fbpx
Wikipedia

Virginia Military Institute

Virginia Military Institute (VMI) is a public senior military college in Lexington, Virginia. It was founded in 1839 as America's first state military college and is the oldest public senior military college in the United States. In keeping with its founding principles and unlike any other senior military college in the United States, VMI enrolls cadets only and awards bachelor's degrees exclusively. VMI offers its cadets strict military discipline combined with a physically and academically demanding environment. The institute grants degrees in 14 disciplines in engineering, science, and the liberal arts, and all VMI students are required to participate in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC).

Virginia Military Institute
MottoLatin: In Pace Decus, In Bello Praesidium
Motto in English
In Peace a Glorious Asset, In War a Tower of Strength
TypePublic senior military college
Established11 November 1839; 181 years ago (11 November 1839)
Endowment$539.6 million (2020)
SuperintendentCedric T. Wins
Academic staff
143 full-time and 55 part-time (Fall 2019)
Students1,685
Location,,
United States

37°47′24″N79°26′24″W /37.790°N 79.440°W /37.790; -79.440Coordinates: 37°47′24″N79°26′24″W /37.790°N 79.440°W /37.790; -79.440
CampusSmall town, 134 acres (0.54 km2)
ColorsRed, yellow, white
NicknameKeydets
Sporting affiliations
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA Division I) Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) – Southern Conference (SoCon)
Mascot"Moe the Kangaroo"
Websitevmi.edu
Location in Shenandoah Valley
Show map of Shenandoah Valley
Location in Virginia
Show map of Virginia
Location in United States
Show map of the United States

While Abraham Lincoln first called VMI "The West Point of the South" because of its role during the American Civil War, the nickname has remained because VMI has produced more Army generals than any ROTC program in the United States. Despite the nickname, VMI differs from the federal military service academies in many regards. For example, as of 2019, VMI had a total enrollment of 1,722 cadets (as compared to 4,500 at the Academies) making it one of the smallest NCAA Division I schools in the United States. Additionally, today (as in the 1800s) all VMI cadets sleep on cots and live closely together in a more spartan and austere barracks environment than at the Service Academies. All VMI cadets must participate in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) of the United States Armed Forces programs, but are afforded the flexibility of pursuing civilian endeavors or accepting an officer's commission in any of the active or reserve components of any of the U.S. military branches upon graduation, excluding the United States Coast Guard.

VMI's alumni include a Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense, Secretary of the Army, a Nobel Peace Prize winner, 7 Medal of Honor recipients, 13 Rhodes Scholars, Pulitzer Prize winners, an Academy Award winner, an Emmy Award and Golden Globe winner, a martyr recognized by the Episcopal Church, Senators and Representatives, Governors, including the current Governor of Virginia, Lieutenant Governors, a Supreme Court Justice, numerous college and university presidents, many business leaders (presidents and CEOs) and over 290 general and flag officers across all US service branches and several other countries.

Contents

The Board of Visitors is the supervisory board of the Virginia Military Institute. Although the Governor is ex officio the commander-in-chief of the institute, and no one may be declared a graduate without his signature, he delegates to the board the responsibility for developing the institute's policy. The board appoints the superintendent and approves appointment of members of the faculty and staff on the recommendation of the superintendent. The board may make bylaws and regulations for their own government and the management of the affairs of the institute, and while the institute is exempt from the Administrative Process Act in accordance with Va. Code (which exempts educational institutions operated by the Commonwealth), some of its regulations are codified at 8VAC 100. The Executive Committee conducts the business of the board during recesses.

The board has 17 members, including ex officio the Adjutant General of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Regular members are appointed by the Governor for a four-year term and may be reappointed once. Of the sixteen appointed members, twelve must be alumni of the institute, eight of whom must be residents of Virginia and four must be non-residents; and the remaining four members must be non-alumni Virginia residents. The Executive Committee consists of the board's president, three vice presidents, and one non-alumnus at large, and is appointed by the board at each annual meeting.

Under the militia bill (the Virginia Code of 1860) officers of the institute were recognized as part of the military establishment of the state, and the governor had authority to issue commissions to them in accordance with institute regulations. Current law makes provision for officers of the Virginia Militia to be subject to orders of the Governor. The cadets are a military corps (the Corps of Cadets) under the command of the superintendent and under the administration of the Commandant of Cadets, and constitute the guard of the institute.

Early history

In the years after the War of 1812, the Commonwealth of Virginia built and maintained several arsenals to store weapons intended for use by the state militia in the event of invasion or slave revolt. One of them was placed in Lexington. Residents came to resent the presence of the soldiers, whom they saw as drunken and undisciplined. In 1826, one guard beat another to death. Townspeople wanted to keep the arsenal, but sought a new way of guarding it, so as to eliminate the "undesirable element." In 1834, the Franklin Society, a local literary and debate society, debated, "Would it be politic for the State to establish a military school, at the Arsenal, near Lexington, in connection with Washington College, on the plan of the West Point Academy?" They unanimously concluded that it would. Lexington attorney John Thomas Lewis Preston became the most active advocate of the proposal. In a series of three anonymous letters in the Lexington Gazette in 1835, he proposed replacing the arsenal guard with students living under military discipline, receiving some military education, as well as a liberal education. The school's graduates would contribute to the development of the state and, should the need arise, provide trained officers for the state's militia.

After a public relations campaign that included Preston meeting in person with influential business, military and political figures and many open letters from prominent supporters including Alden Partridge of Norwich University, in 1836 the Virginia legislature passed a bill authorizing creation of a school at the Lexington arsenal, and the Governor signed the measure into law.

The organizers of the planned school formed a board of visitors, which included Preston, and the board selected Claudius Crozet as their first president. Crozet had served as an engineer in Napoleon Bonaparte's army before immigrating to the United States. In America, he served as an engineering professor at West Point, as well as state engineer in Louisiana and mathematics professor at Jefferson College in Convent, Louisiana. Crozet was also the Chief Engineer of Virginia and someone whom Thomas Jefferson referred to as, "the smartest mathematician in the United States." The board delegated to Preston the task of deciding what to call the new school, and he created the name Virginia Military Institute.

Under Crozet's direction, the board of visitors crafted VMI's program of instruction, basing it off of those of the United States Military Academy and Crozet's alma mater the École Polytechnique of Paris. So, instead of the mix of military and liberal education imagined by Preston, the board created a military and engineering school offering the most thorough engineering curriculum in America, outside of West Point.

Preston was also tasked with hiring VMI's first Superintendent. He was persuaded that West Point graduate and former Army officer Francis Henney Smith, then professor of mathematics at Hampden–Sydney College, was the most suitable candidate. Preston successfully recruited Smith, and convinced him to become the first Superintendent and Professor of Tactics.

After Smith agreed to accept the Superintendent's position, Preston applied to join the faculty, and was hired as Professor of Languages. Classes began in 1839, and the first cadet to march a sentinel post was Private John Strange. With few exceptions, there have been sentinels posted at VMI every hour of every day of the school year since 11 November 1839.

The Class of 1842 graduated 16 cadets. Living conditions were poor until 1850 when the cornerstone of the new barracks was laid. In 1851 Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson became a member of the faculty and professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy. Under Jackson, then a major, and Major William Gilham, VMI infantry and artillery units were present at the execution by hanging of John Brown at Charles Town, Virginia (now West Virginia) in 1859.

Civil War period

VMI cadets and alumni played instrumental roles in the American Civil War. On 14 occasions, the Confederacy called cadets into active military engagements. VMI authorized battle streamers for each one of these engagements but chose to carry only one: the battle streamer for New Market. Many VMI Cadets were ordered to Camp Lee, at Richmond, to train recruits under General Stonewall Jackson. VMI alumni were regarded among the best officers of the South and several distinguished themselves in the Union forces as well. Fifteen graduates rose to the rank of general in the Confederate Army, and one rose to this rank in the Union Army. Just before his famous flank attack at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Jackson looked at his division and brigade commanders, noted the high number of VMI graduates and said, "The Institute will be heard from today." Three of Jackson's four division commanders at Chancellorsville, Generals James Lane, Robert Rodes, and Raleigh Colston, were VMI graduates as were more than twenty of his brigadiers and colonels.

Battle of New Market

Engraving of VMI ca. 1863

On 14 May 1864, the Governor of Virginia once again called upon the cadets from VMI to participate in the American Civil War. After marching overnight 80 miles from Lexington to New Market, on 15 May 1864, 247 members of the VMI Corps of Cadets fought at the Battle of New Market. This event marks the only time in U.S. history wherein the student body of an operating college fought as an organized unit in pitched combat in battle (as recognized by the American Battlefield Trust). This event was the 14th time VMI Cadets were called into action during the Civil War.

At New Market, in a matter of minutes, VMI suffered fifty-five casualties with ten cadets killed; the cadets were led into battle by the Commandant of Cadets and future VMI Superintendent Colonel Scott Shipp. Shipp was also wounded during the battle. Six of the ten fallen cadets are buried on VMI grounds behind the statue "Virginia Mourning Her Dead" by sculptor Moses Ezekiel, a VMI graduate who was also wounded in the Battle of New Market.

General John C. Breckinridge, the commanding Southern general, held the cadets in reserve and did not use them until Union troops broke through the Confederate lines. Upon seeing the tide of battle turning in favor of the Union forces, Breckinridge stated, "Put the boys in...and may God forgive me for the order." The VMI cadets held the line and eventually pushed forward across an open muddy field, capturing a Union artillery emplacement, and securing victory for the Confederates. The Union troops were withdrawn and Confederate troops under General Breckinridge held the Shenandoah Valley.

Burning of the Institute

A cadet lies dead after being killed by a Union bayonet

On 12 June 1864 Union forces, under the command of General David Hunter, shelled and burned the Institute as part of the Valley Campaigns of 1864. The destruction was almost complete, and VMI had to temporarily hold classes at the Alms House in Richmond, Virginia. In April 1865 Richmond was evacuated due to the impending fall of Petersburg and the VMI Corps of Cadets was disbanded. The Lexington campus reopened for classes on 17 October 1865. One of the reasons that Confederate General Jubal A. Early burned the town of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, was in retaliation for the destruction of VMI.

Following the war, Matthew Fontaine Maury, the pioneering oceanographer known as the "Pathfinder of the Seas", accepted a teaching position at VMI, holding the physics chair. Following the war, David Hunter Strother, who was chief of staff to General Hunter and had advised the destruction of the Institute, served as Adjutant General of the Virginia Militia and member of the VMI Board of Visitors; in that position he promoted and worked actively for the reconstruction.

World War II

VMI produced many of America's commanders in World War II. The most important of these was George C. Marshall, the top U.S. Army general during the war. Marshall was the Army's first five-star general and the only career military officer ever to win the Nobel Peace Prize. Winston Churchill dubbed Marshall the "Architect of Victory" and "the noblest Roman of them all". The Deputy Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army during the war was also a VMI graduate as were the Second U.S. Army commander, 15th U.S. Army commander, the commander of Allied Air Forces of the Southwest Pacific and various corps and division commanders in the Army and Marine Corps. China's General Sun Li-jen, known as the "Rommel of the East", was also a graduate of VMI.

During the war, VMI participated in the War Department's Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP) from 1943 to 1946. The program provided training in engineering and related subjects to enlisted men at colleges across the United States. Over 2,100 ASTP members studied at VMI during the war.

Post World War II

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(October 2020)

VMI admitted its first female student in 1995 after the U.S. Justice Department pursued a seven-year long lawsuit against the institution alleging discrimination. Although that first female student dropped out soon after matriculating, 30 female students enrolled in 1997, cementing VMI's new status as a coeducational institution.

On 19 October 2020, following an exposé in the Washington Post, Governor Ralph Northam and multiple other state officials wrote the VMI Board of Visitors that they had "deep concerns about the clear and appalling culture of ongoing structural racism” at VMI. They reported that they had received reports from students of a racist culture at VMI. The students reported a threat of lynching, attacks on social media, and a staff member promoting "an inaccurate and dangerous 'Lost Cause' version of Virginia's history." The letter was signed by Northam, Lt. Gov. Justin Fairfax, Virginia House Speaker Eileen Filler-Corn, state Senate President Louise Lucas, Attorney General Mark Herring, and chairman of the Black caucus Lamont Bagby. Northam, a 1981 VMI alumnus, ordered a state-led investigation.

Six days later, on 26 October 2020, Superintendent Gen. J.H. Binford Peay tendered his resignation, saying in his resignation letter that he'd been told that Governor Northam and other state legislators had "lost confidence in my leadership" and "desired my resignation". Three days later, the VMI Board of Visitors voted unanimously to remove from campus the statue of Confederate hero Stonewall Jackson, a former VMI professor, and create a building and naming committee. The school reaffirmed the statue's removal in December and began plans to relocated it to a Civil War museum located on a battlefield where a number of VMI cadets and alumni were killed or wounded.

