fbpx
Wikipedia

Mary, mother of Jesus

For the 1999 television film, see Mary, Mother of Jesus (film).
"Saint Mary" and "Virgin Mary" redirect here. For other uses, see Saint Mary (disambiguation) and Virgin Mary (disambiguation).

According to the gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament, Mary was a first-century Jewish woman of Nazareth, the wife of Joseph and the virgin mother of Jesus. The Quran also describes Mary as a virgin. According to Christian theology, Mary conceived Jesus through the Holy Spirit while still a virgin, and accompanied Joseph to Bethlehem, where Jesus was born.

Mary, the mother of Jesus
Our Lady of Sorrows, by Giovanni Battista Salvi da Sassoferrato, 17th century
Bornc. 18 BC
Diedafter c. 30/33 AD
Spouse(s)Joseph
ChildrenJesus
Parent(s)unknown; according to some apocryphal writings Joachim and Anne

Mary has been venerated since early Christianity, and is considered by millions to be the holiest and greatest saint because of her extraordinary virtues as seen at the Annunciation by the archangel Gabriel. She is said to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries. The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Theotokos (Mother of God;Θεοτόκος). There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, and her Assumption into heaven. Many[which?] Protestants minimize Mary's role within Christianity, basing their argument on the alleged lack of biblical support for any beliefs other than the virgin birth.

Mary also has the highest position in Islam among all women. She is mentioned in the Quran more often than in the Bible, where two of the longer chapters of the Quran are named after her and her family.

According to Catholic and Eastern Christian teachings, at the end of her earthly life, God raised Mary's body into heaven; this is known in the Christian West as the Assumption of Mary.

Contents

Main article: Titles of Mary
Virgin and Child with angels and Sts. George and Theodore. Icon, c. 600, from Saint Catherine's Monastery

Mary's name in the original manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic nameמרים‎, transliterated as "Maryam" or "Mariam". The English name "Mary" comes from the GreekΜαρία, a shortened form of the nameΜαριάμ. BothΜαρία andΜαριάμ appear in the New Testament.

In Christianity

Madonna on Floral Wreath by Peter Paul Rubens with Jan Brueghel the Elder, c. 1619

In Christianity, Mary is commonly referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that the Holy Spirit impregnated her, thereby conceiving her first-born son Jesus miraculously, without sexual relations with her betrothed/husband Joseph, "until her son [Jesus] was born" (Matthew 1:25). The word "until" has inspired considerable analysis on whether Joseph and Mary produced siblings after the birth of Jesus or not. Among her many other names and titles are the Blessed Virgin Mary (often abbreviated to "BVM", or "BMV" after the Latin "Beata Maria Virgo"), Saint Mary (occasionally), the Mother of God (primarily in Western Christianity), the Theotokos (primarily in Eastern Christianity), Our Lady (Medieval Italian: Madonna), and Queen of Heaven (Regina caeli; see also here), although the title "queen of heaven" was for centuries before used as an epithet for a number of ancient sky-goddesses, such as Nin-anna, Astarte, Ishtar and Astoreth, the Canaanite sky-goddess worshipped during the Hebrew prophet Jeremiah's lifetime.

Titles in use vary among Anglicans, Lutherans, Catholics, Orthodox, Protestants, Mormons, and other Christians.

The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos (Θεοτόκος or loosely "Mother of God"), Aeiparthenos (ἀειπαρθὲνος) which means ever-virgin, as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, and Panagia (Παναγία) meaning "all-holy". Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, and these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions. For example, the title "Our Lady of Sorrows" has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelo's Pietà.

The title "Theotokos" was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. The direct equivalents of title in Latin are Deipara and Dei Genitrix, although the phrase is more often loosely translated into Latin as Mater Dei ("Mother of God"), with similar patterns for other languages used in the Latin Church. However, this same phrase in Greek (Μήτηρ Θεοῦ), in the abbreviated form'ΜΡ ΘΥ', is an indication commonly attached to her image in Byzantine icons. The Council stated that the Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God".

Some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis. For instance, the title "Queen Mother" has been given to Mary, as she was the mother of Jesus, sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his ancestral descent from King David. Other titles have arisen from reported miracles, special appeals, or occasions for calling on Mary.

In Islam

Main article: Mary in Islam

In Islam, Mary is known as Maryam (Arabic:مريم‎, romanized: Maryām), mother of Isa (عيسى بن مريم). She is often referred to by the honorific title "Sayyidatuna", meaning "Our Lady"; this title is in parallel to "Sayyiduna" ("Our Lord"), used for the prophets. A related term of endearment is "Siddiqah", meaning "she who confirms the truth" and "she who believes sincerely completely". Another title for Mary is "Qānitah", which signifies both constant submission to God and absorption in prayer and invocation in Islam. She is also called "Tahira", meaning "one who has been purified" and representing her status as one of two humans in creation (and the only woman) to not be touched by Satan at any point.

The Annunciation by Eustache Le Sueur, an example of 17th century Marian art. The Angel Gabriel announces to Mary her pregnancy with Jesus and offers her White Lilies.

Genealogy

Further information: Genealogy of Jesus

The New Testament tells little of Mary's early history. The Gospel of Matthew does give a genealogy for Jesus by his father's paternal line, only identifying Mary as the wife of Joseph.John 19:25 states that Mary had a sister; semantically it is unclear if this sister is the same as Mary of Clopas, or if she is left unnamed. Jerome identifies Mary of Clopas as the sister of Mary, mother of Jesus. According to the early 2nd century historian Hegesippus, Mary of Clopas was likely Mary's sister-in-law, understanding Clopas (Cleophas) to have been Joseph's brother.

According to the writer of Luke, Mary was a relative of Elizabeth, wife of the priest Zechariah of the priestly division of Abijah, who was herself part of the lineage of Aaron and so of the Tribe of Levi. Some of those who believe that the relationship with Elizabeth was on the maternal side, believe that Mary, like Joseph, was of the royal Davidic line and so of the Tribe of Judah, and that the genealogy of Jesus presented in Luke 3 from Nathan, is in fact the genealogy of Mary, while the genealogy from Solomon given in Matthew 1 is that of Joseph. (Aaron's wife Elisheba was of the tribe of Judah, so all their descendants are from both Levi and Judah.)[Num.1:7 & Ex.6:23]

Annunciation

The Virgin's first seven steps, mosaic from Chora Church, c. 12th century
Main article: Annunciation

Mary resided in "her own house"[Lk.1:56] in Nazareth in Galilee, possibly with her parents, and during her betrothal—the first stage of a Jewish marriage—the angel Gabriel announced to her that she was to be the mother of the promised Messiah by conceiving him through the Holy Spirit, and, after initially expressing incredulity at the announcement, she responded, "I am the handmaid of the Lord. Let it be done unto me according to your word." Joseph planned to quietly divorce her, but was told her conception was by the Holy Spirit in a dream by "an angel of the Lord"; the angel told him to not hesitate to take her as his wife, which Joseph did, thereby formally completing the wedding rites.[Mt 1:18–25]

Since the angel Gabriel had told Mary that Elizabeth—having previously been barren—was then miraculously pregnant, Mary hurried to see Elizabeth, who was living with her husband Zechariah in "Hebron, in the hill country of Judah". Mary arrived at the house and greeted Elizabeth who called Mary "the mother of my Lord", and Mary spoke the words of praise that later became known as the Magnificat from her first word in the Latin version.[Luke 1:46–55] After about three months, Mary returned to her own house.[Lk 1:56–57]

Birth of Jesus

A nativity scene in France. Santons featuring the Virgin Mary.
Main article: Nativity of Jesus

According to the author of the gospel according to Luke, a decree of the Roman Emperor Augustus required that Joseph return to his hometown of Bethlehem to register for a Roman census; see Census of Quirinius. While he was there with Mary, she gave birth to Jesus; but because there was no place for them in the inn, she used a manger as a cradle.: p.14 [2:1ff] After eight days, he was circumcised according to Jewish law and named "Jesus" (ישוע), which means "Yahweh is salvation".

After Mary continued in the "blood of her purifying" another 33 days, for a total of 40 days, she brought her burnt offering and sin offering to the Temple in Jerusalem,[Luke 2:22] so the priest could make atonement for her.[Leviticus 12:1–8] They also presented Jesus – "As it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord" (Luke 2:23other verses). After the prophecies of Simeon and the prophetess Anna inLuke 2:25–38, the family "returned into Galilee, to their own city Nazareth".[Luke 2:39]

According to the author of the gospel according to Matthew, the Magi arrived at Bethlehem where Jesus and his family were living. Joseph was warned in a dream that King Herod wanted to murder the infant, and the family fled by night to Egypt and stayed there for some time. After Herod's death in 4 BC, they returned to Nazareth in Galilee, rather than Bethlehem, because Herod's son Archelaus was the ruler of Judaea.[Mat.2]

Mary is involved in the only event in Jesus' adolescent life that is recorded in the New Testament. At the age of 12, Jesus, having become separated from his parents on their return journey from the Passover celebration in Jerusalem, was found in the Temple among the religious teachers.: p.210 [Lk 2:41–52]

In the life of Jesus

Mary was present when, at her suggestion, Jesus worked his first miracle during a wedding at Cana by turning water into wine.[Jn 2:1–11] Subsequently, there are events when Mary is present along with James, Joseph, Simon, and Judas, called Jesus' brothers, and unnamed sisters. Following Jerome, the Church Fathers interpreted the words translated as "brother" and "sister" as referring to close relatives.

The hagiography of Mary and the Holy Family can be contrasted with other material in the Gospels. These references include an incident which can be interpreted as Jesus rejecting his family in the New Testament: "And his mother and his brothers arrived, and standing outside, they sent in a message asking for him […] And looking at those who sat in a circle around him, Jesus said, 'These are my mother and my brothers. Whoever does the will of God is my brother, and sister, and mother'."[3:31–35]

Mary is also depicted as being present among the women at the crucifixion during the crucifixion standing near "the disciple whom Jesus loved" along with Mary of Clopas and Mary Magdalene,[Jn 19:25–26] to which listMatthew 27:56 adds "the mother of the sons of Zebedee", presumably the Salome mentioned inMark 15:40. This representation is called a Stabat Mater. While not recorded in the Gospel accounts, Mary cradling the dead body of her son is a common motif in art, called a "pietà" or "pity".

After the Ascension of Jesus

InActs 1:26, especially v. 14, Mary is the only one other than the eleven apostles to be mentioned by name who abode in the upper room, when they returned from Mount Olivet. From this time, she disappears from the biblical accounts, although it is held by Catholics that she is again portrayed as the heavenly woman of Revelation.[Rev 12:1]

Her death is not recorded in the scriptures, but Catholic and Orthodox tradition and doctrine have her assumed (taken bodily) into Heaven. Belief in the corporeal assumption of Mary is a dogma of the Catholic Church, in the Latin and Eastern Catholic Churches alike, and is believed as well by the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Coptic Orthodox Church, and parts of the Anglican Communion and Continuing Anglican movement.

The Dormition: ivory plaque, late 10th–early 11th century (Musée de Cluny)

According to the apocryphal Gospel of James, Mary was the daughter of Saint Joachim and Saint Anne. Before Mary's conception, Anne had been barren and was far advanced in years. Mary was given to service as a consecrated virgin in the Temple in Jerusalem when she was three years old, much as Hannah had taken Samuel to the Tabernacle as recorded in the Old Testament. The idea that she was allowed in the Holy of Holies is a patent impossibility, as this likely would have constituted blasphemy for Ancient Jews.

While unproven, some apocryphal accounts state that at the time of her betrothal to Joseph, Mary was 12–14 years old. According to ancient Jewish custom, Mary could have been betrothed at about 12. Hyppolitus of Thebes says that Mary lived for 11 years after the death of her son Jesus, dying in 41 AD.

The earliest extant biographical writing on Mary is Life of the Virgin attributed to the 7th century saint Maximus the Confessor, which portrays her as a key element of the early Christian Church after the death of Jesus.

In the 19th century, a house near Ephesus in Turkey was found, based on the visions of Anne Catherine Emmerich, an Augustinian nun in Germany. It has since been visited as the House of the Virgin Mary by Roman Catholic pilgrims who consider it the place where Mary lived until her assumption. The Gospel of John states that Mary went to live with the Disciple whom Jesus loved,[Jn 19:27] identified as John the Evangelist.[Jn 21:20–24] Irenaeus and Eusebius of Caesarea wrote in their histories that John later went to Ephesus, which may provide the basis for the early belief that Mary also lived in Ephesus with John.


Mary
The Virgin in Prayer, by Sassoferrato, c. 1650
Western Christianity:
Mother of God, Queen of Heaven, Mother of the Church (see Titles of Mary)
Eastern Christianity:
Theotokos
Islam:
Sayyidatna ("Our Lady"), Greatest Woman, the Chosen One, the Purified One
Honored inChristianity, Islam
CanonizedPre-Congregation
Major shrineSanta Maria Maggiore (See Marian shrines)
FeastSee Marian feast days
AttributesBlue mantle, crown of 12 stars, pregnant woman, roses, woman with child, woman trampling serpent, crescent moon, woman clothed with the sun, heart pierced by sword, rosary beads
PatronageSee Patronage of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Christian

Christian Marian perspectives include a great deal of diversity. While some Christians such as Catholics and Eastern Orthodox have well established Marian traditions, Protestants at large pay scant attention to Mariological themes. Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutherans venerate the Virgin Mary. This veneration especially takes the form of prayer for intercession with her Son, Jesus Christ. Additionally, it includes composing poems and songs in Mary's honor, painting icons or carving statues of her, and conferring titles on Mary that reflect her position among the saints.

Catholic

In the Catholic Church, Mary is accorded the title "Blessed" (beata,μακάρια) in recognition of her assumption to Heaven and her capacity to intercede on behalf of those who pray to her. There is a difference between the usage of the term "blessed" as pertaining to Mary and its usage as pertaining to a beatified person. "Blessed" as a Marian title refers to her exalted state as being the greatest among the saints; for a person who has been declared beatified, on the other hand, "blessed" simply indicates that they may be venerated despite not being officially canonized. Catholic teachings make clear that Mary is not considered divine and prayers to her are not answered by her, but rather by God through her intercession. The four Catholic dogmas regarding Mary are: her status as Theotokos, or Mother of God; her perpetual virginity; the Immaculate Conception; and her bodily Assumption into heaven.

The Blessed Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus has a more central role in Roman Catholic teachings and beliefs than in any other major Christian group. Not only do Roman Catholics have more theological doctrines and teachings that relate to Mary, but they have more festivals, prayers, devotional, and venerative practices than any other group. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "The Church's devotion to the Blessed Virgin is intrinsic to Christian worship."

For centuries, Catholics have performed acts of consecration and entrustment to Mary at personal, societal and regional levels. These acts may be directed to the Virgin herself, to the Immaculate Heart of Mary and to the Immaculate Conception. In Catholic teachings, consecration to Mary does not diminish or substitute the love of God, but enhances it, for all consecration is ultimately made to God.

Following the growth of Marian devotions in the 16th century, Catholic saints wrote books such as Glories of Mary and True Devotion to Mary that emphasized Marian veneration and taught that "the path to Jesus is through Mary". Marian devotions are at times linked to Christocentric devotions (such as the Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary).

Key Marian devotions include: Seven Sorrows of Mary, Rosary and scapular, Miraculous Medal and Reparations to Mary. The months of May and October are traditionally "Marian months" for Roman Catholics; the daily Rosary is encouraged in October and in May Marian devotions take place in many regions. Popes have issued a number of Marian encyclicals and Apostolic Letters to encourage devotions to and the veneration of the Virgin Mary.

Catholics place high emphasis on Mary's roles as protector and intercessor and the Catechism refers to Mary as "honored with the title 'Mother of God,' to whose protection the faithful fly in all their dangers and needs". Key Marian prayers include: Ave Maria, Alma Redemptoris Mater, Sub tuum praesidium, Ave maris stella, Regina caeli, Ave Regina caelorum and the Magnificat.

The chapel based on the claimed House of Mary in Ephesus

Mary's participation in the processes of salvation and redemption has also been emphasized in the Catholic tradition, but they are not doctrines. Pope John Paul II's 1987 encyclical Redemptoris Mater began with the sentence: "The Mother of the Redeemer has a precise place in the plan of salvation."

In the 20th century, both popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI emphasized the Marian focus of the Catholic Church. Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) suggested a redirection of the whole church towards the program of Pope John Paul II in order to ensure an authentic approach to Christology via a return to the "whole truth about Mary," writing:

"It is necessary to go back to Mary if we want to return to that 'truth about Jesus Christ,' 'truth about the Church' and 'truth about man.'"

Eastern Orthodox

A mosaic from the Hagia Sophia of Constantinople (modern Istanbul), depicting Mary with Jesus, flanked by John II Komnenos (left) and his wife Irene of Hungary (right), c. 1118 AD
15th century icon of the Theotokos ("God-bearer")

Eastern Orthodox Christianity includes a large number of traditions regarding the Ever-Virgin Mary, the Theotokos. The Orthodox believe that she was and remained a virgin before and after Christ's birth. The Theotokia (hymns to the Theotokos) are an essential part of the Divine Services in the Eastern Church and their positioning within the liturgical sequence effectively places the Theotokos in the most prominent place after Christ. Within the Orthodox tradition, the order of the saints begins with: the Theotokos, Angels, Prophets, Apostles, Fathers and Martyrs, giving the Virgin Mary precedence over the angels. She is also proclaimed as the "Lady of the Angels".

The views of the Church Fathers still play an important role in the shaping of Orthodox Marian perspective. However, the Orthodox views on Mary are mostly doxological, rather than academic: they are expressed in hymns, praise, liturgical poetry, and the veneration of icons. One of the most loved Orthodox Akathists (standing hymns) is devoted to Mary and it is often simply called the Akathist Hymn. Five of the twelve Great Feasts in Orthodoxy are dedicated to Mary. The Sunday of Orthodoxy directly links the Virgin Mary's identity as Mother of God with icon veneration. A number of Orthodox feasts are connected with the miraculous icons of the Theotokos.

The Orthodox view Mary as "superior to all created beings", although not divine. As such, the designation of Saint to Mary as Saint Mary is not appropriate. The Orthodox does not venerate Mary as conceived immaculate. Gregory of Nazianzus, Archbishop of Constantinople in the 4th century AD, speaking on the Nativity of Jesus Christ argues that "Conceived by the Virgin, who first in body and soul was purified by the Holy Ghost, He came forth as God with that which He had assumed, One Person in two Natures, Flesh and Spirit, of which the latter defined the former." The Orthodox celebrate the Dormition of the Theotokos, rather than Assumption.

The Protoevangelium of James, an extra-canonical book, has been the source of many Orthodox beliefs on Mary. The account of Mary's life presented includes her consecration as a virgin at the temple at age three. The high priest Zachariah blessed Mary and informed her that God had magnified her name among many generations. Zachariah placed Mary on the third step of the altar, whereby God gave her grace. While in the temple, Mary was miraculously fed by an angel, until she was 12 years old. At that point, an angel told Zachariah to betroth Mary to a widower in Israel, who would be indicated. This story provides the theme of many hymns for the Feast of Presentation of Mary, and icons of the feast depict the story. The Orthodox believe that Mary was instrumental in the growth of Christianity during the life of Jesus, and after his Crucifixion, and Orthodox theologian Sergei Bulgakov has written: "The Virgin Mary is the centre, invisible, but real, of the Apostolic Church."

Theologians from the Orthodox tradition have made prominent contributions to the development of Marian thought and devotion. John Damascene (c. 650c. 750) was one of the greatest Orthodox theologians. Among other Marian writings, he proclaimed the essential nature of Mary's heavenly Assumption or Dormition and her meditative role.

It was necessary that the body of the one who preserved her virginity intact in giving birth should also be kept incorrupt after death. It was necessary that she, who carried the Creator in her womb when he was a baby, should dwell among the tabernacles of heaven.

From her we have harvested the grape of life; from her we have cultivated the seed of immortality. For our sake she became Mediatrix of all blessings; in her God became man, and man became God.

More recently, Sergei Bulgakov expressed the Orthodox sentiments towards Mary as follows:

Mary is not merely the instrument, but the direct positive condition of the Incarnation, its human aspect. Christ could not have been incarnate by some mechanical process, violating human nature. It was necessary for that nature itself to say for itself, by the mouth of the most pure human being: "Behold the handmaid of the Lord, be it unto me according to Thy word."

Protestant

Further information: Protestant views on Mary

Protestants in general reject the veneration and invocation of the Saints.: 1174 They share the belief that Mary is the mother of Jesus and "blessed among women"[Luke 1:42] but they generally do not agree that Mary is to be venerated. She is considered to be an outstanding example of a life dedicated to God. As such, they tend not to accept certain church doctrines such as her being preserved from sin. Theologian Karl Barth wrote that "the heresy of the Catholic Church is its Mariology".

Some early Protestants venerated Mary. Martin Luther wrote that: "Mary is full of grace, proclaimed to be entirely without sin. God's grace fills her with everything good and makes her devoid of all evil." However, as of 1532, Luther stopped celebrating the feast of the Assumption of Mary and also discontinued his support of the Immaculate Conception. John Calvin remarked, "It cannot be denied that God in choosing and destining Mary to be the Mother of his Son, granted her the highest honor." However, Calvin firmly rejected the notion that Mary can intercede between Christ and man.

Although Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli honored Mary as the Mother of God in the 16th century, they did so less than Martin Luther. Thus the idea of respect and high honor for Mary was not rejected by the first Protestants; but, they came to criticize the Roman Catholics for venerating Mary. Following the Council of Trent in the 16th century, as Marian veneration became associated with Catholics, Protestant interest in Mary decreased. During the Age of the Enlightenment, any residual interest in Mary within Protestant churches almost disappeared, although Anglicans and Lutherans continued to honor her.

