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Virgin birth of Jesus

The virgin birth of Jesus is the Christian doctrine that Jesus was conceived by his mother, Mary, through the power of the Holy Spirit and without sexual intercourse. It is mentioned only inMatthew 1:18–25 andLuke 1:26–38, and the modern scholarly consensus is that the narrative rests on very slender historical foundations. The ancient world had no understanding that male semen and female ovum were both needed to form a fetus; this cultural milieu was conducive to miraculous birth stories, and tales of virgin birth and the impregnation of mortal women by deities were well known in the 1st-century Greco-Roman world and Second Temple Jewish works.

The Annunciation, by Guido Reni, 1621

Matthew and Luke use the virgin birth (or more accurately the divine conception that precedes it) to mark the moment when Jesus becomes the Son of God, in distinction to Mark, for whom the Sonship dates from Jesus's baptism,[Mark 1:9–13] and Paul and the pre-Pauline Christians for whom Jesus becomes the Son only at the Resurrection or even the Second Coming. The Eastern Orthodox Churches accept the doctrine as authoritative by reason of its inclusion in the Nicene Creed, and the Catholic Church likewise holds it authoritative for faith through the Apostles' Creed as well as the Nicene. Christians, including Protestants, traditionally regard it as an explanation of the mixture of the human and divine natures of Jesus. Nevertheless, there are many contemporary churches in which it is considered orthodox to accept the virgin birth but not heretical to deny it.

Contents

Matthew 1:18-25

Main article: Matthew 1

The Gospels of Matthew and Luke agree that Mary's husband was named Joseph, that he was of the Davidic line, and that he played no role in Jesus's divine conception, but beyond this they are very different. Matthew underlines the virginity of Mary by references to the Book of Isaiah (using the Greek translation in the Septuagint, rather than the mostly Hebrew Masoretic Text) and by his narrative statement that Joseph had no sexual relations with her until after the birth (a choice of words which leaves open the possibility that they did have relations after that).

18: Now the birth of Jesus the Messiah took place in this way. When his mother Mary had been engaged to Joseph, but before they lived together, she was found to be with child from the Holy Spirit.
19: Her husband Joseph, being a righteous man and unwilling to expose her to public disgrace, planned to dismiss her quietly.
20: But just when he had resolved to do this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, "Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary as your wife, for the child conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit.
21: She will bear a son, and you are to name him Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins."
22: All this took place to fulfill what had been spoken by the Lord through the prophet:
23: "Look, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and they shall name him Emmanuel," which means, "God is with us."
24: When Joseph awoke from sleep, he did as the angel of the Lord commanded him; he took her as his wife,
25: but had no marital relations with her until she had borne a son; and he named him Jesus.

Luke 1:26-38

Main article: Luke 1

Luke introduces Mary as a virgin, describes her puzzlement at being told she will bear a child despite her lack of sexual experience, and informs the reader that this pregnancy is to be effected through God's Holy Spirit.

26: In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a town in Galilee called Nazareth,
27: to a virgin engaged to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin's name was Mary.
28: And he came to her and said, "Greetings, favored one! The Lord is with you."
29: But she was much perplexed by his words and pondered what sort of greeting this might be.
30: The angel said to her, "Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God.
31: And now, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you will name him Jesus.
32: He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High, and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his ancestor David.
33: He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end."
34: Mary said to the angel, "How can this be, since I am a virgin?"
35: The angel said to her, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be holy; he will be called Son of God.
36: And now, your relative Elizabeth in her old age has also conceived a son; and this is the sixth month for her who was said to be barren.
37: For nothing will be impossible with God."
38: Then Mary said, "Here am I, the servant of the Lord; let it be with me according to your word." Then the angel departed from her.

Further information: Miraculous births

The most likely cultural context for both Matthew and Luke is Jewish Christian or mixed Gentile/Jewish-Christian circles rooted in Jewish tradition. The ancient world had no understanding that male semen and female ovum were both needed to form a fetus; instead they thought that the male contribution in reproduction consisted of some sort of formative or generative principle, while Mary's bodily fluids would provide all the matter that was needed for Jesus's bodily form, including his male sex. This cultural milieu was conducive to miraculous birth stories – they were common in biblical tradition going back to Abraham and Sarah (and the conception of Isaac).

Tales of virgin birth and the impregnation of mortal women by deities were well known in the 1st-century Greco-Roman world, and Second Temple Jewish works were also capable of producing accounts of the appearances of angels and miraculous births for ancient heroes such as Melchizedek, Noah, and Moses. Luke's virgin birth story is a standard plot from the Jewish scriptures, as for example in the annunciation scenes for Isaac and for Samson, in which an angel appears and causes apprehension, the angel gives reassurance and announces the coming birth, the mother raises an objection, and the angel gives a sign. Nevertheless, "plausible sources that tell of virgin birth in areas convincingly close to the gospels' own probable origins have proven extremely hard to demonstrate". Similarly, while it is widely accepted that there is a connection with Zoroastrian (Persian) sources underlying Matthew's story of the Magi (the wise men from the East) and the Star of Bethlehem, a wider claim that Zoroastrianism formed the background to the infancy narratives has not achieved acceptance.