In October, the board also announced several diversity-related decisions: a diversity officer would be appointed, a diversity and inclusion committee would be created, and diversity initiatives created to include a focus on gender and the adoption of a diversity hiring plan. Nine months later, a report into racial intolerance charged by the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia was delivered. The independent report concluded that VMI "maintained and allowed a racist and sexist culture that, until recently, it had no appetite to address." The authors, employed by the law firm Barnes & Thornburg, also accused the institution's leadership, including its governing board, with an "unwillingness to change or even question its practices."

Superintendents

Since 1839, VMI has had fifteen superintendents. Francis H. Smith was the first and the longest serving, filling the position for 50 years. Twelve of the fifteen superintendents were graduates of VMI.

VMI cannons in front of barracks
  1. Francis H. Smith (1839–1889), United States Military Academy West Point Class of 1833
  2. Scott Shipp '59 (1890–1907), wounded leading VMI cadets into The Battle of New Market
  3. Edward W. Nichols '78 (1907–1924)
  4. William H. Cocke '94 (1924–1929)
  5. John A. Lejeune (1929–1937), United States Naval Academy Class of 1888, 13th Commandant of the Marine Corps
  6. Charles E. Kilbourne '94 (1937–1946), Medal of Honor recipient and first American to earn the United States' three highest military decorations.[better source needed]
  7. Richard J. Marshall '15 (1946–1952)
  8. William H. Milton, Jr. '20 (1952–1960)
  9. George R. E. Shell '31 (1960–1971)
  10. Richard L. Irby '39 (1971–1981)
  11. Sam S. Walker (1981–1988), matriculated at VMI transferred to United States Military Academy West Point Class of 1946
  12. John W. Knapp '54 (1989–1995)
  13. Josiah Bunting III '63 (1995–2002)
  14. J. H. Binford Peay III '62 (2003–2020)
  15. Cedric T. Wins '85 (2021–present)
Virginia Military Institute Historic District
Virginia Military Institute campus
Show map of Virginia
Show map of the United States
LocationVMI campus, Lexington, Virginia
Area12 acres (4.9 ha)
Built1818 (1818)
ArchitectDavis, A.J.; Goodhue, Bertram Grosvenor
Architectural styleClassical Revival, Gothic Revival
NRHP reference No.74002219
VLR No.117-0017
Significant dates
Added to NRHP30 May 1974
Designated VLR9 September 1969

The VMI campus covers 134 acres (54 ha), 12 of which are designated as the Virginia Military Institute Historic District, a designated National Historic Landmark District. The campus is referred to as the "Post," a tradition that reflects the school's military focus and the uniformed service of its alumni. A training area of several hundred additional acres is located near the post. All cadets are housed on campus in a large five-story building, called the "barracks." The Old Barracks, which has been separately designated a National Historic Landmark, stands on the site of the old arsenal. This is the structure that received most of the damage when Union forces shelled and burned the Institute in June 1864. The new wing of the barracks ("New Barracks") was completed in 1949. The two wings surround two quadrangles connected by a sally port. All rooms open onto porch-like stoops facing one of the quadrangles. A third barracks wing was completed, with cadets moving in officially spring semester 2009. Four of the five arched entries into the barracks are named for George Washington, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, George C. Marshall '901 and Jonathan Daniels '61. Next to the Barracks are offices and meeting areas for VMI clubs and organizations, the cadet visitors center and lounge, a snack bar, and a Follett Corporation-operated bookstore.

VMI's "Vision 2039" capital campaign raised more than $275 million from alumni and supporters in three years. The money is going to expand The Barracks to house 1,500 cadets, renovate and modernize the academic buildings. VMI is spending another $200 million to build the VMI Center for Leadership and Ethics, to be used by cadets, Washington and Lee University students, and other U.S. and international students. The funding will also support "study abroad" programs, including joint ventures with Oxford and Cambridge Universities in England and many other universities.

In October 2020, VMI Board of Visitors announced that the institute will relocate a statue of Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, a Confederate general and slave owner, from the front of the historic barracks to potentially the Battle of New Market. It was taken from view in December.

VMI offers 14 major and 23 minor areas of study, grouped into engineering, liberal arts, humanities, and the sciences. The engineering department has concentrations in three areas: civil and environmental engineering, electrical and computer engineering, and mechanical engineering. Most classes are taught by full-time professors, 99 percent of whom hold terminal degrees.

Within four months of graduation, an average of 97 percent of VMI graduates are either serving in the military, employed, or admitted to graduate or professional schools.

As of 2010, VMI had graduated 11 Rhodes Scholars since 1921. Per capita, as of 2006 VMI had graduated more Rhodes Scholars than any other state-supported college or university, and more than all the other senior military colleges combined.

Rankings

In 2021 VMI ranked fourth nationally, after the United States Military Academy, the United States Naval Academy and the United States Air Force Academy, in the U.S. News and World Report rankings' "Top Public Schools, National Liberal Arts Colleges" category.

Forbes' 2012 Special Report on America's Best Colleges ranked VMI in the top 25 public universities in the nation, well ahead of any other senior military college in the country. VMI was ranked 14th in the "Top 25 Publics" section, just behind the United States Military Academy, the United States Air Force Academy, and the United States Naval Academy, but ahead of the United States Coast Guard Academy and the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy. Overall, VMI ranked 115th out of the 650 colleges and universities evaluated.

Kiplinger's magazine, in its ranking of the "Best Values in Public Colleges" for 2006, made mention of the Virginia Military Institute as a "great value", although the military nature of its program excluded it from consideration as a traditional four-year college in the rankings.

Members of the VMI march down Pennsylvania Avenue in January 2017, after the Inauguration of Donald Trump.

While all cadets are required to take four years of ROTC, accepting a commission in the armed forces is optional. While over 50 percent of VMI graduates are commissioned each year, the VMI Board of Visitors has set a goal of having 70 percent of VMI cadets take a commission. The VMI class of 2017 graduated 300 cadets, 172 (or 57 percent) of whom were commissioned as officers in the United States military.

VMI alumni include more than 285 general and flag officers, including the first five-star General of the Army, George Marshall; seven recipients of the highest U.S. military decoration, the Medal of Honor; and more than 80 recipients of the second-highest awards, the Distinguished Service Cross and Navy Cross. VMI offers ROTC programs for four U.S. military branches (Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force).

VMI has graduated more Army generals than any ROTC program in the United States. The following table lists U.S. four-star generals who graduated from VMI. It does not list alumni who did not graduate from the school, such as General George S. Patton and General Sam S. Walker, and the many VMI graduates who served or still serve as four-star generals in foreign nations such as Thailand, China, and Taiwan.

Name VMI class Branch &
date of rank
Notes
George Marshall 1901 Army, 1 September 1939
  • First General of the Army (five stars), 10th four-star general in U.S. Army history & 1st non-USMA four-star general
  • Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, 1939–45
  • Secretary of State, 1947–49; Secretary of Defense, 1950–51;
  • Special Representative of President to China, 1945–47
  • President of the American Red Cross, 1949–50
  • Nobel Peace Prize, 1953; Congressional Gold Medal, 1946
Thomas T. Handy 1916 Army, 13 March 1945
  • 22nd four-star general in U.S. Army history
  • Deputy Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, 1944–47
  • Commanding General, Fourth Army, 1947–49
  • Commander-in-Chief, European Command (1949–52) & USAREUR/Commander, CENTAG (1952)
  • Deputy Commander-in-Chief, EUCOM 1952–54
Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr. 1917 USMC, 1 January 1952
  • 3rd four-star general in USMC history
  • Commandant, U.S. Marine Corps, 1952–55
  • Chairman, Inter-American Defense Board, 1956–59
Leonard T. Gerow 1911 Army, 19 July 1954
  • Commanding General V Corps 1943–45
  • Commanding General U.S. 15th Army, 1945–46.
Randolph M. Pate 1921 USMC, 1 January 1956
  • 4th four-star general in USMC history
  • Commandant of the Marine Corps, 1956–59
Clark L. Ruffner 1924 Army, 1 March 1960
  • 51st four-star General in U.S. Army history
  • U.S. Military Representative, NATO Military Committee, 1960–62
David M. Maddox 1960 Army, 9 July 1992
  • 149th four-star general in U.S. Army history
  • Commander-in-Chief, USAREUR/Commander, CENTAG (1992–93) & USAREUR (1993–94)
J. H. Binford Peay III 1962 Army, 26 March 1993
  • 150th four-star general in Army history
  • Vice Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, 1993–94
  • Commander-in-Chief, Central Command, 1994–97
  • Superintendent, VMI, 2003–2020
John P. Jumper 1966 Air Force, 17 November 1997
  • 152nd four-star general in U.S. Air Force history
  • Commander in Chief, USAFE/Commander, AAFCE, 1997–2000
  • Commander, Air Combat Command, 2000–01
  • Chief of Staff, U.S. Air Force, 2001–05
Darren W. McDew 1982 Air Force, 5 May 2014

Prospective cadets must be between 16 and 22 years of age. They must be unmarried, and have no legal dependents, be physically fit for enrollment in the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC), and be graduates of an accredited secondary school or have completed an approved homeschool curriculum. The Class of 2022 at VMI had an average high school GPA of 3.70 and a mean SAT score of 1210.

Eligibility is not restricted to Virginia residents, although it is more difficult to gain an appointment as a non-resident, because VMI has a goal that no more than 45 percent of cadets come from outside Virginia. Virginia residents receive a discount in tuition, as is common at most state-sponsored schools. Total tuition, room & board, and other fees for the 2008–2009 school year was approximately $17,000 for Virginia residents and $34,000 for all others.

Of 509 students that matriculated in August 2012, just 46 were women. The first Jewish cadet, Moses Jacob Ezekiel, graduated in 1866. While at VMI, Ezekiel fought with the VMI cadets at the Battle of New Market. He became a sculptor and his works are on display at VMI. One of the first Asian cadets was Sun Li-jen, the Chinese National Revolutionary Army general, who graduated in 1927. The first African-American cadets were admitted in 1968. The first African-American regimental commander was Darren McDew, class of 1982. McDew is a retired U.S. Air Force General and former Commander, United States Transportation Command, Scott Air Force Base, IL. It is unknown when the first Muslim cadet graduated from VMI, but before the Iranian Revolution of 1979, under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, several Persian cadets attended and graduated from VMI. Other Muslim graduates have included cadets from Bangladesh, Jordan, Indonesia, Somalia and other nations.

Admission of women

In 1997, VMI ended its prohibition and became the last U.S. military college to admit women. Superintendent at the time Josiah Bunting III called this a "savage disappointment".

In 1990 the U.S. Department of Justice filed a discrimination lawsuit against VMI for its all-male admissions policy. While the court challenge was pending, a state-sponsored Virginia Women's Institute for Leadership (VWIL) was opened at Mary Baldwin College in Staunton, Virginia, as a parallel program for women. The VWIL continued, even after VMI's admission of women.

After VMI won its case in U.S. District Court, the case went through several appeals until 26 June 1996, when the U.S. Supreme Court, in a 7–1 decision in United States v. Virginia, found that it was unconstitutional for a school supported by public funds to exclude women. (Justice Clarence Thomas recused himself, presumably because his son was attending VMI at the time.) Following the ruling, VMI contemplated going private to exempt itself from the 14th Amendment, and thus avoid the ruling.

Assistant Secretary of Defense Frederick Pang, however, warned the school that the Department of Defense would withdraw ROTC programs from the school if privatization took place. As a result of this action by Pang, Congress passed a resolution on 18 November 1997 prohibiting the Department of Defense from withdrawing or diminishing any ROTC program at one of the six senior military colleges, including VMI. This escape clause provided by Congress came after the VMI Board of Visitors had already voted 9–8 to admit women; the decision was not revisited.

In August 1997, VMI enrolled its first female cadets. The first co-ed class consisted of thirty women, and matriculated as part of the class of 2001. In order to accelerate VMI's matriculation process several women were allowed to transfer directly from various junior colleges, such as New Mexico Military Institute (NMMI), and forgo the traditional four-year curriculum that most cadets had been subjected to. The first female cadets "walked the stage" in 1999, although by VMI's definitions they are considered to be members of the class of 2001. Initially, these 30 women who were held to the same strict physical courses and technical training as the male cadets until it became apparent that adjustments to the standards had to be made.[according to whom?] VMI resisted following other military colleges in adopting "gender-normed" physical training standards until 2008 when it was listed as a goal in VMI's 2039 Strategic Plan. On 30 June 2008, gender-normed training standards were implemented for all female cadets.

Admission of Black students

Virginia Military Institute was the last public college in Virginia to integrate, first admitting black cadets in 1968, but interracial problems persist to the present day. According to the Washington Post, even in 2020 "Black cadets still endure relentless racism [in an] atmosphere of hostility and cultural insensitivity".

Student life

The Regimental Commander gives commands to the Corps of Cadets during a parade in coatee.