In the 20th century, some Protestants reacted in opposition to the Catholic dogma of the Assumption of Mary.[citation needed] The tone of the Second Vatican Council began to mend the ecumenical differences, and Protestants began to show interest in Marian themes.[citation needed] In 1997 and 1998, ecumenical dialogues between Catholics and Protestants took place, but, to date, the majority of Protestants disagree with Marian veneration and some view it as a challenge to the authority of Scripture.[better source needed]

Anglican

The various churches that form the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican movement have different views on Marian doctrines and venerative practices given that there is no single church with universal authority within the Communion and that the mother church (the Church of England) understands itself to be both "Catholic" and "Reformed". Thus unlike the Protestant churches at large, the Anglican Communion includes segments which still retain some veneration of Mary.

Mary's special position within God's purpose of salvation as "God-bearer" is recognised in a number of ways by some Anglican Christians. All the member churches of the Anglican Communion affirm in the historic creeds that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary, and celebrates the feast days of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple. This feast is called in older prayer books the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary on 2 February. The Annunciation of our Lord to the Blessed Virgin on 25 March was from before the time of Bede until the 18th century New Year's Day in England. The Annunciation is called the "Annunciation of our Lady" in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer. Anglicans also celebrate in the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin on 31 May, though in some provinces the traditional date of 2 July is kept. The feast of the St. Mary the Virgin is observed on the traditional day of the Assumption, 15 August. The Nativity of the Blessed Virgin is kept on 8 September.

The Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary is kept in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, on 8 December. In certain Anglo-Catholic parishes this feast is called the Immaculate Conception. Again, the Assumption of Mary is believed in by most Anglo-Catholics, but is considered a pious opinion by moderate Anglicans. Protestant-minded Anglicans reject the celebration of these feasts.

Prayers and venerative practices vary greatly. For instance, as of the 19th century, following the Oxford Movement, Anglo-Catholics frequently pray the Rosary, the Angelus, Regina caeli, and other litanies and anthems of Mary reminiscent of Catholic practices. Conversely, Low-church Anglicans rarely invoke the Blessed Virgin except in certain hymns, such as the second stanza of Ye Watchers and Ye Holy Ones.

The Anglican Society of Mary was formed in 1931 and maintains chapters in many countries. The purpose of the society is to foster devotion to Mary among Anglicans. High-church Anglicans espouse doctrines that are closer to Roman Catholics, and retain veneration for Mary, such as official Anglican pilgrimages to Our Lady of Lourdes, which have taken place since 1963, and pilgrimages to Our Lady of Walsingham, which have taken place for hundreds of years.

Historically, there has been enough common ground between Roman Catholics and Anglicans on Marian issues that in 2005, a joint statement called Mary: grace and hope in Christ was produced through ecumenical meetings of Anglicans and Roman Catholic theologians. This document, informally known as the "Seattle Statement", is not formally endorsed by either the Catholic Church or the Anglican Communion, but is viewed by its authors as the beginning of a joint understanding of Mary.

Lutheran
Main article: Lutheran Mariology
Stained glass window of Jesus leaving his mother, in a Lutheran church in South Carolina

Despite Martin Luther's harsh polemics against his Roman Catholic opponents over issues concerning Mary and the saints, theologians appear to agree that Luther adhered to the Marian decrees of the ecumenical councils and dogmas of the church. He held fast to the belief that Mary was a perpetual virgin and Mother of God. Special attention is given to the assertion that Luther, some 300 years before the dogmatization of the Immaculate Conception by Pope Pius IX in 1854, was a firm adherent of that view[citation needed]. Others maintain that Luther in later years changed his position on the Immaculate Conception, which, at that time was undefined in the church, maintaining however the sinlessness of Mary throughout her life. For Luther, early in his life, the Assumption of Mary was an understood fact, although he later stated that the Bible did not say anything about it and stopped celebrating its feast. Important to him was the belief that Mary and the saints do live on after death. "Throughout his career as a priest-professor-reformer, Luther preached, taught, and argued about the veneration of Mary with a verbosity that ranged from childlike piety to sophisticated polemics. His views are intimately linked to his Christocentric theology and its consequences for liturgy and piety."

Luther, while revering Mary, came to criticize the "Papists" for blurring the line between high admiration of the grace of God wherever it is seen in a human being, and religious service given to another creature. He considered the Roman Catholic practice of celebrating saints' days and making intercessory requests addressed especially to Mary and other departed saints to be idolatry. His final thoughts on Marian devotion and veneration are preserved in a sermon preached at Wittenberg only a month before his death:

Therefore, when we preach faith, that we should worship nothing but God alone, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, as we say in the Creed: 'I believe in God the Father almighty and in Jesus Christ,' then we are remaining in the temple at Jerusalem. Again,'This is my beloved Son; listen to him.' 'You will find him in a manger'. He alone does it. But reason says the opposite:
What, us? Are we to worship only Christ? Indeed, shouldn't we also honor the holy mother of Christ? She is the woman who bruised the head of the serpent. Hear us, Mary, for thy Son so honors thee that he can refuse thee nothing. Here Bernard went too far in his Homilies on the Gospel: Missus est Angelus. God has commanded that we should honor the parents; therefore I will call upon Mary. She will intercede for me with the Son, and the Son with the Father, who will listen to the Son. So you have the picture of God as angry and Christ as judge; Mary shows to Christ her breast and Christ shows his wounds to the wrathful Father. That's the kind of thing this comely bride, the wisdom of reason cooks up: Mary is the mother of Christ, surely Christ will listen to her; Christ is a stern judge, therefore I will call upon St. George and St. Christopher. No, we have been by God's command baptized in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, just as the Jews were circumcised.

Certain Lutheran churches such as the Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church continue to venerate Mary and the saints in the same manner that Roman Catholics do, and hold all Marian dogmas as part of their faith.

Methodist

Methodists do not have any additional teachings on the Virgin Mary except from what is mentioned in Scripture and the ecumenical Creeds. As such, Methodists generally accept the doctrine of the virgin birth, but reject the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. John Wesley, the principal founder of the Methodist movement within the Church of England, believed that Mary "continued a pure and unspotted virgin", thus upholding the doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary. Contemporary Methodism does hold that Mary was a virgin before, during, and immediately after the birth of Christ. In addition, some Methodists also hold the doctrine of the Assumption of Mary as a pious opinion.

Nontrinitarian

Nontrinitarians, such as Unitarians, Christadelphians, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Latter Day Saints also acknowledge Mary as the biological mother of Jesus Christ, but most reject any immaculate conception and do not recognize Marian titles such as "Mother of God". The Latter Day Saint movement's view affirms the virgin birth of Jesus and Christ's divinity, but only as a separate being than God the Father. The Book of Mormon refers to Mary by name in prophecies and describes her as "most beautiful and fair above all other virgins" and as a "precious and chosen vessel."

In non-trinitarian groups that are also Christian mortalists, Mary is not seen as an intercessor between humankind and Jesus, whom mortalists would consider "asleep", awaiting resurrection.

Jewish

The issue of the parentage of Jesus in the Talmud also affects Jewish views of Mary. However, the Talmud does not mention Mary by name, and is considerate rather than only polemic. The story about Panthera is also found in the Toledot Yeshu, the literary origins of which can not be traced with any certainty, and given that it is unlikely to go before the 4th century, the time is too late to include authentic remembrances of Jesus. The Blackwell Companion to Jesus states that the Toledot Yeshu has no historical facts and was perhaps created as a tool for warding off conversions to Christianity. The tales from the Toledot Yeshu did impart a negative picture of Mary to ordinary Jewish readers. The circulation of the Toledot Yeshu was widespread among European and Middle Eastern Jewish communities since the 9th century. The name Panthera may be a distortion of the term parthenos (virgin) and Raymond E. Brown considers the story of Panthera a fanciful explanation of the birth of Jesus that includes very little historical evidence. Robert Van Voorst states that because Toledot Yeshu is a medieval document with its lack of a fixed form and orientation towards a popular audience, it is "most unlikely" to have reliable historical information. Stacks of the copies of the Talmud were burnt upon a court order after the 1240 Disputation for allegedly containing material defaming the character of Mary.

Islamic

Main article: Mary in Islam
Persian miniature of Mary and Jesus

The Virgin Mary holds a singularly exalted place in Islam, and she is considered by the Quran to have been the greatest woman in the history of humankind. The Islamic scripture recounts the Divine Promise given to Mary as being: "Mary! God has chosen thee, and purified thee; He hath chosen thee above all the women of creation" (3:42).

Mary is often referred to by Muslims by the honorific title "Sayedetina" (Our Lady). She is mentioned in the Quran as the daughter of Imran.

Moreover, Mary is the only woman named in the Quran and she is mentioned or referred to in the scripture a total of 50 times. Mary holds a singularly distinguished and honored position among women in the Quran. A sura (chapter) in the Quran is titled "Maryam" (Mary), the only sura in the Quran named after a woman, in which the story of Mary (Maryam) and Jesus (Isa) is recounted according to the view of Jesus in Islam.

Birth

In a narration of Hadith from Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, he mentions that Allah revealed to Imran, "I will grant you a boy, blessed, one who will cure the blind and the leper and one who will raise the dead by My permission. And I will send him as an apostle to the Children of Israel." Then Imran related the story to his wife, Hannah, the mother of Mary. When she became pregnant, she conceived it was a boy, but when she gave birth to a girl, she stated "Oh my Lord! Verily I have delivered a female, and the male is not like the female, for a girl will not be a prophet," to which Allah replies in the Quran, "Allah knows better what has been delivered" [3:36]. When Allah bestowed Jesus to Mary, he fulfilled his promise to Imran.

Motherhood

Mary shaking the palm tree for dates

Mary was declared (uniquely along with Jesus) to be a "Sign of God" to humanity; as one who "guarded her chastity"; an "obedient one"; "chosen of her mother" and dedicated to Allah whilst still in the womb; uniquely (amongst women) "Accepted into service by God"; cared for by (one of the prophets as per Islam) Zakariya (Zacharias); that in her childhood she resided in the Temple and uniquely had access to Al-Mihrab (understood to be the Holy of Holies), and was provided with heavenly "provisions" by God.

Mary is also called a "Chosen One"; a "Purified One"; a "Truthful one"; her child conceived through "a Word from God"; and "exalted above all women of The Worlds/Universes (the material and heavenly worlds)".

The Quran relates detailed narrative accounts of Maryam (Mary) in two places,Quran 3:35–47 and 19:16–34. These state beliefs in both the Immaculate Conception of Mary and the virgin birth of Jesus. The account given in Sura 19 is nearly identical with that in the Gospel according to Luke, and both of these (Luke, Sura 19) begin with an account of the visitation of an angel upon Zakariya (Zecharias) and "Good News of the birth of Yahya (John)", followed by the account of the annunciation. It mentions how Mary was informed by an angel that she would become the mother of Jesus through the actions of God alone.

In the Islamic tradition, Mary and Jesus were the only children who could not be touched by Satan at the moment of their birth, for God imposed a veil between them and Satan. According to the author Shabbir Akhtar, the Islamic perspective on Mary's Immaculate Conception is compatible with the Catholic doctrine of the same topic. "O People of the Book! Do not go beyond the bounds in your religion, and do not say anything of Allah but the truth. The Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, was but a Messenger of God, and a Word of His (Power) which He conveyed to Mary, and a spirit from Him. So believe in Allah (as the One, Unique God), and His Messengers (including Jesus, as Messenger); and do not say: (Allah is one of) a trinity. Give up (this assertion) – (it is) for your own good (to do so). Allah is but One Allah; All-Glorified He is in that He is absolutely above having a son. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And Allah suffices as the One to be relied on, to Whom affairs should be referred." Quran 4/171

The Quran says that Jesus was the result of a virgin birth. The most detailed account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus is provided in Suras 3 and 19 of the Quran, where it is written that God sent an angel to announce that she could shortly expect to bear a son, despite being a virgin.

Baháʼí Faith

The Baháʼí Faith venerates Mary as the mother of Jesus. The Kitáb-i-Íqán, the primary theological work of the Baháʼí religion, describes Mary as "that most beauteous countenance," and "that veiled and immortal Countenance." The Baháʼí writings claim Jesus Christ was "conceived of the Holy Ghost" and assert that in the Baháʼí Faith "the reality of the mystery of the Immaculacy of the Virgin Mary is confessed."

Biblical scholars

The statement found in Matthew 1:25 that Joseph did not have sexual relations with Mary before she gave birth to Jesus has been debated among scholars, with some saying that she did not remain a virgin and some saying that she was a perpetual virgin. Other scholars contend that the Greek word heos ("until") denotes a state up to a point, but does not mean that the state ended after that point, and that Matthew 1:25 does not confirm or deny the virginity of Mary after the birth of Jesus. According to Biblical scholar Bart Ehrman the Hebrew word almah, meaning young woman of childbearing age, was translated into Greek as parthenos, which often, though not always, refers to a young woman who has never had sex. In Isaiah 7:14, it is commonly believed by Christians to be the prophecy of the Virgin Mary referred to in Matthew 1:23. While Matthew and Luke give differing versions of the virgin birth, John quotes the uninitiated Philip and the disbelieving Jews gathered at Galilee referring to Joseph as Jesus' father.

Other biblical verses have also been debated; for example, the reference made by Paul the Apostle that Jesus was made "of the seed of David according to the flesh" (Romans 1:3) may be interpreted as Joseph being the father of Jesus.

Pre-Christian Rome

From the early stages of Christianity, belief in the virginity of Mary and the virgin conception of Jesus, as stated in the gospels, holy and supernatural, was used by detractors, both political and religious, as a topic for discussions, debates, and writings, specifically aimed to challenge the divinity of Jesus and thus Christians and Christianity alike. In the 2nd century, as part of his anti-Christian polemic The True Word, the pagan philosopher Celsus contended that Jesus was actually the illegitimate son of a Roman soldier named Panthera. The church father Origen dismissed this assertion as a complete fabrication in his apologetic treatise Against Celsus. How far Celsus sourced his view from Jewish sources remains a subject of discussion.

Main article: Marian devotions

2nd century

Justin Martyr was among the first to draw a parallel between Eve and Mary. This derives from his comparison of Adam and Jesus. In his Dialogue with Trypho, written sometime between 155-167, he explains:

He became man by the Virgin, in order that the disobedience which proceeded from the serpent might receive its destruction in the same manner in which it derived its origin. For Eve, who was a virgin and undefiled, having conceived the word of the serpent, brought forth disobedience and death. But the Virgin Mary received faith and joy, when the angel Gabriel announced the good tidings to her that the Spirit of the Lord would come upon her, and the power of the Highest would overshadow her: wherefore also the Holy Thing begotten of her is the Son of God; and she replied, 'Be it unto me according to thy word." And by her has He been born, to whom we have proved so many scriptures refer, and by whom God destroys both the serpent and those angels and men who are like him; but works deliverance from death to those who repent of their wickedness and believe upon Him.

Ireneaus, bishop of Lyon, also takes this up, in Against Heresies, written about the year 182:

In accordance with this design, Mary the Virgin is found obedient, saying, “Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it unto me according to your word.” Luke 1:38 But Eve was disobedient; for she did not obey when as yet she was a virgin. ... having become disobedient, was made the cause of death, both to herself and to the entire human race; so also did Mary, having a man betrothed [to her], and being nevertheless a virgin, by yielding obedience, become the cause of salvation, both to herself and the whole human race. And on this account does the law term a woman betrothed to a man, the wife of him who had betrothed her, although she was as yet a virgin; thus indicating the back-reference from Mary to Eve,...For the Lord, having been born “the First-begotten of the dead,” Revelation 1:5 and receiving into His bosom the ancient fathers, has regenerated them into the life of God, He having been made Himself the beginning of those that live, as Adam became the beginning of those who die. 1 Corinthians 15:20-22 Wherefore also Luke, commencing the genealogy with the Lord, carried it back to Adam, indicating that it was He who regenerated them into the Gospel of life, and not they Him. And thus also it was that the knot of Eve's disobedience was loosed by the obedience of Mary. For what the virgin Eve had bound fast through unbelief, this did the virgin Mary set free through faith.

3rd to 5th centuries

Christian devotion to Mary predates the emergence of a specific Marian liturgical system in the 5th century, following the First Council of Ephesus in 431. In Egypt, the veneration of Mary had started in the 3rd century and the term "Theotokos" was used by Origen, the Alexandrian Father of the Church. The earliest known Marian prayer (the Sub tuum praesidium, or Beneath Thy Protection) is from the 3rd century (perhaps 270), and its text was rediscovered in 1917 on a papyrus in Egypt. Following the Edict of Milan in 313, by the 5th century artistic images of Mary began to appear in public and larger churches were being dedicated to Mary, such as the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome.

The Council of Ephesus itself was held at a church in Ephesus which had been dedicated to Mary about a hundred years before. The Church of the Seat of Mary in Palestine was built shortly after the introduction of Marian liturgy at the council of Ephesus, in 456, by a widow named Ikelia.

4th century Arabia

According to the 4th century heresiologist Epiphanius of Salamis, the Virgin Mary was worshipped as a mother goddess in the Christian sect of Collyridianism, which was found throughout Arabia sometime during the 300s AD. Collyridianism had women performing priestly acts, and made bread offerings to the Virgin Mary. The group was condemned as heretical by the Roman Catholic Church and was preached against by Epiphanius of Salamis, who wrote about the group in his writings titled Panarion.

The adoption of the mother of Jesus as a virtual goddess may represent a reintroduction of aspects of the worship of Isis. According to Sabrina Higgins, "When looking at images of the Egyptian goddess Isis and those of the Virgin Mary, one may initially observe iconographic similarities. These parallels have led many scholars to suggest that there is a distinct iconographic relationship between Isis and Mary. In fact, some scholars have gone even further, and have suggested, on the basis of this relationship, a direct link between the cult of Mary and that of Isis." Conversely, Carl Olson and Sandra Miesel dispute the idea that Christianity copied elements of Isis's iconography, saying that the symbol of a mother and her child is part of the universal human experience.

Byzantium

Ephesus is a cultic centre of Mary, the site of the first church dedicated to her and the rumoured place of her death. Ephesus was previously a centre for worship of Artemis a virgin goddess; the Temple of Artemis there is regarded as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The cult of Mary was furthered by Queen Theodora in the 6th century. According to William E. Phipps, in the book Survivals of Roman Religion "Gordon Laing argues convincingly that the worship of Artemis as both virgin and mother at the grand Ephesian temple contributed to the veneration of Mary."

Madonna of humility by Fra Angelico, c. 1430. A traditional depiction of Mary wearing blue clothes.

Middle Ages

The Middle Ages saw many legends about Mary, her parents, and even her grandparents. The Virgin's popularity increased dramatically from the 12th century, linked to the Vatican's designation of Mary as the mediatrix.

Depiction in Renaissance art

In paintings, Mary is traditionally portrayed in blue. This tradition can trace its origin to the Byzantine Empire, from c. 500 AD, where blue was "the colour of an empress". A more practical explanation for the use of this colour is that in Medieval and Renaissance Europe, the blue pigment was derived from the rock lapis lazuli, a stone imported from Afghanistan of greater value than gold. Beyond a painter's retainer, patrons were expected to purchase any gold or lapis lazuli to be used in the painting. Hence, it was an expression of devotion and glorification to swathe the Virgin in gowns of blue. Transformations in visual depictions of the Virgin from the 13th to 15th centuries mirror her "social" standing within the Church as well as in society.

Since the Reformation

Over the centuries, devotion and veneration to Mary has varied greatly among Christian traditions. For instance, while Protestants show scant attention to Marian prayers or devotions, of all the saints whom the Orthodox venerate, the most honored is Mary, who is considered "more honorable than the Cherubim and more glorious than the Seraphim".

Orthodox theologian Sergei Bulgakov wrote: "Love and veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary is the soul of Orthodox piety. A faith in Christ which does not include his mother is another faith, another Christianity from that of the Orthodox church."

Although the Catholics and the Orthodox may honor and venerate Mary, they do not view her as divine, nor do they worship her. Roman Catholics view Mary as subordinate to Christ, but uniquely so, in that she is seen as above all other creatures. Similarly Theologian Sergei Bulgakov wrote that the Orthodox view Mary as "superior to all created beings" and "ceaselessly pray for her intercession". However, she is not considered a "substitute for the One Mediator" who is Christ. "Let Mary be in honor, but let worship be given to the Lord", he wrote. Similarly, Catholics do not worship Mary as a divine being, but rather "hyper-venerate" her. In Roman Catholic theology, the term "hyperdulia" is reserved for Marian veneration, "latria" for the worship of God, and "dulia" for the veneration of other saints and angels. The definition of the three level hierarchy of latria, hyperdulia and dulia goes back to the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.

Devotions to artistic depictions of Mary vary among Christian traditions. There is a long tradition of Catholic Marian art and no image permeates Catholic art as does the image of Madonna and Child. The icon of the Virgin Theotokos with Christ is, without doubt, the most venerated icon in the Orthodox Church. Both Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christians venerate images and icons of Mary, given that the Second Council of Nicaea in 787 permitted their veneration with the understanding that those who venerate the image are venerating the reality of the person it represents, and the 842 Synod of Constantinople confirming the same. According to Orthodox piety and traditional practice, however, believers ought to pray before and venerate only flat, two-dimensional icons, and not three-dimensional statues.

The Anglican position towards Mary is in general more conciliatory than that of Protestants at large and in a book he wrote about praying with the icons of Mary, Rowan Williams, former archbishop of Canterbury, said: "It is not only that we cannot understand Mary without seeing her as pointing to Christ; we cannot understand Christ without seeing his attention to Mary."

