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Visible minority

Further information: Demographics of Canada

A visible minority (French: minorité visible) is defined by the Government of Canada as "persons, other than aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour". The term is used primarily as a demographic category by Statistics Canada, in connection with that country's Employment Equity policies. The qualifier "visible" was chosen by the Canadian authorities as a way to single out newer immigrant minorities from both Aboriginal Canadians and other "older" minorities distinguishable by language (French vs. English) and religion (Catholics vs. Protestants), which are "invisible" traits.

The term visible minority is sometimes used as a euphemism for "non-white". This is incorrect, in that the government definitions differ: Aboriginal people are not considered to be visible minorities, but are not necessarily white either. Also, some groups that are defined as "white" in other countries (such as Middle Eastern Americans) are defined as "visible minorities" in the official Canadian definition. In some cases, members of "visible minorities" may be visually indistinguishable from the majority population and/or may form a majority minority population locally (as is the case in some parts of Vancouver, Toronto, and Montreal).

Since the reform of Canada's immigration laws in the 1960s, immigration has been primarily of peoples from areas other than Europe, many of whom are visible minorities within Canada. Legally, members of visible minorities are defined by the Canadian Employment Equity Act as "persons, other than Aboriginal people, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour".[dead link]

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Over seven million Canadians identified as a member of a visible minority group in the 2016 Census, accounting for 22.3% of the total population. This was an increase from the 2011 Census, when visible minorities accounted for 19.1% of the total population; from the 2006 Census, when visible minorities accounted for 16.2% of the total population; from 2001, when visible minorities accounted for 13.4% of the total population; from 1996 when the proportion was 11.2%; and over 1991 (9.4%) and 1981 (4.7%). In 1961, the visible minority population was less than 1%. The increase represents a significant shift in Canada's demographics related to increased immigration since the advent of its multiculturalism policies.

Based upon the annual immigration intake into Canada since the last census in 2006, accompanied by the steady increase in the visible minority population within Canada due to the higher fertility levels of minority females when compared to Canadian women of European origin, researchers estimate that by 2012, approximately 19.56% of the population in Canada will be individuals of non-European (visible minority) origin. The Aboriginal population within Canada, based upon projections for the same year (i.e. 2012), is estimated to be 4.24%. Hence, at least 23.8% of Canada's population in 2012 were individuals of visible minority and Aboriginal heritage. Projections also indicate that by 2031, the visible minority population in Canada will make up about 33% of the nation's population, given the steady increase in the non-European component of the Canadian population.

Of the provinces, British Columbia had the highest proportion of visible minorities, representing 30.3% of its population, followed by Ontario at 29.3%, Alberta at 23.5% and Manitoba at 17.5%. In the 2006 census, South Asian Canadians superseded ethnic Chinese as Canada's largest visible minority group. In 2006, Statistics Canada estimated that there were 1.3 million South Asian people in Canada, compared with 1.2 million Chinese. In 2016, there were approximately 1.9 million South Asian Canadians, representing 5.6% of the country's population, followed by Chinese Canadians (4.6%) and Black Canadians (3.5%).

List of Canadian census subdivisions with visible minority populations higher than the national average

National average: 22.3%
Source: Canada 2016 Census

Alberta

British Columbia

Manitoba

Ontario

Quebec

According to the Employment Equity Act of 1995, the definition of visible minority is: "persons, other than aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour".

This definition can be traced back to the 1984 Report of the Abella Commission on Equality in Employment. The Commission described the term visible minority as an "ambiguous categorization", but for practical purposes interpreted it to mean "visibly non-white". The Canadian government uses an operational definition by which it identifies the following groups as visible minorities: "Chinese, South Asian, Black, Filipino, Latin American, Southeast Asian, Arab, West Asian, Korean, Japanese, Visible minority, n.i.e. (n.i.e. means "not included elsewhere"), and Multiple visible minority". However, a few exceptions are applied to some groups. According to the Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide of the 2006 Census, the exception is:

In contrast, in accordance with employment equity definitions, persons who reported 'Latin American' and 'White,' 'Arab' and 'White,' or 'West Asian' and 'White' have been excluded from the visible minority population. Likewise, persons who reported 'Latin American,' 'Arab' or 'West Asian' and who provided a European write-in response such as 'French' have been excluded from the visible minority population as well. These persons are included in the 'Not a visible minority' category. However, persons who reported 'Latin American,' 'Arab' or 'West Asian' and a non-European write-in response are included in the visible minority population.

The term "non-white" is used in the wording of the Employment Equity Act and in employment equity questionnaires distributed to applicants and employees. This is intended as a shorthand phrase for those who are in the Aboriginal and/or visible minority groups.