Just as cadets did nearly 200 years ago, today's cadets give up such comforts as beds, instead lying upon cots colloquially referred to as "hays". These hays are little more than foam mats that must be rolled every morning and aired every Monday. Further, cadet uniforms have changed little; the coatee worn in parades dates to the War of 1812. New cadets, known as "Rats", are not permitted to watch TV or listen to music outside of an academic setting. Living conditions are considered more austere here than other service academies.

Ratline

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(November 2016) ()

During the first six months at VMI, New Cadets are called "Rats," the accepted term (since the 1850s) for a New Cadet. The VMI ratline is a tough, old-fashioned indoctrination-system which dates back to the institute's founding. All "Rats" refer to their classmates, male or female, as "Brother Rats." The term "Brother Rat" is a term of endearment which lasts a lifetime amongst VMI graduates. Legend has it that when Washington College (now Washington and Lee University) students and VMI cadets drilled together in the 1830s, the students called the cadets "Rats" perhaps because of their gray uniforms. The cadets responded in kind calling the neighboring students "Minks" perhaps because many of them were from wealthy backgrounds. The purpose of the Ratline is to teach self-control, self-discipline, time-management, and followership as prerequisites for becoming a VMI cadet.

New freshmen, known collectively as the "Rat Mass", walk along a prescribed line in barracks while maintaining an exaggerated form of attention, called "straining". This experience, called the Rat Line, is intended by the upper classes to instill camaraderie, pride, and discipline into the incoming class. Under this system, the Rats face numerous mental and physical challenges, starting with "Hell Week." During Hell Week, Rats receive basic military instruction from select upper classmen ("Cadre"); they learn to march, to clean their M14 rifle, and to wear their uniforms. During Hell Week, Rats also meet the members of various cadet-run organizations and learn the functions of each.

At the end of the first week, each Rat is paired with a first classman (senior) who serves as their mentor for the rest of the first year. The first classman is called a "Dyke," reference to an older Southern pronunciation of "to deck out," or to get into a uniform, as one of the roles of the rat is to help prepare their "Dyke's" uniform and dress them for parades. While the Dyke watches out for the Rat and the Rat works for the Dyke in accordance with Institute policy, Cadre still enforce all rules for the Rats. The combination of the warm relationship with the Dykes and the harshness of the school system, with countless push-ups, sweat parties, and runs, is calculated to instill the required military outlook and competence on everyday tasks in the Rats.

The Ratline experience culminates with Resurrection Week ending in "Breakout," an event where the Rats are formally "welcomed" to the VMI community. After the successful completion of Breakout, Rats are officially fourth class students and no longer have to strain in the barracks or eat "square meals." Many versions of the Breakout ceremony have been conducted. In the 1950s, Rats from each company would be packed into a corner room in the barracks and brawl their way out through the upperclassmen. From the late 1960s through the early 1980s the Rats had to fight their way up to the fourth level of the barracks through three other classes of cadets determined not to let them get to the top. The stoops would often be slick with motor oil, packed with snow, glazed with ice, greased, or continuously hosed with water. The barracks stairs and rails were not able to take the abuse, so the Corps moved the breakout to a muddy hill, where Rats attempt to climb to the top by crawling on their stomachs while the upper classes block them or drag them back down. The Rats no longer breakout in the mud but instead participate in a grueling day of physical activity testing both physical endurance and teamwork.

The entire body of Rats during the Ratline is called a "Rat Mass." Since Rats are not officially fourth classmen until after Breakout, the Rat Mass is also not officially considered a graduating class until that time either. Prior to Breakout, the Rat mass is given a different style of year identifier to emphasize this difference. The year identifier starts with the year of the current graduating class (their dykes' class), followed by a "+3" to indicate the anticipated year of their own class. For example, cadets that make up the Class of 2022 were considered the "Rat Mass of 2019+3" as the members of their dykes' class graduated in 2019 and they themselves will graduate three years onward from then.

Traditions

In addition to the Ratline, VMI has other traditions that are emblematic of the school and its history including the new cadet oath ceremony, the pageantry of close-order marching, and the nightly playing of "Taps". An event second only to graduation in importance is the "Ring Figure" dance held every November. During their junior year, cadets receive class rings at a ring presentation ceremony followed by a formal dance. Most cadets get two rings, a formal ring and a combat ring; some choose to have the combat ring for everyday wear, and the formal for special occasions.

Every year, VMI honors its fallen cadets with a New Market Day parade and ceremony. These events take place on 15 May, the same day as the Battle of New Market in which VMI cadets fought in 1864 during the Civil War. During this ceremony, the roll is called for cadets who "died on the Field of Honor" and wreaths are placed on the graves of those who died during the Battle of New Market.

The requirement that all cadets wishing to eat dinner in the mess hall must be present for a prayer was the basis for a lawsuit in 2002 when two cadets sued VMI over the prayer said before dinner. The non-denominational prayer had been a daily fixture since the 1950s. In 2002 the Fourth Circuit ruled the prayer, during an event with mandatory attendance, at a state-funded school, violated the U.S. Constitution. When the Supreme Court declined to review the school's appeal in April 2004, the prayer tradition was stopped.

The tradition of guarding the institute is one of the longest standing and is carried out to this day. Cadets have been posted as sentinels guarding the barracks 24 hours a day, seven days a week while school is in session since the first cadet sentinel, Cadet John B. Strange, and others relieved the Virginia Militia guard team tasked with defending the Lexington Arsenal (that later became VMI) in 1839. The guard team wears the traditional school uniform and each sentinel is armed with an M14 rifle and bayonet.

Honor code

VMI is known for its strict honor code, which is as old as the Institute and was formally codified in the early 20th century. Under the VMI Honor Code, "a cadet will not lie, cheat, steal, nor tolerate those who do." There is only one punishment for violating the VMI Honor Code: immediate expulsion in the form of a drumming out ceremony of dismissal, in which the entire corps is awakened by drums in barracks and the honor court to hear the formal announcement. VMI is the only military college or academy in the Nation which maintains a single-sanction Honor Code and in recent times, the dismissed cadet is removed from post before the formal announcement is made.

Clubs and activities

VMI currently offers over 50 school-sponsored clubs and organizations, including recreational activities, military organizations, musical and performance groups, religious organizations and service groups. Although VMI prohibited cadet membership in fraternal organizations starting in 1885, VMI cadets were instrumental in starting several fraternities. Alpha Tau Omega fraternity was founded by VMI cadets Otis Allan Glazebrook, Alfred Marshall, and Erskine Mayo Ross at Richmond, Virginia on 11 September 1865 while the school was closed for reconstruction.

After the re-opening, Kappa Sigma Kappa fraternity was founded by cadets on 28 September 1867 and Sigma Nu fraternity was founded by cadets on 1 January 1869. VMI cadets formed the second chapter of the Kappa Alpha Order. In a special arrangement, graduating cadets may be nominated by Kappa Alpha Order alumni and inducted into the fraternity, becoming part of Kappa Alpha Order's Beta Commission (a commission as opposed to an active chapter). This occurs following graduation, and the newly initiated VMI alumni are accepted as brothers of the fraternity.

Main article: VMI Keydets

VMI fields 14 teams on the NCAA Division I level (FCS, formerly I-AA, for football). Varsity sports include baseball, basketball, men's and women's cross country, football, lacrosse, men's and women's rifle, men's and women's soccer, men's and women's swimming & diving, men's and women's track & field, and wrestling. VMI is a member of the Southern Conference (SoCon) for almost all sports, the MAAC for women's water polo, and the America East Conference for men's and women's swimming & diving. VMI formerly was a member of the Mid-Atlantic Rifle Conference for rifle, but began the 2016–2017 season as part of the Southern Conference. The VMI team name is the Keydets, a Southern style slang for the word "cadets".

VMI has the second-smallest NCAA Division I enrollment of any FCS football college, after Presbyterian College. Approximately one-third of the Corps of Cadets plays on at least one of VMI's intercollegiate athletic teams, making it one of the most active athletic programs in the country. Of the VMI varsity athletes who complete their eligibility, 92 percent receive their VMI degrees.

Football

Alumni Memorial Field at Foster Stadium
Main article: VMI Keydets football

VMI played its first football game in 1871. The one-game season was a 4–2 loss to Washington and Lee University. There are no records of a coach or any players for that game. VMI waited another twenty years, until 1891, when head coach Walter Taylor would coach the next football team. The current head football coach at VMI, Scott Wachenheim, was named the 31st head coach on 14 December 2014. The Keydets play their home games out of Alumni Memorial Field at Foster Stadium, built in 1962. VMI won the 2020 Southern Conference Football Championship, their first winning football season since 1981.

Men's basketball

Perhaps the most famous athletic story in VMI history was the two-year run of the 1976 and 1977 basketball teams. The 1976 squad advanced within one game of the Final Four before bowing to undefeated Rutgers in the East Regional Final, and in 1977 VMI finished with 26 wins and just four losses, still a school record, and reached the "Sweet 16" round of the NCAA tournament.

The current VMI basketball team is led by head coach Dan Earl and assistant coaches: Steve Enright and Austin Kenon. Tom Kiely is the Director of Basketball Operations.

VMI's alumni include the current Governor of Virginia, the 24th Secretary of the Army, a five-star general, a Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense, a Nobel Peace Prize winner, Pulitzer Prize winners, 13 Rhodes Scholars, Medal of Honor recipients, an Academy Award winner, an Emmy Award and Golden Globe winner, a martyr recognized by the Episcopal Church, Senators and Representatives, Governors, Lieutenant Governors, a Supreme Court Justice, numerous college and university presidents, many business leaders (presidents and CEOs) and over 285 general and flag officers, including service chiefs for three of the four armed services.

Two recent Chiefs of Engineers of the Army Corps of Engineers, Lieutenant Generals Carl A. Strock and Robert B. Flowers, as well as Acting Chief of Engineers Major General "Bo" Temple, were VMI Civil Engineering graduates.

A 2007 study by the National Association of College and University Business Officers found that VMI's $343 million endowment was the largest per-student endowment of any U.S. public college in the United States.[verification needed] 35.4 percent of the approximately 12,300 living alumni gave in 2006. Private support covers more than 31 percent of VMI's operating budget; state funds, 26 percent.