On 4 September 1781, 11 families of pobladores arrived from the Gulf of California and established a city in the name of King Carlos III. The small town was named El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles de la Porciúncula (after our Lady of the Angels), a city that today is known simply as Los Angeles. In an attempt to revive the custom of religious processions within the Archdiocese of Los Angeles, in September 2011 the Queen of Angels Foundation, and founder Mark Anchor Albert, inaugurated an annual Grand Marian Procession in the heart of Downtown Los Angeles' historic core. This yearly procession, held on the last Saturday of August and intended to coincide with the anniversary of the founding of the City of Los Angeles, begins at the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels and concludes at the parish of La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles which is part of the Los Angeles Plaza Historic District, better known as "La Placita".

Main article: Marian feast days

The earliest feasts that relate to Mary grew out of the cycle of feasts that celebrated the Nativity of Jesus. Given that according to the Gospel of Luke (Luke 2:22–40), 40 days after the birth of Jesus, along with the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple Mary was purified according to Jewish customs, the Feast of the Purification began to be celebrated by the 5th century, and became the "Feast of Simeon" in Byzantium.

Village decorations during the Feast of the Assumption in Għaxaq, Malta

In the 7th and 8th centuries, four more Marian feasts were established in Eastern Christianity. In the West, a feast dedicated to Mary, just before Christmas was celebrated in the Churches of Milan and Ravenna in Italy in the 7th century. The four Roman Marian feasts of Purification, Annunciation, Assumption and Nativity of Mary were gradually and sporadically introduced into England by the 11th century.

Over time, the number and nature of feasts (and the associated Titles of Mary) and the venerative practices that accompany them have varied a great deal among diverse Christian traditions. Overall, there are significantly more titles, feasts and venerative Marian practices among Roman Catholics than any other Christians traditions. Some such feasts relate to specific events, such as the Feast of Our Lady of Victory, based on the 1571 victory of the Papal States in the Battle of Lepanto.

Differences in feasts may also originate from doctrinal issues—the Feast of the Assumption is such an example. Given that there is no agreement among all Christians on the circumstances of the death, Dormition or Assumption of Mary, the feast of assumption is celebrated among some denominations and not others. While the Catholic Church celebrates the Feast of the Assumption on 15 August, some Eastern Catholics celebrate it as Dormition of the Theotokos, and may do so on 28 August, if they follow the Julian calendar. The Eastern Orthodox also celebrate it as the Dormition of the Theotokos, one of their 12 Great Feasts. Protestants do not celebrate this, or any other Marian feasts.

Mary with an inscription referencing Luke 1:46–47 in St. Jürgen (Lutheran) church in Gettorf (Schleswig-Holstein)

There is significant diversity in the Marian doctrines attributed to her primarily by the Catholic Church. The key Marian doctrines held primarily in Catholicism can be briefly outlined as follows:

The acceptance of these Marian doctrines by Roman Catholics can be summarized as follows:

Doctrine Church action Accepted by
Mother of God First Council of Ephesus, 431 Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglicans, Lutherans, some Methodists
Virgin birth of Jesus First Council of Nicaea, 325 Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrians, Anglicans, Baptists, mainline Protestants
Assumption of Mary Munificentissimus Deus encyclical
Pope Pius XII, 1950
Catholics, Eastern and Oriental Orthodox (only following her natural death), some Anglicans, some Lutherans
Immaculate Conception Ineffabilis Deus encyclical
Pope Pius IX, 1854
Catholics, some Anglicans, some Lutherans (early Martin Luther)
Perpetual Virginity Second Ecumenical Council of Constantinople, 553
Smalcald Articles, 1537
Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrians, some Anglicans, some Lutherans (Martin Luther)
Miraculous Icon of Our Lady of Tartaków in Blessed Virgin Mary Church in Łukawiec.

The title "Mother of God" (Theotokos) for Mary was confirmed by the First Council of Ephesus, held at the Church of Mary in 431. The Council decreed that Mary is the Mother of God because her son Jesus is one person who is both God and man, divine and human. This doctrine is widely accepted by Christians in general, and the term "Mother of God" had already been used within the oldest known prayer to Mary, the Sub tuum praesidium, which dates to around 250 AD.

The Virgin birth of Jesus was an almost universally held belief among Christians from the 2nd until the 19th century. It is included in the two most widely used Christian creeds, which state that Jesus "was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary" (the Nicene Creed, in what is now its familiar form) and the Apostles' Creed. The Gospel of Matthew describes Mary as a virgin who fulfilled the prophecy ofIsaiah 7:14, mistranslating the Hebrew word alma ("young woman") as "virgin".[citation needed] The authors of the Gospels of Matthew and Luke consider Jesus' conception not the result of intercourse, and assert that Mary had "no relations with man" before Jesus' birth.[Mt 1:18] [Mt 1:25] [Lk 1:34] This alludes to the belief that Mary conceived Jesus through the action of God the Holy Spirit, and not through intercourse with Joseph or anyone else.

The doctrines of the Assumption or Dormition of Mary relate to her death and bodily assumption to heaven. Roman Catholic Church has dogmatically defined the doctrine of the Assumption, which was done in 1950 by Pope Pius XII in Munificentissimus Deus. Whether Mary died or not is not defined dogmatically, however, although a reference to the death of Mary are made in Munificentissimus Deus. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Assumption of the Virgin Mary is believed, and celebrated with her Dormition, where they believe she died.

Catholics believe in the Immaculate Conception of Mary, as proclaimed ex cathedra by Pope Pius IX in 1854, namely that she was filled with grace from the very moment of her conception in her mother's womb and preserved from the stain of original sin. The Latin Church has a liturgical feast by that name, kept on 8 December. Orthodox Christians reject the Immaculate Conception dogma principally because their understanding of ancestral sin (the Greek term corresponding to the Latin "original sin") differs from the Augustinian interpretation and that of the Catholic Church.

The Perpetual Virginity of Mary asserts Mary's real and perpetual virginity even in the act of giving birth to the Son of God made Man. The term Ever-Virgin (Greekἀειπάρθενος) is applied in this case, stating that Mary remained a virgin for the remainder of her life, making Jesus her biological and only son, whose conception and birth are held to be miraculous. While the Orthodox Churches hold the position articulated in the Protoevangelium of James that Jesus' brothers and sisters are older children of Joseph the Betrothed, step-siblings from an earlier marriage that left him widowed, Roman Catholic teaching follows the Latin father Jerome in considering them Jesus' cousins.

Mary has been portrayed in various films and on television, including:

