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Visigoths

The Visigoths (; Latin: Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people who, along with the Ostrogoths, constituted the two major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire in late antiquity, or what is known as the Migration Period. The Visigoths emerged from earlier Gothic groups, including a large group of Thervingi, who had moved into the Roman Empire beginning in 376 and had played a major role in defeating the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. Relations between the Romans and the Visigoths were variable, alternately warring with one another and making treaties when convenient. Under their first leader, Alaric I, they invaded Italy and sacked Rome in August 410. Afterwards, they began settling down, first in southern Gaul and eventually in Hispania, where they founded the Visigothic Kingdom and maintained a presence from the 5th to the 8th centuries AD.

Visigoths

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Further information: Name of the Goths

The Visigoths were never called Visigoths, only Goths, until Cassiodorus used the term, when referring to their loss against Clovis I in 507. Cassiodorus apparently invented the term based on the model of the "Ostrogoths", but using the older name of the Vesi, one of the tribal names which the 5th-century poet Sidonius Apollinaris had already used when referring to the Visigoths. The first part of the Ostrogoth name is related to the word "east", and Jordanes, the medieval writer, later clearly contrasted them in his Getica, stating that "Visigoths were the Goths of the western country." According to Wolfram, Cassiodorus created this east–west understanding of the Goths, which was a simplification and literary device, while political realities were more complex. Cassiodorus himself used the term "Goths" to refer only to the Ostrogoths, whom he served, and reserved the geographical term "Visigoths" for the Gallo-Spanish Goths. The term "Visigoths" was later used by the Visigoths themselves in their communications with the Byzantine Empire, and was still in use in the 7th century.

Europe in 305 AD

Two older tribal names from outside the Roman empire are associated with Visigoths who formed within the empire. The first references to any Gothic tribes by Roman and Greek authors were in the 3rd century, notably including the Thervingi, who were once referred to as Goths by Ammianus Marcellinus. Much less is known of the "Vesi" or "Visi", from whom the term "Visigoth" was derived. Before Sidonius Apollinaris, the Vesi were first mentioned in the Notitia Dignitatum, a late-4th- or early-5th-century list of Roman military forces. This list also contains the last mention of the "Thervingi" in a classical source.

Although he did not refer to the Vesi, Tervingi or Greuthungi, Jordanes identified the Visigothic kings from Alaric I to Alaric II as the successors of the 4th-century Tervingian king Athanaric, and the Ostrogoth kings from Theoderic the Great to Theodahad as the heirs of the Greuthungi king Ermanaric. Based on this, many scholars have traditionally treated the terms "Vesi" and "Tervingi" as referring to one distinct tribe, while the terms "Ostrogothi" and "Greuthungi" were used to refer to another.

Wolfram, who still recently defends the equation of Vesi with the Tervingi, argues that while primary sources occasionally list all four names (as in, for example, Gruthungi, Austrogothi, Tervingi, Visi), whenever they mention two different tribes, they always refer either to "the Vesi and the Ostrogothi" or to "the Tervingi and the Greuthungi", and they never pair them up in any other combination. In addition, Wolfram interprets the Notitia Dignitatum as equating the Vesi with the Tervingi in a reference to the years 388–391. On the other hand, another other recent interpretation of the Notitia is that the two names, Vesi and Tervingi, are found in different places in the list, "a clear indication that we are dealing with two different army units, which must also presumably mean that they are, after all, perceived as two different peoples". Peter Heather has written that Wolfram's position is "entirely arguable, but so is the opposite".

Gutthiuda[citation needed]

Wolfram believes that "Vesi" and "Ostrogothi" were terms each tribe used to boastfully describe itself and argues that "Tervingi" and "Greuthungi" were geographical identifiers each tribe used to describe the other. This would explain why the latter terms dropped out of use shortly after 400, when the Goths were displaced by the Hunnic invasions. Wolfram believes that the people Zosimus describes were those Tervingi who had remained behind after the Hunnic conquest. For the most part, all of the terms discriminating between different Gothic tribes gradually disappeared after they moved into the Roman Empire.

Many recent scholars, such as Peter Heather, have concluded that Visigothic group identity emerged only within the Roman Empire. Roger Collins also believes that the Visigothic identity emerged from the Gothic War of 376–382 when a collection of Tervingi, Greuthungi and other "barbarian" contingents banded together in multiethnic foederati (Wolfram's "federate armies") under Alaric I in the eastern Balkans, since they had become a multi ethnic group and could no longer claim to be exclusively Tervingian.

Other names for other Gothic divisions abounded. In 469, the Visigoths were called the "Alaric Goths". The Frankish Table of Nations, probably of Byzantine or Italian origin, referred to one of the two peoples as the Walagothi, meaning "Roman Goths" (from Germanic *walhaz, foreign). This probably refers to the Romanized Visigoths after their entry into Spain. Landolfus Sagax, writing in the 10th or 11th century, calls the Visigoths the Hypogothi.

Etymology of Tervingi and Vesi/Visigothi

The name Tervingi may mean "forest people", with the first part of the name related to Gothic triu, and English "tree". This is supported by evidence that geographic descriptors were commonly used to distinguish people living north of the Black Sea both before and after Gothic settlement there, by evidence of forest-related names among the Tervingi, and by the lack of evidence for an earlier date for the name pair Tervingi–Greuthungi than the late 3rd century. That the name Tervingi has pre-Pontic, possibly Scandinavian, origins still has support today.

The Visigoths are called Wesi or Wisi by Trebellius Pollio, Claudian and Sidonius Apollinaris. The word is Gothic for "good", implying the "good or worthy people", related to Gothic iusiza "better" and a reflex of Indo-European *wesu "good", akin to Welsh gwiw "excellent", Greek eus "good", Sanskrit vásu-ş "id.". Jordanes relates the tribe's name to a river, though this is most likely a folk etymology or legend like his similar story about the Greuthung name.

Migrations of the main column of the Visigoths

Early origins

The Visigoths emerged from the Gothic tribes, most likely a derivative name for the Gutones, a people believed to have their origins in Scandinavia and who migrated southeastwards into eastern Europe. Such understanding of their origins is largely the result of Gothic traditions and their true genesis as a people is as obscure as that of the Franks and Alamanni. The Visigoths spoke an eastern Germanic language that was distinct by the 4th century. Eventually the Gothic language died as a result of contact with other European people during the Middle Ages.

Long struggles between the neighboring Vandili and Lugii people with the Goths may have contributed to their earlier exodus into mainland Europe. The vast majority of them settled between the Oder and Vistula rivers until overpopulation (according to Gothic legends or tribal sagas) forced them to move south and east, where they settled just north of the Black Sea. However, this legend is not supported by archaeological evidence so its validity is disputable. Historian Malcolm Todd contends that while this large en masse migration is possible, the movement of Gothic peoples south-east was more likely the result of warrior bands moving closer to the wealth of Ukraine and the cities of the Black Sea coast. Perhaps what is most notable about the Gothic people in this regard was that by the middle of the 3rd century AD, they were "the most formidable military power beyond the lower Danube frontier".

Contact with Rome

Throughout the third and fourth centuries there were numerous conflicts and exchanges of varying types between the Goths and their neighbors. After the Romans withdrew from the territory of Dacia, the local population was subjected to constant invasions by the migratory tribes, among the first being the Goths. In 238, the Goths invaded across the Danube into the Roman province of Moesia, pillaging and exacting payment through hostage taking. During the war with the Persians that year, Goths also appeared in the Roman armies of Gordian III. When subsidies to the Goths were stopped, the Goths organized and in 250 joined a major barbarian invasion led by the Germanic king, Kniva. Success on the battlefield against the Romans inspired additional invasions into the northern Balkans and deeper into Anatolia. Starting in approximately 255, the Goths added a new dimension to their attacks by taking to the sea and invading harbors which brought them into conflict with the Greeks as well. When the city of Pityus fell to the Goths in 256, the Goths were further emboldened. Sometime between 266 and 267, the Goths raided Greece but when they attempted to move into the Bosporus straits to attack Byzantium, they were repulsed. Along with other Germanic tribes, they attacked further into Anatolia, assaulting Crete and Cyprus on the way; shortly thereafter, they pillaged Troy and the temple of Artemis at Ephesus. Throughout the reign of emperor Constantine the Great, the Visigoths continued to conduct raids on Roman territory south of the Danube River. By 332, relations between the Goths and Romans were stabilized by a treaty but this was not to last.

War with Rome (376–382)

The Goths remained in Dacia until 376, when one of their leaders, Fritigern, appealed to the Roman emperor Valens to be allowed to settle with his people on the south bank of the Danube. Here, they hoped to find refuge from the Huns. Valens permitted this, as he saw in them "a splendid recruiting ground for his army". However, a famine broke out and Rome was unwilling to supply them with either the food they were promised or the land. Generally, the Goths were abused by the Romans, who began forcing the now starving Goths to trade away their children so as to stave off starvation. Open revolt ensued, leading to 6 years of plundering throughout the Balkans, the death of a Roman Emperor and a disastrous defeat of the Roman army.