  • Ronald Reagan starred in the films Brother Rat and Brother Rat and a Baby, which were filmed at VMI. Originally a Broadway hit, the play was written by John Monks Jr. and Fred F. Finklehoffe, both 1932 graduates of VMI.
  • Both the novel and film Gods and Generals depict Stonewall Jackson teaching at VMI before Virginia secedes. The film also depicts Jackson's funeral at VMI.
  • In 2014, the film Field of Lost Shoes premiered in Richmond to the Corps of Cadets and the cast. The film depicts the Battle of New Market in 1864. VMI now owns and operates this historical battlefield museum and site.
  1. "History of the VMI Coat of Arms, Motto, Seal & Spider Logo". Virginia Military Institute. n.d. Retrieved22 December 2015.
  2. As of June 30, 2020. U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2020 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY19 to FY20 (Report). National Association of College and University Business Officers and TIAA. 19 February 2021. Retrieved20 February 2021.
  3. "Maj. Gen. Cedric Wins '85 to lead Virginia Military Institute". www.vmi.edu. Retrieved2 May 2021.
  4. https://nces.ed.gov/collegenavigator/?q=Virginia+Military+Institute&s=all&id=234085
  5. "Virginia Military Institute". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  6. VMI Visual Identity Standards Manual(PDF). Retrieved10 September 2016.
  7. "Virginia Military Institute: Quick Facts". About Virginia Military Institute. Lexington, VA: Virginia Military Institute. Retrieved7 March 2021.
  8. "VMI Quick Facts". Vmi.edu. Archived from the original on 13 March 2007. Retrieved20 April 2012.
  9. "Academics - Academics - Virginia Military Institute". www.vmi.edu.
  10. Strum, Philippa (2004). Women in the Barracks: The VMI Case and Equal Rights. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1336-6.
  11. "Best Colleges - Virginia Military Institute". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved29 January 2019.
  12. "VMI ROTC". Retrieved30 April 2013.
  13. Va. Code § 2.2-2100
  14. Va. Code § 23-92
  15. "Virginia Military Institute Faculty Handbook". January 2014. pp. 4–6.
  16. Va. Code § 23-99
  17. VA.R. Doc. No. R12-3076 (19 December 2011)
  18. Board of Visitors By-Laws § 6(8)
  19. Va. Code § 23-109
  20. Wineman, Bradford (2006). "J.T.L. Preston and the Origins of the Virginia Military Institute, 1834-42". Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 114 (2): 246. JSTOR 4250312.
  21. Strum, Philippa (2002). Women in the Barracks: The VMI Case and Equal Rights. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. p. 9. ISBN 9780700611645.
  22. Southern California Review of Law and Women's Studies, Volume 5. Los Angeles, CA: University of Southern California. 1995. pp. 232, 235.
  23. Couper, William (1936). Claudius Crozet. Palisades, NY: Historical Publishing Company, Inc. pp. 93, 100.
  24. Andrew, Rod, Jr. (2001). Long Gray Lines: The Southern Military School Tradition, 1839-1915. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-8078-2610-3.
  25. Farwell, Byron (1992). Stonewall: A Biography of General Thomas J. Jackson. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 87. ISBN 0-393-31086-8.
  26. Hunter, Robert F., and Edwin L. Dooley, Jr. (1989). Claudius Crozet: French Engineer in America, 1790-1861. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia. pp. 10–11, 14, 17, 85, 98.
  27. The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. New York, NY: J. T. White. 1967. p. 245.
  28. Miller, Jonson (2020). Engineering Manhood: Race and the Antebellum Virginia Military Institute. Lever Press. pp. 104–105, 113–114. doi:10.3998/mpub.11675767. ISBN 9781643150178.
  29. Governor's Message and Reports of the Public Officers of the State, of the Board of Directors, and of the Visitors, Superintendents, and Other Agents of Public Institutions or Interests of Virginia. Richmond, VA: William F. Ritchie. 1855. p. 27.
  30. Farwell, Byron (1993). Stonewall: A Biography of General Thomas J. Jackson. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-393-31086-3.
  31. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 April 2005. Retrieved12 September 2005.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), VMI Archives
  32. Sears, Stephen W., "Chancellorsville". Mariner Books, 1996, p. 242. (link to 1998 edition)
  33. "Battle of New Market – Shenandoah at War".
  34. "The Battle of New Market". American Battlefield Trust. 24 March 2017.
  35. "Virginia Mourning Her Dead". Encyclopedia Virginia. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities. Retrieved12 October 2012.
  36. Andrew, Rod Jr. (2004). Long Gray Lines: The Southern Military School Tradition, 1839–1915. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-8078-5541-6.
  37. "VMI Civil War Chronology". Archived from the original on 12 January 2006. Retrieved3 June 2013.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  38. "The Burning of Chambersburg". Angelfire.com. 22 September 2001. Retrieved20 April 2012.
  39. Nordlinger, Jay (20 March 2012).Peace, They Say: A History of the Nobel Peace Prize, the Most Famous and Controversial Prize in the World. Encounter Books. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-59403-598-2. Retrieved12 October 2012.
  40. "Letters, Diaries and Manuscripts Guide. VMI Faculty & Alumni Papers". Vmi.edu. Retrieved25 November 2015.
  41. Finn, Peter (17 March 1998). "VMI Women Reach End of Rat Line". The Washington Post. Retrieved27 October 2020.
  42. "Probe ordered of VMI after Post's report on racist incidents". The News Leader (Staunton, Virginia). 21 October 2020. p. A4 – via newspapers.com.
  43. McLaughlin, Eliott C. (21 October 2020). "After cadets allege racism in news reports, state orders review of Virginia Military Institute's culture". CNN. Retrieved26 October 2020.
  44. Shapira, Ian (26 October 2020). "VMI superintendent resigns after Black cadets describe relentless racism". Washington Post.
  45. Mitchell, Ellen (26 October 2020). "Virginia Military Institute superintendent resigns after allegations of racism surface". The Hill. Retrieved26 October 2020.
  46. Hite, Patrick (31 October 2020). "VMI votes to remove Stonewall Jackson statue". The News Leader (Staunton, Virginia). p. A2.
  47. Associated Press (7 December 2020). "Virginia Military Institute removing Confederate statue". Politico. Retrieved7 December 2020.
  48. Burke, Lilah (2 June 2021). "'Silence, Fear and Intimidation'". Retrieved2 June 2021.
  49. "VMI Website: VMI Superintendents, 1839–present". Vmi.edu. Retrieved20 April 2012.
  50. Rolf of Ebon: A Novel of Romance, War and Adventure in Ancient England, Charles E. Kilbourne, Exposition Press, New York, 1962, p. 171.
  51. "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 9 July 2010.
  52. "Virginia Landmarks Register". Virginia Department of Historic Resources. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved19 March 2013.
  53. "VMI Alumni Flag Rank Officers – Alumni Generals & Admirals"(PDF). Virginia Military Institute. Retrieved2 November 2010.
  54. "Jonathan Myrick Daniels (VMI Class of 1961) Civil Rights Hero". Virginia Military Institute. Retrieved2 November 2010.
  55. "Vision 2039 – Focus on Leadership". VMI. Retrieved12 October 2012.
  56. Wyatt, William (29 October 2020). "Actions of the VMI Board of Visitors". Virginia Military Institute (Press release). Lexington, Virginia. Retrieved14 November 2020.
  57. Anderson, Greta (30 October 2020). "VMI to Relocate Confederate Statue". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved14 November 2020.
  58. Rankin, Sarah (7 December 2020). "Virginia Military Institute removes Confederate statue". ABC News. Associated Press. Retrieved7 December 2020.
  59. "Majors, Minors, Certificates". Virginia Military Institute. Retrieved20 April 2012.
  60. "VMI: Academic Departments". Vmi.edu. Archived from the original on 26 July 2007. Retrieved20 April 2012.
  61. "VMI Engineering". Virginia Military Institute. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved2 November 2010.
  62. "Cadet Named VMI's 11th Rhodes Scholar". Virginia Military Institute. Retrieved2 November 2010.
  63. "VMI Rhodes Scholars". Virginia Military Institute. Retrieved2 November 2010.
  64. "Top Public Schools National Liberal Arts Colleges".
  65. "Best Public Colleges 2012– VMI". U.S. News and World Report. 1 August 2012. Retrieved24 September 2012.
  66. "America's Best Colleges Ranking List". Forbes. America's Best Colleges. 1 August 2012. Retrieved24 September 2012.
  67. Lankford, Kimberly (February 2006). "Best Values in Public Colleges". Kiplinger's Personal Finance. 60 (2): 90. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved2 November 2010.
  68. "Vision 2039 Focus on Leadership". Vmi.edu. Retrieved20 April 2012.
  69. "VMI 2017 Graduation". Vmi.edu. Retrieved17 May 2017.
  70. "VMI Profile". VMI Keydets.com. Archived from the original on 29 December 2007. Retrieved4 February 2008.
  71. "Medal of Honor". VMI Museum. Archived from the original on 18 April 2014. Retrieved18 April 2014.
  72. "Viewbook". VMI.edu.
  73. "Profile of the Class of 2015"(PDF). VMI. Retrieved12 October 2012.
  74. "VMI Vision 2039 Document"(PDF). Vmi.edu. Retrieved20 April 2012.
  75. "Virginia Military Institute - Page Not Found". vmi.edu.Cite uses generic title ()
  76. "509 Matriculate in Class of 2016". VMI. 18 August 2012. Retrieved12 October 2012.
  77. Jacob, Kathryn Allamong (1998). Testament to Union: Civil War Monuments in Washington. JHU Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-8018-5861-1.
  78. Cabe, Crista (1 March 2005). "MBC Celebrates VWIL's 10th Anniversary March 18, 2004" Archived 3 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Mary Baldwin College web site.
  79. "showcontent". Vmi.edu. Retrieved20 April 2012.
  80. VMI Operational Plans and Progress Report 2008 Strategy 1–13
  81. "showcontent". Vmi.edu. Retrieved20 April 2012.
  82. https://www.washingtonpost.com/history/2020/09/09/vmi-stonewall-jackson-statue/?hpid=hp_local1-8-12_vmi-305am%3Ahomepage%2Fstory-ans.Missing or empty |title= ()
  83. Shapira, Ian (17 October 2020). "At VMI, Black cadets endure lynching threats, Klan memories and Confederacy veneration". The Washington Post.
  84. "USA Military schools".
  85. "Virginia Military Institute - Purpose of the Ratline". Retrieved30 April 2013.
  86. Weinstein, Laurie Lee; Christie C. White (1997). Wives and Warriors: Women and the Military in the United States and Canada. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 66–69. ISBN 978-0-89789-491-3.
  87. "Cadet Life: Class Rings and Ring Figure The History of a VMI Tradition". Virginia Military Institute. Retrieved2 November 2010.
  88. Couper, William; Keith E. Gibson (2005). The Corps Forward: The Biographical Sketches of the VMI Cadets who Fought in the Battle of New Market. Mariner Companies, Inc. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-9768238-2-7.
  89. "ACLU Files Lawsuit to Stop Coerced Prayers at Virginia Military Institute". Retrieved30 April 2013.
  90. Josiah Bunting, III, and J. H. Binford Peay, III, Superintendent, Virginia Military Institute v. Neil J. Mellen and Paul S. Knick, 03-–863 Stevens, J., (p. 1) (Supreme Court of the United States 26 April 2004) ("In sum, we have before us in this petition a constitutional issue of considerable consequence on which the Courts of Appeals are in disagreement.").
  91. "ACLU Defends Prayer Ban at VMI". Atheism.about.com. 16 January 2004. Archived from the original on 18 September 2005. Retrieved20 April 2012.
  92. McGough, Michael (27 April 2004). "Supreme Court justices in sharp exchange over refusal to hear VMI prayer case". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
  93. "Virginia Military Institute - Page Not Found". vmi.edu.Cite uses generic title ()
  94. "John B. Strange, Class of 1842. The First Sentinel". Vmi.edu. Retrieved20 April 2012.
  95. "VMI History FAQ". Vmi.edu. Retrieved20 April 2012.
  96. "VMIhonor".
  97. Chittum, Matt (9 March 1997). "The honor code is 'simple and all-encompassing'". Roanoke Times. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved1 January 2010.
  98. "Clubs and Organizations". Virginia Military Institute. Retrieved2 November 2010.
  99. "Academic & Professional Societies". Virginia Military Institute. Retrieved2 November 2010.
  100. "ATO website". Ato.org. 26 April 1931. Retrieved20 April 2012.
  101. Shelton, Todd. "Our Kappa Alpha Heritage". Kappa Alpha Order. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved2 November 2010.
  102. "Beta Commission". Retrieved17 August 2014. Our Commission system allows for men to be elected and initiated into Kappa Alpha Order if they are graduating seniors, graduates, faculty, staff or administrators.
  103. "Men's Swimming & Diving to Return as Championship Sport; VMI Joins as Associate Member" (Press release). America East Conference. 15 December 2016. Retrieved27 December 2016.
  104. "Rifle Teams Head to WVU for Sectional" (Press release). VMIKeydets.com. 17 February 2012. Retrieved12 November 2012.
  105. "Columbia, SC Breaking News, Sports, Weather & More - TheState.com & The State". www.thestate.com. Archived from the original on 23 May 2006. Retrieved23 April 2006.
  106. VMI Athletic History – A Brief Look Archived 26 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine (9 August 2002). VMI web site.
  107. DeLassus, David. "Virginia Military Institute Yearly Results: 1873". College Football Data Warehouse. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved12 October 2012.
  108. DeLassus, David. "Virginia Military Institute Coaching Records". College Football Data Warehouse. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved20 April 2012.
  109. "VMI News Release on Hiring". Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved13 February 2008.
  110. King, Randy (20 September 2012). "Keydets hope to upset, get first win against Navy". The Roanoke Times. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved7 November 2012.
  111. "Stars Shine in Run-up to Commencement". The Institute Report. XXXI (7): 1 & 14. 16 April 2004. Retrieved2 November 2010.
  112. "VMI Athletics and the VMI Keydet Club Website". Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved20 November 2006.
  113. "All Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2008 Market Value of Endowment Assets with Percentage Change Between 2007 and 2008 Endowment Assets"(PDF). 2008 NACUBO Endowment Study. National Association of College and University Business Officers. Archived from the original(PDF) on 29 December 2010. Retrieved2 November 2010.
  114. Belliveau, Scott (June 2007). "Foundation Fund: Business as Usual". The Institute Report. XXXIV (7): 6. Retrieved2 November 2010.
  115. Vaughn, Stephen (28 January 1994).Ronald Reagan in Hollywood: Movies and Politics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-0-521-44080-6. Retrieved12 November 2012.

Further reading

  • Andrew, Rod, Jr. (2001). Long Gray Lines: The Southern Military School Tradition, 1839-1915. University of North Carolina Press.
  • Brodie, Laura Fairchild (2000). Breaking Out: VMI and the Coming of Women. New York: Vintage.
  • Couper, William (1939). One Hundred Years at V.M.I, Volumes One to Four. Richmond, VA: Garrett and Massie.
  • Davis, Thomas W., ed. (1988). A Crowd of Honorable Youths: Historical Essays on the First 150 Years of the Virginia Military Institute. Lexington, VA: VMI Sesquicentennial Committee.
  • Green, Jennifer R. (2008). Military Education and the Emerging Middle Class in the Old South. Cambridge University Press.
  • Miller, Jonson (2020). Engineering Manhood: Race and the Antebellum Virginia Military Institute. Lever Press.
  • Pancake, John, Virginia Reveres Civil War Bravery, The Washington Post
  • Strum, Philippa (2002). Women in the Barracks: The VMI Case and Equal Rights. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
  • Wineman, Bradford (2006). "J.T.L. Preston and the Origins of the Virginia Military Institute, 1834-1842." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 114, no. 2: 226–261.
  • Wise, Henry A. (1978). Drawing Out the Man: The VMI Story. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
  • Wise, Jennings C. (1915). The Military History of the Virginia Military Institute, from 1839-1865. Lynchburg, VA: J. P. Bell.
  • MARCHING TOWARD INCLUSIVE EXCELLENCE: AN EQUITY AUDIT AND INVESTIGATION OF THE VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE (2021), report by law firm Barnes & Thornburg.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toVirginia Military Institute.

