 help Helen Waddell The Wandering Scholars Fontana 1968 p 19 Waddell pp 22 3 Waddell p 101 Alighieri Dante 2003 The Divine Comedy The Inferno The Purgatorio and The Paradiso New York Berkley ISBN 978 0451208637 Gransden pp 108 111 Snyder James 1985 Northern Renaissance Art US Harry N Abrams ISBN 0136235964 pp 461 62 Ziolkowski Jan M Putnam Michael C J 2008 The Virgilian Tradition The First Fifteen Hundred Years Yale University Press pp xxxiv xxxv ISBN 978 0300108224 Retrieved 11 November 2013 Singer Isidore et al eds 1901 1906 Golem The Jewish Encyclopedia New York Funk amp Wagnalls a b Ziolkowski Jan M Putnam Michael C J 2008 The Virgilian Tradition The First Fifteen Hundred Years Yale University Press p xxxiv ISBN 978 0300108224 Retrieved 11 November 2013 Ziolkowski Jan M Putnam Michael C J 2008 The Virgilian Tradition The First Fifteen Hundred Years Yale University Press pp 101 102 ISBN 978 0300108224 Retrieved 11 November 2013 Chambers Robert 1832 The Book of Days London W and R Chambers p 366 Comparetti Domenico 1997 Vergil in the Middle Ages Princeton University Press ISBN 978 0691026787 Retrieved 23 November 2016 Wilson Okamura David Scott 2010 Virgil in the Renaissance Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0521198127 Retrieved 23 November 2016 Winkler Anthony C McCuen Metherell Jo Ray 2011 Writing the Research Paper A Handbook Cengage Learning p 278 ISBN 978 1133169024 Retrieved 23 November 2016 Further reading EditAnderson W S and L N Quartarone 2002 Approaches to Teaching Vergil s Aeneid New York Modern Language Association Buckham Philip Wentworth Joseph Spence Edward Holdsworth William Warburton and John Jortin 1825 Miscellanea Virgiliana In Scriptis Maxime Eruditorum Virorum Varie Dispersa in Unum Fasciculum Collecta Cambridge Printed for W P Grant Conway R S 1914 1915 The Youth of Vergil Bulletin of the John Rylands Library July 1915 Farrell J 1991 Vergil s Georgics and the Traditions of Ancient Epic The Art of Allusion in Literary History New York Oxford University Press 2001 The Vergilian Century Vergilius 1959 47 11 28 JSTOR 41587251 Farrell J and Michael C J Putnam eds 2010 A Companion to Vergil s Aeneid and Its Tradition Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World Chichester MA Wiley Blackwell Fletcher K F B 2014 Finding Italy Travel Nation and Colonization in Vergil s Aeneid Ann Arbor University of Michigan Press Gregory of Tours 1916 The History of the Franks translated by E Brehaut New York Columbia University Press OCLC 560532077 Hardie Philip R ed 1999 Virgil Critical Assessments of Ancient Authors 1 4 New York Routledge Henkel John 2014 Vergil Talks Technique Metapoetic Arboriculture in Georgics 2 Vergilius 1959 60 33 66 JSTOR 43185985 Horsfall N 2016 The Epic Distilled Studies in the Composition of the Aeneid Oxford Oxford University Press Mack S 1978 Patterns of Time in Vergil Hamden Archon Books Panoussi V 2009 Greek Tragedy in Vergil s Aeneid Ritual Empire and Intertext Cambridge Cambridge University Press Quinn S ed 2000 Why Vergil A Collection of Interpretations Wauconda Bolchazy Carducci Rossi A 2004 Contexts of War Manipulation of Genre in Virgilian Battle Narrative Ann Arbor University of Michigan Press Sondrup Steven P 2009 Virgil From Farms to Empire Kierkegaard s Understanding of a Roman Poet In Kierkegaard and the Roman World edited by J B Stewart Farnham Ashgate Syed Y 2005 Vergil s Aeneid and the Roman Self Subject and Nation in Literary Discourse Ann Arbor University of Michigan Press Syson A 2013 Fama and Fiction in Vergil s Aeneid Columbus Ohio State University Press External links EditVirgilat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Resources from Wikiversity Collected works Works by Virgil in eBook form at Standard Ebooks Works by Virgil at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Virgil at Internet Archive Works by Virgil at LibriVox public domain audiobooks Works of Virgil at the Perseus Digital Library Latin texts translations and commentaries Aeneid Eclogues and Georgics translated by J C Greenough 1900 Aeneid translated by T C Williams 1910 translated by John Dryden 1697 Works of Virgil at Theoi Project Aeneid Eclogues andGeorgics translated by H R Fairclough 1916 Works of Virgil at Internet Sacred Texts Archive Aeneid translated by John Dryden 1697 Eclogues and Georgics translated by J W MacKail 1934 P Vergilius Maro at The Latin Library Virgil s works text concordances and frequency list Virgil The Major Texts contemporary line by line English translations of Eclogues Georgics and Aeneid Virgil in the collection of Ferdinand Duke of Calabria at Somni Publii Vergilii Maronis Opera Naples and Milan 1450 Publii Vergilii Maronis Opera Italy 1470 1499 Publii Vergilii Maronis Opera Milan 1465 Lewis E 198 Opera at OPenn Biography Suetonius The Life of Virgil an English translation Vita Vergiliana The Life of Virgil by Aelius Donatus in original Latin Aelius Donatus Life of Virgil translated by David Wilson Okamura Vergil A Biography Project Gutenberg ed by Tenney Frank Vergilian Chronology in German Commentary The Vergil Project A new Aeneid for the 21st century A review of Robert Fagles s new translation of the Aeneid in the TLS 9 February 2007 Virgilmurder Jean Yves Maleuvre s website setting forth his theory that Virgil was murdered by Augustus The Secret History of Virgil contains selection on the magical legends and tall tales that circulated about Virgil in the Middle Ages Interview with Virgil scholar Richard Thomas and poet David Ferry who recently translated the Georgics via ThoughtCast SORGLL Aeneid Bk I 1 49 read by Robert Sonkowsky SORGLL Aeneid Bk IV 296 396 read by Stephen Daitz Bibliographies Comprehensive bibliographies on all three of Virgil s major works downloadable in Word or pdf format Bibliography of works relating Vergil to the literature of the Hellenistic age A selective Bibliographical Guide to Vergil s Aeneid Virgil in Late Antiquity the Middle Ages and the Renaissance an Online Bibliography Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Virgil amp oldid 1053219900, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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