The Battle of Adrianople in 378 was the decisive moment of the war. The Roman forces were slaughtered and the Emperor Valens was killed during the fighting. Precisely how Valens fell remains uncertain but Gothic legend tells of how the emperor was taken to a farmhouse, which was set on fire above his head, a tale made more popular by its symbolic representation of a heretical emperor receiving hell's torment. Many of Rome's leading officers and some of their most elite fighting men died during the battle which struck a major blow to Roman prestige and the Empire's military capabilities. Adrianople shocked the Roman world and eventually forced the Romans to negotiate with and settle the tribe within the empire's boundaries, a development with far-reaching consequences for the eventual fall of Rome. Fourth-century Roman soldier and historian Ammianus Marcellinus ended his chronology of Roman history with this battle.

Despite the severe consequences for Rome, Adrianople was not nearly as productive overall for the Visigoths and their gains were short-lived. Still confined to a small and relatively impoverished province of the Empire, another Roman army was being gathered against them, an army which also had amid its ranks other disaffected Goths. Intense campaigns against the Visigoths followed their victory at Adrianople for upwards of three years. Approach routes across the Danube provinces were effectively sealed off by concerted Roman efforts, and while there was no decisive victory to claim, it was essentially a Roman triumph ending in a treaty in 382. The treaty struck with the Goths was to be the first foedus on imperial Roman soil. It required these semi-autonomous Germanic tribes to raise troops for the Roman army in exchange for arable land and freedom from Roman legal structures within the Empire.

Reign of Alaric I

An illustration of Alaric entering Athens in 395
Main article: Alaric I

The new emperor, Theodosius I, made peace with the rebels, and this peace held essentially unbroken until Theodosius died in 395. In that year, the Visigoths' most famous king, Alaric I, made a bid for the throne, but controversy and intrigue erupted between the East and West, as General Stilicho tried to maintain his position in the empire. Theodosius was succeeded by his incompetent sons: Arcadius in the east and Honorius in the west. In 397, Alaric was named military commander of the eastern Illyrian prefecture by Arcadius.

Over the next 15 years, an uneasy peace was broken by occasional conflicts between Alaric and the powerful Germanic generals who commanded the Roman armies in the east and west, wielding the real power of the empire. Finally, after the western general Stilicho was executed by Honorius in 408 and the Roman legions massacred the families of thousands of barbarian soldiers who were trying to assimilate into the Roman empire, Alaric decided to march on Rome. After two defeats in Northern Italy and a siege of Rome ended by a negotiated pay-off, Alaric was cheated by another Roman faction. He resolved to cut the city off by capturing its port. On August 24, 410, however, Alaric's troops entered Rome through the Salarian Gate, and sacked the city. However, Rome, while still the official capital, was no longer the de facto seat of the government of the Western Roman Empire. From the late 370s up to 402, Milan was the seat of government, but after the siege of Milan the Imperial Court moved to Ravenna in 402. Honorius visited Rome often, and after his death in 423 the emperors resided mostly there. Rome's fall severely shook the Empire's confidence, especially in the West. Loaded with booty, Alaric and the Visigoths extracted as much as they could with the intention of leaving Italy from Basilicata to northern Africa. Alaric died before the disembarkation and was buried supposedly near the ruins of Croton. He was succeeded by his wife's brother.

Visigothic Kingdom

Main article: Visigothic Kingdom
Europe at the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD

The Visigothic Kingdom was a Western European power in the 5th to 8th centuries, created first in Gaul, when the Romans lost their control of the western half of their empire and then in Hispania until 711. For a brief period, the Visigoths controlled the strongest kingdom in Western Europe. In response to the invasion of Roman Hispania of 409 by the Vandals, Alans and Suebi, Honorius, the emperor in the West, enlisted the aid of the Visigoths to regain control of the territory. From 408 to 410 the Visigoths caused so much damage to Rome and the immediate periphery that nearly a decade later, the provinces in and around the city were only able to contribute one-seventh of their previous tax shares.

In 418, Honorius rewarded his Visigothic federates by giving them land in Gallia Aquitania on which to settle after they had attacked the four tribes—Sueves, Asding and Siling Vandals, as well as Alans—who had crossed the Rhine near Mainz the last day of 409 and eventually were invited into Spain by a Roman usurper in the Fall of 409 (the latter two tribes were devastated). This was probably done under hospitalitas, the rules for billeting army soldiers. The settlement formed the nucleus of the future Visigothic kingdom that would eventually expand across the Pyrenees and onto the Iberian peninsula. That Visigothic settlement proved paramount to Europe's future as had it not been for the Visigothic warriors who fought side by side with the Roman troops under general Flavius Aetius, it is perhaps possible that Attila would have seized control of Gaul, rather than the Romans being able to retain dominance.

The Visigoths' second great king, Euric, unified the various quarreling factions among the Visigoths and, in 475, forced the Roman government to come to terms, but the emperor did not legally recognize Gothic sovereignty; instead the emperor was content to be called a friend (amicus) to the Visigoths, while requiring them to address him as lord (dominus). Between 471 and 476, Euric captured most of southern Gaul. According to historian J. B. Bury, Euric was probably the "greatest of the Visigothic kings" for he managed to secure territorial gains denied to his predecessors and even acquired access to the Mediterranean Sea. At his death, the Visigoths were the most powerful of the successor states to the Western Roman Empire and were at the very height of their power. Not only had Euric secured significant territory, he and his son, Alaric II, who succeeded him, adopted Roman administrative and bureaucratic governance, including Rome's tax gathering policies and legal codes.

Greatest extent of the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse in light and dark orange, c. 500. From 585 to 711 Visigothic Kingdom of Toledo in dark orange, green and white (Hispania)

At this point, the Visigoths were also the dominant power in the Iberian Peninsula, quickly crushing the Alans and forcing the Vandals into north Africa. By 500, the Visigothic Kingdom, centred at Toulouse, controlled Aquitania and Gallia Narbonensis and most of Hispania with the exception of the Kingdom of the Suebi in the northwest and small areas controlled by the Basques and Cantabrians. Any survey of western Europe taken during this moment would have led one to conclude that the very future of Europe itself "depended on the Visigoths". However, in 507, the Franks under Clovis I defeated the Visigoths in the Battle of Vouillé and wrested control of Aquitaine. King Alaric II was killed in battle. French national myths romanticize this moment as the time when a previously divided Gaul morphed into the united kingdom of Francia under Clovis.

Visigothic power throughout Gaul was not lost in its entirety due to the support from the powerful Ostrogothic king in Italy, Theodoric the Great, whose forces pushed Clovis I and his armies out of Visigothic territories. Theodoric the Great's assistance was not some expression of ethnic altruism, but formed part of his plan to extend his power across Spain and its associated lands.

After Alaric II's death, Visigothic nobles spirited his heir, the child-king Amalaric, first to Narbonne, which was the last Gothic outpost in Gaul, and further across the Pyrenees into Hispania. The center of Visigothic rule shifted first to Barcelona, then inland and south to Toledo. From 511 to 526, the Visigoths were ruled by Theoderic the Great of the Ostrogoths as de jure regent for the young Amalaric. Theodoric's death in 526, however, enabled the Visigoths to restore their royal line and re-partition the Visigothic kingdom through Amalaric, who incidentally, was more than just Alaric II's son; he was also the grandson of Theodoric the Great through his daughter Theodegotho. Amalaric reigned independently for five years. Following Amalaric's assassination in 531, another Ostrogothic ruler, Theudis took his place. For the next seventeen years, Theudis held the Visigothic throne.

Sometime in 549, the Visigoth Athanagild sought military assistance from Justinian I and while this aide helped Athanagild win his wars, the Romans had much more in mind. Granada and southernmost Baetica were lost to representatives of the Byzantine Empire (to form the province of Spania) who had been invited in to help settle this Visigothic dynastic struggle, but who stayed on, as a hoped-for spearhead to a "Reconquest" of the far west envisaged by emperor Justinian I. Imperial Roman armies took advantage of Visigothic rivalries and established a government at Córdoba.

Visigothic Hispania and its regional divisions in 700, before the Muslim conquest

The last Arian Visigothic king, Liuvigild, conquered most of the northern regions (Cantabria) in 574, the Suevic kingdom in 584, and regained part of the southern areas lost to the Byzantines, which King Suintila recovered in 624. Suintila reigned until 631. Only one historical source was written between the years 625 through 711, which comes from Julian of Toledo and only deals with the years 672 and 673. Wamba was the king of the Visigoths from 672 to 680. During his reign, the Visigothic kingdom encompassed all of Hispania and part of southern Gaul known as Septimania. Wamba was succeeded by King Ervig, whose rule lasted until 687. Collins observes that "Ervig proclaimed Egica as his chosen successor" on 14 November 687. In 700, Egica's son Wittiza followed him on the throne according to the Chronica Regum Visigothorum.