Virginia Military Institute
Virginia Military Institute Language Watch Edit Virginia Military Institute VMI is a public senior military college in Lexington Virginia It was founded in 1839 as America s first state military college and is the oldest public senior military college in the United States In keeping with its founding principles and unlike any other senior military college in the United States VMI enrolls cadets only and awards bachelor s degrees exclusively VMI offers its cadets strict military discipline combined with a physically and academically demanding environment The institute grants degrees in 14 disciplines in engineering science and the liberal arts 8 and all VMI students are required to participate in the Reserve Officers Training Corps ROTC 9 Virginia Military InstituteMottoLatin In Pace Decus In Bello Praesidium 1 Motto in EnglishIn Peace a Glorious Asset In War a Tower of StrengthTypePublic senior military collegeEstablished11 November 1839 181 years ago 11 November 1839 Endowment 539 6 million 2020 2 SuperintendentCedric T Wins 3 Academic staff143 full time and 55 part time Fall 2019 4 Students1 685 4 LocationLexington Virginia United States 37 47 24 N 79 26 24 W 37 790 N 79 440 W 37 790 79 440 Coordinates 37 47 24 N 79 26 24 W 37 790 N 79 440 W 37 790 79 440 5 CampusSmall town 134 acres 0 54 km2 ColorsRed yellow white 6 NicknameKeydetsSporting affiliationsNational Collegiate Athletic Association NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision FCS Southern Conference SoCon Mascot Moe the Kangaroo 7 Websitevmi wbr eduLocation in Shenandoah ValleyShow map of Shenandoah ValleyLocation in VirginiaShow map of VirginiaLocation in United StatesShow map of the United States While Abraham Lincoln first called VMI The West Point of the South 10 because of its role during the American Civil War the nickname has remained because VMI has produced more Army generals than any ROTC program in the United States Despite the nickname VMI differs from the federal military service academies in many regards For example as of 2019 VMI had a total enrollment of 1 722 cadets as compared to 4 500 at the Academies making it one of the smallest NCAA Division I schools in the United States Additionally today as in the 1800s all VMI cadets sleep on cots and live closely together in a more spartan and austere barracks environment than at the Service Academies 11 All VMI cadets must participate in the Reserve Officers Training Corps ROTC of the United States Armed Forces programs but are afforded the flexibility of pursuing civilian endeavors or accepting an officer s commission in any of the active or reserve components of any of the U S military branches upon graduation excluding the United States Coast Guard 12 VMI s alumni include a Secretary of State Secretary of Defense Secretary of the Army a Nobel Peace Prize winner 7 Medal of Honor recipients 13 Rhodes Scholars Pulitzer Prize winners an Academy Award winner an Emmy Award and Golden Globe winner a martyr recognized by the Episcopal Church Senators and Representatives Governors including the current Governor of Virginia Lieutenant Governors a Supreme Court Justice numerous college and university presidents many business leaders presidents and CEOs and over 290 general and flag officers across all US service branches and several other countries Contents 1 Governance 2 History 2 1 Early history 2 2 Civil War period 2 2 1 Battle of New Market 2 2 2 Burning of the Institute 2 3 World War II 2 4 Post World War II 2 5 Superintendents 3 Campus 4 Academics 4 1 Rankings 5 Military service 6 Students 6 1 Admission of women 6 2 Admission of Black students 6 3 Student life 6 4 Ratline 6 5 Traditions 6 6 Honor code 6 7 Clubs and activities 7 Athletics 7 1 Football 7 2 Men s basketball 8 Alumni 9 Endowment 10 In popular culture 11 See also 12 References 12 1 Further reading 13 External linksGovernance EditThe Board of Visitors is the supervisory board 13 of the Virginia Military Institute 14 15 Although the Governor is ex officio the commander in chief of the institute and no one may be declared a graduate without his signature he delegates to the board the responsibility for developing the institute s policy 15 The board appoints the superintendent and approves appointment of members of the faculty and staff on the recommendation of the superintendent 15 The board may make bylaws and regulations for their own government and the management of the affairs of the institute 16 and while the institute is exempt from the Administrative Process Act in accordance with Va Code which exempts educational institutions operated by the Commonwealth 17 some of its regulations are codified at 8VAC 100 The Executive Committee conducts the business of the board during recesses 14 18 The board has 17 members including ex officio the Adjutant General of the Commonwealth of Virginia 15 Regular members are appointed by the Governor for a four year term and may be reappointed once 15 Of the sixteen appointed members twelve must be alumni of the institute eight of whom must be residents of Virginia and four must be non residents and the remaining four members must be non alumni Virginia residents 15 The Executive Committee consists of the board s president three vice presidents and one non alumnus at large and is appointed by the board at each annual meeting 18 Under the militia bill the Virginia Code of 1860 officers of the institute were recognized as part of the military establishment of the state and the governor had authority to issue commissions to them in accordance with institute regulations 15 Current law makes provision for officers of the Virginia Militia to be subject to orders of the Governor 15 The cadets are a military corps the Corps of Cadets under the command of the superintendent and under the administration of the Commandant of Cadets and constitute the guard of the institute 15 19 History EditEarly history Edit In the years after the War of 1812 the Commonwealth of Virginia built and maintained several arsenals to store weapons intended for use by the state militia in the event of invasion or slave revolt One of them was placed in Lexington Residents came to resent the presence of the soldiers whom they saw as drunken and undisciplined In 1826 one guard beat another to death Townspeople wanted to keep the arsenal but sought a new way of guarding it so as to eliminate the undesirable element 20 21 In 1834 the Franklin Society a local literary and debate society debated Would it be politic for the State to establish a military school at the Arsenal near Lexington in connection with Washington College on the plan of the West Point Academy They unanimously concluded that it would Lexington attorney John Thomas Lewis Preston became the most active advocate of the proposal In a series of three anonymous letters in the Lexington Gazette in 1835 he proposed replacing the arsenal guard with students living under military discipline receiving some military education as well as a liberal education The school s graduates would contribute to the development of the state and should the need arise provide trained officers for the state s militia 20 22 After a public relations campaign that included Preston meeting in person with influential business military and political figures and many open letters from prominent supporters including Alden Partridge of Norwich University in 1836 the Virginia legislature passed a bill authorizing creation of a school at the Lexington arsenal and the Governor signed the measure into law 23 24 25 The organizers of the planned school formed a board of visitors which included Preston and the board selected Claudius Crozet as their first president Crozet had served as an engineer in Napoleon Bonaparte s army before immigrating to the United States In America he served as an engineering professor at West Point as well as state engineer in Louisiana and mathematics professor at Jefferson College in Convent Louisiana 26 Crozet was also the Chief Engineer of Virginia and someone whom Thomas Jefferson referred to as the smartest mathematician in the United States The board delegated to Preston the task of deciding what to call the new school and he created the name Virginia Military Institute 27 Under Crozet s direction the board of visitors crafted VMI s program of instruction basing it off of those of the United States Military Academy and Crozet s alma mater the Ecole Polytechnique of Paris So instead of the mix of military and liberal education imagined by Preston the board created a military and engineering school offering the most thorough engineering curriculum in America outside of West Point 28 Preston was also tasked with hiring VMI s first Superintendent He was persuaded that West Point graduate and former Army officer Francis Henney Smith then professor of mathematics at Hampden Sydney College was the most suitable candidate Preston successfully recruited Smith and convinced him to become the first Superintendent and Professor of Tactics 20 After Smith agreed to accept the Superintendent s position Preston applied to join the faculty and was hired as Professor of Languages 29 Classes began in 1839 and the first cadet to march a sentinel post was Private John Strange 30 With few exceptions there have been sentinels posted at VMI every hour of every day of the school year since 11 November 1839 The Class of 1842 graduated 16 cadets Living conditions were poor until 1850 when the cornerstone of the new barracks was laid In 1851 Thomas Stonewall Jackson became a member of the faculty and professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy Under Jackson then a major and Major William Gilham VMI infantry and artillery units were present at the execution by hanging of John Brown at Charles Town Virginia now West Virginia in 1859 Civil War period Edit VMI cadets and alumni played instrumental roles in the American Civil War On 14 occasions the Confederacy called cadets into active military engagements VMI authorized battle streamers for each one of these engagements but chose to carry only one the battle streamer for New Market Many VMI Cadets were ordered to Camp Lee at Richmond to train recruits under General Stonewall Jackson VMI alumni were regarded among the best officers of the South and several distinguished themselves in the Union forces as well Fifteen graduates rose to the rank of general in the Confederate Army and one rose to this rank in the Union Army 31 Just before his famous flank attack at the Battle of Chancellorsville Jackson looked at his division and brigade commanders noted the high number of VMI graduates and said The Institute will be heard from today 32 Three of Jackson s four division commanders at Chancellorsville Generals James Lane Robert Rodes and Raleigh Colston were VMI graduates as were more than twenty of his brigadiers and colonels 32 Battle of New Market Edit Engraving of VMI ca 1863 On 14 May 1864 the Governor of Virginia once again called upon the cadets from VMI to participate in the American Civil War After marching overnight 80 miles from Lexington to New Market on 15 May 1864 247 members of the VMI Corps of Cadets fought at the Battle of New Market This event marks the only time in U S history wherein the student body of an operating college fought as an organized unit in pitched combat in battle as recognized by the American Battlefield Trust 33 34 This event was the 14th time VMI Cadets were called into action during the Civil War At New Market in a matter of minutes VMI suffered fifty five casualties with ten cadets killed the cadets were led into battle by the Commandant of Cadets and future VMI Superintendent Colonel Scott Shipp Shipp was also wounded during the battle Six of the ten fallen cadets are buried on VMI grounds behind the statue Virginia Mourning Her Dead by sculptor Moses Ezekiel a VMI graduate who was also wounded in the Battle of New Market 35 General John C Breckinridge the commanding Southern general held the cadets in reserve and did not use them until Union troops broke through the Confederate lines Upon seeing the tide of battle turning in favor of the Union forces Breckinridge stated Put the boys in and may God forgive me for the order 36 The VMI cadets held the line and eventually pushed forward across an open muddy field capturing a Union artillery emplacement and securing victory for the Confederates The Union troops were withdrawn and Confederate troops under General Breckinridge held the Shenandoah Valley Burning of the Institute Edit A cadet lies dead after being killed by a Union bayonet On 12 June 1864 Union forces under the command of General David Hunter shelled and burned the Institute as part of the Valley Campaigns of 1864 The destruction was almost complete and VMI had to temporarily hold classes at the Alms House in Richmond Virginia In April 1865 Richmond was evacuated due to the impending fall of Petersburg and the VMI Corps of Cadets was disbanded The Lexington campus reopened for classes on 17 October 1865 37 One of the reasons that Confederate General Jubal A Early burned the town of Chambersburg Pennsylvania was in retaliation for the destruction of VMI 38 Following the war Matthew Fontaine Maury the pioneering oceanographer known as the Pathfinder of the Seas accepted a teaching position at VMI holding the physics chair Following the war David Hunter Strother who was chief of staff to General Hunter and had advised the destruction of the Institute served as Adjutant General of the Virginia Militia and member of the VMI Board of Visitors in that position he promoted and worked actively for the reconstruction World War II Edit VMI produced many of America s commanders in World War II The most important of these was George C Marshall the top U S Army general during the war Marshall was the Army s first five star general and the only career military officer ever to win the Nobel Peace Prize 39 Winston Churchill dubbed Marshall the Architect of Victory and the noblest Roman of them all The Deputy Chief of Staff of the U S Army during the war was also a VMI graduate as were the Second U S Army commander 15th U S Army commander the commander of Allied Air Forces of the Southwest Pacific and various corps and division commanders in the Army and Marine Corps China s General Sun Li jen known as the Rommel of the East was also a graduate of VMI 40 During the war VMI participated in the War Department s Army Specialized Training Program ASTP from 1943 to 1946 The program provided training in engineering and related subjects to enlisted men at colleges across the United States Over 2 100 ASTP members studied at VMI during the war Post World War II Edit This section needs expansion You can help by adding to it