The Gospel of Luke says Mary is a virgin betrothed to Joseph,[Luke 1:27] while the Gospel of Matthew says Jesus's virginal conception happens before Mary lives with Joseph in his house,[Matthew 1:18] because, in a Jewish wedding, by being betrothed to a man, the woman is already his wife, yet she does not start living in his house until the wedding is over. Mary's response to Gabriel – "How can this be, since I have no relations with a man?" (meaning, no sexual relations) – is an affirmation of Mary the wife of Joseph's virginity and obedience to the Torah that forbids adultery.

In the Gospel of Matthew, Joseph intends to divorce Mary on suspicion of adultery because he is a righteous man, that is, he is obedient to the Torah that mandates divorcing one's unfaithful wife. Because he is obedient, Joseph relents of his intention when, in a dream, he is informed by an angel of the virginal conception of Jesus.[Matthew 1:19-24]

In the entire Christian corpus the virgin birth is found only in the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke, and the modern scholarly consensus is that the narrative rests on very slender historical foundations. Matthew uses Isaiah 7:14 to support his narrative, but scholars agree that the Hebrew word used in Isaiah, almah, signifies a girl of childbearing age without reference to virginity, and was aimed at Isaiah's own immediate circumstances. In the Gospel of John, slightly later than Matthew and Luke, Jesus has both father and mother, ("We have found him about whom Moses in the law and also the prophets wrote, Jesus, son of Joseph from Nazareth") and his conception does not entail divine intervention.

The earliest Christian writings, the Pauline epistles, do not contain any mention of a virgin birth and assume Jesus's full humanity; the Gospel of Mark, dating from around AD 70, has no birth story and states that Jesus's mother had no belief in her son as if she had forgotten the angel's visit. Matthew and Luke are late and anonymous compositions dating from the period AD 80-100, and it is almost certain that neither was the work of an eyewitness. This raises the question of where the authors of Matthew and Luke found their stories. Both used Mark as their basic source, but the virgin birth is not found there, nor, in view of the many inconsistencies between them, did one of them derive it from the other or share a common source. Raymond E. Brown suggested in 1973 that Joseph was the source of Matthew's account and Mary of Luke's, but modern scholars consider this "highly unlikely", given that the stories emerged so late. It follows that the two narratives were created by the two writers, drawing on ideas in circulation in some Christian circles perhaps by around AD 65.

Matthew and Luke use the virgin birth (or more accurately the divine conception that precedes it) to mark the moment when Jesus becomes the Son of God, a notable development over Mark, for whom the Sonship dates from Jesus's baptism, Mark 1:9–13 and the earlier Christianity of Paul and the pre-Pauline Christians for whom Jesus becomes the Son only at the Resurrection or even the Second Coming. The virgin birth was subsequently accepted by Christians as the proof of the divinity of Jesus, but its rebuttal during and after the 18th century European Enlightenment led some to redefine it as mythical, while others reaffirmed it in dogmatic terms. This division remains in place, although some national synods of the Catholic church have replaced a biological understanding with the idea of "theological truth", and some evangelical theologians hold it to be marginal rather than indispensable to the Christian faith.

Throughout Christian history a small number of groups have denied the virgin birth, particularly in the Near East. The Ebionites considered Jesus the Messiah, but rejected his divine nature and regarded him as fully human. Others, like Marcion, held that Christ's divinity meant that his human life, death and resurrection were only an appearance. By about AD 180 Jews were telling how Jesus had been illegitimately conceived by a Roman soldier named Pantera or Pandera, whose name is likely a pun on parthenos, virgin. The story was still current in the Middle Ages in satirical parody of the Christian gospels called the Toledot Yeshu. The Toledot Yeshu contains no historical facts, and was probably created as a tool for warding off conversions to Christianity.

Mary writing the Magnificat, by Marie Ellenrieder, 1833

Christians celebrate the conception of Jesus on 25 March and his birth on 25 December. (These dates are traditional; no one knows for certain when Jesus was born.) The Magnificat, based on Luke 1:46-55 is one of four well known Gospel canticles: the Benedictus and the Magnificat in the first chapter, and the Gloria in Excelsis and the Nunc dimittis in the second chapter of Luke, which are now an integral part of the Christian liturgical tradition. The Annunciation became an element of Marian devotions in medieval times, and by the 13th century direct references to it were widespread in French lyrics. The Eastern Orthodox Church uses the title "Ever Virgin Mary" as a key element of its Marian veneration, and as part of the Akathists hymns to Mary which are an integral part of its liturgy.

The doctrine is often represented in Christian art in terms of the annunciation to Mary by the Archangel Gabriel that she would conceive a child to be born the Son of God, and in Nativity scenes that include the figure of Salome. The Annunciation is one of the most frequently depicted scenes in Western art. Annunciation scenes also amount to the most frequent appearances of Gabriel in medieval art. The depiction of Joseph turning away in some Nativity scenes is a discreet reference to the fatherhood of the Holy Spirit, and the virgin birth.