The kingdom survived until 711, when King Roderic (Rodrigo) was killed while opposing an invasion from the south by the Umayyad Caliphate in the Battle of Guadalete. This marked the beginning of the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, when most of Spain came under Islamic rule in the early 8th century.

A Visigothic nobleman, Pelayo, is credited with beginning the Christian Reconquista of Iberia in 718, when he defeated the Umayyad forces in the Battle of Covadonga and established the Kingdom of Asturias in the northern part of the peninsula. According to Joseph F. O'Callaghan, the remnants of the Hispano-Gothic aristocracy still played an important role in the society of Hispania. At the end of Visigothic rule, the assimilation of Hispano-Romans and Visigoths was occurring at a fast pace. Their nobility had begun to think of themselves as constituting one people, the gens Gothorum or the Hispani. An unknown number of them fled and took refuge in Asturias or Septimania. In Asturias they supported Pelagius's uprising, and joining with the indigenous leaders, formed a new aristocracy. The population of the mountain region consisted of native Astures, Galicians, Cantabri, Basques and other groups unassimilated into Hispano-Gothic society. Other Visigoths who refused to adopt the Muslim faith or live under their rule, fled north to the kingdom of the Franks, and Visigoths played key roles in the empire of Charlemagne a few generations later. In the early years of the Emirate of Córdoba, a group of Visigoths who remained under Muslim dominance constituted the personal bodyguard of the Emir, al-Haras.

During their long reign in Spain, the Visigoths were responsible for the only new cities founded in Western Europe between the 5th and 8th centuries. It is certain (through contemporary Spanish accounts) that they founded four: Reccopolis, Victoriacum (modern Vitoria-Gasteiz, though perhaps Iruña-Veleia), Luceo and Olite. There is also a possible fifth city ascribed to them by a later Arabic source: Baiyara (perhaps modern Montoro). All of these cities were founded for military purposes and three of them in celebration of victory. Despite the fact that the Visigoths reigned in Spain for upwards of 250 years, there are few remnants of the Gothic language borrowed into Spanish. The Visigoths as heirs of the Roman empire lost their language and intermarried with the Hispano-Roman population of Spain.

A genetic study published in Science in March 2019 examined the remains of eight Visigoths buried at Pla de l'Horta in the 6th century. These individuals displayed genetic links to northern and central Europe.

Law

The Visigothic Code of Law (Latin: Forum Iudicum), also called Liber Iudiciorum ( English: Book of the Judges) and Lex Visigothorum (English: Law of the Visigoths), is a set of laws first promulgated by king Chindasuinth (642–653 AD) which had been part of aristocratic oral tradition, was set in writing in the year 654 and survives in two separate codices preserved at el Escorial (Spain). It goes into more detail than a modern constitution commonly does and reveals a great deal about Visigothic social structure. The code abolished the old tradition of having different laws for Romans (leges romanae) and Visigoths (leges barbarorum), and under which all the subjects of the Visigothic kingdom ceased being romani and gothi and instead became hispani. All the kingdom's subjects were under the same jurisdiction, which eliminated social and legal differences and facilitated greater assimilation of the various population groups. The Visigothic Code marks the transition from Roman law to Germanic law.

One of the greatest contributions of the Visigoths to family law was their protection of the property rights of married women, which was continued by Spanish law and ultimately evolved into the community property system now in force throughout the majority of western Europe.

Religion

Before the Middle Ages, the Visigoths, as well as other Germanic peoples, followed what is now referred to as Germanic paganism. While the Germanic peoples were slowly converted to Christianity by varying means, many elements of the pre-Christian culture and indigenous beliefs remained firmly in place after the conversion process, particularly in the more rural and distant regions.

The Visigoths, Ostrogoths and Vandals were Christianized while they were still outside the bounds of the Roman Empire; however, they converted to Arianism rather than to the Nicene version (Trinitarianism) followed by most Romans, who considered them heretics. There was a religious gulf between the Visigoths, who had for a long time adhered to Arianism, and their Catholic subjects in Hispania. There were also deep sectarian splits among the Catholic population of the peninsula which contributed to the toleration of the Arian Visigoths on the peninsula. The Visigoths scorned to interfere among Catholics but were interested in decorum and public order. King Liuvigild (568–586), attempted to restore political unity between the Visigothic-Arian elite and the Hispano-Roman Nicene Catholic population through a doctrinal settlement of compromise on matters of faith, but this failed. Sources indicate that the Iberian Visigoths maintained their Christian Arianism, especially the Visigothic elite until the end of Liuvigild's reign. When Reccared I converted to Catholicism, he sought to unify the kingdom under a single faith.

Capital from the Visigothic church of San Pedro de la Nave, province of Zamora

While the Visigoths retained their Arian faith, the Jews were well tolerated. Previous Roman and Byzantine law determined their status, and it already sharply discriminated against them, but royal jurisdiction was in any case quite limited: local lords and populations related to Jews as they saw fit. We read of rabbis being asked by non-Jews to bless their fields, for example. Historian Jane Gerber relates that some of the Jews "held ranking posts in the government or the army; others were recruited and organized for garrison service; still others continued to hold senatorial rank". In general, then, they were well respected and well treated by the Visigothic kings, that is, until their transition from Arianism to Catholicism. Conversion to Catholicism across Visigothic society reduced much of the friction between the Visigoths and the Hispano-Roman population. However, the Visigothic conversion negatively impacted the Jews, who came under scrutiny for their religious practices.

King Reccared convened the Third Council of Toledo to settle religious disputations related to the religious conversion from Arianism to Catholicism. The discriminatory laws passed at this Council seem not to have been universally enforced, however, as indicated by several more Councils of Toledo that repeated these laws and extended their stringency. These entered canon law and became legal precedents in other parts of Europe as well. The culmination of this process occurred under King Sisibut, who officially decreed a forced Christian conversion upon all Jews residing in Spain. This mandate apparently achieved only partial success: similar decrees were repeated by later kings as central power was consolidated. These laws either prescribed forcible baptism of the Jews or forbade circumcision, Jewish rites, and the observance of the Sabbath and other festivals. Throughout the 7th century the Jews were persecuted for religious reasons, had their property confiscated, were subjected to ruinous taxes, forbidden to trade and, at times, dragged to the baptismal font. Many were obliged to accept Christianity but continued privately to observe the Jewish religion and practices. The decree of 613 set off a century of difficulty for Spanish Jewry, which was only ended by the Muslim conquest.

The political aspects of the imposition of Church power cannot be ignored in these matters. With the conversion of the Visigothic kings to Chalcedonian Christianity, the bishops increased their power, until, at the Fourth Council of Toledo in 633, they selected a king from among the royal family, a practice previously reserved for nobles. This was the same synod that spoke out against those who had been baptized but had relapsed into Judaism. As far as the Visigoths were concerned, the time for religious pluralism "was past". By the end of the 7th century, Catholic conversion made the Visigoths less distinguishable from the indigenous Roman citizens of the Iberian peninsula; when the last Visigothic strongholds fell to the Muslim armies, whose subsequent invasions transformed Spain from the beginning of the 8th century, their Gothic identity faded.

In the eighth through 11th centuries, the muwallad clan of the Banu Qasi claimed descent from the Visigothic Count Cassius.

Visigothic church – San Pedro de la Nave in Zamora, Spain

During their governance of Hispania, the Visigoths built several churches in the basilical or cruciform style that survive, including the churches of San Pedro de la Nave in El Campillo, Santa María de Melque in San Martín de Montalbán, Santa Lucía del Trampal in Alcuéscar, Santa Comba in Bande, and Santa María de Lara in Quintanilla de las Viñas. The Visigothic crypt (the Crypt of San Antolín) in the Palencia Cathedral is a Visigothic chapel from the mid-7th century, built during the reign of Wamba to preserve the remains of the martyr Saint Antoninus of Pamiers, a Visigothic-Gallic nobleman brought from Narbonne to Visigothic Hispania in 672 or 673 by Wamba himself. These are the only remains of the Visigothic cathedral of Palencia.

Reccopolis, located near the tiny modern village of Zorita de los Canes in the province of Guadalajara, Castile-La Mancha, Spain, is an archaeological site of one of at least four cities founded in Hispania by the Visigoths. It is the only city in Western Europe to have been founded between the fifth and eighth centuries. The city's construction was ordered by the Visigothic king Liuvigild to honor his son Reccared and to serve as Reccared's seat as co-king in the Visigothic province of Celtiberia, to the west of Carpetania, where the main capital, Toledo, lay.