October 2020 VMI admitted its first female student in 1995 after the U S Justice Department pursued a seven year long lawsuit against the institution alleging discrimination Although that first female student dropped out soon after matriculating 30 female students enrolled in 1997 cementing VMI s new status as a coeducational institution 41 On 19 October 2020 following an expose in the Washington Post Governor Ralph Northam and multiple other state officials wrote the VMI Board of Visitors that they had deep concerns about the clear and appalling culture of ongoing structural racism at VMI 42 They reported that they had received reports from students of a racist culture at VMI The students reported a threat of lynching attacks on social media and a staff member promoting an inaccurate and dangerous Lost Cause version of Virginia s history 43 The letter was signed by Northam Lt Gov Justin Fairfax Virginia House Speaker Eileen Filler Corn state Senate President Louise Lucas Attorney General Mark Herring and chairman of the Black caucus Lamont Bagby 43 Northam a 1981 VMI alumnus ordered a state led investigation 43 Six days later on 26 October 2020 Superintendent Gen J H Binford Peay tendered his resignation saying in his resignation letter that he d been told that Governor Northam and other state legislators had lost confidence in my leadership and desired my resignation 44 45 Three days later the VMI Board of Visitors voted unanimously to remove from campus the statue of Confederate hero Stonewall Jackson a former VMI professor and create a building and naming committee 46 The school reaffirmed the statue s removal in December and began plans to relocated it to a Civil War museum located on a battlefield where a number of VMI cadets and alumni were killed or wounded 47 In October the board also announced several diversity related decisions a diversity officer would be appointed a diversity and inclusion committee would be created and diversity initiatives created to include a focus on gender and the adoption of a diversity hiring plan 46 Nine months later a report into racial intolerance charged by the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia was delivered The independent report concluded that VMI maintained and allowed a racist and sexist culture that until recently it had no appetite to address The authors employed by the law firm Barnes amp Thornburg also accused the institution s leadership including its governing board with an unwillingness to change or even question its practices 48 Superintendents Edit Since 1839 VMI has had fifteen superintendents Francis H Smith was the first and the longest serving filling the position for 50 years Twelve of the fifteen superintendents were graduates of VMI VMI cannons in front of barracks Francis H Smith 1839 1889 United States Military Academy West Point Class of 1833 Scott Shipp 59 1890 1907 wounded leading VMI cadets into The Battle of New Market 49 Edward W Nichols 78 1907 1924 William H Cocke 94 1924 1929 John A Lejeune 1929 1937 United States Naval Academy Class of 1888 13th Commandant of the Marine Corps Charles E Kilbourne 94 1937 1946 Medal of Honor recipient and first American to earn the United States three highest military decorations 50 better source needed Richard J Marshall 15 1946 1952 William H Milton Jr 20 1952 1960 George R E Shell 31 1960 1971 Richard L Irby 39 1971 1981 Sam S Walker 1981 1988 matriculated at VMI transferred to United States Military Academy West Point Class of 1946 John W Knapp 54 1989 1995 Josiah Bunting III 63 1995 2002 J H Binford Peay III 62 2003 2020 Cedric T Wins 85 2021 present Campus EditVirginia Military Institute Historic DistrictU S National Register of Historic PlacesU S National Historic Landmark DistrictVirginia Landmarks Register Virginia Military Institute campus Show map of Virginia Show map of the United StatesLocationVMI campus Lexington VirginiaArea12 acres 4 9 ha Built1818 1818 ArchitectDavis A J Goodhue Bertram GrosvenorArchitectural styleClassical Revival Gothic RevivalNRHP reference No 74002219 51 VLR No 117 0017Significant datesAdded to NRHP30 May 1974Designated VLR9 September 1969 52 The VMI campus covers 134 acres 54 ha 12 of which are designated as the Virginia Military Institute Historic District a designated National Historic Landmark District The campus is referred to as the Post a tradition that reflects the school s military focus and the uniformed service of its alumni A training area of several hundred additional acres is located near the post All cadets are housed on campus in a large five story building called the barracks The Old Barracks which has been separately designated a National Historic Landmark stands on the site of the old arsenal This is the structure that received most of the damage when Union forces shelled and burned the Institute in June 1864 The new wing of the barracks New Barracks was completed in 1949 The two wings surround two quadrangles connected by a sally port All rooms open onto porch like stoops facing one of the quadrangles A third barracks wing was completed with cadets moving in officially spring semester 2009 Four of the five arched entries into the barracks are named for George Washington Thomas Stonewall Jackson George C Marshall 901 53 and Jonathan Daniels 61 54 Next to the Barracks are offices and meeting areas for VMI clubs and organizations the cadet visitors center and lounge a snack bar and a Follett Corporation operated bookstore VMI s Vision 2039 capital campaign raised more than 275 million from alumni and supporters in three years The money is going to expand The Barracks to house 1 500 cadets renovate and modernize the academic buildings VMI is spending another 200 million to build the VMI Center for Leadership and Ethics to be used by cadets Washington and Lee University students and other U S and international students The funding will also support study abroad programs including joint ventures with Oxford and Cambridge Universities in England and many other universities 55 In October 2020 VMI Board of Visitors announced that the institute will relocate a statue of Thomas Stonewall Jackson a Confederate general and slave owner from the front of the historic barracks to potentially the Battle of New Market 56 57 It was taken from view in December 58 Academics EditVMI offers 14 major and 23 minor areas of study 59 grouped into engineering liberal arts humanities and the sciences The engineering department has concentrations in three areas civil and environmental engineering electrical and computer engineering and mechanical engineering 60 Most classes are taught by full time professors 99 percent of whom hold terminal degrees 60 Within four months of graduation an average of 97 percent of VMI graduates are either serving in the military employed or admitted to graduate or professional schools 61 As of 2010 VMI had graduated 11 Rhodes Scholars since 1921 62 63 Per capita as of 2006 VMI had graduated more Rhodes Scholars than any other state supported college or university and more than all the other senior military colleges combined Rankings Edit In 2021 VMI ranked fourth nationally after the United States Military Academy the United States Naval Academy and the United States Air Force Academy in the U S News and World Report rankings Top Public Schools National Liberal Arts Colleges category 64 Forbes 2012 Special Report on America s Best Colleges ranked VMI in the top 25 public universities in the nation well ahead of any other senior military college in the country VMI was ranked 14th in the Top 25 Publics section just behind the United States Military Academy the United States Air Force Academy and the United States Naval Academy but ahead of the United States Coast Guard Academy and the U S Merchant Marine Academy 65 Overall VMI ranked 115th out of the 650 colleges and universities evaluated 66 Kiplinger s magazine in its ranking of the Best Values in Public Colleges for 2006 made mention of the Virginia Military Institute as a great value although the military nature of its program excluded it from consideration as a traditional four year college in the rankings 67 Military service Edit Members of the VMI march down Pennsylvania Avenue in January 2017 after the Inauguration of Donald Trump While all cadets are required to take four years of ROTC accepting a commission in the armed forces is optional While over 50 percent of VMI graduates are commissioned each year the VMI Board of Visitors has set a goal of having 70 percent of VMI cadets take a commission 68 The VMI class of 2017 graduated 300 cadets 172 or 57 percent of whom were commissioned as officers in the United States military 69 VMI alumni include more than 285 general and flag officers including the first five star General of the Army George Marshall 70 seven recipients of the highest U S military decoration the Medal of Honor and more than 80 recipients of the second highest awards the Distinguished Service Cross and Navy Cross 71 VMI offers ROTC programs for four U S military branches Army Navy Marine Corps and Air Force VMI has graduated more Army generals than any ROTC program in the United States 72 The following table lists U S four star generals who graduated from VMI It does not list alumni who did not graduate from the school such as General George S Patton and General Sam S Walker and the many VMI graduates who served or still serve as four star generals in foreign nations such as Thailand China and Taiwan Name VMI class Branch amp date of rank NotesGeorge Marshall 1901 Army 1 September 1939 First General of the Army five stars 10th four star general in U S Army history amp 1st non USMA four star general Chief of Staff U S Army 1939 45 Secretary of State 1947 49 Secretary of Defense 1950 51 Special Representative of President to China 1945 47 President of the American Red Cross 1949 50 Nobel Peace Prize 1953 Congressional Gold Medal 1946Thomas T Handy 1916 Army 13 March 1945 22nd four star general in U S Army history Deputy Chief of Staff U S Army 1944 47 Commanding General Fourth Army 1947 49 Commander in Chief European Command 1949 52 amp USAREUR Commander CENTAG 1952 Deputy Commander in Chief EUCOM 1952 54Lemuel C Shepherd Jr 1917 USMC 1 January 1952 3rd four star general in USMC history Commandant U S Marine Corps 1952 55 Chairman Inter American Defense Board 1956 59Leonard T Gerow 1911 Army 19 July 1954 Commanding General V Corps 1943 45 Commanding General U S 15th Army 1945 46 Randolph M Pate 1921 USMC 1 January 1956 4th four star general in USMC history Commandant of the Marine Corps 1956 59Clark L Ruffner 1924 Army 1 March 1960 51st four star General in U S Army history U S Military Representative NATO Military Committee 1960 62David M Maddox 1960 Army 9 July 1992 149th four star general in U S Army history Commander in Chief USAREUR Commander CENTAG 1992 93 amp USAREUR 1993 94 J H Binford Peay III 1962 Army 26 March 1993 150th four star general in Army history Vice Chief of Staff U S Army 1993 94 Commander in Chief Central Command 1994 97 Superintendent VMI 2003 2020John P Jumper 1966 Air Force 17 November 1997 152nd four star general in U S Air Force history Commander in Chief USAFE Commander AAFCE 1997 2000 Commander Air Combat Command 2000 01 Chief of Staff U S Air Force 2001 05Darren W McDew 1982 Air Force 5 May 2014 200th four star general in U S Air Force history Commander Air Mobility Command COMAMC 2014 2015 Commander United States Transportation Command TRANSCOM 2015 2018Students EditProspective cadets must be between 16 and 22 years of age They must be unmarried and have no legal dependents be physically fit for enrollment in the Reserve Officer Training Corps ROTC and be graduates of an accredited secondary school or have completed an approved homeschool curriculum The Class of 2022 at VMI had an average high school GPA of 3 70 and a mean SAT score of 1210 73 Eligibility is not restricted to Virginia residents although it is more difficult to gain an appointment as a non resident because VMI has a goal that no more than 45 percent of cadets come from outside Virginia 74 Virginia residents receive a discount in tuition as is common at most state sponsored schools Total tuition room amp board and other fees for the 2008 2009 school year was approximately 17 000 for Virginia residents and 34 000 for all others 75 Of 509 students that matriculated in August 2012 just 46 were women 76 The first Jewish cadet Moses Jacob Ezekiel graduated in 1866 While at VMI Ezekiel fought with the VMI cadets at the Battle of New Market 77 He became a sculptor and his works are on display at VMI One of the first Asian cadets was Sun Li jen the Chinese National Revolutionary Army general who graduated in 1927 The first African American cadets were admitted in 1968 The first African American regimental commander was Darren McDew class of 1982 McDew is a retired U S Air Force General and former Commander United States Transportation Command Scott Air Force Base IL It is unknown when the first Muslim cadet graduated from VMI but before the Iranian Revolution of 1979 under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi several Persian cadets attended and graduated from VMI Other Muslim graduates have included cadets from Bangladesh Jordan Indonesia Somalia and other nations Admission of women Edit Main article United States v Virginia In 1997 VMI ended its prohibition and became the last U S military college to admit women Superintendent at the time Josiah Bunting III called this a savage disappointment 44 In 1990 the U S Department of Justice filed a discrimination lawsuit against VMI for its all male admissions policy While the court challenge was pending a state sponsored Virginia Women s Institute for Leadership VWIL was opened at Mary Baldwin College in Staunton Virginia as a parallel program for women The VWIL continued even after VMI s admission of women 78 After VMI won its case in U S District Court the case went through several appeals until 26 June 1996 when the U S Supreme Court in a 7 1 decision in United States v Virginia found that it was unconstitutional for a school supported by public funds to exclude women Justice Clarence Thomas recused himself presumably because his son was attending VMI at the time Following the ruling VMI contemplated going private to exempt itself from the 14th Amendment and thus avoid the ruling 10 Assistant Secretary of Defense Frederick Pang however warned the school that the Department of Defense would withdraw ROTC programs from the school if privatization took place As a result of this action by Pang Congress passed a resolution on 18 November 1997 prohibiting the Department of Defense from withdrawing or diminishing any ROTC program at one of the six senior military