Further information: Mary in Islam § Virgin birth

Muslims affirm the virgin birth narrative. In Surah Maryam, the virgin Mary conceives and gives birth to Jesus, then upon her return to her people they slander her. Mary does not respond except by pointing to her newborn son, Jesus, who defends his mother by miraculously speaking. The Islamic view holds that Jesus was God's word which he directed to Mary and a spirit created by him, moreover Jesus was supported by the Holy Spirit. The Quran follows the apocryphal gospels, and especially in the Protoevangelium of James, in their accounts of the miraculous births of both Mary and her son Jesus. Surah 3:35–36, for example, follows the Protoevangelium closely when describing how the pregnant "wife of Imran" (that is, Mary's mother Anna) dedicates her unborn child to God, Mary's secluded upbringing within the Temple, and the angels who bring her food.

  • Holy Doors, Saint Catherine's Monastery on Mount Sinai in Egypt, 12th century

  • Sandro Botticelli (1489–90)

  • Mikhail Nesterov, Russia, 19th century

  • Eastern Orthodox Nativity depiction little changed in more than a millennium

  • Giotto (1267–1337): Nativity with an uninvolved Joseph but without Salome

  • Medieval miniature of the Nativity, c. 1350

  1. Kiddushin (betrothal) is far more binding than an engagement as we understand the term in modern Western culture; in fact, Maimonides speaks of a period of engagement before the kiddushin. Once kiddushin is complete, the relationship can only be dissolved by death or divorce. However, the spouses do not live together at that time, and the mutual obligations created by the marital relationship do not take effect until the nisuin is complete.

Citations

  1. Carrigan 2000, p. 1359.
  2. Hurtado 2005, p. 318.
  3. Bruner 2004, p. 37.
  4. Lincoln 2013, p. 195–196, 258.
  5. Schowalter 1993, p. 790.
  6. Lachs 1987, p. 6.
  7. Casey 1991, p. 152.
  8. Loewe 1996, p. 184.
  9. Ware 1993, p. unpaginated.
  10. Barclay 1998, p. 55.
  11. Robinson 2009, p. 111.
  12. Lincoln 2013, p. 99.
  13. Morris 1992, p. 31–32.
  14. Carroll 2012, p. 39.
  15. Hurtado 2005, p. 328.
  16. Kodell 1992, p. 939.
  17. Welburn 2008, p. 2.
  18. Jewish Virtual Library: Marriage in Judaism
  19. USCCB Luke 1:34 commentary Mary’s questioning response is a denial of sexual relations and is used by Luke to lead to the angel’s declaration about the Spirit’s role in the conception of this child (Lk 1:35). According to Luke, the virginal conception of Jesus takes place through the holy Spirit, the power of God, and therefore Jesus has a unique relationship to Yahweh: he is Son of God.
  20. Jewish Encyclopedia: Adultery Sexual intercourse of a married woman with any man other than her husband. The crime can be committed only by and with a married woman; for the unlawful intercourse of a married man with an unmarried woman is not technically adultery in the Jewish law.
  21. Jewish Virtual Library: Adultery Adultery is prohibited in the Decalogue (Ex. 20:13; Deut. 5:17), where it is listed between murder and theft (cf. Jer. 7:9; Ezek. 16:38; Hos. 4:2; Ps. 50:18; Prov. 6:30 ff.; Job 24:14–15) among offenses against one's fellow. The extramarital intercourse of a married man is not per se a crime in biblical or later Jewish law. This distinction stems from the economic aspect of Israelite marriage: the wife is the husband's possession, and adultery constitutes a violation of the husband's exclusive right to her; but the wife, as the husband's possession, has no such right to him. In other words, a man cannot commit adultery.
  22. USCCB Matthew 1:19 commentary as a devout observer of the Mosaic law, Joseph wished to break his union with someone whom he suspected of gross violation of the law. It is commonly said that the law required him to do so, but the texts usually given in support of that view, e.g., Dt 22:20–21 do not clearly pertain to Joseph’s situation...the penalty for proved adultery was death by stoning; cf. Dt 22:21–23.
  23. Chabad Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 24 [In this case] he has an obligation to divorce her, lest she find favor in his eyes [and he might consequently wish to keep her, which he must not do, since she had committed an act of impropriety]. — [Gittin 90b]
  24. Sweeney 1996, p. 161.
  25. France 2007, pp. 56–57.
  26. Lincoln 2013, p. 21-25.
  27. Boring & Craddock 2009, p. 12.
  28. Fredriksen 2008, p. 7.
  29. Reddish 2011, p. 13.
  30. Lincoln 2013, p. 144.
  31. Hurtado 2005, p. 318–319, 325.
  32. Kärkkäinen 2009, p. 175.
  33. McGuckin 2004, p. 286.
  34. Paget 2010, p. 360.
  35. Wahlde 2015, p. 62-63.
  36. Voorst 2000, p. 117.
  37. Cook 2011, p. unpaginated.
  38. Evans 1998, p. 450.
  39. Nothaft 2014, p. 564.
  40. Simpler 1990, p. 396.
  41. O'Sullivan 2005, p. 14–15.
  42. Peltomaa 2001, p. 127.
  43. Guiley 2004, p. 183.
  44. Ross 1996, p. 99.
  45. Grabar 1968, p. 130.
  46. Zebiri 2000.
  47. Saritoprak 2014, pp. 3, 6.
  48. Bell 2012, p. 110.
  49. Reynolds 2018, p. 55–56.