The Pietroasele Treasure discovered in Romania, attributed to the Visigoths

In Spain, an important collection of Visigothic metalwork was found in Guadamur, in the Province of Toledo, known as the Treasure of Guarrazar. This archeological find is composed of twenty-six votive crowns and gold crosses from the royal workshop in Toledo, with signs of Byzantine influence. According to Spanish archaeologists, this treasure represents the high point of Visigothic goldsmithery. The two most important votive crowns are those of Recceswinth and of Suintila, displayed in the National Archaeological Museum of Madrid; both are made of gold, encrusted with sapphires, pearls and other precious stones. Suintila's crown was stolen in 1921 and never recovered. There are several other small crowns and many votive crosses in the treasure.

These findings, along with others from some neighbouring sites and with the archaeological excavation of the Spanish Ministry of Public Works and the Royal Spanish Academy of History (April 1859), formed a group consisting of:

The aquiliform (eagle-shaped) fibulae that have been discovered in necropolises such as Duratón, Madrona or Castiltierra (cities of Segovia), are an unmistakable example of the Visigothic presence in Spain. These fibulae were used individually or in pairs, as clasps or pins in gold, bronze and glass to join clothes, showing the work of the goldsmiths of Visigothic Hispania.

Visigothic belt buckle. Copper alloy with garnets, glass and inclusion of lapis lazuli. The Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York)

The Visigothic belt buckles, a symbol of rank and status characteristic of Visigothic women's clothing, are also notable as works of goldsmithery. Some pieces contain exceptional Byzantine-style lapis lazuli inlays and are generally rectangular in shape, with copper alloy, garnets and glass.

    Notes

    1. Pair of Eagle Fibula Walters Art Museum
    2. The first R is held at the Musée de Cluny, Paris.
    3. Other sources dispute the contents of the supposed "treaty" and claim it was a Gothic surrender.
    4. The Words such as: werra > guerra (war), falda > falda (skirt) and skankjan > escanciar (to pour out); See: La época visigoda Susana Rodríguez Rosique (spanish) in Cervantes Virtual. Accessed 15 October 2017.
    5. The linguistic remnants of the Gothic people in Spain are sparse. A few place names and a mere handful of well-known "Spanish" first names, such as Alfonso, Fernando, Gonzalo, Elvira, and Rodrigo are of Germanic (Visigothic) origin.
    6. At least one high-ranking Visigoth, Zerezindo, dux of Baetica, was a Catholic in the mid-6th century.
    7. Cf. the extensive accounts of Visigothic Jewish history by Heinrich Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. 3 (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1956 reprint [1894]), pp. 43–52 (on Sisibut, pp. 47–49); Salo W. Baron, A Social and Religious History of the Jews, Vol. 3 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1957), pp. 33–46 (on Sisibut pp. 37–38); N. Roth, Jews, Visigoths and Muslims in Medieval Spain: Cooperation and Conflict (Leiden: Brill, 1994), pp. 7–40; Ram Ben-Shalom, "Medieval Jewry in Christendom," in M. Goodman, J. Cohen and D. Sorkin, The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Studies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 156.
    8. According to E. A Thompson, "The Barbarian Kingdoms in Gaul and Spain", Nottingham Mediaeval Studies, 7 (1963:4n11), the others were (i) Victoriacum, founded by Leovigild and may survive as the city of Vitoria, but a twelfth-century foundation for this city is given in contemporary sources, (ii) Lugo id est Luceo in the Asturias, referred to by Isidore of Seville, and (iii) Ologicus (perhaps Ologitis), founded using Basque labour in 621 by Suinthila as a fortification against the Basques, is modern Olite. All of these cities were founded for military purposes and at least Reccopolis, Victoriacum, and Ologicus in celebration of victory. A possible fifth Visigothic foundation is Baiyara (perhaps modern Montoro), mentioned as founded by Reccared in the fifteenth-century geographical account, Kitab al-Rawd al-Mitar, cf. José María Lacarra, "Panorama de la historia urbana en la Península Ibérica desde el siglo V al X," La città nell'alto medioevo, 6 (1958:319–358). Reprinted in Estudios de alta edad media española (Valencia: 1975), pp. 25–90.
    9. Important findings have also been made in the Visigothic necropolis of Castiltierra (Segovia) in Spain. See the following downloadable pdf from the National Archaeological Museum-Museo Arqueológico Nacional of Spain for more information: http://www.man.es/man/dam/jcr:eb7fea42-15c8-4b6b-b18c-4d940b2656a5/2018-castiltierra-ii.pdf

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    Wikimedia Commons has media related toVisigoths.