colleges including VMI This escape clause provided by Congress came after the VMI Board of Visitors had already voted 9 8 to admit women the decision was not revisited 10 In August 1997 VMI enrolled its first female cadets The first co ed class consisted of thirty women and matriculated as part of the class of 2001 In order to accelerate VMI s matriculation process several women were allowed to transfer directly from various junior colleges such as New Mexico Military Institute NMMI and forgo the traditional four year curriculum that most cadets had been subjected to The first female cadets walked the stage in 1999 although by VMI s definitions they are considered to be members of the class of 2001 Initially these 30 women who were held to the same strict physical courses and technical training as the male cadets until it became apparent that adjustments to the standards had to be made according to whom VMI resisted following other military colleges in adopting gender normed physical training standards until 2008 when it was listed as a goal in VMI s 2039 Strategic Plan 79 80 On 30 June 2008 gender normed training standards were implemented for all female cadets 81 Admission of Black students Edit Virginia Military Institute was the last public college in Virginia to integrate first admitting black cadets in 1968 82 but interracial problems persist to the present day 83 According to the Washington Post even in 2020 Black cadets still endure relentless racism in an atmosphere of hostility and cultural insensitivity 83 Student life Edit The Regimental Commander gives commands to the Corps of Cadets during a parade in coatee Just as cadets did nearly 200 years ago today s cadets give up such comforts as beds instead lying upon cots colloquially referred to as hays These hays are little more than foam mats that must be rolled every morning and aired every Monday Further cadet uniforms have changed little the coatee worn in parades dates to the War of 1812 New cadets known as Rats are not permitted to watch TV or listen to music outside of an academic setting Living conditions are considered more austere here than other service academies 84 Ratline Edit This section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed November 2016 Learn how and when to remove this template message During the first six months at VMI New Cadets are called Rats the accepted term since the 1850s for a New Cadet The VMI ratline is a tough old fashioned indoctrination system which dates back to the institute s founding All Rats refer to their classmates male or female as Brother Rats The term Brother Rat is a term of endearment which lasts a lifetime amongst VMI graduates Legend has it that when Washington College now Washington and Lee University students and VMI cadets drilled together in the 1830s the students called the cadets Rats perhaps because of their gray uniforms The cadets responded in kind calling the neighboring students Minks perhaps because many of them were from wealthy backgrounds The purpose of the Ratline is to teach self control self discipline time management and followership as prerequisites for becoming a VMI cadet 85 New freshmen known collectively as the Rat Mass walk along a prescribed line in barracks while maintaining an exaggerated form of attention called straining This experience called the Rat Line is intended by the upper classes to instill camaraderie pride and discipline into the incoming class Under this system the Rats face numerous mental and physical challenges starting with Hell Week During Hell Week Rats receive basic military instruction from select upper classmen Cadre they learn to march to clean their M14 rifle and to wear their uniforms During Hell Week Rats also meet the members of various cadet run organizations and learn the functions of each At the end of the first week each Rat is paired with a first classman senior who serves as their mentor for the rest of the first year The first classman is called a Dyke reference to an older Southern pronunciation of to deck out or to get into a uniform as one of the roles of the rat is to help prepare their Dyke s uniform and dress them for parades 86 While the Dyke watches out for the Rat and the Rat works for the Dyke in accordance with Institute policy Cadre still enforce all rules for the Rats The combination of the warm relationship with the Dykes and the harshness of the school system with countless push ups sweat parties and runs is calculated to instill the required military outlook and competence on everyday tasks in the Rats The Ratline experience culminates with Resurrection Week ending in Breakout an event where the Rats are formally welcomed to the VMI community After the successful completion of Breakout Rats are officially fourth class students and no longer have to strain in the barracks or eat square meals Many versions of the Breakout ceremony have been conducted In the 1950s Rats from each company would be packed into a corner room in the barracks and brawl their way out through the upperclassmen From the late 1960s through the early 1980s the Rats had to fight their way up to the fourth level of the barracks through three other classes of cadets determined not to let them get to the top The stoops would often be slick with motor oil packed with snow glazed with ice greased or continuously hosed with water The barracks stairs and rails were not able to take the abuse so the Corps moved the breakout to a muddy hill where Rats attempt to climb to the top by crawling on their stomachs while the upper classes block them or drag them back down 86 The Rats no longer breakout in the mud but instead participate in a grueling day of physical activity testing both physical endurance and teamwork The entire body of Rats during the Ratline is called a Rat Mass Since Rats are not officially fourth classmen until after Breakout the Rat Mass is also not officially considered a graduating class until that time either Prior to Breakout the Rat mass is given a different style of year identifier to emphasize this difference The year identifier starts with the year of the current graduating class their dykes class followed by a 3 to indicate the anticipated year of their own class For example cadets that make up the Class of 2022 were considered the Rat Mass of 2019 3 as the members of their dykes class graduated in 2019 and they themselves will graduate three years onward from then Traditions Edit In addition to the Ratline VMI has other traditions that are emblematic of the school and its history including the new cadet oath ceremony the pageantry of close order marching and the nightly playing of Taps An event second only to graduation in importance is the Ring Figure dance held every November During their junior year cadets receive class rings at a ring presentation ceremony followed by a formal dance 87 Most cadets get two rings a formal ring and a combat ring some choose to have the combat ring for everyday wear and the formal for special occasions Every year VMI honors its fallen cadets with a New Market Day parade and ceremony These events take place on 15 May the same day as the Battle of New Market in which VMI cadets fought in 1864 during the Civil War During this ceremony the roll is called for cadets who died on the Field of Honor and wreaths are placed on the graves of those who died during the Battle of New Market 88 The requirement that all cadets wishing to eat dinner in the mess hall must be present for a prayer was the basis for a lawsuit in 2002 when two cadets sued VMI over the prayer said before dinner 89 The non denominational prayer had been a daily fixture since the 1950s 90 91 92 In 2002 the Fourth Circuit ruled the prayer during an event with mandatory attendance at a state funded school violated the U S Constitution When the Supreme Court declined to review the school s appeal in April 2004 the prayer tradition was stopped 93 The tradition of guarding the institute is one of the longest standing and is carried out to this day Cadets have been posted as sentinels guarding the barracks 24 hours a day seven days a week while school is in session since the first cadet sentinel Cadet John B Strange and others relieved the Virginia Militia guard team tasked with defending the Lexington Arsenal that later became VMI in 1839 The guard team wears the traditional school uniform and each sentinel is armed with an M14 rifle and bayonet 94 Honor code Edit VMI is known for its strict honor code which is as old as the Institute and was formally codified in the early 20th century 95 Under the VMI Honor Code a cadet will not lie cheat steal nor tolerate those who do 95 96 There is only one punishment for violating the VMI Honor Code immediate expulsion in the form of a drumming out ceremony of dismissal in which the entire corps is awakened by drums in barracks and the honor court to hear the formal announcement VMI is the only military college or academy in the Nation which maintains a single sanction Honor Code and in recent times the dismissed cadet is removed from post before the formal announcement is made 97 Clubs and activities Edit VMI currently offers over 50 school sponsored clubs and organizations including recreational activities military organizations musical and performance groups religious organizations and service groups 98 99 Although VMI prohibited cadet membership in fraternal organizations starting in 1885 VMI cadets were instrumental in starting several fraternities Alpha Tau Omega fraternity was founded by VMI cadets Otis Allan Glazebrook Alfred Marshall and Erskine Mayo Ross at Richmond Virginia on 11 September 1865 while the school was closed for reconstruction 100 After the re opening Kappa Sigma Kappa fraternity was founded by cadets on 28 September 1867 and Sigma Nu fraternity was founded by cadets on 1 January 1869 95 VMI cadets formed the second chapter of the Kappa Alpha Order 101 In a special arrangement graduating cadets may be nominated by Kappa Alpha Order alumni and inducted into the fraternity becoming part of Kappa Alpha Order s Beta Commission a commission as opposed to an active chapter This occurs following graduation and the newly initiated VMI alumni are accepted as brothers of the fraternity 102 Athletics Edit Main article VMI Keydets VMI fields 14 teams on the NCAA Division I level FCS formerly I AA for football Varsity sports include baseball basketball men s and women s cross country football lacrosse men s and women s rifle men s and women s soccer men s and women s swimming amp diving men s and women s track amp field and wrestling VMI is a member of the Southern Conference SoCon for almost all sports the MAAC for women s water polo and the America East Conference for men s and women s swimming amp diving 103 VMI formerly was a member of the Mid Atlantic Rifle Conference for rifle but began the 2016 2017 season as part of the Southern Conference 104 The VMI team name is the Keydets a Southern style slang for the word cadets VMI has the second smallest NCAA Division I enrollment of any FCS football college after Presbyterian College 105 Approximately one third of the Corps of Cadets plays on at least one of VMI s intercollegiate athletic teams making it one of the most active athletic programs in the country Of the VMI varsity athletes who complete their eligibility 92 percent receive their VMI degrees 106 Football Edit Alumni Memorial Field at Foster Stadium Main article VMI Keydets football VMI played its first football game in 1871 The one game season was a 4 2 loss to Washington and Lee University There are no records of a coach or any players for that game 107 VMI waited another twenty years until 1891 when head coach Walter Taylor would coach the next football team 108 The current head football coach at VMI Scott Wachenheim was named the 31st head coach on 14 December 2014 109 The Keydets play their home games out of Alumni Memorial Field at Foster Stadium built in 1962 VMI won the 2020 Southern Conference Football Championship their first winning football season since 1981 110 Men s basketball Edit Main article VMI Keydets men s basketball Perhaps the most famous athletic story in VMI history was the two year run of the 1976 and 1977 basketball teams The 1976 squad advanced within one game of the Final Four before bowing to undefeated Rutgers in the East Regional Final and in 1977 VMI finished with 26 wins and just four losses still a school record and reached the Sweet 16 round of the NCAA tournament The current VMI basketball team is led by head coach Dan Earl and assistant coaches Steve Enright and Austin Kenon Tom Kiely is the Director of Basketball Operations Alumni EditMain article List of Virginia Military Institute alumni VMI s alumni include the current Governor of Virginia the 24th Secretary of the Army a five star general a Secretary of State Secretary of Defense a Nobel Peace Prize winner Pulitzer Prize winners 13 Rhodes Scholars Medal of Honor recipients an Academy Award winner an Emmy Award and Golden Globe winner a martyr recognized by the Episcopal Church Senators and Representatives Governors Lieutenant Governors a Supreme Court Justice numerous college and university presidents many business leaders presidents and CEOs and over 285 general and flag officers including service chiefs for three of the four armed services Two recent Chiefs of Engineers of the Army Corps of Engineers Lieutenant Generals Carl A Strock and Robert B Flowers as well as Acting Chief of Engineers Major General Bo Temple were VMI Civil Engineering graduates 111 Endowment EditA 2007 study by the National Association of College and University Business Officers found that VMI s 343 million endowment was the largest per student endowment of any U S public college in the United States 112 113 verification needed 35 4 percent of the approximately 12 300 living alumni gave in 2006 114 Private support covers more than 31 percent of VMI s operating budget state funds 26 percent In popular culture EditRonald Reagan starred in the films Brother Rat and Brother Rat and a Baby which were filmed at VMI Originally a Broadway hit the play was written by John Monks Jr and Fred F Finklehoffe both 1932 graduates of VMI 115 Both the novel and film Gods and Generals depict Stonewall Jackson teaching at VMI before Virginia secedes The film also depicts Jackson s funeral at VMI In 2014 the film Field of Lost Shoes premiered in Richmond to the Corps of Cadets and the cast The film depicts the Battle of New Market in 1864 VMI now owns and operates this historical battlefield museum and site See also EditVirginia Defense Force Virginia National GuardReferences Edit History of the VMI Coat of Arms Motto Seal amp Spider Logo Virginia Military Institute n d Retrieved 