Gallery

For a larger gallery, see Commons:Madonna structured gallery.
  1. According to the Bible and the Quran.
  2. Hebrew:מִרְיָם‎, romanized: Mīryām; Aramaic:ܡܪܝܡ‎, romanized: Mariam; Arabic:مريم‎, romanized: Maryam; Greek:Μαρία, romanized: María; Latin: Maria; Coptic:Ⲙⲁⲣⲓⲁ, romanized: Maria; also known by various titles, styles and honorifics
  3. παρθένος; Matthew 1:23 uses the Greek parthénos, "virgin", whereas only the Hebrew of Isaiah 7:14, from which the New Testament ostensibly quotes, as Almah – "young maiden". See article on parthénos in Bauercc/(Arndt)/Gingrich/Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature.
  4. See Sabine R. Huebner's succinct analysis of the issue: "Jesus is described as the 'first-born son" of Mary in Mt 1:25 and Lk 2:7. From this wording alone we can conclude that there were later-born sons […] The family […] had at least five sons and an unknown number of daughters."
  5. To give a few examples, Our Lady of Good Counsel, Our Lady of Navigators, and Our Lady Undoer of Knots fit this description.
  6. CompareLuke 1:39–40 with Joshua 21:11 The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge says, "This was most probably Hebron, a city of the priests, and situated in the hill country of Judea, (Jos 11:21; 21:11, 13,) about 25 miles south of Jerusalem, and nearly 100 from Nazareth."
  7. The historicity of this census' relationship to the birth of Jesus continues to be one of scholarly disagreement; see, for example, p. 71 in Edwards, James R. (2015).
  8. Alternately: "It cannot even be denied that God conferred the highest honour on Mary, by choosing and appointing her to be the mother of his Son."
  9. See the following verses: 5:114, 5:116, 7:158, 9:31, 17:57, 17:104, 18:102, 19:16, 19:17, 19:18, 19:20, 19:22, 19:24, 19:27, 19:28, 19:29, 19:34, 21:26, 21:91, 21:101, 23:50, 25:17, 33:7, 39:45, 43:57, 43:61, 57:27, 61:6, 61:14, 66:12.
  1. "Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Joseph". Newadvent.org. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  2. Allison, Dale C., Matthew: A Shorter Commentary, p.12 Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004 ISBN 0-567-08249-0
  3. Raymond Edward Brown; Joseph A. Fitzmyer; Karl Paul Donfried (1978). Mary in the New Testament. NJ: Paulist Press. p. 140. ISBN 9780809121687. ...consonant with Mary's Jewish background
  4. "Nazareth". britannica.com. Encyclopedia Britannica.
  5. Bauercc/(Arndt)/Gingrich/Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, Second Edition, University of Chicago Press, 1979, p. 627.
  6. Ruiz, Jean-Pierre. "Between the Crèche and the Cross: Another Look at the Mother of Jesus in the New Testament". New Theology Review; Aug. 2010, Vol. 23, Issue 3, pp. 3–4
  7. Burke, Raymond L.; et al. (2008). Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons ISBN 978-1-57918-355-4 page 178
  8. Mary for evangelicals by Tim S. Perry, William J. Abraham 2006 ISBN 0-8308-2569-X page 142
  9. "Mary, the mother of Jesus." The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Houghton Mifflin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002. Credo Reference. Web. 28 September 2010.
  10. Encyclopedia of Protestantism, Volume 3 2003 by Hans Joachim Hillerbrand ISBN 0-415-92472-3 p. 1174
  11. Quran 3:42; cited in Stowasser, Barbara Freyer, "Mary", in: Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC.
  12. J.D. McAuliffe, Chosen of all women
  13. J.-M. Abd-el-Jalil, Marie et l'Islam, Paris 1950
  14. Esposito, John. What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam. New York: University Press, 2002. P31.; cf. Stowasser, Barbara Freyer, "Mary", in: Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC.
  15. Jestice, Phyllis G. Holy people of the world: a cross-cultural encyclopedia, Volume 3. 2004 ISBN 1-57607-355-6 page 558 Sayyidana Maryam
  16. Munificentissimus Deus: Dogma of the Assumption by Pius XII, 1950, 17
  17. Holweck, Frederick (1907), The Feast of the Assumption,(The Catholic Encyclopedia), 2, New York: Robert Appleton Company, access date 18 April 2015
  18. "Mary", A Dictionary of First Names by Patrick Hanks, Kate Hardcastle and Flavia Hodges (27 July 2006). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198610602.
  19. "Matthew 1:25 But he had no union with her until she gave birth to a Son. And he gave Him the name Jesus". biblehub.com.
  20. Sabine R. Huebner, Papyri and the Social World of the New Testament (Cambridge University Press, 2019), p. 73. ISBN 1108470254
  21. Fulbert of Chatres, O Beata Virgo Maria, retrieved27 March 2020
  22. Encyclopedia of Catholicism by Frank K. Flinn, J. Gordon Melton, 2007, ISBN 0-8160-5455-X, pages 443–444
  23. Hillerbrand, Hans Joachim. Encyclopedia of Protestantism, Volume 3, 2003. ISBN 0-415-92472-3, page 1174
  24. Jeremiah 44:17–19
  25. Eastern Orthodoxy through Western eyes by Donald Fairbairn 2002 ISBN 0-664-22497-0 page 99-101
  26. Flinn, Frank K., J. Gordon MeltonEncyclopedia of Catholicism. 2007 ISBN 0-8160-5455-X pages 443–444
  27. "The Canons of the Two Hundred Holy and Blessed Fathers Who Met at Ephesus". Ccel.org. 1 June 2005. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  28. M'Corry, John StewartTheotokos: Or, the Divine Maternity. 2009 ISBN 1-113-18361-6 page 10
  29. The Christian theology reader by Alister E. McGrath 2006 ISBN 1-4051-5358-X page 273
  30. Luke 1:32
  31. Isaiah 9:6
  32. 1 Kings 2:19–20
  33. Jeremiah 13:18–19
  34. What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary by Terrence J. McNally ISBN 1-4415-1051-6 page 128
  35. Legends of the Madonna by Anna Jameson 2009 1406853380 page 50
  36. Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X page 515
  37. Candice Lee Goucher, 2007 World history: journeys from past to present ISBN 0-415-77137-4 page 102
  38. Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X page 525
  39. Glassé, Cyril (2008). "Mary". The New Encyclopedia of Islam (3rd ed.). Plymouth, United Kingdom: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. pp. 340–341. ISBN 9780742562967. Retrieved2 June 2016.
  40. Quran 5:73-75 Quran 5:73–75
  41. Quran 66:12
  42. Quran 3:42
  43. William Temple, Readings in St John's Gospel. London: MacMillan, 1961. p. 35,36
  44. Ruiz, Jean-Pierre. "Between the Crèche and the Cross: Another Look at the Mother of Jesus in the New Testament." New Theology Review. Aug 2010, Vol. 23 Issue 3, pp. 5–15
  45. Smith, Scott. "Proving the Assumption of Mary". All Roads Lead to Rome. Retrieved19 June 2017.
  46. "CHURCH FATHERS: The Perpetual Virginity of Mary (Jerome)". www.newadvent.org.
  47. "The Blessed Virgin Mary – Encyclopedia Volume – Catholic Encyclopedia – Catholic Online". Catholic Online.
  48. Luke 1:5,Luke 1:36
  49. Douglas; Hillyer; Bruce (1990). New Bible Dictionary. Inter-varsity Press. p. 746. ISBN 978-0-85110-630-4.
  50. "New Advent Genealogy of Christ". Newadvent.org. 1 September 1909. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  51. Henry, Matthew (1706). Luke in Matthew Henry commentary on the whole Bible (complete). Retrieved18 April 2016.
  52. An event described by some Christians as the AnnunciationLuke 1:35.
  53. Mills, Watson E., Roger Aubrey Bullard. Mercer dictionary of the Bible. 1998 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 page 429
  54. Luke 1:36
  55. The Gospel of Luke. Grand Rapids MI: Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837356.
  56. Brown, Raymond Edward. Mary in the New Testament. 1978 ISBN 978-0-8091-2168-7
  57. The Gospel of Matthew by R. T. France 2007 ISBN 0-8028-2501-X p. 53
  58. Walvoord, John F., Roy B. Zuck. The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament edition. 1983 ISBN 0-88207-812-7
  59. [Mt 1:24–25] [12:46] [13:54–56] [27:56] [Mk 3:31] [6:3] [15:40] [16:1] [Jn 2:12] [7:3–5] [Gal 1:19] [Ac 1:14]
  60. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible by D. N. Freedman, David Noel, Allen Myers and Astrid B. Beck (31 December 2000) ISBN 9053565035 page 202
  61. The Bible: The Basics by John Barton (2 March 2010) Routledge ISBN 0415411351 page 7
  62. Gaventa, Beverly Roberts. Mary: glimpses of the mother of Jesus. 1995 ISBN 1-57003-072-3, p.70
  63. de Bles, Arthur. How to Distinguish the Saints in Art by Their Costumes, Symbols and Attributes, 2004 ISBN 1-4179-0870-X page 35
  64. Jameson, Anna. Legends of the Madonna: as represented in the fine arts. 2006 ISBN 1-4286-3499-1 page 37
  65. Stephen J. Shoemaker, Ancient Traditions of the Virgin Mary's Dormition and Assumption Archived 11 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002, 2006); De Obitu S. Dominae as noted in; Holweck, F. (1907). The Feast of the Assumption. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  66. "Munificentissimus Deus on the Assumption". Vatican.va. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  67. Coptic Church website, Accessed 2010/10/6.
  68. Ronald Brownrigg, Canon Brownrigg Who's Who in the New Testament 2001 ISBN 0-415-26036-1 page T-62
  69. Roy, Christian (2005). Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 373. ISBN 978-1-57607-089-5.
  70. Rainer Riesner (1998). Paul's early period: chronology, mission strategy, theology. ISBN 9780802841667. Retrieved20 August 2011.
  71. The Oxford handbook of early Christian studies by Susan Ashbrook Harvey, David G. Hunter 2008 ISBN 9780199271566 page 527
  72. The reception and interpretation of the Bible in late antiquity by Lorenzo DiTommaso, Lucian Turcescu 2008 ISBN 9004167153 page 507
  73. Maximus's Mary, by Sally Cuneen, Commonweal Magazine, 4 December 2009
  74. "Anna Katharina Emmerick (1774–1824), biography". Vatican.va. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  75. Emmerich, Anna Catherine: The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ ISBN 978-0-89555-210-5 page viii
  76. Frommer's Turkey by Lynn A. Levine 2010 ISBN 0470593660 pages 254–255
  77. Home of the Assumption: Reconstructing Mary's Life in Ephesus by V. Antony John Alaharasan 2006 ISBN 1929039387 page 38
  78. The Ancient Traditions of the Virgin Mary's Dormition and Assumption by Stephen J. Shoemaker 2006 ISBN 0199210748 page 76
  79. Mary's House by Donald Carroll (20 April 2000) Veritas, ISBN 0953818802
  80. Irenaeus, Adversus haereses III,1,1; Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History, III,1
  81. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary". Newadvent.org. 1 July 1912. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  82. Schroedel, Jenny The Everything Mary Book, 2006 ISBN 1-59337-713-4 pages 81–85
  83. Miegge, Giovanni, The Virgin Mary: Roman Catholic Marian Doctrine, pgs. 15–22, Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1963.
  84. Fahlbusch, Erwin, et al. The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3 2003 ISBN 90-04-12654-6 pages 403–409
  85. Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions by Wendy Doniger, 1999 ISBN 0-87779-044-2 page 696
  86. "Encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam". Vatican.
  87. Catechism of the Catholic Church (2nd ed.). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 2019. Paragraph 971.
  88. The Catholicism Answer Book by John Trigilio, Kenneth Brighenti 2007 ISBN 1-4022-0806-5 page 325
  89. "Vatican website: Marian consecration and entrustment, item 204". Vatican.va. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  90. Schroede, Jenny, The Everything Mary Book 2006 ISBN 1-59337-713-4 page 219
  91. O'Carroll, Michael, The Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary 2007, ISBN 1-882972-98-8 pages 10–15
  92. "Catholic Encyclopedia: Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary". NewAdvent.org. 1 October 1912. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  93. "Cardinal Urges Devotion to Rosary and Scapular". Zenit.org. 17 July 2008. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  94. Handbook of Prayers by James Socías 2006 ISBN 0-87973-579-1 page 483
  95. The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 4 by Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley 2005 ISBN 0-8028-2416-1 page 575
  96. Pope Leo XIII. "Encyclical of Pope Leo XIII on the Rosary". Octobri Mense. Vatican. Retrieved4 October 2010.
  97. A Beginner's Book of Prayer: An Introduction to Traditional Catholic Prayers by William G. Storey 2009 ISBN 0-8294-2792-9 page 99
  98. Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X page 365
  99. Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Almanac by Matthew Bunson 2009 ISBN 1-59276-441-X page 122
  100. The Catholic Handbook for Visiting the Sick and Homebound by Corinna Laughlin, Sara McGinnis Lee 2010 ISBN 978-1-56854-886-9 page 4
  101. Geoghegan. G.P. A Collection of My Favorite Prayers, 2006 ISBN 1-4116-9457-0 pages 31, 45, 70, 86, 127
  102. Mary, mother of the redemption by Edward Schillebeeckx 1964 ASIN B003KW30VG pages 82–84
  103. Mary in the Redemption by Adrienne von Speyr 2003 ISBN 0-89870-955-5 pages 2–7
  104. Salvation Through Mary by Henry Aloysius Barry 2008 ISBN 1-4097-3172-3 pages 13–15
  105. The mystery of Mary by Paul Haffner 2004 ISBN 0-85244-650-0 page 198
  106. "Redemptoris Mater at the Vatican website". Vatican.va. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  107. Burke, Raymond L.; et al. (2008). Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons ISBN 978-1-57918-355-4 page xxi
  108. McNally, Terrence, What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary ISBN 1-4415-1051-6 pages 168–169
  109. Ecclesiasticus II: Orthodox Icons, Saints, Feasts and Prayer by George Dion Dragas 2005 ISBN 0-9745618-0-0 pages 81–83
  110. The Everything Mary Book by Jenny Schroedel 2006 ISBN 1-59337-713-4 page 90
  111. Vasilaka, Maria Images of the Mother of God: perceptions of the Theotokos in Byzantium 2005 ISBN 0-7546-3603-8 page 97
  112. The Orthodox Church by Serge? Nikolaevich Bulgakov 1997 ISBN 0-88141-051-9 page 116
  113. "Orthodox Holiness :: The Titles Of The Saints". www.orthodoxengland.org.uk. Retrieved30 July 2019.
  114. Gregorius Nazianzenus. In theophania. Documenta Catholica Omnia.
  115. Wybrew, Hugh Orthodox feasts of Jesus Christ & the Virgin Mary: liturgical texts 2000 ISBN 0-88141-203-1 pages 37–46
  116. Damascene, John. Homily 2 on the Dormition 14; PG 96, 741 B
  117. Damascene, John. Homily 2 on the Dormition 16; PG 96, 744 D
  118. Geisler, Norman L; MacKenzie, Ralph E (1995), Roman Catholics and Evangelicals: agreements and differences, p. 143, ISBN 978-0-8010-3875-4
  119. Barth, Karl (8 May 2004), Church dogmatics, 1, pp. 143–4, ISBN 978-0-567-05069-4
  120. Lehmann, H., ed. Luther's Works, American edition, vol. 43, p. 40, Fortress, 1968.
  121. Lee (1993), Catholic, Lutheran, Protestant: a doctrinal comparison, p. 249, ISBN 978-0-615-16635-3
  122. Commentary on a Harmony of the Evangelists, Matthew, Mark, and Luke, 1845, Jean Calvin, Rev. William Pringle, Edinburgh, Volume 2, page 87 quote
  123. "Neque etiam negari potest, quin Deus Mariam Filio suo matrem eligens ac destinans summo eam honore dignatus sit." Calvin's Opera, vol. 45 (Corpus Reformatorum, vol. 73), p. 348. no preview
  124. McKim, Donald K (2004), The Cambridge companion to John Calvin, ISBN 978-0-521-01672-8
  125. Haffner, Paul (2004), The mystery of Mary, p. 11, ISBN 978-0-85244-650-8
  126. Milton, Anthony Catholic and Reformed 2002 ISBN 0-521-89329-1 page 5
  127. Braaten, Carl, et al. Mary, Mother of God 2004 ISBN 0-8028-2266-5 page 13
  128. Burnham, Andrew A Pocket Manual of Anglo-Catholic Devotion 2004 ISBN 1-85311-530-4 pages 1, 266,310, 330
  129. Duckworth, Penelope, Mary: The Imagination of Her Heart 2004 ISBN 1-56101-260-2 page 3-5
  130. Church of England yearbook: Volume 123 2006 ISBN 0-7151-1020-9 page 315
  131. Perrier, Jacques, Lourdes Today and Tomorrow 2008 1565483057 ISBN page 56
  132. Mary: grace and hope in Christ: the Seattle statement of the Anglican-Roman Catholics by the Anglican/Roman Catholic International Group 2006 ISBN 0-8264-8155-8 pages 7–10
  133. Bäumer, Remigius. Marienlexikon Gesamtausgabe, Leo Scheffczyk, ed., (Regensburg: Institutum Marianum, 1994), 190.
  134. Schroedel, Jenny (2006), The Everything Mary Book, pp. 125–6, ISBN 978-1-59337-713-7
  135. Jackson, Gregory Lee (1993), Catholic, Lutheran, Protestant: a doctrinal comparison, p. 249, ISBN 978-0-615-16635-3
  136. Bäumer, 191
  137. Haffner, Paul (2004), The mystery of Mary, p. 223, ISBN 978-0-85244-650-8
  138. Bäumer, 190.
  139. Colonna, Vittoria; Matraini, Chiara; Marinella, Lucrezia (2009). Who Is Mary?. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-226-11400-2.
  140. Eric W. Gritsch (1992). H. George Anderson; J. Francis Stafford; Joseph A. Burgess (eds.). The One Mediator, The Saints and Mary, Lutherans and Roman Catholic in Dialogue. VII. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress. p. 235.
  141. Luther's Works, 47, pp. 45f.
  142. Lutherans and Catholics in Dialogue VIII, p. 29.
  143. Clairvaux, Saint Bernard de (1476). Homiliae S. Bernardi super evangelio : "Missus est angelus Gabriel" – saint Bernard de Clairvaux – Google Boeken. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  144. Doberstein, John W; Lehmann, Helmut T, eds. (1959) [1546], "Sermon on the Second Sunday after Epiphany", Luther's Works, 51 Sermons I, Fortress Press, p. 375, ISBN 978-0-8006-0351-9
  145. Dr. Martin Luthers Werke, Kritische Gesamtausgabe, 51, Weimar, 1883, p. 128
  146. More FAQ | The Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church archiveaccessdate=11 September 2014
  147. "What does The United Methodist Church teach about the Immaculate Conception and the Virgin Birth?". Archives.umc.org. 6 November 2006. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  148. Wesley's Letters, The Wesley Center Online, 1749, archived from the original on 5 November 2011
  149. "Mary's Perpetual Virginity". Davidmacd.com. Archived from the original on 25 August 2012. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  150. "What does The United Methodist Church teach about the Virgin Mary?". Archives.umc.org. 6 November 2006. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  151. "Comparing Christian Denominations – Beliefs: Nature of Mary". Christianity.about.com. 30 July 2013. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  152. Stepp, Todd (23 December 2009). "Theotokos; Mary, Mother of God". Wesleyan/Anglican Society. We Protestants (for the most part) tend to say something to the affect [sic] that, if it is not found in Scripture it is not held to be required as an article of faith. Thus, the assumption of Mary would not be held as an article of faith (i.e., as a required doctrine). However, in as much as the Scripture does not say that Mary was not assumed into heaven, and, in as much as we do have other instances of some sort of "assumption" in Scripture (e.g., Elijah, as mentioned, before), there seems to be nothing that would require that a Protestant Christian could not have a private "opinion" (in the Wesleyan sense of the term) that agrees with Rome or Constantinople (at least regarding Mary's assumption).Missing or empty |url= ()
  153. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America 2006 Page 73 Eugene V. Gallagher, W. Michael Ashcraft: "Jehovah's Witnesses pray to God in the name of Jesus, but insist that the Bible never identifies Christ as an eternal […] Jehovah God caused an ovum, or egg cell, in Mary's womb to become fertile, accomplishing this by the transferral of "
  154. Colton, Eleanor (1992), "Virgin Birth", Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 4, New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Co., p. 1510
  155. 1 Nephi 11:13–20
  156. Alma 7:10
  157. Fronk, Camille (1992), "Mary, Mother of Jesus", Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 2, New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Co., pp. 863–64
  158. Christian mortalism from Tyndale to Milton Norman T. Burns – 1972
  159. The Talmud Yerushalmi and Graeco-Roman culture: Volume 3 – Page 369 Peter Schäfer, Catherine Hezser – 2002 The Mother of the Messiah in the Talmud Yerushalmi and Sefer Zerubbabel by Martha Himmelfarb "Through the centuries the Virgin Mary has played a central role in Christian piety. Unlike so many aspects of Christianity, veneration of the…"
  160. Peter Schäfer Mirror of His beauty: feminine images of God from the Bible to the ..2002 Page 233 "On the one hand, it mockingly disapproves of the idea of the mother of God; on the other hand, it treats Mary considerately and by no means only polemically. The talmudic and post-talmudic discussions about the Virgin Mary are classic…"
  161. Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence WmB Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 pp. 122 and 127
  162. Michael J. Cook Jewish Perspectives on Jesus Chapter 14 in "The Blackwell Companion to Jesus" edited by Delbert Burkett 2011 ISBN 978-1-4443-2794-6
  163. Amy G. Remensnyder (March 2014). La Conquistadora: The Virgin Mary at War and Peace in the Old and New Worlds. OUP USA. pp. 138–. ISBN 978-0-19-989300-3.
  164. Robert Van Voorst (13 April 2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 122–. ISBN 978-0-8028-4368-5.
  165. Mary in the New Testament by Raymond Edward Brown, et al. 1978 ISBN 0-8091-2168-9 page 262
  166. Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence WmB Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 page 128
  167. The new encyclopedia of Islam by Cyril Glassé, Huston Smith 2003 ISBN 0-7591-0190-6 page 296 sayyidatuna
  168. Qa'im, Mahdi Muntazir (2007). Jesus Through the Qur'an and Shi'ite Narrations (bilingual ed.). Queens, New York: Tahrike Tarsile Qur'an. p. 16. ISBN 978-1879402140.
  169. Quran 23:50
  170. Quran 3:36
  171. Quran 3:37
  172. Quran 5:75
  173. Quran 3:45
  174. Jomier, Jacques. The Bible and the Qur'an. 2002 ISBN 0-89870-928-8 page 133
  175. Nazir-Ali, Michael. Islam, a Christian perspective. 1984 ISBN 0-664-24527-7 page 110
  176. "The Virgin Mary In The Koran". EWTN.com. 13 April 1978. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  177. Jackson, Montell. Islam Revealed. 2003 ISBN 1-59160-869-4 page 73
  178. Rodwell, J. M. The Koran. 2009 ISBN 0-559-13127-5 page 505
  179. Akhtar, Shabbir.The Quran and the secular mind: a philosophy of Islam. 2007 page 352
  180. Glassé, Cyril, Huston Smith. The new encyclopedia of Islam. 2003 ISBN 0-7591-0190-6 page 240
  181. Sarker, Abraham.Understand My Muslim People. 2004 ISBN 1-59498-002-0 page 260 no preview
  182. The Kitáb-i-Íqán Part One. Baháʼí Reference Library. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
  183. "The Promised Day Is Come | Bahá'í Reference Library". www.bahai.org. Retrieved18 August 2021.
  184. Coogan, Michael (October 2010).God and Sex. What the Bible Really Says (1st ed.). New York, Boston: Twelve. Hachette Book Group. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-446-54525-9. Retrieved5 May 2011. god and sex.
  185. McNally, Terrence, What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary ISBN 1-4415-1051-6 page 95
  186. Cradle of redeeming love by John Saward 2002 Ignatius Press ISBN 0-89870-886-9 page 17
  187. Mary in the New Testament by Raymond Edward Brown 1978 ISBN 0-8091-2168-9 page 86
  188. Ehrman, Bart Did Jesus Exist page 294
  189. John 1:45
  190. John 6:42
  191. Ehrman, Bart D. (2008). Whose Word is It?: The Story Behind who Changed the New Testament and why. A&C Black. pp. 158–. ISBN 978-1-84706-314-4.
  192. Ehrman, Bart D. (26 July 1999).Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium. Oxford University Press. pp. 96–. ISBN 978-0-19-983943-8.
  193. Coogan, Michael (October 2010).God and Sex. What the Bible Really Says (1st ed.). New York, Boston: Twelve. Hachette Book Group. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-446-54525-9. Retrieved5 May 2011. god and sex.
  194. Bennett, Clinton, In search of Jesus 2001 ISBN 0-8264-4916-6 pages 165–170
  195. Also see: Schaberg, Jane. Illegitimacy of Jesus: A Feminist Theological Interpretation of the Infancy Narratives (Biblical Seminar Series, No 28), ISBN 1-85075-533-7.
  196. Contra Celsum by Origen, Henry Chadwick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1953) reprint 1980 ISBN 0-521-29576-9 page 32
  197. John Patrick The Apology of Origen in Reply to Celsus 1892 reprint 2009 ISBN 1-110-13388-X pages 22–24
  198. Allert, Craig D. (2002). Revelation, Truth, Canon and Interpretation: Studies in Justin Martyr's Dialogue with Trypho. Brill. p. 34.
  199. Justin Martyr (1885)."Dialogue with Trypho, Chapter C" . In Roberts, Alexander; Donaldson, James (eds.). Ante-Nicene Christian Library. II. Translated by Reith, George. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark..
  200. Schaff, Philip. "Introductory Note to Irenæus Against Heresies", The Apostolic Fathers with Justin Martyr and Irenaeus, (Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, eds.) 1885 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  201. Irenaeus. "Against Heresies", (Book III, Chapter 22), Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 1., (Alexander Roberts and William Rambaut, trans.), (Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe eds.)Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1885 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  202. Benz, Ernst The Eastern Orthodox Church: Its Thought and Life 2009 ISBN 0-202-36298-1 page 62
  203. Burke, Raymond et al. Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons 2008 ISBN 978-1-57918-355-4 page 178
  204. The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3 by Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley 2003 ISBN 90-04-12654-6 page 406
  205. "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Constantine the Great". Newadvent.org. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  206. Osborne, John L. "Early Medieval Painting in San Clemente, Rome: The Madonna and Child in the Niche" Gesta 20.2 (1981:299–310) and (note 9) referencing T. Klauser, Rom under der Kult des Gottesmutter Maria, Jahrbuch für der Antike und Christentum 15 (1972:120–135).
  207. "The Papal Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore". Vatican.va. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  208. Baldovin, John and Johnson, Maxwell, Between memory and hope: readings on the liturgical year 2001 ISBN 0-8146-6025-8 page 386
  209. Dalmais, Irénée et al. The Church at Prayer: The liturgy and time 1985 ISBN 0-8146-1366-7 page 130
  210. McNally, Terrence, What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary ISBN 1-4415-1051-6 page 186
  211. Avner, Rina (2016). Leslie Brubaker; Mary B. Cunningham (eds.). The Initial Tradition of the Theotokos at the Kathisma: Earliest Celebrations and the Calendar. The Cult of the Mother of God in Byzantium: Texts and Images. Birmingham Byzantine and Ottoman Studies. Routledge. ISBN 9781351891974. Retrieved8 January 2019.
  212. Collyridianism – EWTN Retrieved 11 September 2014
  213. Journal of the Canadian Society for Coptic Studies 3–4 — 2012 Sabrina Higgins: "Divine Mothers: The Influence of Isis on the Virgin Mary in Egyptian Lactans-Iconography"
  214. Carl Olson; Sandra Miesel (2004). The Da Vinci Hoax: Exposing the Errors in The Da Vinci Code. Ignatius Press. ISBN 978-1-58617-034-9.
  215. Ephesus.us. "Mysterious facts about Ephesus, Ephesus Turkey". www.ephesus.us.
  216. "Virgin Mary – Justinian – Theotokus – Theodora – Kate Cooper – Divine Women". 18 July 2015.
  217. Laing, Gordon (1931). "Survivals of Roman Religion". Longmans, Green And Co.
  218. Phipps, William E. (2008). Supernaturalism in Christianity: Its Growth and Cure. Mercer University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0881460940. Retrieved10 November 2015.
  219. Toronto Star article – In December 2010, Catherine Lawless of the University of Limerick stated that by analyzing 15th century Florentine manuscripts, she had concluded that 'Ismeria' was the maternal grandmother of Mary. Toronto Star Dec 2010 Discovery News
  220. Mâle, Emile (1978). Religious Art in France: The Twelfth Century. Translated by Mathews, Marthiel.
  221. Warner, Marina (1976). Alone of All her Sex: The Myth and the Cult of the Virgin Mary.
  222. Pelikan, Jaroslav (1996).Mary Through the Centuries: Her Place in the History of Culture. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300069518.
  223. Kugeares, Sophia Manoulian (1991). Images Of The Annunciation Of The Virgin Mary Of The 13th, 14th And 15th Century.
  224. Miravalle, Mark. Introduction to Mary. 1993 Queenship Publishing ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7 pages 92–93
  225. The Orthodox word, Volumes 12–13, 1976 page 73
  226. Trigilio, John and Brighenti, Kenneth The Catholicism Answer Book 2007 ISBN 1-4022-0806-5 page 58
  227. The History of the Christian Church by Philip Smith 2009 ISBN 1-150-72245-2 page 288
  228. The Celebration of Faith: The Virgin Mary by Alexander Schmemann 2001 ISBN 0-88141-141-8 p. 11
  229. De Sherbinin, Julie Chekhov and Russian religious culture: the poetics of the Marian paradigm 1997 ISBN 0-8101-1404-6 p. 15
  230. "Pope John Paul II, General Audience, 1997". Vatican.va. 29 October 1997. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  231. Kilmartin Edward The Eucharist in the West 1998 ISBN 0-8146-6204-8 page 80
  232. Ciaravino, Helene How to Pray 2001 ISBN 0-7570-0012-6 page 118
  233. Williams, Rowan Ponder these things: praying with icons of the Virgin 2002 ISBN 1-85311-362-X page 7
  234. Clayton, Mary. The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Anglo-Saxon England. 2003 ISBN 0-521-53115-2 pages 26–37
  235. EWTN on Battle of Lepanto (1571) Our Lady and Islam: Heaven's Peace Plan – EWTN
  236. by Butler, Alban, Peter Doyle. Butler's Lives of the Saints. 1999 ISBN 0-86012-253-0 page 222
  237. Jackson, Gregory Lee, Catholic, Lutheran, Protestant: a doctrinal comparison. 1993 ISBN 978-0-615-16635-3 page 254
  238. Jackson, Gregory Lee.Catholic, Lutheran, Protestant: a doctrinal comparison. 1993 ISBN 978-0-615-16635-3 page 254
  239. Miravalle, Mark. Introduction to Mary. 1993 Queenship Publishing ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7 page 51
  240. Miravalle, Mark Introduction to Mary, 1993, ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7, pages 44–46
  241. "Virgin Birth" britannica.com. Retrieved 22 October 2007.
  242. Translation by the ecumenical English Language Liturgical Consultation, given on page 17 of Praying Together, a literal translation of the original, "σαρκωθέντα ἐκ Πνεύματος Ἁγίου καὶ Μαρίας τῆς Παρθένου" archiveaccessdate 11 September 2014
  243. Miravalle, Mark Introduction to Mary, 1993, ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7, pages 56–64
  244. "Catholic Encyclopedia: Immaculate Conception". Newadvent.org. Retrieved2 March 2010.
  245. Ware, Timothy. The Orthodox Church (Penguin Books, 1963, ISBN 0-14-020592-6), pp. 263–4.
  246. Catechism of the Catholic Church (2nd ed.). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 2019. Paragraph 499..
  247. Hayes, R. M. (1986). Trick cinematography: the Oscar special-effects movies. McFarland Publishing. p. 149. ISBN 9780899501574.
  248. Ray, Nicholas (10 September 1993). Rey, Susan (ed.).I Was Interrupted: Nicholas Ray on Making Movies. University of California Press. p. 230. ISBN 9780520916678.
  249. Keller, Rosemary Skinner; Ruether, Rosemary Radford; Cantlon, Marie (2006). Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America: Native American creation stories. Indiana University Press. p. 1012. ISBN 9780253346872.
  250. Nicholson, Amy (1 August 2018). "Olivia Hussey, star of Zeffirelli's Romeo and Juliet: 'I was wild'". The Guardian. Guardian News & Media Limited. Retrieved11 April 2019.
  251. Lindlof, Thomas (8 August 2008). Hollywood Under Siege: Martin Scorsese, the Religious Right, and the Culture Wars. University Press of Kentucky. p. 57. ISBN 9780813173160.
  252. O'Brien, Catherine (2011). The Celluloid Madonna: From Scripture to Screen. Columbia University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9781906660284.
  253. "'Saint Mary' female lead Shabnam Gholikhani talks with ifilm". iFilm. 18 December 2017. Retrieved10 April 2019.
  254. Flynn, JD (6 February 2004). "Actress who plays Mary speaks of filming 'The Passion'". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved10 April 2019.
  255. Johnson, Jason B. (7 November 2006). "What race was Jesus? 'Color of the Cross' puts a different face on the debate". SFGate. Hearst Communications, Inc. Retrieved10 April 2019.
  256. Roach, Erin (30 November 2006). "'Nativity Story' actress should not be shunned, leaders say". Baptist Press News. Southern Baptist Convention. Retrieved10 April 2019.
  257. TV airing for Islam's story of Christ – Media – The Guardian featured in ITV documentary Retrieved 11 September 2014
  258. "The Muslim Jesus, ITV─Unreality Primetime". Primetime.unrealitytv.co.uk. 18 August 2007. Archived from the original on 16 October 2009. Retrieved2 March 2010.
  259. Goodwyn, Hannah (2014). "Roma Downey and Diogo Morgado on Faith and Filming Son of God". The Christian Broadcasting Network, Inc. Retrieved10 April 2019.
  260. "Mary Magdalene attempts to wash away biblical character's stains of ill repute". Irish News. 14 March 2018. Retrieved10 April 2019.
  261. Rorke, Robert (20 March 2019). "'Jesus: His Life' dispels beliefs about Christ and biblical history". NY Post. Retrieved10 April 2019.
Mary, mother of Jesusat Wikipedia's sister projects

Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary mother of Jesus Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Virgin Mary For the 1999 television film see Mary Mother of Jesus film Saint Mary and Virgin Mary redirect here For other uses see Saint Mary disambiguation and Virgin Mary disambiguation According to the gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament Mary b was a first century Jewish woman of Nazareth 3 4 the wife of Joseph and the virgin c mother of Jesus The Quran also describes Mary as a virgin According to Christian theology Mary conceived Jesus through the Holy Spirit while still a virgin and accompanied Joseph to Bethlehem where Jesus was born 6 Mary the mother of JesusOur Lady of Sorrows by Giovanni Battista Salvi da Sassoferrato 17th centuryBornc 18 BC 1 2 Diedafter c 30 33 ADSpouse s JosephChildrenJesus a Parent s unknown according to some apocryphal writings Joachim and Anne Mary has been venerated since early Christianity 7 8 and is considered by millions to be the holiest and greatest saint because of her extraordinary virtues as seen at the Annunciation by the archangel Gabriel She is said to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Catholic Anglican and Lutheran churches believe that Mary as mother of Jesus is the Theotokos Mother of God 8eotokos There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions The Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas namely her status as the Mother of God her Immaculate Conception her perpetual virginity and her Assumption into heaven 9 Many which Protestants minimize Mary s role within Christianity basing their argument on the alleged lack of biblical support for any beliefs other than the virgin birth 10 Mary also has the highest position in Islam among all women 11 12 13 She is mentioned in the Quran more often than in the Bible 14 where two of the longer chapters of the Quran are named after her and her family 15 According to Catholic and Eastern Christian teachings at the end of her earthly life God raised Mary s body into heaven this is known in the Christian West as the Assumption of Mary 16 17 Contents 1 Names and titles 1 1 In Christianity 1 2 In Islam 2 New Testament 2 1 Genealogy 2 2 Annunciation 2 3 Birth of Jesus 2 4 In the life of Jesus 2 5 After the Ascension of Jesus 3 Later Christian writings and traditions 4 Perspectives 4 1 Christian 4 1 1 Catholic 4 1 2 Eastern Orthodox 4 1 3 Protestant 4 1 3 1 Anglican 4 1 3 2 Lutheran 4 1 3 3 Methodist 4 1 4 Nontrinitarian 4 2 Jewish 4 3 Islamic 4 3 1 Birth 4 3 2 Motherhood 4 4 Bahaʼi Faith 4 5 Biblical scholars 4 6 Pre Christian Rome 5 Christian devotion 5 1 2nd century 5 2 3rd to 5th centuries 5 2 1 4th century Arabia 5 2 2 Byzantium 5 3 Middle Ages 5 3 1 Depiction in Renaissance art 5 4 Since the Reformation 6 Feasts 7 Catholic Mariology 8 Cinematic portrayals 9 In art 10 In music 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External linksNames and titlesMain article Titles of Mary Virgin and Child with angels and Sts George and Theodore Icon c 600 from Saint Catherine s Monastery Mary s name in the original manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name מרים transliterated as Maryam or Mariam 18 The English name Mary comes from the Greek Maria a shortened form of the name Mariam Both Maria and Mariam appear in the New Testament In Christianity Madonna on Floral Wreath by Peter Paul Rubens with Jan Brueghel the Elder c 1619 In Christianity Mary is commonly referred to as the Virgin Mary in accordance with the belief that the Holy Spirit impregnated her thereby conceiving her first born son Jesus miraculously without sexual relations with her betrothed husband Joseph until her son Jesus was born Matthew 1 25 19 The word until has inspired considerable analysis on whether Joseph and Mary produced siblings after the birth of Jesus or not d Among her many other names and titles are the Blessed Virgin Mary often abbreviated to BVM or BMV after the Latin Beata Maria Virgo 21 Saint Mary occasionally the Mother of God primarily in Western Christianity the Theotokos primarily in Eastern Christianity Our Lady Medieval Italian Madonna and Queen of Heaven Regina caeli see also here 22 23 although the title queen of heaven was for centuries before used as an epithet for a number of ancient sky goddesses such as Nin anna Astarte Ishtar and Astoreth the Canaanite sky goddess worshipped during the Hebrew prophet Jeremiah s lifetime 24 Titles in use vary among Anglicans Lutherans Catholics Orthodox Protestants Mormons and other Christians The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos 8eotokos or loosely Mother of God Aeiparthenos ἀeipar8ὲnos which means ever virgin as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553 and Panagia Panagia meaning all holy 25 Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary and these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions For example the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelo s Pieta 26 The title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431 The direct equivalents of title in Latin are Deipara and Dei Genitrix although the phrase is more often loosely translated into Latin as Mater Dei Mother of God with similar patterns for other languages used in the Latin Church However this same phrase in Greek Mhthr 8eoῦ in the abbreviated form MR 8Y is an indication commonly attached to her image in Byzantine icons The Council stated that the Church Fathers did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God 27 28 29 Some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis For instance the title Queen Mother has been given to Mary as she was the mother of Jesus sometimes referred to as the King of Kings due to his ancestral descent from King David 30 31 32 33 34 Other titles have arisen from reported miracles special appeals or occasions for calling on Mary e In Islam Main article Mary in Islam In Islam Mary is known as Maryam Arabic مريم romanized Maryam mother of Isa عيسى بن مريم She is often referred to by the honorific title Sayyidatuna meaning Our Lady this title is in parallel to Sayyiduna Our Lord used for the prophets 39 A related term of endearment is Siddiqah 40 meaning she who confirms the truth and she who believes sincerely completely Another title for Mary is Qanitah which signifies both constant submission to God and absorption in prayer and invocation in Islam 41 She is also called Tahira meaning one who has been purified and representing her status as one of two humans in creation and the only woman to not be touched by Satan at any point 42 New Testament The Annunciation by Eustache Le Sueur an example of 17th century Marian art The Angel Gabriel announces to Mary her pregnancy with Jesus and offers her White Lilies The Gospel of Luke mentions Mary the most often identifying her by name twelve times all of these in the infancy narrative 1 27 30 34 38 39 41 46 56 2 5 16 19 34 The Gospel of Matthew mentions her by name five times four of these 1 16 18 20 2 11 in the infancy narrative and only once 13 55 outside the infancy narrative The Gospel of Mark names her once 6 3 and mentions her as Jesus mother without naming her in 3 31 and 3 32 The Gospel of John refers to her twice but never mentions her by name Described as Jesus mother she makes two appearances She is first seen at the wedding at Cana Jn 2 1 12 The second reference listed only in this gospel has her standing near the cross of Jesus together with Mary Magdalene Mary of Clopas or Cleophas and her own sister possibly the same as Mary of Clopas the wording is semantically ambiguous along with the disciple whom Jesus loved Jn 19 25 26 John 2 1 12 is the only text in the canonical gospels in which the adult Jesus has a conversation with Mary He does not address her as Mother but as Woman In Koine Greek the language that the Gospel of John was composed in calling one s mother Woman was not disrespectful and could even be tender 43 Accordingly some versions of the Bible translate it as Dear woman John 2 4 NLT NCV AMP NIV In the Acts of the Apostles Mary and the brothers of Jesus are mentioned in the company of the eleven apostles who are gathered in the upper room after the Ascension of Jesus Acts 1 14 In the Revelation to John 12 1 5 6 Mary is never explicitly identified as the woman clothed with the sun Jean Pierre Ruiz makes that connection in an article in New Theology Review 44 but the belief is quite ancient as is the association of Mary and the Ark of the Covenant mentioned at Revelation 11 19 45 Genealogy Further information Genealogy of Jesus The New Testament tells little of Mary s early history The Gospel of Matthew does give a genealogy for Jesus by his father s paternal line only identifying Mary as the wife of Joseph John 19 25 states that Mary had a sister semantically it is unclear if this sister is the same as Mary of Clopas or if she is left unnamed Jerome identifies Mary of Clopas as the sister of Mary mother of Jesus 46 According to the early 2nd century historian Hegesippus Mary of Clopas was likely Mary s sister in law understanding Clopas Cleophas to have been Joseph s brother 47 According to the writer of Luke Mary was a relative of Elizabeth wife of the priest Zechariah of the priestly division of Abijah who was herself part of the lineage of Aaron and so of the Tribe of Levi 48 Some of those who believe that the relationship with Elizabeth was on the maternal side believe that Mary like Joseph was of the royal Davidic line and so of the Tribe of Judah and that the genealogy of Jesus presented in Luke 3 from Nathan is in fact the genealogy of Mary while the genealogy from Solomon given in Matthew 1 is that of Joseph 49 50 51 Aaron s wife Elisheba was of the tribe of Judah so all their descendants are from both Levi and Judah Num 1 7 amp Ex 6 23 Annunciation The Virgin s first seven steps mosaic from Chora Church c 12th century Main article Annunciation Mary resided in her own house Lk 1 56 in Nazareth in Galilee possibly with her parents and during her betrothal the first stage of a Jewish marriage the angel Gabriel announced to her that she was to be the mother of the promised Messiah by conceiving him through the Holy Spirit and after initially expressing incredulity at the announcement she responded I am the handmaid of the Lord Let it be done unto me according to your word 52 Joseph planned to quietly divorce her but was told her conception was by the Holy Spirit in a dream by an angel of the Lord the angel told him to not hesitate to take her as his wife which Joseph did thereby formally completing the wedding rites 53 Mt 1 18 25 Since the angel Gabriel had told Mary that Elizabeth having previously been barren was then miraculously pregnant 54 Mary hurried to see Elizabeth who was living with her husband Zechariah in Hebron in the hill country of Judah f Mary arrived at the house and greeted Elizabeth who called Mary the mother of my Lord and Mary spoke the words of praise that later became known as the Magnificat from her first word in the Latin version Luke 1 46 55 After about three months Mary returned to her own house Lk 1 56 57 Birth of Jesus A nativity scene in France Santons featuring the Virgin Mary Main article Nativity of Jesus According to the author of the gospel according to Luke a decree of the Roman Emperor Augustus required that Joseph return to his hometown of Bethlehem to register for a Roman census see Census of Quirinius g While he was there with Mary she gave birth to Jesus but because there was no place for them in the inn she used a manger as a cradle 56 p 14 2 1ff After eight days he was circumcised according to Jewish law and named Jesus ישוע which means Yahweh is salvation 57 After Mary continued in the blood of her purifying another 33 days for a total of 40 days she brought her burnt offering and sin offering to the Temple in Jerusalem Luke 2 22 so the priest could make atonement for her Leviticus 12 1 8 They also presented Jesus As it is written in the law of the Lord Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord Luke 2 23 other verses After the prophecies of Simeon and the prophetess Anna in Luke 2 25 38 the family returned into Galilee to their own city Nazareth Luke 2 39 According to the author of the gospel according to Matthew the Magi arrived at Bethlehem where Jesus and his family were living Joseph was warned in a dream that King Herod wanted to murder the infant and the family fled by night to Egypt and stayed there for some time After Herod s death in 4 BC they returned to Nazareth in Galilee rather than Bethlehem because Herod s son Archelaus was the ruler of Judaea Mat 2 Mary is involved in the only event in Jesus adolescent life that is recorded in the New Testament At the age of 12 Jesus having become separated from his parents on their return journey from the Passover celebration in Jerusalem was found in the Temple among the religious teachers 58 p 210 Lk 2 41 52 In the life of Jesus Stabat Mater by Gabriel Wuger 1868 Mary was present when at her suggestion Jesus worked his first miracle during a wedding at Cana by turning water into wine Jn 2 1 11 Subsequently there are events when Mary is present along with James Joseph Simon and Judas called Jesus brothers and unnamed sisters 59 Following Jerome the Church Fathers interpreted the words translated as brother and sister as referring to close relatives 60 61 The hagiography of Mary and the Holy Family can be contrasted with other material in the Gospels These references include an incident which can be interpreted as Jesus rejecting his family in the New Testament And his mother and his brothers arrived and standing outside they sent in a message asking for him And looking at those who sat in a circle around him Jesus said These are my mother and my brothers Whoever does the will of God is my brother and sister and mother 62 3 31 35 Mary is also depicted as being present among the women at the crucifixion during the crucifixion standing near the disciple whom Jesus loved along with Mary of Clopas and Mary Magdalene Jn 19 25 26 to which list Matthew 27 56 adds the mother of the sons of Zebedee presumably the Salome mentioned in Mark 15 40 This representation is called a Stabat Mater 63 64 While not recorded in the Gospel accounts Mary cradling the dead body of her son is a common motif in art called a pieta or pity After the Ascension of Jesus In Acts 1 26 especially v 14 Mary is the only one other than the eleven apostles to be mentioned by name who abode in the upper room when they returned from Mount Olivet From this time she disappears from the biblical accounts although it is held by Catholics that she is again portrayed as the heavenly woman of Revelation Rev 12 1 Her death is not recorded in the scriptures but Catholic and Orthodox tradition and doctrine have her assumed taken bodily into Heaven Belief in the corporeal assumption of Mary is a dogma of the Catholic Church in the Latin and Eastern Catholic Churches alike and is believed as well by the Eastern Orthodox Church 65 66 the Coptic Orthodox Church and parts of the Anglican Communion and Continuing Anglican movement 67 Later Christian writings and traditions The Dormition ivory plaque late 10th early 11th century Musee de Cluny According to the apocryphal Gospel of James Mary was the daughter of Saint Joachim and Saint Anne Before Mary s conception Anne had been barren and was far advanced in years Mary was given to service as a consecrated virgin in the Temple in Jerusalem when she was three years old much as Hannah had taken Samuel to the Tabernacle as recorded in the Old Testament 68 The idea that she was allowed in the Holy of Holies is a patent impossibility as this likely would have constituted blasphemy for Ancient Jews 69 While unproven some apocryphal accounts state that at the time of her betrothal to Joseph Mary was 12 14 years old 1 According to ancient Jewish custom Mary could have been betrothed at about 12 2 Hyppolitus of Thebes says that Mary lived for 11 years after the death of her son Jesus dying in 41 AD 70 The earliest extant biographical writing on Mary is Life of the Virgin attributed to the 7th century saint Maximus the Confessor which portrays her as a key element of the early Christian Church after the death of Jesus 71 72 73 In the 19th century a house near Ephesus in Turkey was found based on the visions of Anne Catherine Emmerich an Augustinian nun in Germany 74 75 It has since been visited as the House of the Virgin Mary by Roman Catholic pilgrims who consider it the place where Mary lived until her assumption 76 77 78 79 The Gospel of John states that Mary went to live with the Disciple whom Jesus loved Jn 19 27 identified as John the Evangelist Jn 21 20 24 Irenaeus and Eusebius of Caesarea wrote in their histories that John later went to Ephesus which may provide the basis for the early belief that Mary also lived in Ephesus with John 80 81 PerspectivesSaint Mary The Virgin in Prayer by Sassoferrato c 1650Western Christianity Mother of God Queen of Heaven Mother of the Church see Titles of Mary Eastern Christianity Theotokos Islam Sayyidatna Our Lady Greatest Woman the Chosen One the Purified OneHonored inChristianity IslamCanonizedPre CongregationMajor shrineSanta Maria Maggiore See Marian shrines FeastSee Marian feast daysAttributesBlue mantle crown of 12 stars pregnant woman roses woman with child woman trampling serpent crescent moon woman clothed with the sun heart pierced by sword rosary beadsPatronageSee Patronage of the Blessed Virgin MaryChristian See also Mariology Theotokos and Hymns to Mary Christian Marian perspectives include a great deal of diversity While some Christians such as Catholics and Eastern Orthodox have well established Marian traditions Protestants at large pay scant attention to Mariological themes Catholic Eastern Orthodox Oriental Orthodox Anglican and Lutherans venerate the Virgin Mary This veneration especially takes the form of prayer for intercession with her Son Jesus Christ Additionally it includes composing poems and songs in Mary s honor painting icons or carving statues of her and conferring titles on Mary that reflect her position among the saints 23 25 26 82 Catholic Main articles Roman Catholic Mariology and Veneration of Mary in Roman Catholicism In the Catholic Church Mary is accorded the title Blessed beata makaria in recognition of her assumption to Heaven and her capacity to intercede on behalf of those who pray to her There is a difference between the usage of the term blessed as pertaining to Mary and its usage as pertaining to a beatified person Blessed as a Marian title refers to her exalted state as being the greatest among the saints for a person who has been declared beatified on the other hand blessed simply indicates that they may be venerated despite not being officially canonized Catholic teachings make clear that Mary is not considered divine and prayers to her are not answered by her but rather by God through her intercession 83 The four Catholic dogmas regarding Mary are her status as Theotokos or Mother of God her perpetual virginity the Immaculate Conception and her bodily Assumption into heaven 84 85 86 The Blessed Virgin Mary the mother of Jesus has a more central role in Roman Catholic teachings and beliefs than in any other major Christian group Not only do Roman Catholics have more theological doctrines and teachings that relate to Mary but they have more festivals prayers devotional and venerative practices than any other group 26 The Catechism of the Catholic Church states The Church s devotion to the Blessed Virgin is intrinsic to Christian worship 87 For centuries Catholics have performed acts of consecration and entrustment to Mary at personal societal and regional levels These acts may be directed to the Virgin herself to the Immaculate Heart of Mary and to the Immaculate Conception In Catholic teachings consecration to Mary does not diminish or substitute the love of God but enhances it for all consecration is ultimately made to God 88 89 Following the growth of Marian devotions in the 16th century Catholic saints wrote books such as Glories of Mary and True Devotion to Mary that emphasized Marian veneration and taught that the path to Jesus is through Mary 90 Marian devotions are at times linked to Christocentric devotions such as the Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary 91 Key Marian devotions include Seven Sorrows of Mary Rosary and scapular Miraculous Medal and Reparations to Mary 92 93 The months of May and October are traditionally Marian months for Roman Catholics the daily Rosary is encouraged in October and in May Marian devotions take place in many regions 94 95 96 Popes have issued a number of Marian encyclicals and Apostolic Letters to encourage devotions to and the veneration of the Virgin Mary Catholics place high emphasis on Mary s roles as protector and intercessor and the Catechism refers to Mary as honored with the title Mother of God to whose protection the faithful fly in all their dangers and needs 87 97 98 99 100 Key Marian prayers include Ave Maria Alma Redemptoris Mater Sub tuum praesidium Ave maris stella Regina caeli Ave Regina caelorum and the Magnificat 101 The chapel based on the claimed House of Mary in Ephesus Mary s participation in the processes of salvation and redemption has also been emphasized in the Catholic tradition but they are not doctrines 102 103 104 105 Pope John Paul II s 1987 encyclical Redemptoris Mater began with the sentence The Mother of the Redeemer has a precise place in the plan of salvation 106 In the 20th century both popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI emphasized the Marian focus of the Catholic Church Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger later Pope Benedict XVI suggested a redirection of the whole church towards the program of Pope John Paul II in order to ensure an authentic approach to Christology via a return to the whole truth about Mary 107 writing It is necessary to go back to Mary if we want to return to that truth about Jesus Christ truth about the Church and truth about man 107 Eastern Orthodox A mosaic from the Hagia Sophia of Constantinople modern Istanbul depicting Mary with Jesus flanked by John II Komnenos left and his wife Irene of Hungary right c 1118 AD 15th century icon of the Theotokos God bearer Eastern Orthodox Christianity includes a large number of traditions regarding the Ever Virgin Mary the Theotokos 108 The Orthodox believe that she was and remained a virgin before and after Christ s birth 25 The Theotokia hymns to the Theotokos are an essential part of the Divine Services in the Eastern Church and their positioning within the liturgical sequence effectively places the Theotokos in the most prominent place after Christ 109 Within the Orthodox tradition the order of the saints begins with the Theotokos Angels Prophets Apostles Fathers and Martyrs giving the Virgin Mary precedence over the angels She is also proclaimed as the Lady of the Angels 109 The views of the Church Fathers still play an important role in the shaping of Orthodox Marian perspective However the Orthodox views on Mary are mostly doxological rather than academic they are expressed in hymns praise liturgical poetry and the veneration of icons One of the most loved Orthodox Akathists standing hymns is devoted to Mary and it is often simply called the Akathist Hymn 110 Five of the twelve Great Feasts in Orthodoxy are dedicated to Mary 25 The Sunday of Orthodoxy directly links the Virgin Mary s identity as Mother of God with icon veneration 111 A number of Orthodox feasts are connected with the miraculous icons of the Theotokos 109 The Orthodox view Mary as superior to all created beings although not divine 112 As such the designation of Saint to Mary as Saint Mary is not appropriate 113 The Orthodox does not venerate Mary as conceived immaculate Gregory of Nazianzus Archbishop of Constantinople in the 4th century AD speaking on the Nativity of Jesus Christ argues that Conceived by the Virgin who first in body and soul was purified by the Holy Ghost He came forth as God with that which He had assumed One Person in two Natures Flesh and Spirit of which the latter defined the former 114 The Orthodox celebrate the