Bibliography

Virgin birth of Jesus
Virgin birth of Jesus Language Watch Edit The virgin birth of Jesus is the Christian doctrine that Jesus was conceived by his mother Mary through the power of the Holy Spirit and without sexual intercourse 1 It is mentioned only in Matthew 1 18 25 and Luke 1 26 38 2 and the modern scholarly consensus is that the narrative rests on very slender historical foundations 3 The ancient world had no understanding that male semen and female ovum were both needed to form a fetus 4 this cultural milieu was conducive to miraculous birth stories 5 and tales of virgin birth and the impregnation of mortal women by deities were well known in the 1st century Greco Roman world and Second Temple Jewish works 6 7 The Annunciation by Guido Reni 1621 Matthew and Luke use the virgin birth or more accurately the divine conception that precedes it to mark the moment when Jesus becomes the Son of God in distinction to Mark for whom the Sonship dates from Jesus s baptism Mark 1 9 13 and Paul and the pre Pauline Christians for whom Jesus becomes the Son only at the Resurrection or even the Second Coming 8 The Eastern Orthodox Churches accept the doctrine as authoritative by reason of its inclusion in the Nicene Creed 9 and the Catholic Church likewise holds it authoritative for faith through the Apostles Creed as well as the Nicene Christians including Protestants traditionally regard it as an explanation of the mixture of the human and divine natures of Jesus 9 1 Nevertheless there are many contemporary churches in which it is considered orthodox to accept the virgin birth but not heretical to deny it 10 Contents 1 New Testament narratives Matthew and Luke 1 1 Matthew 1 18 25 1 2 Luke 1 26 38 2 Cultural context 3 Historicity and sources of the narratives 4 Theology and development 5 Celebrations and devotions 6 In Islam 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 10 1 Citations 10 2 BibliographyNew Testament narratives Matthew and Luke EditMatthew 1 18 25 Edit Main article Matthew 1 The Gospels of Matthew and Luke agree that Mary s husband was named Joseph that he was of the Davidic line and that he played no role in Jesus s divine conception but beyond this they are very different 11 12 Matthew underlines the virginity of Mary by references to the Book of Isaiah using the Greek translation in the Septuagint rather than the mostly Hebrew Masoretic Text and by his narrative statement that Joseph had no sexual relations with her until after the birth a choice of words which leaves open the possibility that they did have relations after that 13 18 Now the birth of Jesus the Messiah took place in this way When his mother Mary had been engaged to Joseph but before they lived together she was found to be with child from the Holy Spirit 19 Her husband Joseph being a righteous man and unwilling to expose her to public disgrace planned to dismiss her quietly 20 But just when he had resolved to do this an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said Joseph son of David do not be afraid to take Mary as your wife for the child conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit 21 She will bear a son and you are to name him Jesus for he will save his people from their sins 22 All this took place to fulfill what had been spoken by the Lord through the prophet 23 Look the virgin shall conceive and bear a son and they shall name him Emmanuel which means God is with us 24 When Joseph awoke from sleep he did as the angel of the Lord commanded him he took her as his wife 25 but had no marital relations with her until she had borne a son and he named him Jesus Luke 1 26 38 Edit Main article Luke 1 Luke introduces Mary as a virgin describes her puzzlement at being told she will bear a child despite her lack of sexual experience and informs the reader that this pregnancy is to be effected through God s Holy Spirit 14 26 In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a town in Galilee called Nazareth 27 to a virgin engaged to a man whose name was Joseph of the house of David The virgin s name was Mary 28 And he came to her and said Greetings favored one The Lord is with you 29 But she was much perplexed by his words and pondered what sort of greeting this might be 30 The angel said to her Do not be afraid Mary for you have found favor with God 31 And now you will conceive in your womb and bear a son and you will name him Jesus 32 He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his ancestor David 33 He will reign over the house of Jacob forever and of his kingdom there will be no end 34 Mary said to the angel How can this be since I am a virgin 35 The angel said to her The Holy Spirit will come upon you and the power of the Most High will overshadow you therefore the child to be born will be holy he will be called Son of God 36 And now your relative Elizabeth in her old age has also conceived a son and this is the sixth month for her who was said to be barren 37 For nothing will be impossible with God 38 Then Mary said Here am I the servant of the Lord let it be with me according to your word Then the angel departed from