    Visigoths
    Visigoths Language Watch Edit The Visigoths ˈ v ɪ z ɪ ɡ ɒ 8 s Latin Visigothi Wisigothi Vesi Visi Wesi Wisi were an early Germanic people who along with the Ostrogoths constituted the two major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire in late antiquity or what is known as the Migration Period The Visigoths emerged from earlier Gothic groups including a large group of Thervingi who had moved into the Roman Empire beginning in 376 and had played a major role in defeating the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378 1 Relations between the Romans and the Visigoths were variable alternately warring with one another and making treaties when convenient 2 Under their first leader Alaric I they invaded Italy and sacked Rome in August 410 Afterwards they began settling down first in southern Gaul and eventually in Hispania where they founded the Visigothic Kingdom and maintained a presence from the 5th to the 8th centuries AD 3 VisigothsVisigothiThe eagles represented on these fibulae from the 6th century and found in Tierra de Barros Badajoz were a popular symbol among the Goths in Spain a ReligionGothic paganism Arianism Roman Catholicism Roman paganismRelated ethnic groupsOstrogoths Crimean Goths GepidsDetail of the votive crown of Reccesuinth from the Treasure of Guarrazar Toledo Spain hanging in Madrid The hanging letters spell R ECCESVINTHVS REX OFFERET King R offers this b The Visigoths first settled in southern Gaul as foederati to the Romans a relationship that was established in 418 However they soon fell out with their Roman hosts for reasons that are now obscure and established their own kingdom with its capital at Toulouse They next extended their authority into Hispania at the expense of the Suebi and Vandals In 507 however their rule in Gaul was ended by the Franks under Clovis I who defeated them in the Battle of Vouille After that the Visigoth kingdom was limited to Hispania and they never again held territory north of the Pyrenees other than Septimania An elite group of Visigoths came to dominate the governance of that region at the expense of those who had previously ruled there particularly in the Byzantine province of Spania and the Kingdom of the Suebi In or around 589 the Visigoths under Reccared I converted from Arianism to Nicene Christianity gradually adopting the culture of their Hispano Roman subjects 4 Their legal code the Visigothic Code completed in 654 abolished the longstanding practice of applying different laws for Romans and Visigoths Once legal distinctions were no longer being made between Romani and Gothi they became known collectively as Hispani In the century that followed the region was dominated by the Councils of Toledo and the episcopacy Little else is known about the Visigoths history during the 7th century since records are relatively sparse In 711 an invading force of Arabs and Berbers defeated the Visigoths in the Battle of Guadalete Their king Roderic and many members of their governing elite were killed and their kingdom rapidly collapsed 5 This was followed by the subsequent formation of the Kingdom of Asturias in northern Spain and the beginning of the Reconquista by Christian troops under Pelagius 6 During their governance of Hispania the Visigoths built several churches that survived They also left many artifacts which have been discovered in increasing numbers by archaeologists in recent years The Treasure of Guarrazar of votive crowns and crosses are the most spectacular They founded the only new cities in western Europe from the fall of the Western half of the Roman Empire until the rise of the Carolingian dynasty Many Visigothic names are still in use in modern Spanish and Portuguese languages Their most notable legacy however was the Visigothic Code which served among other things as the basis for court procedure in most of Christian Iberia until the Late Middle Ages centuries after the demise of the kingdom Contents 1 Nomenclature Vesi Tervingi Visigoths 1 1 Etymology of Tervingi and Vesi Visigothi 2 History 2 1 Early origins 2 1 1 Contact with Rome 2 2 War with Rome 376 382 2 3 Reign of Alaric I 2 4 Visigothic Kingdom 3 Genetics 4 Culture 4 1 Law 4 2 Religion 5 Architecture 6 Goldsmithery 7 See also 8 References 8 1 Notes 8 2 Citations 9 Bibliography 10 External linksNomenclature Vesi Tervingi Visigoths EditFurther information Name of the Goths The Visigoths were never called Visigoths only Goths until Cassiodorus used the term when referring to their loss against Clovis I in 507 Cassiodorus apparently invented the term based on the model of the Ostrogoths but using the older name of the Vesi one of the tribal names which the 5th century poet Sidonius Apollinaris had already used when referring to the Visigoths 7 8 The first part of the Ostrogoth name is related to the word east and Jordanes the medieval writer later clearly contrasted them in his Getica stating that Visigoths were the Goths of the western country 9 According to Wolfram Cassiodorus created this east west understanding of the Goths which was a simplification and literary device while political realities were more complex 10 Cassiodorus himself used the term Goths to refer only to the Ostrogoths whom he served and reserved the geographical term Visigoths for the Gallo Spanish Goths The term Visigoths was later used by the Visigoths themselves in their communications with the Byzantine Empire and was still in use in the 7th century 10 Europe in 305 AD Two older tribal names from outside the Roman empire are associated with Visigoths who formed within the empire The first references to any Gothic tribes by Roman and Greek authors were in the 3rd century notably including the Thervingi who were once referred to as Goths by Ammianus Marcellinus 11 Much less is known of the Vesi or Visi from whom the term Visigoth was derived Before Sidonius Apollinaris the Vesi were first mentioned in the Notitia Dignitatum a late 4th or early 5th century list of Roman military forces This list also contains the last mention of the Thervingi in a classical source 11 Although he did not refer to the Vesi Tervingi or Greuthungi Jordanes identified the Visigothic kings from Alaric I to Alaric II as the successors of the 4th century Tervingian king Athanaric and the Ostrogoth kings from Theoderic the Great to Theodahad as the heirs of the Greuthungi king Ermanaric 12 Based on this many scholars have traditionally treated the terms Vesi and Tervingi as referring to one distinct tribe while the terms Ostrogothi and Greuthungi were used to refer to another 13 Wolfram who still recently defends the equation of Vesi with the Tervingi argues that while primary sources occasionally list all four names as in for example Gruthungi Austrogothi Tervingi Visi whenever they mention two different tribes they always refer either to the Vesi and the Ostrogothi or to the Tervingi and the Greuthungi and they never pair them up in any other combination In addition Wolfram interprets the Notitia Dignitatum as equating the Vesi with the Tervingi in a reference to the years 388 391 14 On the other hand another other recent interpretation of the Notitia is that the two names Vesi and Tervingi are found in different places in the list a clear indication that we are dealing with two different army units which must also presumably mean that they are after all perceived as two different peoples 7 Peter Heather has written that Wolfram s position is entirely arguable but so is the opposite 15 Gutthiuda citation needed Wolfram believes that Vesi and Ostrogothi were terms each tribe used to boastfully describe itself and argues that Tervingi and Greuthungi were geographical identifiers each tribe used to describe the other 8 This would explain why the latter terms dropped out of use shortly after 400 when the Goths were displaced by the Hunnic invasions 16 Wolfram believes that the people Zosimus describes were those Tervingi who had remained behind after the Hunnic conquest 17 For the most part all of the terms discriminating between different Gothic tribes gradually disappeared after they moved into the Roman Empire 8 Many recent scholars such as Peter Heather have concluded that Visigothic group identity emerged only within the Roman Empire 18 Roger Collins also believes that the Visigothic identity emerged from the Gothic War of 376 382 when a collection of Tervingi Greuthungi and other barbarian contingents banded together in multiethnic foederati Wolfram s federate armies under Alaric I in the eastern Balkans since they had become a multi ethnic group and could no longer claim to be exclusively Tervingian 19 Other names for other Gothic divisions abounded In 469 the Visigoths were called the Alaric Goths 10 The Frankish Table of Nations probably of Byzantine or Italian origin referred to one of the two peoples as the Walagothi meaning Roman Goths from Germanic walhaz foreign This probably refers to the Romanized Visigoths after their entry into Spain 20 Landolfus Sagax writing in the 10th or 11th century calls the Visigoths the Hypogothi 21 Etymology of Tervingi and Vesi Visigothi Edit The name Tervingi may mean forest people with the first part of the name related to Gothic triu and English tree 8 This is supported by evidence that geographic descriptors were commonly used to distinguish people living north of the Black Sea both before and after Gothic settlement there by evidence of forest related names among the Tervingi and by the lack of evidence for an earlier date for the name pair Tervingi Greuthungi than the late 3rd century 22 That the name Tervingi has pre Pontic possibly Scandinavian origins still has support today 23 The Visigoths are called Wesi or Wisi by Trebellius Pollio Claudian and Sidonius Apollinaris 24 The word is Gothic for good implying the good or worthy people 8 related to Gothic iusiza better and a reflex of Indo European wesu good akin to Welsh gwiw excellent Greek eus good Sanskrit vasu s id Jordanes relates the tribe s name to a river though this is most likely a folk etymology or legend like his similar story about the Greuthung name 23 History Edit Migrations of the main column of the Visigoths Early origins Edit The Visigoths emerged from the Gothic tribes most likely a derivative name for the Gutones a people believed to have their origins in Scandinavia and who migrated southeastwards into eastern Europe 25 Such understanding of their origins is largely the result of Gothic traditions and their true genesis as a people is as obscure as that of the Franks and Alamanni 26 The Visigoths spoke an eastern Germanic language that was distinct by the 4th century Eventually the Gothic language died as a result of contact with other European people during the Middle Ages 27 Long struggles between the neighboring Vandili and Lugii people with the Goths may have contributed to their earlier exodus into mainland Europe The vast