22 December 2015 As of June 30 2020 U S and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2020 Endowment Market Value and Change in Endowment Market Value from FY19 to FY20 Report National Association of College and University Business Officers and TIAA 19 February 2021 Retrieved 20 February 2021 Maj Gen Cedric Wins 85 to lead Virginia Military Institute www vmi edu Retrieved 2 May 2021 a b https nces ed gov collegenavigator q Virginia Military Institute amp s all amp id 234085 Virginia Military Institute Geographic Names Information System United States Geological Survey VMI Visual Identity Standards Manual PDF Retrieved 10 September 2016 Virginia Military Institute Quick Facts About Virginia Military Institute Lexington VA Virginia Military Institute Retrieved 7 March 2021 VMI Quick Facts Vmi edu Archived from the original on 13 March 2007 Retrieved 20 April 2012 Academics Academics Virginia Military Institute www vmi edu a b c Strum Philippa 2004 Women in the Barracks The VMI Case and Equal Rights University Press of Kansas ISBN 978 0 7006 1336 6 Best Colleges Virginia Military Institute U S News amp World Report Retrieved 29 January 2019 VMI ROTC Retrieved 30 April 2013 Va Code 2 2 2100 a b Va Code 23 92 a b c d e f g h i Virginia Military Institute Faculty Handbook January 2014 pp 4 6 Va Code 23 99 VA R Doc No R12 3076 19 December 2011 a b Board of Visitors By Laws 6 8 Va Code 23 109 a b c Wineman Bradford 2006 J T L Preston and the Origins of the Virginia Military Institute 1834 42 Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 114 2 246 JSTOR 4250312 Strum Philippa 2002 Women in the Barracks The VMI Case and Equal Rights Lawrence KS University Press of Kansas p 9 ISBN 9780700611645 Southern California Review of Law and Women s Studies Volume 5 Los Angeles CA University of Southern California 1995 pp 232 235 Couper William 1936 Claudius Crozet Palisades NY Historical Publishing Company Inc pp 93 100 Andrew Rod Jr 2001 Long Gray Lines The Southern Military School Tradition 1839 1915 Chapel Hill NC University of North Carolina Press p 12 ISBN 0 8078 2610 3 Farwell Byron 1992 Stonewall A Biography of General Thomas J Jackson New York NY W W Norton amp Company p 87 ISBN 0 393 31086 8 Hunter Robert F and Edwin L Dooley Jr 1989 Claudius Crozet French Engineer in America 1790 1861 Charlottesville VA University Press of Virginia pp 10 11 14 17 85 98 The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography New York NY J T White 1967 p 245 Miller Jonson 2020 Engineering Manhood Race and the Antebellum Virginia Military Institute Lever Press pp 104 105 113 114 doi 10 3998 mpub 11675767 ISBN 9781643150178 Governor s Message and Reports of the Public Officers of the State of the Board of Directors and of the Visitors Superintendents and Other Agents of Public Institutions or Interests of Virginia Richmond VA William F Ritchie 1855 p 27 Farwell Byron 1993 Stonewall A Biography of General Thomas J Jackson W W Norton amp Company p 87 ISBN 978 0 393 31086 3 Archived copy Archived from the original on 27 April 2005 Retrieved 12 September 2005 CS1 maint archived copy as title link CS1 maint bot original URL status unknown link VMI Archives a b Sears Stephen W Chancellorsville Mariner Books 1996 p 242 link to 1998 edition Battle of New Market Shenandoah at War The Battle of New Market American Battlefield Trust 24 March 2017 Virginia Mourning Her Dead Encyclopedia Virginia Virginia Foundation for the Humanities Retrieved 12 October 2012 Andrew Rod Jr 2004 Long Gray Lines The Southern Military School Tradition 1839 1915 Univ of North Carolina Press p 33 ISBN 978 0 8078 5541 6 VMI Civil War Chronology Archived from the original on 12 January 2006 Retrieved 3 June 2013 CS1 maint bot original URL status unknown link The Burning of Chambersburg Angelfire com 22 September 2001 Retrieved 20 April 2012 Nordlinger Jay 20 March 2012 Peace They Say A History of the Nobel Peace Prize the Most Famous and Controversial Prize in the World Encounter Books p 177 ISBN 978 1 59403 598 2 Retrieved 12 October 2012 Letters Diaries and Manuscripts Guide VMI Faculty amp Alumni Papers Vmi edu Retrieved 25 November 2015 Finn Peter 17 March 1998 VMI Women Reach End of Rat Line The Washington Post Retrieved 27 October 2020 Probe ordered of VMI after Post s report on racist incidents The News Leader Staunton Virginia 21 October 2020 p A4 via newspapers com a b c McLaughlin Eliott C 21 October 2020 After cadets allege racism in news reports state orders review of Virginia Military Institute s culture CNN Retrieved 26 October 2020 a b Shapira Ian 26 October 2020 VMI superintendent resigns after Black cadets describe relentless racism Washington Post Mitchell Ellen 26 October 2020 Virginia Military Institute superintendent resigns after allegations of racism surface The Hill Retrieved 26 October 2020 a b Hite Patrick 31 October 2020 VMI votes to remove Stonewall Jackson statue The News Leader Staunton Virginia p A2 Associated Press 7 December 2020 Virginia Military Institute removing Confederate statue Politico Retrieved 7 December 2020 Burke Lilah 2 June 2021 Silence Fear and Intimidation Retrieved 2 June 2021 VMI Website VMI Superintendents 1839 present Vmi edu Retrieved 20 April 2012 Rolf of Ebon A Novel of Romance War and Adventure in Ancient England Charles E Kilbourne Exposition Press New York 1962 p 171 National Register Information System National Register of Historic Places National Park Service 9 July 2010 Virginia Landmarks Register Virginia Department of Historic Resources Archived from the original on 21 September 2013 Retrieved 19 March 2013 VMI Alumni Flag Rank Officers Alumni Generals amp Admirals PDF Virginia Military Institute Retrieved 2 November 2010 Jonathan Myrick Daniels VMI Class of 1961 Civil Rights Hero Virginia Military Institute Retrieved 2 November 2010 Vision 2039 Focus on Leadership VMI Retrieved 12 October 2012 Wyatt William 29 October 2020 Actions of the VMI Board of Visitors Virginia Military Institute Press release Lexington Virginia Retrieved 14 November 2020 Anderson Greta 30 October 2020 VMI to Relocate Confederate Statue Inside Higher Ed Retrieved 14 November 2020 Rankin Sarah 7 December 2020 Virginia Military Institute removes Confederate statue ABC News Associated Press Retrieved 7 December 2020 Majors Minors Certificates Virginia Military Institute Retrieved 20 April 2012 a b VMI Academic Departments Vmi edu Archived from the original on 26 July 2007 Retrieved 20 April 2012 VMI Engineering Virginia Military Institute Archived from the original on 27 May 2010 Retrieved 2 November 2010 Cadet Named VMI s 11th Rhodes Scholar Virginia Military Institute Retrieved 2 November 2010 VMI Rhodes Scholars Virginia Military Institute Retrieved 2 November 2010 Top Public Schools National Liberal Arts Colleges Best Public Colleges 2012 VMI U S News and World Report 1 August 2012 Retrieved 24 September 2012 America s Best Colleges Ranking List Forbes America s Best Colleges 1 August 2012 Retrieved 24 September 2012 Lankford Kimberly February 2006 Best Values in Public Colleges Kiplinger s Personal Finance 60 2 90 Archived from the original on 22 May 2011 Retrieved 2 November 2010 Vision 2039 Focus on Leadership Vmi edu Retrieved 20 April 2012 VMI 2017 Graduation Vmi edu Retrieved 17 May 2017 VMI Profile VMI Keydets com Archived from the original on 29 December 2007 Retrieved 4 February 2008 Medal of Honor VMI Museum Archived from the original on 18 April 2014 Retrieved 18 April 2014 Viewbook VMI edu Profile of the Class of 2015 PDF VMI Retrieved 12 October 2012 VMI Vision 2039 Document PDF Vmi edu Retrieved 20 April 2012 Virginia Military Institute Page Not Found vmi edu Cite uses generic title help 509 Matriculate in Class of 2016 VMI 18 August 2012 Retrieved 12 October 2012 Jacob Kathryn Allamong 1998 Testament to Union Civil War Monuments in Washington JHU Press p 165 ISBN 978 0 8018 5861 1 Cabe Crista 1 March 2005 MBC Celebrates VWIL s 10th Anniversary March 18 2004 Archived 3 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine Mary Baldwin College web site showcontent Vmi edu Retrieved 20 April 2012 VMI Operational Plans and Progress Report 2008 Strategy 1 13 showcontent Vmi edu Retrieved 20 April 2012 https www washingtonpost com history 2020 09 09 vmi stonewall jackson statue hpid hp local1 8 12 vmi 305am 3Ahomepage 2Fstory ans Missing or empty title help a b Shapira Ian 17 October 2020 At VMI Black cadets endure lynching threats Klan memories and Confederacy veneration The Washington Post USA Military schools Virginia Military Institute Purpose of the Ratline Retrieved 30 April 2013 a b Weinstein Laurie Lee Christie C White 1997 Wives and Warriors Women and the Military in the United States and Canada Greenwood Publishing Group pp 66 69 ISBN 978 0 89789 491 3 Cadet Life Class Rings and Ring Figure The History of a VMI Tradition Virginia Military Institute Retrieved 2 November 2010 Couper William Keith E Gibson 2005 The Corps Forward The Biographical Sketches of the VMI Cadets who Fought in the Battle of New Market Mariner Companies Inc p 7 ISBN 978 0 9768238 2 7 ACLU Files Lawsuit to Stop Coerced Prayers at Virginia Military Institute Retrieved 30 April 2013 Josiah Bunting III and J H Binford Peay III Superintendent Virginia Military Institute v Neil J Mellen and Paul S Knick 03 863 Stevens J p 1 Supreme Court of the United States 26 April 2004 In sum we have before us in this petition a constitutional issue of considerable consequence on which the Courts of Appeals are in disagreement ACLU Defends Prayer Ban at VMI Atheism about com 16 January 2004 Archived from the original on 18 September 2005 Retrieved 20 April 2012 McGough Michael 27 April 2004 Supreme Court justices in sharp exchange over refusal to hear VMI prayer case Pittsburgh Post Gazette Virginia Military Institute Page Not Found vmi edu Cite uses generic title help John B Strange Class of 1842 The First Sentinel Vmi edu Retrieved 20 April 2012 a b c VMI History FAQ Vmi edu Retrieved 20 April 2012 VMIhonor Chittum Matt 9 March 1997 The honor code is simple and all encompassing Roanoke Times Archived from the original on 9 September 2012 Retrieved 1 January 2010 Clubs and Organizations Virginia Military Institute Retrieved 2 November 2010 Academic amp Professional Societies Virginia Military Institute Retrieved 2 November 2010 ATO website Ato org 26 April 1931 Retrieved 20 April 2012 Shelton Todd Our Kappa Alpha Heritage Kappa Alpha Order Archived from the original on 28 July 2011 Retrieved 2 November 2010 Beta Commission Retrieved 17 August 2014 Our Commission system allows for men to be elected and initiated into Kappa Alpha Order if they are graduating seniors graduates faculty staff or administrators Men s Swimming amp Diving to Return as Championship Sport VMI Joins as Associate Member Press release America East Conference 15 December 2016 Retrieved 27 December 2016 Rifle Teams Head to WVU for Sectional Press release VMIKeydets com 17 February 2012 Retrieved 12 November 2012 Columbia SC Breaking News Sports Weather amp More TheState com amp The State www thestate com Archived from the original on 23 May 2006 Retrieved 23 April 2006 VMI Athletic History A Brief Look Archived 26 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine 9 August 2002 VMI web site DeLassus David Virginia Military Institute Yearly Results 1873 College Football Data Warehouse Archived from the original on 2 October 2012 Retrieved 12 October 2012 DeLassus David Virginia Military Institute Coaching Records College Football Data Warehouse Archived from the original on 31 December 2013 Retrieved 20 April 2012 VMI News Release on Hiring Archived from the original on 14 February 2008 Retrieved 13 February 2008 King Randy 20 September 2012 Keydets hope to upset get first win against Navy The Roanoke Times Archived from the original on 29 October 2012 Retrieved 7 November 2012 Stars Shine in Run up to Commencement The Institute Report XXXI 7 1 amp 14 16 April 2004 Retrieved 2 November 2010 VMI Athletics and the VMI Keydet Club Website Archived from the original on 15 October 2007 Retrieved 20 November 2006 All Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2008 Market Value of Endowment Assets with Percentage Change Between 2007 and 2008 Endowment Assets PDF 2008 NACUBO Endowment Study National Association of College and University Business Officers Archived from the original PDF on 29 December 2010 Retrieved 2 November 2010 Belliveau Scott June 2007 Foundation Fund Business as Usual The Institute Report XXXIV 7 6 Retrieved 2 November 2010 Vaughn Stephen 28 January 1994 Ronald Reagan in Hollywood Movies and Politics Cambridge University Press pp 96 97 ISBN 978 0 521 44080 6 Retrieved 12 November 2012 Further reading Edit Andrew Rod Jr 2001 Long Gray Lines The Southern Military School Tradition 1839 1915 University of North Carolina Press Brodie Laura Fairchild 2000 Breaking Out VMI and the Coming of Women New York Vintage Couper William 1939 One Hundred Years at V M I Volumes One to Four Richmond VA Garrett and Massie Davis Thomas W ed 1988 A Crowd of Honorable Youths Historical Essays on the First 150 Years of the Virginia Military Institute Lexington VA VMI Sesquicentennial Committee Green Jennifer R 2008 Military Education and the Emerging Middle Class in the Old South Cambridge University Press Miller Jonson 2020 Engineering Manhood Race and the Antebellum Virginia Military Institute Lever Press Pancake John Virginia Reveres Civil War Bravery The Washington Post Strum Philippa 2002 Women in the Barracks The VMI Case and Equal Rights Lawrence University Press of Kansas Wineman Bradford 2006 J T L Preston and the Origins of the Virginia Military Institute 1834 1842 Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 114 no 2 226 261 Wise Henry A 1978 Drawing Out the Man The VMI Story Charlottesville University Press of Virginia Wise Jennings C 1915 The Military History of the Virginia Military Institute from 1839 1865 Lynchburg VA J P Bell MARCHING TOWARD INCLUSIVE EXCELLENCE AN EQUITY AUDIT AND INVESTIGATION OF THE VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE 2021 report by law firm Barnes amp Thornburg External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Virginia Military Institute Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Virginia Military Institute Official website VMI Athletics website Wikisource Virginia Military Institute Building and Rebuilding Virginia Military Institute Building and Rebuilding Reynolds Francis J ed 1921 Virginia Military Institute Collier s New Encyclopedia New York P F Collier amp Son Company Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Virginia Military Institute amp oldid 1054207671, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.