her Cultural context EditFurther information Miraculous births The most likely cultural context for both Matthew and Luke is Jewish Christian or mixed Gentile Jewish Christian circles rooted in Jewish tradition 15 The ancient world had no understanding that male semen and female ovum were both needed to form a fetus instead they thought that the male contribution in reproduction consisted of some sort of formative or generative principle while Mary s bodily fluids would provide all the matter that was needed for Jesus s bodily form including his male sex 4 This cultural milieu was conducive to miraculous birth stories they were common in biblical tradition going back to Abraham and Sarah and the conception of Isaac 5 Tales of virgin birth and the impregnation of mortal women by deities were well known in the 1st century Greco Roman world 6 and Second Temple Jewish works were also capable of producing accounts of the appearances of angels and miraculous births for ancient heroes such as Melchizedek Noah and Moses 7 Luke s virgin birth story is a standard plot from the Jewish scriptures as for example in the annunciation scenes for Isaac and for Samson in which an angel appears and causes apprehension the angel gives reassurance and announces the coming birth the mother raises an objection and the angel gives a sign 16 Nevertheless plausible sources that tell of virgin birth in areas convincingly close to the gospels own probable origins have proven extremely hard to demonstrate 17 Similarly while it is widely accepted that there is a connection with Zoroastrian Persian sources underlying Matthew s story of the Magi the wise men from the East and the Star of Bethlehem a wider claim that Zoroastrianism formed the background to the infancy narratives has not achieved acceptance 17 The Gospel of Luke says Mary is a virgin betrothed to Joseph Luke 1 27 while the Gospel of Matthew says Jesus s virginal conception happens before Mary lives with Joseph in his house Matthew 1 18 because in a Jewish wedding by being betrothed to a man the woman is already his wife yet she does not start living in his house until the wedding is over note 1 Mary s response to Gabriel How can this be since I have no relations with a man meaning no sexual relations 19 is an affirmation of Mary the wife of Joseph s virginity and obedience to the Torah that forbids adultery 20 21 In the Gospel of Matthew Joseph intends to divorce Mary on suspicion of adultery because he is a righteous man that is he is obedient to the Torah 22 that mandates divorcing one s unfaithful wife 23 Because he is obedient Joseph relents of his intention when in a dream he is informed by an angel of the virginal conception of Jesus Matthew 1 19 24 Historicity and sources of the narratives EditIn the entire Christian corpus the virgin birth is found only in the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke 2 and the modern scholarly consensus is that the narrative rests on very slender historical foundations 3 Matthew uses Isaiah 7 14 to support his narrative but scholars agree that the Hebrew word used in Isaiah almah signifies a girl of childbearing age without reference to virginity and was aimed at Isaiah s own immediate circumstances 24 25 In the Gospel of John slightly later than Matthew and Luke Jesus has both father and mother We have found him about whom Moses in the law and also the prophets wrote Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth and his conception does not entail divine intervention 26 The earliest Christian writings the Pauline epistles do not contain any mention of a virgin birth and assume Jesus s full humanity the Gospel of Mark dating from around AD 70 has no birth story and states that Jesus s mother had no belief in her son as if she had forgotten the angel s visit 26 Matthew and Luke are late and anonymous compositions dating from the period AD 80 100 and it is almost certain that neither was the work of an eyewitness 27 28 29 This raises the question of where the authors of Matthew and Luke found their stories Both used Mark as their basic source but the virgin birth is not found there nor in view of the many inconsistencies between them did one of them derive it from the other or share a common source 2 Raymond E Brown suggested in 1973 that Joseph was the source of Matthew s account and Mary of Luke s but modern scholars consider this highly unlikely given that the stories emerged so late 30 It follows that the two narratives were created by the two writers drawing on ideas in circulation in some Christian circles perhaps by around AD 65 31 Theology and development EditMatthew and Luke use the virgin birth or more accurately the divine conception that precedes it to mark the moment when Jesus becomes the Son of God a notable development over Mark for whom the Sonship dates from Jesus s baptism Mark 1 9 13 and the earlier Christianity of Paul and the pre Pauline Christians for whom Jesus becomes the Son only at the Resurrection or even the Second Coming 8 The virgin birth was subsequently accepted by Christians as the proof of the divinity of Jesus but its