majority of them settled between the Oder and Vistula rivers until overpopulation according to Gothic legends or tribal sagas forced them to move south and east where they settled just north of the Black Sea 28 However this legend is not supported by archaeological evidence so its validity is disputable Historian Malcolm Todd contends that while this large en masse migration is possible the movement of Gothic peoples south east was more likely the result of warrior bands moving closer to the wealth of Ukraine and the cities of the Black Sea coast Perhaps what is most notable about the Gothic people in this regard was that by the middle of the 3rd century AD they were the most formidable military power beyond the lower Danube frontier 29 30 Contact with Rome Edit Throughout the third and fourth centuries there were numerous conflicts and exchanges of varying types between the Goths and their neighbors After the Romans withdrew from the territory of Dacia the local population was subjected to constant invasions by the migratory tribes among the first being the Goths 31 In 238 the Goths invaded across the Danube into the Roman province of Moesia pillaging and exacting payment through hostage taking During the war with the Persians that year Goths also appeared in the Roman armies of Gordian III 32 When subsidies to the Goths were stopped the Goths organized and in 250 joined a major barbarian invasion led by the Germanic king Kniva 32 Success on the battlefield against the Romans inspired additional invasions into the northern Balkans and deeper into Anatolia 33 Starting in approximately 255 the Goths added a new dimension to their attacks by taking to the sea and invading harbors which brought them into conflict with the Greeks as well When the city of Pityus fell to the Goths in 256 the Goths were further emboldened Sometime between 266 and 267 the Goths raided Greece but when they attempted to move into the Bosporus straits to attack Byzantium they were repulsed Along with other Germanic tribes they attacked further into Anatolia assaulting Crete and Cyprus on the way shortly thereafter they pillaged Troy and the temple of Artemis at Ephesus 34 Throughout the reign of emperor Constantine the Great the Visigoths continued to conduct raids on Roman territory south of the Danube River 27 By 332 relations between the Goths and Romans were stabilized by a treaty but this was not to last 35 War with Rome 376 382 Edit Main article Gothic War 376 382 The Goths remained in Dacia until 376 when one of their leaders Fritigern appealed to the Roman emperor Valens to be allowed to settle with his people on the south bank of the Danube Here they hoped to find refuge from the Huns 36 Valens permitted this as he saw in them a splendid recruiting ground for his army 37 However a famine broke out and Rome was unwilling to supply them with either the food they were promised or the land Generally the Goths were abused by the Romans 38 who began forcing the now starving Goths to trade away their children so as to stave off starvation 39 Open revolt ensued leading to 6 years of plundering throughout the Balkans the death of a Roman Emperor and a disastrous defeat of the Roman army 40 The Battle of Adrianople in 378 was the decisive moment of the war The Roman forces were slaughtered and the Emperor Valens was killed during the fighting 41 Precisely how Valens fell remains uncertain but Gothic legend tells of how the emperor was taken to a farmhouse which was set on fire above his head a tale made more popular by its symbolic representation of a heretical emperor receiving hell s torment 42 Many of Rome s leading officers and some of their most elite fighting men died during the battle which struck a major blow to Roman prestige and the Empire s military capabilities 43 Adrianople shocked the Roman world and eventually forced the Romans to negotiate with and settle the tribe within the empire s boundaries a development with far reaching consequences for the eventual fall of Rome Fourth century Roman soldier and historian Ammianus Marcellinus ended his chronology of Roman history with this battle 44 Despite the severe consequences for Rome Adrianople was not nearly as productive overall for the Visigoths and their gains were short lived Still confined to a small and relatively impoverished province of the Empire another Roman army was being gathered against them an army which also had amid its ranks other disaffected Goths 45 Intense campaigns against the Visigoths followed their victory at Adrianople for upwards of three years Approach routes across the Danube provinces were effectively sealed off by concerted Roman efforts and while there was no decisive victory to claim it was essentially a Roman triumph ending in a treaty in 382 The treaty struck with the Goths was to be the first foedus on imperial Roman soil It required these semi autonomous Germanic tribes to raise troops for the Roman army in exchange for arable land and freedom from Roman legal structures within the Empire 46 c Reign of Alaric I Edit An illustration of Alaric entering Athens in 395 Main article Alaric I The new emperor Theodosius I made peace with the rebels and this peace held essentially unbroken until Theodosius died in 395 48 In that year the Visigoths most famous king Alaric I made a bid for the throne but controversy and intrigue erupted between the East and West as General Stilicho tried to maintain his position in the empire 49 Theodosius was succeeded by his incompetent sons Arcadius in the east and Honorius in the west In 397 Alaric was named military commander of the eastern Illyrian prefecture by Arcadius 38 Over the next 15 years an uneasy peace was broken by occasional conflicts between Alaric and the powerful Germanic generals who commanded the Roman armies in the east and west wielding the real power of the empire 50 Finally after the western general Stilicho was executed by Honorius in 408 and the Roman legions massacred the families of thousands of barbarian soldiers who were trying to assimilate into the Roman empire Alaric decided to march on Rome 51 After two defeats in Northern Italy and a siege of Rome ended by a negotiated pay off Alaric was cheated by another Roman faction He resolved to cut the city off by capturing its port On August 24 410 however Alaric s troops entered Rome through the Salarian Gate and sacked the city 52 However Rome while still the official capital was no longer the de facto seat of the government of the Western Roman Empire From the late 370s up to 402 Milan was the seat of government but after the siege of Milan the Imperial Court moved to Ravenna in 402 Honorius visited Rome often and after his death in 423 the emperors resided mostly there Rome s fall severely shook the Empire s confidence especially in the West Loaded with booty Alaric and the Visigoths extracted as much as they could with the intention of leaving Italy from Basilicata to northern Africa Alaric died before the disembarkation and was buried supposedly near the ruins of Croton He was succeeded by his wife s brother 53 Visigothic Kingdom Edit Main article Visigothic Kingdom Europe at the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD The Visigothic Kingdom was a Western European power in the 5th to 8th centuries created first in Gaul when the Romans lost their control of the western half of their empire and then in Hispania until 711 For a brief period the Visigoths controlled the strongest kingdom in Western Europe 54 In response to the invasion of Roman Hispania of 409 by the Vandals Alans and Suebi Honorius the emperor in the West enlisted the aid of the Visigoths to regain control of the territory From 408 to 410 the Visigoths caused so much damage to Rome and the immediate periphery that nearly a decade later the provinces in and around the city were only able to contribute one seventh of their previous tax shares 55 In 418 Honorius rewarded his Visigothic federates by giving them land in Gallia Aquitania on which to settle after they had attacked the four tribes Sueves Asding and Siling Vandals as well as Alans who had crossed the Rhine near Mainz the last day of 409 and eventually were invited into Spain by a Roman usurper in the Fall of 409 the latter two tribes were devastated This was probably done under hospitalitas the rules for billeting army soldiers 56 The settlement formed the nucleus of the future Visigothic kingdom that would eventually expand across the Pyrenees and onto the Iberian peninsula That Visigothic settlement proved paramount to Europe s future as had it not been for the Visigothic warriors who fought side by side with the Roman troops under general Flavius Aetius it is perhaps possible that Attila would have seized control of Gaul rather than the Romans being able to retain dominance 57 The Visigoths second great king Euric unified the various quarreling factions among the Visigoths and in 475 forced the Roman government to come to terms but the emperor did not legally recognize Gothic sovereignty instead the emperor was content to be called a friend amicus to the Visigoths while requiring them to address him as lord dominus 58 Between 471 and 476 Euric captured most of southern Gaul 59 According to historian J B Bury Euric was probably the greatest of the Visigothic kings for he managed to secure territorial gains denied to his predecessors and even acquired access to the Mediterranean Sea 60 At his death the Visigoths were the most powerful of the successor states to the Western Roman Empire and were at the very height of their power 61 Not only had Euric secured significant territory he and his son Alaric II who succeeded him adopted Roman administrative and bureaucratic governance including Rome s tax gathering policies and legal codes 62 Greatest extent of the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse in light and dark orange c 500 From 585 to 711 Visigothic Kingdom of Toledo in dark orange green and white Hispania At this point the Visigoths were also the dominant power in the Iberian Peninsula quickly crushing the Alans and forcing the Vandals into north Africa 63 By 500 the Visigothic Kingdom centred at Toulouse controlled Aquitania and Gallia Narbonensis and most of Hispania with the exception of the Kingdom of the Suebi in the northwest and small areas controlled by the Basques and Cantabrians 64 Any survey of western Europe taken during this moment would have led one to conclude that the very future of Europe itself depended on the Visigoths 65 However in 507 the Franks under Clovis I defeated the Visigoths in the Battle of Vouille and wrested control of Aquitaine 66 King Alaric II was killed in battle 61 French national myths romanticize this moment as the time when a previously divided Gaul morphed into the united kingdom of Francia under Clovis 67 Visigothic power throughout Gaul was not lost in its entirety due to the support from the