The classification "visible minorities" has attracted controversy, both nationally and from abroad. The UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination has stated that they have doubts regarding the use of this term since this term may be considered objectionable by certain minorities and recommended an evaluation of this term. In response, the Canadian government made efforts to evaluate how this term is used in Canadian society through commissioning of scholars and open workshops.

Another criticism stems from the semantic applicability of the classification. In some cases, members of "visible minorities" may be neither "visually" discernible from the majority population nor form a "minority", at least locally. For instance, many Latin Americans living in Canada self-identify as White Latin Americans and are visually indistinguishable from White Canadians. Moreover, some members of "visible minorities" may form a majority minority population locally (as is the case in most parts of Vancouver and Toronto). Since 2008, census data and media reports have suggested that the "visible minorities" label no longer makes sense in some large Canadian cities, due to immigration trends in recent decades. For example, "visible minorities" comprise the majority of the population in Toronto, Vancouver, Markham, Coquitlam, Richmond, Ajax, Burnaby, Greater Vancouver A, Mississauga, Surrey, Richmond Hill and Brampton. In the United States, such cities or districts are described as majority-minority. But, the term "visible minority" is used for the administration of the Employment Equity Act, and refers to its statistical basis in Canada as a whole and not any particular region.

Yet another criticism of the label concerns the composition of "visible minorities". Critics have noted that the groups comprising "visible minorities" have little in common with each other, as they include both disadvantaged groups and groups who are not economically disadvantaged. The concept of visible minority has been cited in demography research as an example of a statistext, meaning a census category that has been contrived for a particular public policy purpose.

Furthermore it is not clear why minority definition should center on the "visual", and the concept of "audible minority" (e.g. those who speak with what appears to the majority to be "accented" English or French) has also been proposed, as speech often forms the basis for prejudice, along with appearance.