rebuttal during and after the 18th century European Enlightenment led some to redefine it as mythical while others reaffirmed it in dogmatic terms 32 This division remains in place although some national synods of the Catholic church have replaced a biological understanding with the idea of theological truth and some evangelical theologians hold it to be marginal rather than indispensable to the Christian faith 32 Throughout Christian history a small number of groups have denied the virgin birth particularly in the Near East 33 The Ebionites considered Jesus the Messiah but rejected his divine nature and regarded him as fully human 34 Others like Marcion held that Christ s divinity meant that his human life death and resurrection were only an appearance 35 By about AD 180 Jews were telling how Jesus had been illegitimately conceived by a Roman soldier named Pantera or Pandera whose name is likely a pun on parthenos virgin 36 The story was still current in the Middle Ages in satirical parody of the Christian gospels called the Toledot Yeshu 37 38 The Toledot Yeshu contains no historical facts and was probably created as a tool for warding off conversions to Christianity 37 Celebrations and devotions Edit Mary writing the Magnificat by Marie Ellenrieder 1833 See also Annunciation Marian devotions Hymns to Mary and Annunciation in Christian art Christians celebrate the conception of Jesus on 25 March and his birth on 25 December 39 These dates are traditional no one knows for certain when Jesus was born The Magnificat based on Luke 1 46 55 is one of four well known Gospel canticles the Benedictus and the Magnificat in the first chapter and the Gloria in Excelsis and the Nunc dimittis in the second chapter of Luke which are now an integral part of the Christian liturgical tradition 40 The Annunciation became an element of Marian devotions in medieval times and by the 13th century direct references to it were widespread in French lyrics 41 The Eastern Orthodox Church uses the title Ever Virgin Mary as a key element of its Marian veneration and as part of the Akathists hymns to Mary which are an integral part of its liturgy 42 The doctrine is often represented in Christian art in terms of the annunciation to Mary by the Archangel Gabriel that she would conceive a child to be born the Son of God and in Nativity scenes that include the figure of Salome The Annunciation is one of the most frequently depicted scenes in Western art 43 Annunciation scenes also amount to the most frequent appearances of Gabriel in medieval art 44 The depiction of Joseph turning away in some Nativity scenes is a discreet reference to the fatherhood of the Holy Spirit and the virgin birth 45 In Islam EditFurther information Mary in Islam Virgin birth Muslims affirm the virgin birth narrative In Surah Maryam the virgin Mary conceives and gives birth to Jesus then upon her return to her people they slander her Mary does not respond except by pointing to her newborn son Jesus who defends his mother by miraculously speaking 46 The Islamic view holds that Jesus was God s word which he directed to Mary and a spirit created by him moreover Jesus was supported by the Holy Spirit 47 The Quran follows the apocryphal gospels and especially in the Protoevangelium of James in their accounts of the miraculous births of both Mary and her son Jesus 48 Surah 3 35 36 for example follows the Protoevangelium closely when describing how the pregnant wife of Imran that is Mary s mother Anna dedicates her unborn child to God Mary s secluded upbringing within the Temple and the angels who bring her food 49 Gallery Edit Holy Doors Saint Catherine s Monastery on Mount Sinai in Egypt 12th century Sandro Botticelli 1489 90 Mikhail Nesterov Russia 19th century Eastern Orthodox Nativity depiction little changed in more than a millennium Giotto 1267 1337 Nativity with an uninvolved Joseph but without Salome Medieval miniature of the Nativity c 1350See also EditDenial of the virgin birth of Jesus Adoptionism Christology Immaculate Conception of Mary Incarnation Christianity Perpetual virginity of Mary ParthenogenesisNotes Edit Kiddushin betrothal is far more binding than an engagement as we understand the term in modern Western culture in fact Maimonides speaks of a period of engagement before the kiddushin Once kiddushin is complete the relationship can only be dissolved by death or divorce However the spouses do not live together at that time and the mutual obligations created by the marital relationship do not take effect until the nisuin is complete 18 References EditCitations Edit a b Carrigan 2000 p 1359 a b c Hurtado 2005 p 318 a b Bruner 2004 p 37 a b Lincoln 2013 p 195 196 258 a b Schowalter 1993 p 790 a b Lachs 1987 p 6 a b Casey 1991 p 152 a b Loewe 1996 p 184 a b Ware 1993 p unpaginated Barclay 1998 p 55 Robinson 2009 p 111 Lincoln 2013 p 99 Morris 1992 p 31 32 Carroll 2012 p 39 Hurtado 2005 p 328 Kodell 1992 p 939 a b Welburn 2008 p 2 Jewish Virtual Library Marriage in Judaism USCCB Luke 1 34 commentary Mary s questioning response is a denial of sexual relations and is used by Luke to lead to the