powerful Ostrogothic king in Italy Theodoric the Great whose forces pushed Clovis I and his armies out of Visigothic territories 66 Theodoric the Great s assistance was not some expression of ethnic altruism but formed part of his plan to extend his power across Spain and its associated lands 66 After Alaric II s death Visigothic nobles spirited his heir the child king Amalaric first to Narbonne which was the last Gothic outpost in Gaul and further across the Pyrenees into Hispania The center of Visigothic rule shifted first to Barcelona then inland and south to Toledo 68 From 511 to 526 the Visigoths were ruled by Theoderic the Great of the Ostrogoths as de jure regent for the young Amalaric Theodoric s death in 526 however enabled the Visigoths to restore their royal line and re partition the Visigothic kingdom through Amalaric who incidentally was more than just Alaric II s son he was also the grandson of Theodoric the Great through his daughter Theodegotho 69 Amalaric reigned independently for five years 70 Following Amalaric s assassination in 531 another Ostrogothic ruler Theudis took his place 63 For the next seventeen years Theudis held the Visigothic throne 71 Sometime in 549 the Visigoth Athanagild sought military assistance from Justinian I and while this aide helped Athanagild win his wars the Romans had much more in mind 63 Granada and southernmost Baetica were lost to representatives of the Byzantine Empire to form the province of Spania who had been invited in to help settle this Visigothic dynastic struggle but who stayed on as a hoped for spearhead to a Reconquest of the far west envisaged by emperor Justinian I 72 Imperial Roman armies took advantage of Visigothic rivalries and established a government at Cordoba 73 Visigothic Hispania and its regional divisions in 700 before the Muslim conquest The last Arian Visigothic king Liuvigild conquered most of the northern regions Cantabria in 574 the Suevic kingdom in 584 and regained part of the southern areas lost to the Byzantines 74 which King Suintila recovered in 624 75 Suintila reigned until 631 76 Only one historical source was written between the years 625 through 711 which comes from Julian of Toledo and only deals with the years 672 and 673 77 Wamba was the king of the Visigoths from 672 to 680 77 During his reign the Visigothic kingdom encompassed all of Hispania and part of southern Gaul known as Septimania Wamba was succeeded by King Ervig whose rule lasted until 687 78 Collins observes that Ervig proclaimed Egica as his chosen successor on 14 November 687 79 In 700 Egica s son Wittiza followed him on the throne according to the Chronica Regum Visigothorum 80 The kingdom survived until 711 when King Roderic Rodrigo was killed while opposing an invasion from the south by the Umayyad Caliphate in the Battle of Guadalete This marked the beginning of the Umayyad conquest of Hispania when most of Spain came under Islamic rule in the early 8th century 81 A Visigothic nobleman Pelayo is credited with beginning the Christian Reconquista of Iberia in 718 when he defeated the Umayyad forces in the Battle of Covadonga and established the Kingdom of Asturias in the northern part of the peninsula 82 According to Joseph F O Callaghan the remnants of the Hispano Gothic aristocracy still played an important role in the society of Hispania At the end of Visigothic rule the assimilation of Hispano Romans and Visigoths was occurring at a fast pace 83 Their nobility had begun to think of themselves as constituting one people the gens Gothorum or the Hispani An unknown number of them fled and took refuge in Asturias or Septimania In Asturias they supported Pelagius s uprising and joining with the indigenous leaders formed a new aristocracy The population of the mountain region consisted of native Astures Galicians Cantabri Basques and other groups unassimilated into Hispano Gothic society 84 Other Visigoths who refused to adopt the Muslim faith or live under their rule fled north to the kingdom of the Franks and Visigoths played key roles in the empire of Charlemagne a few generations later In the early years of the Emirate of Cordoba a group of Visigoths who remained under Muslim dominance constituted the personal bodyguard of the Emir al Haras 85 During their long reign in Spain the Visigoths were responsible for the only new cities founded in Western Europe between the 5th and 8th centuries It is certain through contemporary Spanish accounts that they founded four Reccopolis Victoriacum modern Vitoria Gasteiz though perhaps Iruna Veleia Luceo and Olite There is also a possible fifth city ascribed to them by a later Arabic source Baiyara perhaps modern Montoro All of these cities were founded for military purposes and three of them in celebration of victory Despite the fact that the Visigoths reigned in Spain for upwards of 250 years there are few remnants of the Gothic language borrowed into Spanish 86 d e The Visigoths as heirs of the Roman empire lost their language and intermarried with the Hispano Roman population of Spain 88 Genetics EditFurther information Goths Genetics Lombards Genetics Baiuvarii Genetics Alemanni Genetics and Visigoths Genetics A genetic study published in Science in March 2019 examined the remains of eight Visigoths buried at Pla de l Horta in the 6th century These individuals displayed genetic links to northern and central Europe 89 Culture EditSee also Visigothic art and architecture and Visigothic script Law Edit The Visigothic Code of Law Latin Forum Iudicum also called Liber Iudiciorum English Book of the Judges and Lex Visigothorum English Law of the Visigoths is a set of laws first promulgated by king Chindasuinth 642 653 AD which had been part of aristocratic oral tradition was set in writing in the year 654 and survives in two separate codices preserved at el Escorial Spain It goes into more detail than a modern constitution commonly does and reveals a great deal about Visigothic social structure 90 The code abolished the old tradition of having different laws for Romans leges romanae and Visigoths leges barbarorum and under which all the subjects of the Visigothic kingdom ceased being romani and gothi and instead became hispani All the kingdom s subjects were under the same jurisdiction which eliminated social and legal differences and facilitated greater assimilation of the various population groups 91 The Visigothic Code marks the transition from Roman law to Germanic law One of the greatest contributions of the Visigoths to family law was their protection of the property rights of married women which was continued by Spanish law and ultimately evolved into the community property system now in force throughout the majority of western Europe 92 Religion Edit Before the Middle Ages the Visigoths as well as other Germanic peoples followed what is now referred to as Germanic paganism 93 While the Germanic peoples were slowly converted to Christianity by varying means many elements of the pre Christian culture and indigenous beliefs remained firmly in place after the conversion process particularly in the more rural and distant regions 94 The Visigoths Ostrogoths and Vandals were Christianized while they were still outside the bounds of the Roman Empire however they converted to Arianism rather than to the Nicene version Trinitarianism followed by most Romans who considered them heretics 95 There was a religious gulf between the Visigoths who had for a long time adhered to Arianism and their Catholic subjects in Hispania There were also deep sectarian splits among the Catholic population of the peninsula which contributed to the toleration of the Arian Visigoths on the peninsula The Visigoths scorned to interfere among Catholics but were interested in decorum and public order f King Liuvigild 568 586 attempted to restore political unity between the Visigothic Arian elite and the Hispano Roman Nicene Catholic population through a doctrinal settlement of compromise on matters of faith but this failed 96 Sources indicate that the Iberian Visigoths maintained their Christian Arianism especially the Visigothic elite until the end of Liuvigild s reign 97 When Reccared I converted to Catholicism he sought to unify the kingdom under a single faith 98 99 Capital from the Visigothic church of San Pedro de la Nave province of Zamora While the Visigoths retained their Arian faith the Jews were well tolerated Previous Roman and Byzantine law determined their status and it already sharply discriminated against them but royal jurisdiction was in any case quite limited local lords and populations related to Jews as they saw fit We read of rabbis being asked by non Jews to bless their fields for example 100 Historian Jane Gerber relates that some of the Jews held ranking posts in the government or the army others were recruited and organized for garrison service still others continued to hold senatorial rank 101 In general then they were well respected and well treated by the Visigothic kings that is until their transition from Arianism to Catholicism 102 Conversion to Catholicism across Visigothic society reduced much of the friction between the Visigoths and the Hispano Roman population 103 However the Visigothic conversion negatively impacted the Jews who came under scrutiny for their religious practices 104 King Reccared convened the Third Council of Toledo to settle religious disputations related to the religious conversion from Arianism to Catholicism 105 The discriminatory laws passed at this Council seem not to have been universally enforced however as indicated by several more Councils of Toledo that repeated these laws and extended their stringency These entered canon law and became legal precedents in other parts of Europe as well The culmination of this process occurred under King Sisibut who officially decreed a forced Christian conversion upon all Jews residing in Spain 106 This mandate apparently achieved only partial success similar decrees were repeated by later kings as central power was consolidated These laws either prescribed forcible baptism of the Jews or forbade circumcision Jewish rites and the observance of the Sabbath and other festivals Throughout the 7th century the Jews were persecuted for religious reasons had their property confiscated were subjected to ruinous taxes forbidden to trade and at times dragged to the baptismal font Many were obliged to accept Christianity but continued privately to observe the Jewish religion and practices 107 The decree of 613 set off a century of difficulty for Spanish Jewry which was only ended by the Muslim conquest g The political aspects of the imposition of Church power cannot be ignored in these matters With the conversion of the Visigothic kings to Chalcedonian Christianity the bishops increased their power until at the Fourth Council of Toledo in 633 they selected a king from among the royal family a practice previously