Dormition of the Theotokos rather than Assumption 25 The Protoevangelium of James an extra canonical book has been the source of many Orthodox beliefs on Mary The account of Mary s life presented includes her consecration as a virgin at the temple at age three The high priest Zachariah blessed Mary and informed her that God had magnified her name among many generations Zachariah placed Mary on the third step of the altar whereby God gave her grace While in the temple Mary was miraculously fed by an angel until she was 12 years old At that point an angel told Zachariah to betroth Mary to a widower in Israel who would be indicated This story provides the theme of many hymns for the Feast of Presentation of Mary and icons of the feast depict the story 115 The Orthodox believe that Mary was instrumental in the growth of Christianity during the life of Jesus and after his Crucifixion and Orthodox theologian Sergei Bulgakov has written The Virgin Mary is the centre invisible but real of the Apostolic Church Theologians from the Orthodox tradition have made prominent contributions to the development of Marian thought and devotion John Damascene c 650 c 750 was one of the greatest Orthodox theologians Among other Marian writings he proclaimed the essential nature of Mary s heavenly Assumption or Dormition and her meditative role It was necessary that the body of the one who preserved her virginity intact in giving birth should also be kept incorrupt after death It was necessary that she who carried the Creator in her womb when he was a baby should dwell among the tabernacles of heaven 116 From her we have harvested the grape of life from her we have cultivated the seed of immortality For our sake she became Mediatrix of all blessings in her God became man and man became God 117 More recently Sergei Bulgakov expressed the Orthodox sentiments towards Mary as follows 112 Mary is not merely the instrument but the direct positive condition of the Incarnation its human aspect Christ could not have been incarnate by some mechanical process violating human nature It was necessary for that nature itself to say for itself by the mouth of the most pure human being Behold the handmaid of the Lord be it unto me according to Thy word Protestant Further information Protestant views on Mary Protestants in general reject the veneration and invocation of the Saints 10 1174 They share the belief that Mary is the mother of Jesus and blessed among women Luke 1 42 but they generally do not agree that Mary is to be venerated She is considered to be an outstanding example of a life dedicated to God 118 As such they tend not to accept certain church doctrines such as her being preserved from sin Theologian Karl Barth wrote that the heresy of the Catholic Church is its Mariology 119 Some early Protestants venerated Mary Martin Luther wrote that Mary is full of grace proclaimed to be entirely without sin God s grace fills her with everything good and makes her devoid of all evil 120 However as of 1532 Luther stopped celebrating the feast of the Assumption of Mary and also discontinued his support of the Immaculate Conception 121 John Calvin remarked It cannot be denied that God in choosing and destining Mary to be the Mother of his Son granted her the highest honor h However Calvin firmly rejected the notion that Mary can intercede between Christ and man 124 Although Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli honored Mary as the Mother of God in the 16th century they did so less than Martin Luther 125 Thus the idea of respect and high honor for Mary was not rejected by the first Protestants but they came to criticize the Roman Catholics for venerating Mary Following the Council of Trent in the 16th century as Marian veneration became associated with Catholics Protestant interest in Mary decreased During the Age of the Enlightenment any residual interest in Mary within Protestant churches almost disappeared although Anglicans and Lutherans continued to honor her 10 In the 20th century some Protestants reacted in opposition to the Catholic dogma of the Assumption of Mary citation needed The tone of the Second Vatican Council began to mend the ecumenical differences and Protestants began to show interest in Marian themes citation needed In 1997 and 1998 ecumenical dialogues between Catholics and Protestants took place but to date the majority of Protestants disagree with Marian veneration and some view it as a challenge to the authority of Scripture 10 better source needed Anglican Main article Anglican Marian theology The various churches that form the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican movement have different views on Marian doctrines and venerative practices given that there is no single church with universal authority within the Communion and that the mother church the Church of England understands itself to be both Catholic and Reformed 126 Thus unlike the Protestant churches at large the Anglican Communion includes segments which still retain some veneration of Mary 82 Mary s special position within God s purpose of salvation as God bearer is recognised in a number of ways by some Anglican Christians 127 All the member churches of the Anglican Communion affirm in the historic creeds that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary and celebrates the feast days of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple This feast is called in older prayer books the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary on 2 February The Annunciation of our Lord to the Blessed Virgin on 25 March was from before the time of Bede until the 18th century New Year s Day in England The Annunciation is called the Annunciation of our Lady in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer Anglicans also celebrate in the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin on 31 May though in some provinces the traditional date of 2 July is kept The feast of the St Mary the Virgin is observed on the traditional day of the Assumption 15 August The Nativity of the Blessed Virgin is kept on 8 September 82 The Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary is kept in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer on 8 December In certain Anglo Catholic parishes this feast is called the Immaculate Conception Again the Assumption of Mary is believed in by most Anglo Catholics but is considered a pious opinion by moderate Anglicans Protestant minded Anglicans reject the celebration of these feasts 82 Prayers and venerative practices vary greatly For instance as of the 19th century following the Oxford Movement Anglo Catholics frequently pray the Rosary the Angelus Regina caeli and other litanies and anthems of Mary reminiscent of Catholic practices 128 Conversely Low church Anglicans rarely invoke the Blessed Virgin except in certain hymns such as the second stanza of Ye Watchers and Ye Holy Ones 127 129 The Anglican Society of Mary was formed in 1931 and maintains chapters in many countries The purpose of the society is to foster devotion to Mary among Anglicans 82 130 High church Anglicans espouse doctrines that are closer to Roman Catholics and retain veneration for Mary such as official Anglican pilgrimages to Our Lady of Lourdes which have taken place since 1963 and pilgrimages to Our Lady of Walsingham which have taken place for hundreds of years 131 Historically there has been enough common ground between Roman Catholics and Anglicans on Marian issues that in 2005 a joint statement called Mary grace and hope in Christ was produced through ecumenical meetings of Anglicans and Roman Catholic theologians This document informally known as the Seattle Statement is not formally endorsed by either the Catholic Church or the Anglican Communion but is viewed by its authors as the beginning of a joint understanding of Mary 82 132 Lutheran Main article Lutheran Mariology Stained glass window of Jesus leaving his mother in a Lutheran church in South Carolina Despite Martin Luther s harsh polemics against his Roman Catholic opponents over issues concerning Mary and the saints theologians appear to agree that Luther adhered to the Marian decrees of the ecumenical councils and dogmas of the church He held fast to the belief that Mary was a perpetual virgin and Mother of God 133 134 Special attention is given to the assertion that Luther some 300 years before the dogmatization of the Immaculate Conception by Pope Pius IX in 1854 was a firm adherent of that view citation needed Others maintain that Luther in later years changed his position on the Immaculate Conception which at that time was undefined in the church maintaining however the sinlessness of Mary throughout her life 135 136 For Luther early in his life the Assumption of Mary was an understood fact although he later stated that the Bible did not say anything about it and stopped celebrating its feast Important to him was the belief that Mary and the saints do live on after death 137 138 139 Throughout his career as a priest professor reformer Luther preached taught and argued about the veneration of Mary with a verbosity that ranged from childlike piety to sophisticated polemics His views are intimately linked to his Christocentric theology and its consequences for liturgy and piety 140 Luther while revering Mary came to criticize the Papists for blurring the line between high admiration of the grace of God wherever it is seen in a human being and religious service given to another creature He considered the Roman Catholic practice of celebrating saints days and making intercessory requests addressed especially to Mary and other departed saints to be idolatry 141 142 His final thoughts on Marian devotion and veneration are preserved in a sermon preached at Wittenberg only a month before his death Therefore when we preach faith that we should worship nothing but God alone the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ as we say in the Creed I believe in God the Father almighty and in Jesus Christ then we are remaining in the temple at Jerusalem Again This is my beloved Son listen to him You will find him in a manger He alone does it But reason says the opposite What us Are we to worship only Christ Indeed shouldn t we also honor the holy mother of Christ She is the woman who bruised the head of the serpent Hear us Mary for thy Son so honors thee that he can refuse thee nothing Here Bernard went too far in his Homilies on the Gospel Missus est Angelus 143 God has commanded that we should honor the parents therefore I will call upon Mary She will intercede for me with the Son and the Son with the Father who will listen to the Son So you have the picture of God as angry and Christ as judge Mary shows to Christ her breast and Christ shows his wounds to the wrathful Father That s the kind of thing this comely bride the wisdom of reason cooks up Mary is the mother of Christ surely Christ will listen to her Christ is a stern judge therefore I will call upon St George and St Christopher No we have been by God s command baptized in the name of the Father the Son and the Holy Spirit just as the Jews were circumcised 144 145 Certain Lutheran churches such as the Anglo Lutheran Catholic Church continue to venerate Mary and the saints in the same manner that Roman Catholics do and hold all Marian dogmas as part of their faith 146 Methodist Further information Saints in Methodism Virgin Mary Methodists do not have any additional teachings on the Virgin Mary except from what is mentioned in Scripture and the ecumenical Creeds As such Methodists generally accept the doctrine of the virgin birth but reject the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception 147 John Wesley the principal founder of the Methodist movement within the Church of England believed that Mary continued a pure and unspotted virgin thus upholding the doctrine of the perpetual virginity of Mary 148 149 Contemporary Methodism does hold that Mary was a virgin before during and immediately after the birth of Christ 150 151 In addition some Methodists also hold the doctrine of the Assumption of Mary as a pious opinion 152 Nontrinitarian Nontrinitarians such as Unitarians Christadelphians Jehovah s Witnesses and Latter Day Saints 153 also acknowledge Mary as the biological mother of Jesus Christ but most reject any immaculate conception and do not recognize Marian titles such as Mother of God The Latter Day Saint movement s view affirms the virgin birth of Jesus 154 and Christ s divinity but only as a separate being than God the Father The Book of Mormon refers to Mary by name in prophecies and describes her as most beautiful and fair above all other virgins 155 and as a precious and chosen vessel 156 157 In non trinitarian groups that are also Christian mortalists Mary is not seen as an intercessor between humankind and Jesus whom mortalists would consider asleep awaiting resurrection 158 Jewish The issue of the parentage of Jesus in the Talmud also affects Jewish views of Mary However the Talmud does not mention Mary by name and is considerate rather than only polemic 159 160 The story about Panthera is also found in the Toledot Yeshu the literary origins of which can not be traced with any certainty and given that it is unlikely to go before the 4th century the time is too late to include authentic remembrances of Jesus 161 The Blackwell Companion to Jesus states that the Toledot Yeshu has no historical facts and was perhaps created as a tool for warding off conversions to Christianity 162 The tales from the Toledot Yeshu did impart a negative picture of Mary to ordinary Jewish readers 163 The circulation of the Toledot Yeshu was widespread among European and Middle Eastern Jewish communities since the 9th century 164 The name Panthera may be a distortion of the term parthenos virgin and Raymond E Brown considers the story of Panthera a fanciful explanation of the birth of Jesus that includes very little historical evidence 165 Robert Van Voorst states that because Toledot Yeshu is a medieval document with its lack of a fixed form and orientation towards a popular audience it is most unlikely to have reliable historical information 166 Stacks of the copies of the Talmud were burnt upon a court order after the 1240 Disputation for allegedly containing material defaming the character of Mary 163 Islamic Main article Mary in Islam Persian miniature of Mary and Jesus The Virgin Mary holds a singularly exalted place in Islam and she is considered by the Quran to have been the greatest woman in the history of humankind The Islamic scripture recounts the Divine Promise given to Mary as being Mary God has chosen thee and purified thee He hath chosen thee above all the women of creation 3 42 Mary is often referred to by Muslims by the honorific title Sayedetina Our Lady She is mentioned in the Quran as the daughter of Imran 167 Moreover Mary is the only woman named in the Quran and she is mentioned or referred to in the scripture a total of 50 times i Mary holds a singularly distinguished and honored position among women in the Quran A sura chapter in the Quran is titled Maryam Mary the only sura in the Quran named after a woman in which the story of Mary Maryam and Jesus Isa is recounted according to the view of Jesus in Islam 15 Birth In a narration of Hadith from Imam Ja far al Sadiq he mentions that Allah revealed to Imran I will grant you a boy blessed one who will cure the blind and the leper and one who will raise the dead by My permission And I will send him as an apostle to the Children of Israel Then Imran related the story to his wife Hannah the mother of Mary When she became pregnant she conceived it was a boy but when she gave birth to a girl she stated Oh my Lord Verily I have delivered a female and the male is not like the female for a girl will not be a prophet to which Allah replies in the Quran Allah knows better what has been delivered 3 36 When Allah bestowed Jesus to Mary he fulfilled his promise to Imran 168 Motherhood Mary shaking the palm tree for dates Mary was declared uniquely along with Jesus to be a Sign of God to humanity 169 as one who guarded her chastity 41 an obedient one 41 chosen of her mother and dedicated to Allah whilst still in the womb 170 uniquely amongst women Accepted into service by God 171 cared for by one of the prophets as per Islam Zakariya Zacharias 171 that in her childhood she resided in the Temple and uniquely had access to Al Mihrab understood to be the Holy of Holies and was provided with heavenly provisions by God 171 167 Mary is also called a Chosen One 42 a Purified One 42 a Truthful one 172 her child conceived through a Word from God 173 and exalted above all women of The Worlds Universes the material and heavenly worlds 42 The Quran relates detailed narrative accounts of Maryam Mary in two places Quran 3 35 47 and 19 16 34 These state beliefs in both the Immaculate Conception of Mary and the virgin birth of Jesus 174 175 176 The account given in Sura 19 is nearly identical with that in the Gospel according to Luke and both of these Luke Sura 19 begin with an account of the visitation of an angel upon Zakariya Zecharias and Good News of the birth of Yahya John followed by the account of the annunciation It mentions how Mary was informed by an angel that she would become the mother of Jesus through the actions of God alone 177 In the Islamic tradition Mary and Jesus were the only children who could not be touched by Satan at the moment of their birth for God imposed a veil between them and Satan 178 According to the author Shabbir Akhtar the Islamic perspective on Mary s Immaculate Conception is compatible with the Catholic doctrine of the same topic O People of the Book Do not go beyond the bounds in your religion and do not say anything of Allah but the truth The Messiah Jesus son of Mary was but a Messenger of God and a Word of His Power which He conveyed to Mary and a spirit from Him So believe in Allah as the One Unique God and His Messengers including Jesus as Messenger and do not say Allah is one of a trinity Give up this assertion it is for your own good to do so Allah is but One Allah All Glorified He is in that He is absolutely above having a son To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth And Allah suffices as the One to be relied on to Whom affairs should be referred Quran 4 171 179 180 The Quran says that Jesus was the result of a virgin birth The most detailed account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus is provided in Suras 3 and 19 of the Quran where it is written that God sent an angel to announce that she could shortly expect to bear a son despite being a virgin 181 Bahaʼi Faith The Bahaʼi Faith venerates Mary as the mother of Jesus The Kitab i Iqan the primary theological work of the Bahaʼi religion describes Mary as that most beauteous countenance and that veiled and immortal Countenance The Bahaʼi writings claim Jesus Christ was conceived of the Holy Ghost 182 and assert that in the Bahaʼi Faith the reality of the mystery of the Immaculacy of the Virgin Mary is confessed 183 Biblical scholars The statement found in Matthew 1 25 that Joseph did not have sexual relations with Mary before she gave birth to Jesus has been debated among scholars with some saying that she did not remain a virgin and some saying that she was a perpetual virgin 184 Other scholars contend that the Greek word heos until denotes a state up to a point but does not mean that the state ended after that point and that Matthew 1 25 does not confirm or deny the virginity of Mary after the birth of Jesus 185 186 187 According to Biblical scholar Bart Ehrman the Hebrew word almah meaning young woman of childbearing age was translated into Greek as parthenos which often though not always refers to a young woman who has never had sex In Isaiah 7 14 it is commonly believed by Christians to be the prophecy of the Virgin Mary referred to in Matthew 1 23 188 While Matthew and Luke give differing versions of the virgin birth John quotes the uninitiated Philip and the disbelieving Jews gathered at Galilee referring to Joseph as Jesus father 189 190 191 192 Other biblical verses have also been debated for example the reference made by Paul the Apostle that Jesus was made of the seed of David according to the flesh Romans 1 3 may be interpreted as Joseph being the father of Jesus 193 Pre Christian Rome From the early stages of Christianity belief in the virginity of Mary and the virgin conception of Jesus as stated in the gospels holy and supernatural was used by detractors both political and religious as a topic for discussions debates and writings specifically aimed to challenge the divinity of Jesus and thus Christians and Christianity alike 194 In the 2nd century as part of his anti Christian polemic The True Word the pagan philosopher Celsus contended that Jesus was actually the illegitimate son of a Roman soldier named Panthera 195 The church father Origen dismissed this assertion as a complete fabrication in his apologetic treatise Against Celsus 196 How far Celsus sourced his view from Jewish sources remains a subject of discussion 197 Christian devotionMain article Marian devotions 2nd century Justin Martyr was among the first to draw a parallel between Eve and Mary This derives from his comparison of Adam and Jesus In his Dialogue with Trypho written sometime between 155 167 198 he explains He became man by the Virgin in order that the disobedience which proceeded from the serpent might receive its destruction in the same manner in which it derived its origin For Eve who was a virgin and undefiled having conceived the word of the serpent brought forth disobedience and death But the Virgin Mary received faith and joy when the angel Gabriel announced the good tidings to her that the Spirit of the Lord would come upon her and the power of the Highest would overshadow her wherefore also the Holy Thing begotten of her is the Son of God and she replied Be it unto me according to thy word And by her has He been born to whom we have proved so many scriptures refer and by whom God destroys both the serpent and those angels and men who are like him but works deliverance from death to those who repent of their wickedness and believe upon Him 199 Ireneaus bishop of Lyon also takes this up in Against Heresies written about the year 182 200 In accordance with this design Mary the Virgin is found obedient saying Behold the handmaid of the Lord be it unto me according to your word Luke 1 38 But Eve was disobedient for she did not obey when as yet she was a virgin having become disobedient was made the cause of death both to herself and to the entire human race so also did Mary having a man betrothed to her and being nevertheless a virgin by yielding obedience become the cause of salvation both to herself and the whole human race And on this account does the law term a woman betrothed to a man the wife of him who had betrothed her although she was as yet a virgin thus indicating the back reference from Mary to Eve For the Lord having been born the First begotten of the dead Revelation 1 5 and receiving into His bosom the ancient fathers has regenerated them into the life of God He having been made Himself the beginning of those that live as Adam became the beginning of those who die 1 Corinthians 15 20 22 Wherefore also Luke commencing the genealogy with the Lord carried it back to Adam indicating that it was He who regenerated them into the Gospel of life and not they Him And thus also it was that the knot of Eve s disobedience was loosed by the obedience of Mary For what the virgin Eve had bound fast through unbelief this did the virgin Mary set free through faith 201 3rd to 5th centuries Christian devotion to Mary predates the emergence of a specific Marian liturgical system in the 5th century following the First Council of Ephesus in 431 In Egypt the veneration of Mary had started in the 3rd century and the term Theotokos was used by Origen the Alexandrian Father of the Church 202 The earliest known Marian prayer the Sub tuum praesidium or Beneath Thy Protection is from the 3rd century perhaps 270 and its text was rediscovered in 1917 on a papyrus in Egypt 203 204 Following the Edict of Milan in 313 by the 5th century artistic images of Mary began to appear in public and