  1. Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Classification of visible minority". Archived from the original on September 26, 2015.
  2. Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide, 2006 Census from StatsCan
  3. "Minorities to rise significantly by 2031", cbc.ca
  4. "Visible minorities to make up 1/3 of population by 2031", CTV, March 2010
  5. One in 6 Canadians is a visible minority, CBC, 2 Apr 2008
  6. Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Visible Minority (15), Generation Status (4), Age (12) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved2018-04-12.
  7. "Census Profile, 2016 Census". 12.statcan.gc.ca. 2011.
  8. Employment Equity Act (1995, c. 44) Act current to Oct 20th, 2010
  9. Woolley, Frances. "Visible Minorities: Distinctly Canadian". Worthwhile Canadian Initiative. RetrievedMay 26, 2013.
  10. "Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide," 2006 Census Statcan
  11. Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide, 2006 Census - Catalogue no. 97-562-GWE2006003 Statcan
  12. Mentzer, M. S. (January 2002). "The Canadian experience with employment equity legislation". International Journal of Value-Based Management. 15 (1): 35–50. doi:10.1023/A:1013021402597. ISSN 0895-8815. S2CID 141942497.
  13. "Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination"(PDF). United Nations. United Nations: Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Retrieved4 March 2017.
  14. Hamilton, Graeme (2008-04-03). "Visible minorities the new majority". National Post. Retrieved2012-05-21.
  15. Mentzer, Marc S.; John L. Fizel (1992). "Affirmative action and ethnic inequality in Canada: The Impact of the Employment Equity Act of 1986". Ethnic Groups. 9 (4): 203–217. ISSN 0308-6860.
  16. Hum, Derek; Wayne Simpson (2000). "Not all visible minorities face labour market discrimination". Policy Options/Options Politiques. 21 (10): 45–48. ISSN 0226-5893.
  17. Kobayashi, Audrey (1993). "Representing Ethnicity: Political Statistexts". Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World: Science, Politics, and Reality. Washington, DC: Statistics Canada and U.S. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 513–525. ISBN 0-16-042049-0.
  18. Bauder, Harald (2001). "Visible minorities and urban analysis". Canadian Journal of Urban Research. 10 (1): 69–90. ISSN 1188-3774.
Look up visible minority in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Visible minority
Visible minority Language Watch Edit Further information Demographics of Canada A visible minority French minorite visible is defined by the Government of Canada as persons other than aboriginal peoples who are non Caucasian in race or non white in colour 1 The term is used primarily as a demographic category by Statistics Canada in connection with that country s Employment Equity policies The qualifier visible was chosen by the Canadian authorities as a way to single out newer immigrant minorities from both Aboriginal Canadians and other older minorities distinguishable by language French vs English and religion Catholics vs Protestants which are invisible traits The term visible minority is sometimes used as a euphemism for non white This is incorrect in that the government definitions differ Aboriginal people are not considered to be visible minorities but are not necessarily white either Also some groups that are defined as white in other countries such as Middle Eastern Americans are defined as visible minorities in the official Canadian definition In some cases members of visible minorities may be visually indistinguishable from the majority population and or may form a majority minority population locally as is the case in some parts of Vancouver Toronto and Montreal Since the reform of Canada s immigration laws in the 1960s immigration has been primarily of peoples from areas other than Europe many of whom are visible minorities within Canada Legally members of visible minorities are defined by the Canadian Employment Equity Act as persons other than Aboriginal people who are non Caucasian in race or non white in colour 2 dead link Contents 1 In Canada 1 1 List of Canadian census subdivisions with visible minority populations higher than the national average 1 1 1 Alberta 1 1 2 British Columbia 1 1 3 Manitoba 1 1 4 Ontario 1 1 5 Quebec 2 Legislative versus operational definitions 3 Controversy 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksIn Canada EditOver seven million Canadians identified as a member of a visible minority group in the 2016 Census accounting for 22 3 of the total population This was an increase from the 2011 Census when visible minorities accounted for 19 1 of the total population from the 2006 Census when visible minorities accounted for 16 2 of the total population from 2001 when visible minorities accounted for 13 4 of the total population from 1996 when the proportion was 11 2 and over 1991 9 4 and 1981 4 7 In 1961 the visible minority population was less than 1 The increase represents a significant shift in Canada s demographics related to increased immigration since the advent of its multiculturalism policies Based upon the annual immigration intake into Canada since the last census in 2006 accompanied by the steady increase in the visible minority population within Canada due to the higher fertility levels of minority females when compared to Canadian women of European origin researchers estimate that by 2012 approximately 19 56 of the population in Canada will be individuals of non European visible minority origin The Aboriginal population within Canada based upon projections for the same year i e 2012 is estimated to be 4 24 Hence at least 23 8 of Canada s population in 2012 were individuals of visible minority and Aboriginal heritage Projections also indicate that by 2031 the visible minority population in Canada will make up about 33 of the nation s population given the steady increase in the non European component of the Canadian population 3 4 Of the provinces British Columbia had the highest proportion of visible minorities representing 30 3 of its population followed by Ontario at 29 3 Alberta at 23 5 and Manitoba at 17 5 In the 2006 census South Asian Canadians superseded ethnic Chinese as Canada s largest visible minority group In 2006 Statistics Canada estimated that there were 1 3 million South Asian people in Canada compared with 1 2 million Chinese 5 In 2016 there were approximately 1 9 million South Asian Canadians representing 5 6 of the country s population followed by Chinese Canadians 4 6 and Black Canadians 3 5 6 List of Canadian census subdivisions with visible minority populations higher than the national average Edit National average 22 3 Source Canada 2016 Census 7 Alberta Edit Edmonton 37 1 Brooks 36 8 Calgary 36 2 Chestermere 35 Wood Buffalo 26 7 Banff 24 4 British Columbia Edit Richmond 76 3 Greater Vancouver A 67 3 Burnaby 63 6 Surrey 58 5 Vancouver 51 6 Coquitlam 50 2 New Westminster 38 9 West Vancouver 36 4 Delta 36 Abbotsford 33 7 Port Coquitlam 32 4 North Vancouver city 31 3 Port Moody 30 4 North Vancouver district municipality 25 6 Manitoba Edit Winnipeg 28 Ontario Edit Markham 77 9 Brampton 73 3 Richmond Hill 60 Mississauga 57 2 Ajax 56 7 Toronto 51 5 Pickering 42 9 Milton 42 8 Whitchurch Stouffville 36 9 Vaughan 35 4 Oakville 30 8 Windsor 26 9 Aurora 26 9 Waterloo 26 4 Ottawa 26 3 Newmarket 25 8 Whitby 25 3 Quebec Edit Brossard 42 