angel s declaration about the Spirit s role in the conception of this child Lk 1 35 According to Luke the virginal conception of Jesus takes place through the holy Spirit the power of God and therefore Jesus has a unique relationship to Yahweh he is Son of God Jewish Encyclopedia Adultery Sexual intercourse of a married woman with any man other than her husband The crime can be committed only by and with a married woman for the unlawful intercourse of a married man with an unmarried woman is not technically adultery in the Jewish law Jewish Virtual Library Adultery Adultery is prohibited in the Decalogue Ex 20 13 Deut 5 17 where it is listed between murder and theft cf Jer 7 9 Ezek 16 38 Hos 4 2 Ps 50 18 Prov 6 30 ff Job 24 14 15 among offenses against one s fellow The extramarital intercourse of a married man is not per se a crime in biblical or later Jewish law This distinction stems from the economic aspect of Israelite marriage the wife is the husband s possession and adultery constitutes a violation of the husband s exclusive right to her but the wife as the husband s possession has no such right to him In other words a man cannot commit adultery USCCB Matthew 1 19 commentary as a devout observer of the Mosaic law Joseph wished to break his union with someone whom he suspected of gross violation of the law It is commonly said that the law required him to do so but the texts usually given in support of that view e g Dt 22 20 21 do not clearly pertain to Joseph s situation the penalty for proved adultery was death by stoning cf Dt 22 21 23 Chabad Devarim Deuteronomy Chapter 24 In this case he has an obligation to divorce her lest she find favor in his eyes and he might consequently wish to keep her which he must not do since she had committed an act of impropriety Gittin 90b Sweeney 1996 p 161 France 2007 pp 56 57 a b Lincoln 2013 p 21 25 Boring amp Craddock 2009 p 12 Fredriksen 2008 p 7 Reddish 2011 p 13 Lincoln 2013 p 144 Hurtado 2005 p 318 319 325 a b Karkkainen 2009 p 175 McGuckin 2004 p 286 Paget 2010 p 360 Wahlde 2015 p 62 63 Voorst 2000 p 117 a b Cook 2011 p unpaginated Evans 1998 p 450 Nothaft 2014 p 564 Simpler 1990 p 396 O Sullivan 2005 p 14 15 Peltomaa 2001 p 127 Guiley 2004 p 183 Ross 1996 p 99 Grabar 1968 p 130 Zebiri 2000 Saritoprak 2014 pp 3 6 Bell 2012 p 110 Reynolds 2018 p 55 56 Bibliography Edit Akyol Mustafa 2017 The Islamic Jesus St Martin s Publishing Group ISBN 9781250088703 Muddiman John Barton John eds 2010 The Gospels Oxford Oxford University Press ISBN 9780199580255 Barclay William 1998 The Apostles Creed Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 9781250088703 Barth Karl 2004 Church Dogmatics The doctrine of the word of God A amp C Black ISBN 978 0567050694 BeDuhn Jason 2015 The New Marcion PDF Forum 3 Fall 2015 163 179 Bell Richard 2012 The Origin of Islam in Its Christian Environment Routledge ISBN 9781136260674 Brown Raymond E 1973 The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus Paulist Press ISBN 978 0809117680 Brown Raymond E 1999 The Birth of the Messiah A Commentary on the Infancy Narratives in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke Yale University Press ISBN 978 0300140088 Boring M Eugene Craddock Fred B 2009 The People s New Testament Commentary Westminster John Knox ISBN 9780664235925 Bruner Frederick 2004 Matthew 1 12 Eerdmans ISBN 9780802811189 Carrigan Henry L 2000 Virgin Birth in Freedman David Noel Myers Allen C eds Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible Eerdmans ISBN 9789053565032 Carroll John T 2000 Eschatology In Freedman David Noel Myers Allen C eds Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible Eerdmans ISBN 9789053565032 Carroll John T 2012 Luke A Commentary Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 978 0664221065 Casey Maurice 1991 From Jewish Prophet to Gentile God The Origins and Development of New Testament Christology Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 9780664227654 Childs Brevard S 2001 Isaiah Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 978 0664221430 Chouinard Larry 1997 Matthew College Press ISBN 978 0899006284 Collinge William J 2012 Historical Dictionary of Catholicism Scarecrow Press ISBN 9780810879799 Coyle Kathleen 1996 Mary in the Christian Tradition revised ed Gracewing Publishing ISBN 978 0852443804 Cook Michael J 2011 Jewish Perspectives on Jesus in Burkett Delbert ed The Blackwell Companion to Jesus John Wiley amp Sons ISBN 9781444351750 Davidson John 2005 The Gospel Of Jesus In Search Of His Original Teachings Clear Press ISBN 978 1904555148 Deiss Lucien 1996 Joseph Mary Jesus Liturgical Press ISBN 978 0814622551 Dorman T M 1995 Virgin Birth In Bromiley Geoffrey W ed International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Q Z Eerdmans ISBN 978 0802837844 Evans Craig 1998 Jesus in non Christian Sources in Chilton Bruce Evans Craig eds Studying the Historical Jesus Evaluations of the State of Current Research BRILL ISBN 9004111425 France R T 2007 The Gospel of Matthew Eerdmans ISBN 978 0802825018 Fredriksen Paula 2008 From Jesus to Christ The Origins of the New Testament Images