larger churches were being dedicated to Mary such as the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome 205 206 207 The Council of Ephesus itself was held at a church in Ephesus which had been dedicated to Mary about a hundred years before 208 209 210 The Church of the Seat of Mary in Palestine was built shortly after the introduction of Marian liturgy at the council of Ephesus in 456 by a widow named Ikelia 211 4th century Arabia According to the 4th century heresiologist Epiphanius of Salamis the Virgin Mary was worshipped as a mother goddess in the Christian sect of Collyridianism which was found throughout Arabia sometime during the 300s AD Collyridianism had women performing priestly acts and made bread offerings to the Virgin Mary The group was condemned as heretical by the Roman Catholic Church and was preached against by Epiphanius of Salamis who wrote about the group in his writings titled Panarion 212 The adoption of the mother of Jesus as a virtual goddess may represent a reintroduction of aspects of the worship of Isis According to Sabrina Higgins When looking at images of the Egyptian goddess Isis and those of the Virgin Mary one may initially observe iconographic similarities These parallels have led many scholars to suggest that there is a distinct iconographic relationship between Isis and Mary In fact some scholars have gone even further and have suggested on the basis of this relationship a direct link between the cult of Mary and that of Isis 213 Conversely Carl Olson and Sandra Miesel dispute the idea that Christianity copied elements of Isis s iconography saying that the symbol of a mother and her child is part of the universal human experience 214 Byzantium Ephesus is a cultic centre of Mary the site of the first church dedicated to her and the rumoured place of her death Ephesus was previously a centre for worship of Artemis a virgin goddess the Temple of Artemis there is regarded as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World The cult of Mary was furthered by Queen Theodora in the 6th century 215 216 According to William E Phipps in the book Survivals of Roman Religion 217 Gordon Laing argues convincingly that the worship of Artemis as both virgin and mother at the grand Ephesian temple contributed to the veneration of Mary 218 Madonna of humility by Fra Angelico c 1430 A traditional depiction of Mary wearing blue clothes Middle Ages The Middle Ages saw many legends about Mary her parents and even her grandparents 219 The Virgin s popularity increased dramatically from the 12th century 220 linked to the Vatican s designation of Mary as the mediatrix 221 222 Depiction in Renaissance art In paintings Mary is traditionally portrayed in blue This tradition can trace its origin to the Byzantine Empire from c 500 AD where blue was the colour of an empress A more practical explanation for the use of this colour is that in Medieval and Renaissance Europe the blue pigment was derived from the rock lapis lazuli a stone imported from Afghanistan of greater value than gold Beyond a painter s retainer patrons were expected to purchase any gold or lapis lazuli to be used in the painting Hence it was an expression of devotion and glorification to swathe the Virgin in gowns of blue Transformations in visual depictions of the Virgin from the 13th to 15th centuries mirror her social standing within the Church as well as in society 223 Since the Reformation Over the centuries devotion and veneration to Mary has varied greatly among Christian traditions For instance while Protestants show scant attention to Marian prayers or devotions of all the saints whom the Orthodox venerate the most honored is Mary who is considered more honorable than the Cherubim and more glorious than the Seraphim 25 Orthodox theologian Sergei Bulgakov wrote Love and veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary is the soul of Orthodox piety A faith in Christ which does not include his mother is another faith another Christianity from that of the Orthodox church 112 Although the Catholics and the Orthodox may honor and venerate Mary they do not view her as divine nor do they worship her Roman Catholics view Mary as subordinate to Christ but uniquely so in that she is seen as above all other creatures 224 Similarly Theologian Sergei Bulgakov wrote that the Orthodox view Mary as superior to all created beings and ceaselessly pray for her intercession However she is not considered a substitute for the One Mediator who is Christ 112 Let Mary be in honor but let worship be given to the Lord he wrote 225 Similarly Catholics do not worship Mary as a divine being but rather hyper venerate her In Roman Catholic theology the term hyperdulia is reserved for Marian veneration latria for the worship of God and dulia for the veneration of other saints and angels 226 The definition of the three level hierarchy of latria hyperdulia and dulia goes back to the Second Council of Nicaea in 787 227 Devotions to artistic depictions of Mary vary among Christian traditions There is a long tradition of Catholic Marian art and no image permeates Catholic art as does the image of Madonna and Child 228 The icon of the Virgin Theotokos with Christ is without doubt the most venerated icon in the Orthodox Church 229 Both Roman Catholic and Orthodox Christians venerate images and icons of Mary given that the Second Council of Nicaea in 787 permitted their veneration with the understanding that those who venerate the image are venerating the reality of the person it represents 230 and the 842 Synod of Constantinople confirming the same 231 According to Orthodox piety and traditional practice however believers ought to pray before and venerate only flat two dimensional icons and not three dimensional statues 232 The Anglican position towards Mary is in general more conciliatory than that of Protestants at large and in a book he wrote about praying with the icons of Mary Rowan Williams former archbishop of Canterbury said It is not only that we cannot understand Mary without seeing her as pointing to Christ we cannot understand Christ without seeing his attention to Mary 82 233 On 4 September 1781 11 families of pobladores arrived from the Gulf of California and established a city in the name of King Carlos III The small town was named El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora de los Angeles de la Porciuncula after our Lady of the Angels a city that today is known simply as Los Angeles In an attempt to revive the custom of religious processions within the Archdiocese of Los Angeles in September 2011 the Queen of Angels Foundation and founder Mark Anchor Albert inaugurated an annual Grand Marian Procession in the heart of Downtown Los Angeles historic core This yearly procession held on the last Saturday of August and intended to coincide with the anniversary of the founding of the City of Los Angeles begins at the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels and concludes at the parish of La Iglesia de Nuestra Senora Reina de los Angeles which is part of the Los Angeles Plaza Historic District better known as La Placita FeastsMain article Marian feast days The earliest feasts that relate to Mary grew out of the cycle of feasts that celebrated the Nativity of Jesus Given that according to the Gospel of Luke Luke 2 22 40 40 days after the birth of Jesus along with the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple Mary was purified according to Jewish customs the Feast of the Purification began to be celebrated by the 5th century and became the Feast of Simeon in Byzantium 234 Village decorations during the Feast of the Assumption in Għaxaq Malta In the 7th and 8th centuries four more Marian feasts were established in Eastern Christianity In the West a feast dedicated to Mary just before Christmas was celebrated in the Churches of Milan and Ravenna in Italy in the 7th century The four Roman Marian feasts of Purification Annunciation Assumption and Nativity of Mary were gradually and sporadically introduced into England by the 11th century 234 Over time the number and nature of feasts and the associated Titles of Mary and the venerative practices that accompany them have varied a great deal among diverse Christian traditions Overall there are significantly more titles feasts and venerative Marian practices among Roman Catholics than any other Christians traditions 26 Some such feasts relate to specific events such as the Feast of Our Lady of Victory based on the 1571 victory of the Papal States in the Battle of Lepanto 235 236 Differences in feasts may also originate from doctrinal issues the Feast of the Assumption is such an example Given that there is no agreement among all Christians on the circumstances of the death Dormition or Assumption of Mary the feast of assumption is celebrated among some denominations and not others 23 237 While the Catholic Church celebrates the Feast of the Assumption on 15 August some Eastern Catholics celebrate it as Dormition of the Theotokos and may do so on 28 August if they follow the Julian calendar The Eastern Orthodox also celebrate it as the Dormition of the Theotokos one of their 12 Great Feasts Protestants do not celebrate this or any other Marian feasts 23 Catholic MariologyMain articles Mariology and Roman Catholic Mariology Mary with an inscription referencing Luke 1 46 47 in St Jurgen Lutheran church in Gettorf Schleswig Holstein There is significant diversity in the Marian doctrines attributed to her primarily by the Catholic Church The key Marian doctrines held primarily in Catholicism can be briefly outlined as follows Immaculate Conception Mary was conceived without original sin Mother of God Mary as the mother of Jesus is the Theotokos God bearer or Mother of God Virgin birth of Jesus Mary conceived Jesus by action of the Holy Spirit while remaining a virgin Perpetual Virginity Mary remained a virgin all her life even after the act of giving birth to Jesus Dormition commemorates Mary s falling asleep or natural death shortly before her Assumption Assumption Mary was taken bodily into heaven either at or before her death The acceptance of these Marian doctrines by Roman Catholics can be summarized as follows 10 238 239 Doctrine Church action Accepted byMother of God First Council of Ephesus 431 Catholics Eastern Orthodox Oriental Orthodox Anglicans Lutherans some MethodistsVirgin birth of Jesus First Council of Nicaea 325 Catholics Eastern Orthodox Oriental Orthodox Assyrians Anglicans Baptists mainline ProtestantsAssumption of Mary Munificentissimus Deus encyclical Pope Pius XII 1950 Catholics Eastern and Oriental Orthodox only following her natural death some Anglicans some LutheransImmaculate Conception Ineffabilis Deus encyclical Pope Pius IX 1854 Catholics some Anglicans some Lutherans early Martin Luther Perpetual Virginity Second Ecumenical Council of Constantinople 553 Smalcald Articles 1537 Catholics Eastern Orthodox Oriental Orthodox Assyrians some Anglicans some Lutherans Martin Luther Miraculous Icon of Our Lady of Tartakow in Blessed Virgin Mary Church in Lukawiec The title Mother of God Theotokos for Mary was confirmed by the First Council of Ephesus held at the Church of Mary in 431 The Council decreed that Mary is the Mother of God because her son Jesus is one person who is both God and man divine and human 27 This doctrine is widely accepted by Christians in general and the term Mother of God had already been used within the oldest known prayer to Mary the Sub tuum praesidium which dates to around 250 AD 240 The Virgin birth of Jesus was an almost universally held belief among Christians from the 2nd until the 19th century 241 It is included in the two most widely used Christian creeds which state that Jesus was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary the Nicene Creed in what is now its familiar form 242 and the Apostles Creed The Gospel of Matthew describes Mary as a virgin who fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah 7 14 mistranslating the Hebrew word alma young woman as virgin citation needed The authors of the Gospels of Matthew and Luke consider Jesus conception not the result of intercourse and assert that Mary had no relations with man before Jesus birth Mt 1 18 Mt 1 25 Lk 1 34 This alludes to the belief that Mary conceived Jesus through the action of God the Holy Spirit and not through intercourse with Joseph or anyone else 243 The doctrines of the Assumption or Dormition of Mary relate to her death and bodily assumption to heaven Roman Catholic Church has dogmatically defined the doctrine of the Assumption which was done in 1950 by Pope Pius XII in Munificentissimus Deus Whether Mary died or not is not defined dogmatically however although a reference to the death of Mary are made in Munificentissimus Deus In the Eastern Orthodox Church the Assumption of the Virgin Mary is believed and celebrated with her Dormition where they believe she died Catholics believe in the Immaculate Conception of Mary as proclaimed ex cathedra by Pope Pius IX in 1854 namely that she was filled with grace from the very moment of her conception in her mother s womb and preserved from the stain of original sin The Latin Church has a liturgical feast by that name kept on 8 December 244 Orthodox Christians reject the Immaculate Conception dogma principally because their understanding of ancestral sin the Greek term corresponding to the Latin original sin differs from the Augustinian interpretation and that of the Catholic Church 245 The Perpetual Virginity of Mary asserts Mary s real and perpetual virginity even in the act of giving birth to the Son of God made Man The term Ever Virgin Greek ἀeipar8enos is applied in this case stating that Mary remained a virgin for the remainder of her life making Jesus her biological and only son whose conception and birth are held to be miraculous 84 243 246 While the Orthodox Churches hold the position articulated in the Protoevangelium of James that Jesus brothers and sisters are older children of Joseph the Betrothed step siblings from an earlier marriage that left him widowed Roman Catholic teaching follows the Latin father Jerome in considering them Jesus cousins Cinematic portrayalsMary has been portrayed in various films and on television including The Miracle 1912 color silent film of the play The Miracle as a statue which comes to life Das Mirakel 1912 silent film a German version of the play The Miracle The Song of Bernadette 1943 film The Living Christ Series 1951 non theatrical non television film twelve part series The Miracle of Our Lady of Fatima 1952 film Ben Hur 1959 film played by Jose Greci 247 The Miracle 1959 film a loose remake of the 1912 film Das Mirakel King of Kings 1961 film played by Siobhan McKenna 248 The Greatest Story Ever Told 1965 film played by Dorothy McGuire 249 Jesus of Nazareth 1977 two part television miniseries played by Olivia Hussey 250 The Last Temptation of Christ 1988 film played by Verna Bloom 251 Mary Mother of Jesus 1999 television film played by Pernilla August 252 Saint Mary 2002 film played by Shabnam Gholikhani 253 The Passion of the Christ 2004 film played by Maia Morgenstern 254 Imperium Saint Peter 2005 television film Color of the Cross 2006 film played by Debbi Morgan 255 The Nativity Story 2006 film played by Keisha Castle Hughes 256 The Passion 2008 television miniseries 257 258 The Nativity 2010 four part miniseries Son of God 2014 film played by Roma Downey 259 Mary Magdalene 2018 film played by Irit Sheleg 260 Jesus His Life 2019 TV series played by Houda Echouafni 261 In artGallery See also Life of the Virgin For a larger gallery see Commons Madonna structured gallery Mary nursing the Infant Jesus Early image from the Catacomb of Priscilla Rome c 2nd century Trojerucica a Byzantine representation of the Theotokos c 8th century in Hilandar Serbia Our Lady of Vladimir a Byzantine representation of the Theotokos Theotokos Panachranta from the 11th century Gertrude Psalter Flight into Egypt by Giotto c 1304 Lamentation by Pietro Lorenzetti Assisi Basilica c 1310 1329 Black Madonna and Child Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion Axum Ethiopia Chinese Madonna St Francis Church Macao Michelangelo s Pieta 1498 99 in St Peter s Basilica Vatican City Visitation from the St Vaast Altarpiece by Jacques Daret 1434 1435 Virgin of Guadalupe from the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe Mexico City 16th century Our Lady of La Naval de Manila statue in Quezon City Philippines c 1593 Adoration of the Magi Rubens 1634 Inside of the Tomb of Mary on the foothills of Mount of Olives Jerusalem Virgin of Montserrat from Puerto Rico c 1775 1825 Virgin and Child French 15th century Mary outside St Nikolai Catholic Church in Ystad 2021 A kneeling Virgin Mary pictured in the former coat of arms of MaariaIn musicClaudio Monteverdi Vespro della Beata Vergine 1610 Johann Sebastian Bach Magnificat 1723 rev 1733 Franz Schubert Ave Maria 1835 Charles Gounod Ave Maria 1859 See also Catholicism portal Christianity portal Acts of Reparation to the Virgin Mary Anglican Roman Catholic International Commission Christian mythology Fleur de lys Genealogy of Jesus History of Catholic Mariology Holy Name of Mary Hortus conclusus La Conquistadora Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary Marian apparition Madonna art Marian and Holy Trinity columns May crowning Miraculous births Mother of the Church New Testament people named Mary Shrines to the Virgin Mary Society of Mary Marianists The Golden Virgin Terra MarianaNotes According to the Bible and the Quran Hebrew מ ר י ם romanized Miryam Aramaic ܡܪܝܡ romanized Mariam Arabic مريم romanized Maryam Greek Maria romanized Maria Latin Maria Coptic Ⲙⲁⲣⲓⲁ romanized Maria also known by various titles styles and honorifics par8enos Matthew 1 23 uses the Greek parthenos virgin whereas only the Hebrew of Isaiah 7 14 from which the New Testament ostensibly quotes as Almah young maiden See article on parthenos in Bauercc Arndt Gingrich Danker A Greek English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature 5 See Sabine R Huebner s succinct analysis of the issue Jesus is described as the first born son of Mary in Mt 1 25 and Lk 2 7 From this wording alone we can conclude that there were later born sons The family had at least five sons and an unknown number of daughters 20 To give a few examples Our Lady of Good Counsel Our Lady of Navigators and Our Lady Undoer of Knots fit this description 35 36 37 38 Compare Luke 1 39 40 with Joshua 21 11 The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge says This was most probably Hebron a city of the priests and situated in the hill country of Judea Jos 11 21 21 11 13 about 25 miles south of Jerusalem and nearly 100 from Nazareth The historicity of this census relationship to the birth of Jesus continues to be one of scholarly disagreement see for example p 71 in Edwards James R 2015 55 Alternately It cannot even be denied that God conferred the highest honour on Mary by choosing and appointing her to be the mother of his Son 122 123 See the following verses 5 114 5 116 7 158 9 31 17 57 17 104 18 102 19 16 19 17 19 18 19 20 19 22 19 24 19 27 19 28 19 29 19 34 21 26 21 91 21 101 23 50 25 17 33 7 39 45 43 57 43 61 57 27 61 6 61 14 66 12 References a b Catholic Encyclopedia St Joseph Newadvent org Retrieved 30 September 2013 a b Allison Dale C Matthew A Shorter Commentary p 12 Continuum International Publishing Group 2004 ISBN 0 567 08249 0 Raymond Edward Brown Joseph A Fitzmyer Karl Paul Donfried 1978 Mary in the New Testament NJ Paulist Press p 140 ISBN 9780809121687 consonant with Mary s Jewish background Nazareth britannica com Encyclopedia Britannica Bauercc Arndt Gingrich Danker A Greek English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature Second Edition University of Chicago Press 1979 p 627 Ruiz Jean Pierre Between the Creche and the Cross Another Look at the Mother of Jesus in the New Testament New Theology Review Aug 2010 Vol 23 Issue 3 pp 3 4 Burke Raymond L et al 2008 Mariology A Guide for Priests Deacons Seminarians and Consecrated Persons ISBN 978 1 57918 355 4 page 178 Mary for evangelicals by Tim S Perry William J Abraham 2006 ISBN 0 8308 2569 X page 142 Mary the mother of Jesus The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Houghton Mifflin Boston Houghton Mifflin 2002 Credo Reference Web 28 September 2010 a b c d e Encyclopedia of Protestantism Volume 3 2003 by Hans Joachim Hillerbrand ISBN 0 415 92472 3 p 1174 Quran 3 42 cited in Stowasser Barbara Freyer Mary in Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾan General Editor Jane Dammen McAuliffe Georgetown University Washington DC J D McAuliffe Chosen of all women J M Abd el Jalil Marie et l Islam Paris 1950 Esposito John What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam New York University Press 2002 P31 cf Stowasser Barbara Freyer Mary in Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾan General Editor Jane Dammen McAuliffe Georgetown University Washington DC a b Jestice Phyllis G Holy people of the world a cross cultural encyclopedia Volume 3 2004 ISBN 1 57607 355 6 page 558 Sayyidana Maryam Munificentissimus Deus Dogma of the Assumption by Pius XII 1950 17 Holweck Frederick 1907 The Feast of the Assumption The Catholic Encyclopedia 2 New York Robert Appleton Company access date 18 April 2015 Mary A Dictionary of First Names by Patrick Hanks Kate Hardcastle and Flavia Hodges 27 July 2006 Oxford University Press ISBN 0198610602 Matthew 1 25 But he had no union with her until she gave birth to a Son And he gave Him the name Jesus biblehub com Sabine R Huebner Papyri and the Social World of the New Testament Cambridge University Press 2019 p 73 ISBN 1108470254 Fulbert of Chatres O Beata Virgo Maria retrieved 27 March 2020 Encyclopedia of Catholicism by Frank K Flinn J Gordon Melton 2007 ISBN 0 8160 5455 X pages 443 444 a b c d Hillerbrand Hans Joachim Encyclopedia of Protestantism Volume 3 2003 ISBN 0 415 92472 3 page 1174 Jeremiah 44 17 19 a b c d e f Eastern Orthodoxy through Western eyes by Donald Fairbairn 2002 ISBN 0 664 22497 0 page 99 101 a b c d Flinn Frank K J Gordon MeltonEncyclopedia of Catholicism 2007 ISBN 0 8160 5455 X pages 443 444 a b The Canons of the Two Hundred Holy and Blessed Fathers Who Met at Ephesus Ccel org 1 June 2005 Retrieved 30 September 2013 M Corry John StewartTheotokos Or the Divine Maternity 2009 ISBN 1 113 18361 6 page 10 The Christian theology reader by Alister E McGrath 2006 ISBN 1 4051 5358 X page 273 Luke 1 32 Isaiah 9 6 1 Kings 2 19 20 Jeremiah 13 18 19 What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary by Terrence J McNally ISBN 1 4415 1051 6 page 128 Legends of the Madonna by Anna Jameson 2009 1406853380 page 50 Ann Ball 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0 87973 910 X page 515 Candice Lee Goucher 2007 World history journeys from past to present ISBN 0 415 77137 4 page 102 Ann Ball 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0 87973 910 X page 525 Glasse Cyril 2008 Mary The New Encyclopedia of Islam 3rd ed Plymouth United Kingdom Rowman amp Littlefield Publishers Inc pp 340 341 ISBN 9780742562967 Retrieved 2 June 2016 Quran 5 73 75 Quran 5 73 75 a b c Quran 66 12 a b c d Quran 3 42 William Temple Readings in St John s Gospel London MacMillan 1961 p 35 36 Ruiz Jean Pierre Between the Creche and the Cross Another Look at the Mother of Jesus in the New Testament New Theology Review Aug 2010 Vol 23 Issue 3 pp 5 15 Smith Scott Proving the Assumption of Mary All Roads Lead to Rome Retrieved 19 June 2017 CHURCH FATHERS The Perpetual Virginity of Mary Jerome www newadvent org The Blessed Virgin Mary Encyclopedia Volume Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online Catholic Online Luke 1 5 Luke 1 36 Douglas Hillyer Bruce 1990 New Bible Dictionary Inter varsity Press p 746 ISBN 978 0 85110 630 4 New Advent Genealogy of Christ Newadvent org 1 September 1909 Retrieved 30 September 2013 Henry Matthew 1706 Luke in Matthew Henry commentary on the whole Bible complete Retrieved 18 April 2016 An event described by some Christians as the Annunciation Luke 1 35 Mills Watson E Roger Aubrey Bullard Mercer dictionary of the Bible 1998 ISBN 0 86554 373 9 page 429 Luke 1 36 The Gospel of Luke Grand Rapids