9 Dollard des Ormeaux 38 8 Montreal 34 2 Laval 26 1 Mount Royal 24 7 Kirkland 24 2 Dorval 23 4 Legislative versus operational definitions EditAccording to the Employment Equity Act of 1995 the definition of visible minority is persons other than aboriginal peoples who are non Caucasian in race or non white in colour 8 This definition can be traced back to the 1984 Report of the Abella Commission on Equality in Employment The Commission described the term visible minority as an ambiguous categorization but for practical purposes interpreted it to mean visibly non white 9 The Canadian government uses an operational definition by which it identifies the following groups as visible minorities Chinese South Asian Black Filipino Latin American Southeast Asian Arab West Asian Korean Japanese Visible minority n i e n i e means not included elsewhere and Multiple visible minority 10 However a few exceptions are applied to some groups According to the Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide of the 2006 Census the exception is In contrast in accordance with employment equity definitions persons who reported Latin American and White Arab and White or West Asian and White have been excluded from the visible minority population Likewise persons who reported Latin American Arab or West Asian and who provided a European write in response such as French have been excluded from the visible minority population as well These persons are included in the Not a visible minority category However persons who reported Latin American Arab or West Asian and a non European write in response are included in the visible minority population 11 The term non white is used in the wording of the Employment Equity Act and in employment equity questionnaires distributed to applicants and employees This is intended as a shorthand phrase for those who are in the Aboriginal and or visible minority groups 12 Controversy EditThe classification visible minorities has attracted controversy both nationally and from abroad The UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination has stated that they have doubts regarding the use of this term since this term may be considered objectionable by certain minorities and recommended an evaluation of this term In response the Canadian government made efforts to evaluate how this term is used in Canadian society through commissioning of scholars and open workshops 13 Another criticism stems from the semantic applicability of the classification In some cases members of visible minorities may be neither visually discernible from the majority population nor form a minority at least locally For instance many Latin Americans living in Canada self identify as White Latin Americans and are visually indistinguishable from White Canadians Moreover some members of visible minorities may form a majority minority population locally as is the case in most parts of Vancouver and Toronto Since 2008 census data and media reports have suggested that the visible minorities label no longer makes sense in some large Canadian cities due to immigration trends in recent decades For example visible minorities comprise the majority of the population in Toronto Vancouver Markham Coquitlam Richmond Ajax Burnaby Greater Vancouver A Mississauga Surrey Richmond Hill and Brampton 14 In the United States such cities or districts are described as majority minority But the term visible minority is used for the administration of the Employment Equity Act and refers to its statistical basis in Canada as a whole and not any particular region Yet another criticism of the label concerns the composition of visible minorities Critics have noted that the groups comprising visible minorities have little in common with each other as they include both disadvantaged groups and groups who are not economically disadvantaged 15 16 The concept of visible minority has been cited in demography research as an example of a statistext meaning a census category that has been contrived for a particular public policy purpose 17 18 Furthermore it is not clear why minority definition should center on the visual and the concept of audible minority e g those who speak with what appears to the majority to be accented English or French has also been proposed as speech often forms the basis for prejudice along with appearance See also Edit Canada portal Affirmative action Classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom Colourism Employment equity Canada Ethnic penalty List of visible minority politicians in Canada Majority minority Minority language Multiculturalism in Canada Race and ethnicity in censuses Race and ethnicity in the United States Census Racialism Racial categorization References Edit Canada Government of Canada Statistics Classification of visible minority Archived from the original on September 26 2015 Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide 2006 Census from StatsCan Minorities to rise significantly by 2031 cbc ca Visible minorities to make up 1 3 of population by 2031 CTV March 2010 One in 6 Canadians is a visible minority CBC 2 Apr 2008 Canada Government of Canada Statistics Visible Minority 15 Generation Status 4 Age 12 and Sex 3 for the Population in Private Households of Canada Provinces and Territories Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations 2016 Census 25 Sample Data www12 statcan gc ca Retrieved 2018 04 12 Census Profile 2016 Census 12 statcan gc ca 2011 Employment Equity Act 1995 c 44 Act current to Oct 20th 2010 Woolley Frances Visible Minorities Distinctly Canadian Worthwhile Canadian Initiative Retrieved May 26 2013 Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide 2006 Census Statcan Visible Minority Population and Population Group Reference Guide 2006 Census Catalogue no 97 562 GWE2006003 Statcan Mentzer M S January 2002 The Canadian experience with employment equity legislation International Journal of Value Based Management 15 1 35 50 doi 10 1023 A 1013021402597 ISSN 0895 8815 S2CID 141942497 Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination PDF United Nations United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination Retrieved 4 March 2017 Hamilton Graeme 2008 04 03 Visible minorities the new majority National Post Retrieved 2012 05 21 Mentzer Marc S John L Fizel 1992 Affirmative action and ethnic inequality in Canada The Impact of the Employment Equity Act of 1986 Ethnic Groups 9 4 203 217 ISSN 0308 6860 Hum Derek Wayne Simpson 2000 Not all visible minorities face labour market discrimination Policy Options Options Politiques 21 10 45 48 ISSN 0226 5893 Kobayashi Audrey 1993 Representing Ethnicity Political Statistexts Challenges of Measuring an Ethnic World Science Politics and Reality Washington DC Statistics Canada and U S Bureau of the Census U S Government Printing Office pp 513 525 ISBN 0 16 042049 0 Bauder Harald 2001 Visible minorities and urban analysis Canadian Journal of Urban Research 10 1 69 90 ISSN 1188 3774 External links EditLook up visible minority in Wiktionary the free dictionary Visible minority population and population group reference guide 2006 Census from Statistics Canada Visible minority population by census metropolitan areas 2006 Census from Statistics Canada Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Visible minority amp oldid 1049645061, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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