of Jesus Yale University Press ISBN 978 0300164107 Grabar Andre 1968 Christian Iconography A Study of Its Origins Princeton University Press ISBN 9780710062376 Guiley Rosemary 2004 The Encyclopedia of Angels New York Facts on File ISBN 0 8160 5023 6 Gregg D Larry 2000 Docetism In Freedman David Noel Myers Allen C eds Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible Eerdmans ISBN 9789053565032 Hendrickson Peter A Jenson Bradley C Lundell Randi H 2015 Luther and Bach on the Magnificat Wipf and Stock ISBN 9781625641205 Hurtado Larry 2005 Lord Jesus Christ Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity Eerdmans ISBN 9780802831675 Karkkainen V N 2009 Christology in Dyrness William A Karkkainen Veli Matti eds Global Dictionary of Theology InterVarsity Press ISBN 9780830878116 Kodell Jerome 1992 Luke In Karris Robert J ed The Collegeville Bible Commentary New Testament NAB Liturgical Press ISBN 978 0814622117 Koester Helmut 2000 Introduction to the New Testament History and literature of early Christianity 2 Walter de Gruyter ISBN 9783110149708 Kugler Robert Hartin Patrick 2009 An Introduction to the Bible Eerdmans ISBN 9780802846365 Lachs Samuel T 1987 A Rabbinic Commentary of the New Testament the Gospels of Matthew Mark and Luke KTAV Publishing House ISBN 978 0881250893 Lincoln Andrew 2013 Born of a Virgin Eerdmans ISBN 978 0802869258 Loewe William P 1996 The College Student s Introduction to Christology Liturgical Press ISBN 9780814650189 Marsh Clive Moyise Steve 2006 Jesus and the Gospels A amp C Black ISBN 978 0567040732 Marthaler Berard L 2007 The Creed The Apostolic Faith in Contemporary Theology Twenty Third Publications ISBN 9780896225374 McGuckin John Anthony 2004 The Westminster Handbook to Patristic Theology Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 9780664223960 Miller John W 2008 The Miracle of Christ s Birth In Ellens J Harold ed Miracles ABC CLIO ISBN 978 0275997236 Morris Leon 1992 The Gospel According to Matthew Eerdmans ISBN 978 0851113388 Nothaft C Philipp E 2014 Medieval Latin Christian Texts on the Jewish Calendar A Study with Five Editions and Translations Leiden Brill ISBN 9789004274129 O Sullivan Daniel E 2005 Marian devotion in thirteenth century French lyric University of Toronto Press ISBN 0802038859 Paget James Carleton 2010 Jews Christians and Jewish Christians in Antiquity Mohr Siebeck ISBN 9783161503122 Reddish Mitchell 2011 An Introduction to The Gospels Abingdon Press ISBN 9781426750083 Peltomaa Leena Mari 2001 The image of the Virgin Mary in the Akathistos hymn Brill ISBN 9004120882 Reynolds Gabriel Said 2018 The Qur an and the Bible Text and Commentary Yale University Press ISBN 9780300181326 Robinson Bernard P 2009 Matthew s Nativity Stories In Corley Jeremy ed New Perspectives on the Nativity Bloomsbury ISBN 9780567613790 Ross Leslie 1996 Medieval Art A Topical Dictionary Greenwood Press ISBN 9780313293290 Saldarini Anthony 2003 Matthew In Dunn James D G Rogerson John William eds Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible Eerdmans ISBN 978 0802837110 Saritoprak Zeki 2014 Islam s Jesus Tampa University Press of Florida ISBN 978 0 8130 4940 3 Sawyer W Thomas 1990 Mary In Mills Watson E Bullard Roger Aubrey eds Mercer Dictionary of the Bible Mercer University Press ISBN 978 0865543737 Schowalter Daniel N 1993 Virgin Birth of Christ In Metzger B M Coogan D eds The Oxford Companion to the Bible Oxford Oxford University Press ISBN 9780199743919 Simpler Steven 1990 Hymn In Mills Watson E Bullard Roger Aubrey eds Mercer Dictionary of the Bible Mercer University Press ISBN 9780865543737 Sweeney Marvin A 1996 Isaiah 1 39 with an introduction to prophetic literature Eerdmans ISBN 978 0802841001 Turner David L 2008 Matthew Baker ISBN 978 0 8010 2684 3 Tyson Joseph B 2006 Marcion and Luke Acts A Defining Struggle University of South Carolina Press ISBN 9781570036507 Voorst Robert van 2000 Jesus Outside the New Testament Eerdmans ISBN 9780802843685 Wahlde Urban von 2015 Gnosticism Docetism and the Judaisms of the First Century Bloomsbury ISBN 9780567656599 Ware Timothy 1993 The Orthodox Church An Introduction to Eastern Christianity Penguin ISBN 9780141925004 Weaver Rebeccah H 2008 Jesus in early Christianity in Benedetto Robert Duke James O eds The New Westminster Dictionary of Church History The early medieval and Reformation eras Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 978 0664224165 Welburn Andrew J 2008 From a Virgin Womb The Apocalypse of Adam and the Virgin Birth BRILL ISBN 9789004163768 Wilson Frank E 1989 Faith and Practice Harrisburg PA Church Publishing Inc ISBN 9780819224576 Zebiri Kate March 2000 Contemporary Muslim Understanding of the Miracles of Jesus The Muslim World 90 1 2 71 90 doi 10 1111 j 1478 1913 2000 tb03682 x Virgin birth of JesusLife of JesusPreceded by Gabriel announces John s birth to Zechariah New Testament Events Succeeded by Mary visits Elisabeth Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Virgin birth of Jesus amp oldid 1047901773, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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