MI Eerdmans ISBN 9780802837356 Brown Raymond Edward Mary in the New Testament 1978 ISBN 978 0 8091 2168 7 The Gospel of Matthew by R T France 2007 ISBN 0 8028 2501 X p 53 Walvoord John F Roy B Zuck The Bible Knowledge Commentary New Testament edition 1983 ISBN 0 88207 812 7 Mt 1 24 25 12 46 13 54 56 27 56 Mk 3 31 6 3 15 40 16 1 Jn 2 12 7 3 5 Gal 1 19 Ac 1 14 Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible by D N Freedman David Noel Allen Myers and Astrid B Beck 31 December 2000 ISBN 9053565035 page 202 The Bible The Basics by John Barton 2 March 2010 Routledge ISBN 0415411351 page 7 Gaventa Beverly Roberts Mary glimpses of the mother of Jesus 1995 ISBN 1 57003 072 3 p 70 de Bles Arthur How to Distinguish the Saints in Art by Their Costumes Symbols and Attributes 2004 ISBN 1 4179 0870 X page 35 Jameson Anna Legends of the Madonna as represented in the fine arts 2006 ISBN 1 4286 3499 1 page 37 Stephen J Shoemaker Ancient Traditions of the Virgin Mary s Dormition and Assumption Archived 11 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine Oxford Oxford University Press 2002 2006 De Obitu S Dominae as noted in Holweck F 1907 The Feast of the Assumption In The Catholic Encyclopedia New York Robert Appleton Company Munificentissimus Deus on the Assumption Vatican va Retrieved 30 September 2013 Coptic Church website Accessed 2010 10 6 Ronald Brownrigg Canon Brownrigg Who s Who in the New Testament 2001 ISBN 0 415 26036 1 page T 62 Roy Christian 2005 Traditional Festivals A Multicultural Encyclopedia ABC CLIO p 373 ISBN 978 1 57607 089 5 Rainer Riesner 1998 Paul s early period chronology mission strategy theology ISBN 9780802841667 Retrieved 20 August 2011 The Oxford handbook of early Christian studies by Susan Ashbrook Harvey David G Hunter 2008 ISBN 9780199271566 page 527 The reception and interpretation of the Bible in late antiquity by Lorenzo DiTommaso Lucian Turcescu 2008 ISBN 9004167153 page 507 Maximus s Mary by Sally Cuneen Commonweal Magazine 4 December 2009 Anna Katharina Emmerick 1774 1824 biography Vatican va Retrieved 30 September 2013 Emmerich Anna Catherine The Dolorous Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ ISBN 978 0 89555 210 5 page viii Frommer s Turkey by Lynn A Levine 2010 ISBN 0470593660 pages 254 255 Home of the Assumption Reconstructing Mary s Life in Ephesus by V Antony John Alaharasan 2006 ISBN 1929039387 page 38 The Ancient Traditions of the Virgin Mary s Dormition and Assumption by Stephen J Shoemaker 2006 ISBN 0199210748 page 76 Mary s House by Donald Carroll 20 April 2000 Veritas ISBN 0953818802 Irenaeus Adversus haereses III 1 1 Eusebius of Caesarea Church History III 1 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary Newadvent org 1 July 1912 Retrieved 30 September 2013 a b c d e f g Schroedel Jenny The Everything Mary Book 2006 ISBN 1 59337 713 4 pages 81 85 Miegge Giovanni The Virgin Mary Roman Catholic Marian Doctrine pgs 15 22 Westminster Press Philadelphia 1963 a b Fahlbusch Erwin et al The encyclopedia of Christianity Volume 3 2003 ISBN 90 04 12654 6 pages 403 409 Merriam Webster s encyclopedia of world religions by Wendy Doniger 1999 ISBN 0 87779 044 2 page 696 Encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam Vatican a b Catechism of the Catholic Church 2nd ed Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2019 Paragraph 971 The Catholicism Answer Book by John Trigilio Kenneth Brighenti 2007 ISBN 1 4022 0806 5 page 325 Vatican website Marian consecration and entrustment item 204 Vatican va Retrieved 30 September 2013 Schroede Jenny The Everything Mary Book 2006 ISBN 1 59337 713 4 page 219 O Carroll Michael The Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary 2007 ISBN 1 882972 98 8 pages 10 15 Catholic Encyclopedia Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary NewAdvent org 1 October 1912 Retrieved 30 September 2013 Cardinal Urges Devotion to Rosary and Scapular Zenit org 17 July 2008 Archived from the original on 14 November 2012 Retrieved 30 September 2013 Handbook of Prayers by James Socias 2006 ISBN 0 87973 579 1 page 483 The encyclopedia of Christianity Volume 4 by Erwin Fahlbusch Geoffrey William Bromiley 2005 ISBN 0 8028 2416 1 page 575 Pope Leo XIII Encyclical of Pope Leo XIII on the Rosary Octobri Mense Vatican Retrieved 4 October 2010 A Beginner s Book of Prayer An Introduction to Traditional Catholic Prayers by William G Storey 2009 ISBN 0 8294 2792 9 page 99 Ann Ball 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0 87973 910 X page 365 Our Sunday Visitor s Catholic Almanac by Matthew Bunson 2009 ISBN 1 59276 441 X page 122 The Catholic Handbook for Visiting the Sick and Homebound by Corinna Laughlin Sara McGinnis Lee 2010 ISBN 978 1 56854 886 9 page 4 Geoghegan G P A Collection of My Favorite Prayers 2006 ISBN 1 4116 9457 0 pages 31 45 70 86 127 Mary mother of the redemption by Edward Schillebeeckx 1964 ASIN B003KW30VG pages 82 84 Mary in the Redemption by Adrienne von Speyr 2003 ISBN 0 89870 955 5 pages 2 7 Salvation Through Mary by Henry Aloysius Barry 2008 ISBN 1 4097 3172 3 pages 13 15 The mystery of Mary by Paul Haffner 2004 ISBN 0 85244 650 0 page 198 Redemptoris Mater at the Vatican website Vatican va Retrieved 30 September 2013 a b Burke Raymond L et al 2008 Mariology A Guide for Priests Deacons Seminarians and Consecrated Persons ISBN 978 1 57918 355 4 page xxi McNally Terrence What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary ISBN 1 4415 1051 6 pages 168 169 a b c Ecclesiasticus II Orthodox Icons Saints Feasts and Prayer by George Dion Dragas 2005 ISBN 0 9745618 0 0 pages 81 83 The Everything Mary Book by Jenny Schroedel 2006 ISBN 1 59337 713 4 page 90 Vasilaka Maria Images of the Mother of God perceptions of the Theotokos in Byzantium 2005 ISBN 0 7546 3603 8 page 97 a b c d The Orthodox Church by Serge Nikolaevich Bulgakov 1997 ISBN 0 88141 051 9 page 116 Orthodox Holiness The Titles Of The Saints www orthodoxengland org uk Retrieved 30 July 2019 Gregorius Nazianzenus In theophania Documenta Catholica Omnia Wybrew Hugh Orthodox feasts of Jesus Christ amp the Virgin Mary liturgical texts 2000 ISBN 0 88141 203 1 pages 37 46 Damascene John Homily 2 on the Dormition 14 PG 96 741 B Damascene John Homily 2 on the Dormition 16 PG 96 744 D Geisler Norman L MacKenzie Ralph E 1995 Roman Catholics and Evangelicals agreements and differences p 143 ISBN 978 0 8010 3875 4 Barth Karl 8 May 2004 Church dogmatics 1 pp 143 4 ISBN 978 0 567 05069 4 Lehmann H ed Luther s Works American edition vol 43 p 40 Fortress 1968 Lee 1993 Catholic Lutheran Protestant a doctrinal comparison p 249 ISBN 978 0 615 16635 3 Commentary on a Harmony of the Evangelists Matthew Mark and Luke 1845 Jean Calvin Rev William Pringle Edinburgh Volume 2 page 87 quote Neque etiam negari potest quin Deus Mariam Filio suo matrem eligens ac destinans summo eam honore dignatus sit Calvin s Opera vol 45 Corpus Reformatorum vol 73 p 348 no preview McKim Donald K 2004 The Cambridge companion to John Calvin ISBN 978 0 521 01672 8 Haffner Paul 2004 The mystery of Mary p 11 ISBN 978 0 85244 650 8 Milton Anthony Catholic and Reformed 2002 ISBN 0 521 89329 1 page 5 a b Braaten Carl et al Mary Mother of God 2004 ISBN 0 8028 2266 5 page 13 Burnham Andrew A Pocket Manual of Anglo Catholic Devotion 2004 ISBN 1 85311 530 4 pages 1 266 310 330 Duckworth Penelope Mary The Imagination of Her Heart 2004 ISBN 1 56101 260 2 page 3 5 Church of England yearbook Volume 123 2006 ISBN 0 7151 1020 9 page 315 Perrier Jacques Lourdes Today and Tomorrow 2008 1565483057 ISBN page 56 Mary grace and hope in Christ the Seattle statement of the Anglican Roman Catholics by the Anglican Roman Catholic International Group 2006 ISBN 0 8264 8155 8 pages 7 10 Baumer Remigius Marienlexikon Gesamtausgabe Leo Scheffczyk ed Regensburg Institutum Marianum 1994 190 Schroedel Jenny 2006 The Everything Mary Book pp 125 6 ISBN 978 1 59337 713 7 Jackson Gregory Lee 1993 Catholic Lutheran Protestant a doctrinal comparison p 249 ISBN 978 0 615 16635 3 Baumer 191 Haffner Paul 2004 The mystery of Mary p 223 ISBN 978 0 85244 650 8 Baumer 190 Colonna Vittoria Matraini Chiara Marinella Lucrezia 2009 Who Is Mary p 34 ISBN 978 0 226 11400 2 Eric W Gritsch 1992 H George Anderson J Francis Stafford Joseph A Burgess eds The One Mediator The Saints and Mary Lutherans and Roman Catholic in Dialogue VII Minneapolis Augsburg Fortress p 235 Luther s Works 47 pp 45f Lutherans and Catholics in Dialogue VIII p 29 Clairvaux Saint Bernard de 1476 Homiliae S Bernardi super evangelio Missus est angelus Gabriel saint Bernard de Clairvaux Google Boeken Retrieved 30 September 2013 Doberstein John W Lehmann Helmut T eds 1959 1546 Sermon on the Second Sunday after Epiphany Luther s Works 51 Sermons I Fortress Press p 375 ISBN 978 0 8006 0351 9 Dr Martin Luthers Werke Kritische Gesamtausgabe 51 Weimar 1883 p 128 More FAQ The Anglo Lutheran Catholic Church archiveaccessdate 11 September 2014 What does The United Methodist Church teach about the Immaculate Conception and the Virgin Birth Archives umc org 6 November 2006 Retrieved 30 September 2013 Wesley s Letters The Wesley Center Online 1749 archived from the original on 5 November 2011 Mary s Perpetual Virginity Davidmacd com Archived from the original on 25 August 2012 Retrieved 30 September 2013 What does The United Methodist Church teach about the Virgin Mary Archives umc org 6 November 2006 Retrieved 30 September 2013 Comparing Christian Denominations Beliefs Nature of Mary Christianity about com 30 July 2013 Retrieved 30 September 2013 Stepp Todd 23 December 2009 Theotokos Mary Mother of God Wesleyan Anglican Society We Protestants for the most part tend to say something to the affect sic that if it is not found in Scripture it is not held to be required as an article of faith Thus the assumption of Mary would not be held as an article of faith i e as a required doctrine However in as much as the Scripture does not say that Mary was not assumed into heaven and in as much as we do have other instances of some sort of assumption in Scripture e g Elijah as mentioned before there seems to be nothing that would require that a Protestant Christian could not have a private opinion in the Wesleyan sense of the term that agrees with Rome or Constantinople at least regarding Mary s assumption Missing or empty url help Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America 2006 Page 73 Eugene V Gallagher W Michael Ashcraft Jehovah s Witnesses pray to God in the name of Jesus but insist that the Bible never identifies Christ as an eternal Jehovah God caused an ovum or egg cell in Mary s womb to become fertile accomplishing this by the transferral of Colton Eleanor 1992 Virgin Birth Encyclopedia of Mormonism 4 New York NY Macmillan Publishing Co p 1510 1 Nephi 11 13 20 Alma 7 10 Fronk Camille 1992 Mary Mother of Jesus Encyclopedia of Mormonism 2 New York NY Macmillan Publishing Co pp 863 64 Christian mortalism from Tyndale to Milton Norman T Burns 1972 The Talmud Yerushalmi and Graeco Roman culture Volume 3 Page 369 Peter Schafer Catherine Hezser 2002 The Mother of the Messiah in the Talmud Yerushalmi and Sefer Zerubbabel by Martha Himmelfarb Through the centuries the Virgin Mary has played a central role in Christian piety Unlike so many aspects of Christianity veneration of the Peter Schafer Mirror of His beauty feminine images of God from the Bible to the 2002 Page 233 On the one hand it mockingly disapproves of the idea of the mother of God on the other hand it treats Mary considerately and by no means only polemically The talmudic and post talmudic discussions about the Virgin Mary are classic Van Voorst Robert E 2000 Jesus Outside the New Testament An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence WmB Eerdmans Publishing ISBN 0 8028 4368 9 pp 122 and 127 Michael J Cook Jewish Perspectives on Jesus Chapter 14 in The Blackwell Companion to Jesus edited by Delbert Burkett 2011 ISBN 978 1 4443 2794 6 a b Amy G Remensnyder March 2014 La Conquistadora The Virgin Mary at War and Peace in the Old and New Worlds OUP USA pp 138 ISBN 978 0 19 989300 3 Robert Van Voorst 13 April 2000 Jesus Outside the New Testament An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence Wm B Eerdmans Publishing pp 122 ISBN 978 0 8028 4368 5 Mary in the New Testament by Raymond Edward Brown et al 1978 ISBN 0 8091 2168 9 page 262 Van Voorst Robert E 2000 Jesus Outside the New Testament An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence WmB Eerdmans Publishing ISBN 0 8028 4368 9 page 128 a b The new encyclopedia of Islam by Cyril Glasse Huston Smith 2003 ISBN 0 7591 0190 6 page 296 sayyidatuna Qa im Mahdi Muntazir 2007 Jesus Through the Qur an and Shi ite Narrations bilingual ed Queens New York Tahrike Tarsile Qur an p 16 ISBN 978 1879402140 Quran 23 50 Quran 3 36 a b c Quran 3 37 Quran 5 75 Quran 3 45 Jomier Jacques The Bible and the Qur an 2002 ISBN 0 89870 928 8 page 133 Nazir Ali Michael Islam a Christian perspective 1984 ISBN 0 664 24527 7 page 110 The Virgin Mary In The Koran EWTN com 13 April 1978 Retrieved 30 September 2013 Jackson Montell Islam Revealed 2003 ISBN 1 59160 869 4 page 73 Rodwell J M The Koran 2009 ISBN 0 559 13127 5 page 505 Akhtar Shabbir The Quran and the secular mind a philosophy of Islam 2007 page 352 Glasse Cyril Huston Smith The new encyclopedia of Islam 2003 ISBN 0 7591 0190 6 page 240 Sarker Abraham Understand My Muslim People 2004 ISBN 1 59498 002 0 page 260 no preview The Kitab i Iqan Part One Bahaʼi Reference Library Retrieved 10 September 2014 The Promised Day Is Come Baha i Reference Library www bahai org Retrieved 18 August 2021 Coogan Michael October 2010 God and Sex What the Bible Really Says 1st ed New York Boston Twelve Hachette Book Group p 39 ISBN 978 0 446 54525 9 Retrieved 5 May 2011 god and sex McNally Terrence What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary ISBN 1 4415 1051 6 page 95 Cradle of redeeming love by John Saward 2002 Ignatius Press ISBN 0 89870 886 9 page 17 Mary in the New Testament by Raymond Edward Brown 1978 ISBN 0 8091 2168 9 page 86 Ehrman Bart Did Jesus Exist page 294 John 1 45 John 6 42 Ehrman Bart D 2008 Whose Word is It The Story Behind who Changed the New Testament and why A amp C Black pp 158 ISBN 978 1 84706 314 4 Ehrman Bart D 26 July 1999 Jesus Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium Oxford University Press pp 96 ISBN 978 0 19 983943 8 Coogan Michael October 2010 God and Sex What the Bible Really Says 1st ed New York Boston Twelve Hachette Book Group p 38 ISBN 978 0 446 54525 9 Retrieved 5 May 2011 god and sex Bennett Clinton In search of Jesus 2001 ISBN 0 8264 4916 6 pages 165 170 Also see Schaberg Jane Illegitimacy of Jesus A Feminist Theological Interpretation of the Infancy Narratives Biblical Seminar Series No 28 ISBN 1 85075 533 7 Contra Celsum by Origen Henry Chadwick Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1953 reprint 1980 ISBN 0 521 29576 9 page 32 John Patrick The Apology of Origen in Reply to Celsus 1892 reprint 2009 ISBN 1 110 13388 X pages 22 24 Allert Craig D 2002 Revelation Truth Canon and Interpretation Studies in Justin Martyr s Dialogue with Trypho Brill p 34 Justin Martyr 1885 Dialogue with Trypho Chapter C In Roberts Alexander Donaldson James eds Ante Nicene Christian Library II Translated by Reith George Edinburgh T amp T Clark Schaff Philip Introductory Note to Irenaeus Against Heresies The Apostolic Fathers with Justin Martyr and Irenaeus Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson eds 1885 This article incorporates text from this source which is in the public domain Irenaeus Against Heresies Book III Chapter 22 Ante Nicene Fathers Vol 1 Alexander Roberts and William Rambaut trans Alexander Roberts James Donaldson and A Cleveland Coxe eds Buffalo NY Christian Literature Publishing Co 1885 This article incorporates text from this source which is in the public domain Benz Ernst The Eastern Orthodox Church Its Thought and Life 2009 ISBN 0 202 36298 1 page 62 Burke Raymond et al Mariology A Guide for Priests Deacons Seminarians and Consecrated Persons 2008 ISBN 978 1 57918 355 4 page 178 The encyclopedia of Christianity Volume 3 by Erwin Fahlbusch Geoffrey William Bromiley 2003 ISBN 90 04 12654 6 page 406 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA Constantine the Great Newadvent org Retrieved 30 September 2013 Osborne John L Early Medieval Painting in San Clemente Rome The Madonna and Child in the Niche Gesta 20 2 1981 299 310 and note 9 referencing T Klauser Rom under der Kult des Gottesmutter Maria Jahrbuch fur der Antike und Christentum 15 1972 120 135 The Papal Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore Vatican va Retrieved 30 September 2013 Baldovin John and Johnson Maxwell Between memory and hope readings on the liturgical year 2001 ISBN 0 8146 6025 8 page 386 Dalmais Irenee et al The Church at Prayer The liturgy and time 1985 ISBN 0 8146 1366 7 page 130 McNally Terrence What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary ISBN 1 4415 1051 6 page 186 Avner Rina 2016 Leslie Brubaker Mary B Cunningham eds The Initial Tradition of the Theotokos at the Kathisma Earliest Celebrations and the Calendar The Cult of the Mother of God in Byzantium Texts and Images Birmingham Byzantine and Ottoman Studies Routledge ISBN 9781351891974 Retrieved 8 January 2019 Collyridianism EWTN Retrieved 11 September 2014 Journal of the Canadian Society for Coptic Studies 3 4 2012 Sabrina Higgins Divine Mothers The Influence of Isis on the Virgin Mary in Egyptian Lactans Iconography Carl Olson Sandra Miesel 2004 The Da Vinci Hoax Exposing the Errors in The Da Vinci Code Ignatius Press ISBN 978 1 58617 034 9 Ephesus us Mysterious facts about Ephesus Ephesus Turkey www ephesus us Virgin Mary Justinian Theotokus Theodora Kate Cooper Divine Women 18 July 2015 Laing Gordon 1931 Survivals of Roman Religion Longmans Green And Co Phipps William E 2008 Supernaturalism in Christianity Its Growth and Cure Mercer University Press p 46 ISBN 978 0881460940 Retrieved 10 November 2015 Toronto Star article In December 2010 Catherine Lawless of the University of Limerick stated that by analyzing 15th century Florentine manuscripts she had concluded that Ismeria was the maternal grandmother of Mary Toronto Star Dec 2010 Discovery News Male Emile 1978 Religious Art in France The Twelfth Century Translated by Mathews Marthiel Warner Marina 1976 Alone of All her Sex The Myth and the Cult of the Virgin Mary Pelikan Jaroslav 1996 Mary Through the Centuries Her Place in the History of Culture Yale University Press ISBN 9780300069518 Kugeares Sophia Manoulian 1991 Images Of The Annunciation Of The Virgin Mary Of The 13th 14th And 15th Century Miravalle Mark Introduction to Mary 1993 Queenship Publishing ISBN 978 1 882972 06 7 pages 92 93 The Orthodox word Volumes 12 13 1976 page 73 Trigilio John and Brighenti Kenneth The Catholicism Answer Book 2007 ISBN 1 4022 0806 5 page 58 The History of the Christian Church by Philip Smith 2009 ISBN 1 150 72245 2 page 288 The Celebration of Faith The Virgin Mary by Alexander Schmemann 2001 ISBN 0 88141 141 8 p 11 De Sherbinin Julie Chekhov and Russian religious culture the poetics of the Marian paradigm 1997 ISBN 0 8101 1404 6 p 15 Pope John Paul II General Audience 1997 Vatican va 29 October 1997 Retrieved 30 September 2013 Kilmartin Edward The Eucharist in the West 1998 ISBN 0 8146 6204 8 page 80 Ciaravino Helene How to Pray 2001 ISBN 0 7570 0012 6 page 118 Williams Rowan Ponder these things praying with icons of the Virgin 2002 ISBN 1 85311 362 X page 7 a b Clayton Mary The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Anglo Saxon England 2003 ISBN 0 521 53115 2 pages 26 37 EWTN on Battle of Lepanto 1571 Our Lady and Islam Heaven s Peace Plan EWTN by Butler Alban Peter Doyle Butler s Lives of the Saints 1999 ISBN 0 86012 253 0 page 222 Jackson Gregory Lee Catholic Lutheran Protestant a doctrinal comparison 1993 ISBN 978 0 615 16635 3 page 254 Jackson Gregory Lee Catholic Lutheran Protestant a doctrinal comparison 1993 ISBN 978 0 615 16635 3 page 254 Miravalle Mark Introduction to Mary 1993 Queenship Publishing ISBN 978 1 882972 06 7 page 51 Miravalle Mark Introduction to Mary 1993 ISBN 978 1 882972 06 7 pages 44 46 Virgin Birth britannica com Retrieved 22 October 2007 Translation by the ecumenical English Language Liturgical Consultation given on page 17 of Praying Together a literal translation of the original sarkw8enta ἐk Pneymatos Ἁgioy kaὶ Marias tῆs Par8enoy archiveaccessdate 11 September 2014 a b Miravalle Mark Introduction to Mary 1993 ISBN 978 1 882972 06 7 pages 56 64 Catholic Encyclopedia Immaculate Conception Newadvent org Retrieved 2 March 2010 Ware Timothy The Orthodox Church Penguin Books 1963 ISBN 0 14 020592 6 pp 263 4 Catechism of the Catholic Church 2nd ed Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2019 Paragraph 499 Hayes R M 1986 Trick cinematography the Oscar special effects movies McFarland Publishing p 149 ISBN 9780899501574 Ray Nicholas 10 September 1993 Rey Susan ed I Was Interrupted Nicholas Ray on Making Movies University of California Press p 230 ISBN 9780520916678 Keller Rosemary Skinner Ruether Rosemary Radford Cantlon Marie 2006 Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America Native American creation stories Indiana University Press p 1012 ISBN 9780253346872 Nicholson Amy 1 August 2018 Olivia Hussey star of Zeffirelli s Romeo and Juliet I was wild The Guardian Guardian News amp Media Limited Retrieved 11 April 2019 Lindlof Thomas 8 August 2008 Hollywood Under Siege Martin Scorsese the Religious Right and the Culture Wars University Press of Kentucky p 57 ISBN 9780813173160 O Brien Catherine 2011 The Celluloid Madonna From Scripture to Screen Columbia University Press p 5 ISBN 9781906660284 Saint Mary female lead Shabnam Gholikhani talks with ifilm iFilm 18 December 2017 Retrieved 10 April 2019 Flynn JD 6 February 2004 Actress who plays Mary speaks of filming The Passion Catholic News Agency Retrieved 10 April 2019 Johnson Jason B 7 November 2006 What race was Jesus Color of the Cross puts a different face on the debate SFGate Hearst Communications Inc Retrieved 10 April 2019 Roach Erin 30 November 2006 Nativity Story actress should not be shunned leaders say Baptist Press News Southern Baptist Convention Retrieved 10 April 2019 TV airing for Islam s story of Christ Media The Guardian featured in ITV documentary Retrieved 11 September 2014 The Muslim Jesus ITV Unreality Primetime Primetime unrealitytv co uk 18 August 2007 Archived from the original on 16 October 2009 Retrieved 2 March 2010 Goodwyn Hannah 2014 Roma Downey and Diogo Morgado on Faith and Filming Son of God The Christian Broadcasting Network Inc Retrieved 10 April 2019 Mary Magdalene attempts to wash away biblical character s stains of ill repute Irish News 14 March 2018 Retrieved 10 April 2019 Rorke Robert 20 March 2019 Jesus His Life dispels beliefs about Christ and biblical history NY Post Retrieved 10 April 2019 Further readingBrown Raymond E Donfried Karl P Fitzmyer Joseph A amp Reumann John eds Mary in the New Testament Fortress Paulist Press 1978 ISBN 0 8006 1345 7 Kugeares Sophia Manoulian Images Of The Annunciation Of The Virgin Mary Of The 13Th 14Th And 15Th Century n p 1991 1991 University of South Florida Libraries Catalog Web 8 April 2016 Hahn Scott Hail Holy Queen The Mother of God in the Word of God Doubleday 2001 ISBN 0 385 50168 4 Pelikan Jaroslav Mary Through the Centuries Her Place in the History of Culture Yale University Press 1998 hardcover 240 pages ISBN Tumanov Vladimir 2011 Mary Versus Eve Paternal Uncertainty and the Christian View of Women PDF Neophilologus 95 4 507 521 doi 10 1007 s11061 011 9253 5 S2CID 37491995 External linksMary mother of Jesusat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Resources from Wikiversity Chapter Mary in the Quran Marilogical Society of America University of Dayton The Mary Page Works by or about Mary mother of Jesus in libraries WorldCat catalog Church Fathers on the Sinless Nature of Mary Church Fathers on the Perpetual Virginity of Mary Mary Biblical perspective Marialis Cultus The Queen of Angels Foundation Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Mary mother of Jesus amp oldid 1053425192, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.