reserved for nobles This was the same synod that spoke out against those who had been baptized but had relapsed into Judaism As far as the Visigoths were concerned the time for religious pluralism was past 108 By the end of the 7th century Catholic conversion made the Visigoths less distinguishable from the indigenous Roman citizens of the Iberian peninsula when the last Visigothic strongholds fell to the Muslim armies whose subsequent invasions transformed Spain from the beginning of the 8th century their Gothic identity faded 109 In the eighth through 11th centuries the muwallad clan of the Banu Qasi claimed descent from the Visigothic Count Cassius 110 Architecture Edit Visigothic church San Pedro de la Nave in Zamora Spain During their governance of Hispania the Visigoths built several churches in the basilical or cruciform style that survive including the churches of San Pedro de la Nave in El Campillo Santa Maria de Melque in San Martin de Montalban Santa Lucia del Trampal in Alcuescar Santa Comba in Bande and Santa Maria de Lara in Quintanilla de las Vinas 111 The Visigothic crypt the Crypt of San Antolin in the Palencia Cathedral is a Visigothic chapel from the mid 7th century built during the reign of Wamba to preserve the remains of the martyr Saint Antoninus of Pamiers a Visigothic Gallic nobleman brought from Narbonne to Visigothic Hispania in 672 or 673 by Wamba himself These are the only remains of the Visigothic cathedral of Palencia 112 Reccopolis located near the tiny modern village of Zorita de los Canes in the province of Guadalajara Castile La Mancha Spain is an archaeological site of one of at least four cities founded in Hispania by the Visigoths It is the only city in Western Europe to have been founded between the fifth and eighth centuries h The city s construction was ordered by the Visigothic king Liuvigild to honor his son Reccared and to serve as Reccared s seat as co king in the Visigothic province of Celtiberia to the west of Carpetania where the main capital Toledo lay 113 Goldsmithery Edit The Pietroasele Treasure discovered in Romania attributed to the Visigoths 114 In Spain an important collection of Visigothic metalwork was found in Guadamur in the Province of Toledo known as the Treasure of Guarrazar This archeological find is composed of twenty six votive crowns and gold crosses from the royal workshop in Toledo with signs of Byzantine influence According to Spanish archaeologists this treasure represents the high point of Visigothic goldsmithery 115 The two most important votive crowns are those of Recceswinth and of Suintila displayed in the National Archaeological Museum of Madrid both are made of gold encrusted with sapphires pearls and other precious stones Suintila s crown was stolen in 1921 and never recovered There are several other small crowns and many votive crosses in the treasure These findings along with others from some neighbouring sites and with the archaeological excavation of the Spanish Ministry of Public Works and the Royal Spanish Academy of History April 1859 formed a group consisting of National Archaeological Museum of Spain six crowns five crosses a pendant and remnants of foil and channels almost all of gold Royal Palace of Madrid a crown and a gold cross and a stone engraved with the Annunciation A crown and other fragments of a tiller with a crystal ball were stolen from the Royal Palace of Madrid in 1921 and its whereabouts are still unknown National Museum of the Middle Ages Paris three crowns two crosses links and gold pendants The aquiliform eagle shaped fibulae that have been discovered in necropolises such as Duraton Madrona or Castiltierra cities of Segovia are an unmistakable example of the Visigothic presence in Spain These fibulae were used individually or in pairs as clasps or pins in gold bronze and glass to join clothes showing the work of the goldsmiths of Visigothic Hispania Visigothic belt buckle Copper alloy with garnets glass and inclusion of lapis lazuli The Metropolitan Museum of Art New York The Visigothic belt buckles a symbol of rank and status characteristic of Visigothic women s clothing are also notable as works of goldsmithery Some pieces contain exceptional Byzantine style lapis lazuli inlays and are generally rectangular in shape with copper alloy garnets and glass 116 i See also EditRomano Germanic culture Thiufa Goths Visigothic kingdom Visigothic art and architectureReferences EditNotes Edit Pair of Eagle Fibula Walters Art Museum The first R is held at the Musee de Cluny Paris Other sources dispute the contents of the supposed treaty and claim it was a Gothic surrender 47 The Words such as werra gt guerra war falda gt falda skirt and skankjan gt escanciar to pour out See La epoca visigoda Susana Rodriguez Rosique spanish in Cervantes Virtual Accessed 15 October 2017 The linguistic remnants of the Gothic people in Spain are sparse A few place names and a mere handful of well known Spanish first names such as Alfonso Fernando Gonzalo Elvira and Rodrigo are of Germanic Visigothic origin 87 At least one high ranking Visigoth Zerezindo dux of Baetica was a Catholic in the mid 6th century Cf the extensive accounts of Visigothic Jewish history by Heinrich Graetz History of the Jews Vol 3 Philadelphia Jewish Publication Society of America 1956 reprint 1894 pp 43 52 on Sisibut pp 47 49 Salo W Baron A Social and Religious History of the Jews Vol 3 New York Columbia University Press 1957 pp 33 46 on Sisibut pp 37 38 N Roth Jews Visigoths and Muslims in Medieval Spain Cooperation and Conflict Leiden Brill 1994 pp 7 40 Ram Ben Shalom Medieval Jewry in Christendom in M Goodman J Cohen and D Sorkin The Oxford Handbook of Jewish Studies Oxford Oxford University Press 2002 p 156 According to E A Thompson The Barbarian Kingdoms in Gaul and Spain Nottingham Mediaeval Studies 7 1963 4n11 the others were i Victoriacum founded by Leovigild and may survive as the city of Vitoria but a twelfth century foundation for this city is given in contemporary sources ii Lugo id est Luceo in the Asturias referred to by Isidore of Seville and iii Ologicus perhaps Ologitis founded using Basque labour in 621 by Suinthila as a fortification against the Basques is modern Olite All of these cities were founded for military purposes and at least Reccopolis Victoriacum and Ologicus in celebration of victory A possible fifth Visigothic foundation is Baiyara perhaps modern Montoro mentioned as founded by Reccared in the fifteenth century geographical account Kitab al Rawd al Mitar cf Jose Maria Lacarra Panorama de la historia urbana en la Peninsula Iberica desde el siglo V al X La citta nell alto medioevo 6 1958 319 358 Reprinted in Estudios de alta edad media espanola Valencia 1975 pp 25 90 Important findings have also been made in the Visigothic necropolis of Castiltierra Segovia in Spain See the following downloadable pdf from the National Archaeological Museum Museo Arqueologico Nacional of Spain for more information http www man es man dam jcr eb7fea42 15c8 4b6b b18c 4d940b2656a5 2018 castiltierra ii pdf Citations Edit Heather 1998 pp 52 57 300 301 Waldman amp Mason 2006 p 843 Waldman amp Mason 2006 pp 843 844 Claude 1998 pp 119 120 O Callaghan 1975 pp 91 92 O Callaghan 1975 p 98 a b Christensen 2002 p 219 a b c d e Wolfram 1988 p 25 Jordanes 1915 p 74 XIV 82 a b c Wolfram 1988 p 26 a b Christensen 2002 pp 207 212 Heather 1998 pp 300 301 Heather 1999 pp 43 44 Wolfram 1988 pp 24 25 Heather 1999 p 75 Wolfram 1988 p 24 Wolfram 1988 p 387 fn57 Heather 1998 pp 52 57 130 178 302 309 Collins 2004 pp 22 24 Goffart 1983 pp 125 126 Friedrich 1910 p 14 Wolfram 1988 pp 387 388 fn58 a b Wolfram 1988 p 387 fn58 Stevenson 1899 p 36 fn15 Wolfram 1997 p 39 40 Todd 2000 p 149 a b Waldman amp Mason 2006 p 844 Wolfram 1997 p 42 43 Todd 2000 pp 149 150 Wolfram 1988 pp 42 55 Georgescu 1991 p 11 a b Todd 2000 p 150 Todd 2000 pp 150 151 Todd 2000 p 151 Todd 2000 p 152 Waldman amp Mason 2006 pp 844 845 Fuller 1998 p 55 a b Waldman amp Mason 2006 p 845 Durant 1950 p 24 Durant 1950 pp 24 25 Sarris 2002 p 36 Halsall 2007 pp 178 179 Halsall 2007 p 179 Katz 1955 pp 88 89 Todd 2000 p 154 Halsall 2007 pp 179 180 Halsall 2007 pp 180 181 Burns 2003 pp 322 374 Heather 2013 pp 153 160 Heather 2013 pp 183 223 Frassetto 2003 pp 204 205 Halsall 2007 pp 214 217 Collins 1999 pp 63 65 Williams 2004 p 51 Heather 2005 p 434 Sivan 1987 pp 759 772 Burns 2003 p 382 Wolfram 1988 pp 186 187 Frassetto 2003 p 358 Bury 2000 pp 211 212 a b Waldman amp Mason 2006 p 846 Frassetto 2003 pp 358 359 a b c Carr 2004 p 421 Todd 2000 p 165 Bury 2000 p 213 a b c Frassetto 2003 p 359 Heather 2013 p 70 Wolfram 1988 pp 243 245 Heather 2013 p 93 Wolfram 1988 p 245 Heather 2013 p 94 Roberts 1997 pp 82 85 Roberts 1997 p 82 Collins 2000 pp 51 53 Arce 1999 p 4 Collins 2004 p 69 a b Collins 2004 p 70 Collins 2004 pp 102 104 Collins 2004 p 105 Collins 2004 p 109 Roberts 1997 pp 96 100 Williams 2004 p 60 O Callaghan 1975 p 176 O Callaghan 1975 p 286 Wolf 2014 pp 14 15 Ostler 2006 p 307 Todd 2000 p 175 Nadeau amp Barlow 2013 pp 28 35 Olalde 2019 Collins 2004 pp 6 8 O Callaghan 1975 p 49 Coolidge 2011 pp 17 25 Wolfram 1997 pp 58 66 72 74 James 2009 pp 215 225 Wolfram 1997 pp 75 79 Heather 2013 p 325 Wolfram 1997 pp 265 269 Frassetto 2003 p 304 Mathisen amp Sivan 1999 p 40 Graetz 1894 p 44 Gerber 1992 p 9 Roth 1994 pp 35 40 Waldman amp Mason 2006 p 847 Collins 2000 pp 59 60 Collins 1999 pp 211 212 Collins 2000 p 60 Gonzalez Salinero 1999 pp 140 147 Lim 1999 pp 209 210 Collins 2000 pp 60 62 Fletcher 2006 p 45 Galeano 2016 Salvador Conejo Cripta visigoda de San Antolin Collins 2004 pp 55 56 Odobescu 1889 p 1 100 Guerra Galligaro amp Perea 2007 pp 53 74 The Metropolitan Museum of Art Belt Buckle 550 600 Bibliography EditArce Javier 1999 The City of Merida Emerita in the Vitas Patrum Emeritensium Vith Century In Evangelos Chrysos Ian Wood eds East and West Modes of Communication Proceedings of the First Plenary Conference at Merida The Transformation of the Roman World vol 5 5 Leiden Brill ISBN 978 9 00410 929 2 Burns Thomas 2003 Rome and the Barbarians 100 B C A D 400 Baltimore MD Johns Hopkins University Press ISBN 978 0 80187 306 5 Bury J B 2000 The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians New York W W Norton amp Company ISBN 978 0 39300 388 8 Carr Karen 2004 Visigoths In Peter Bogucki Pam J Crabtree eds Ancient Europe 8000 B C A D 1000 Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World Vol 2 Bronze Age to Early Middle Ages 2 New York Thomson Gale ISBN 0 684 31421 5 Christensen Arne Soby 2002 Cassiodorus Jordanes and the History of the Goths Studies in a Migration Myth Copenhagen Museum Tusculanum Press ISBN 9788772897103 Claude Dietrich 1998 Remarks to the Relationship between Visigoths and Hispano Romans in the 7th Century In Walter Pohl Helmut Reimitz eds Strategies of Distinction Construction of Ethnic Communities 300 800 The Transformation of the Roman World vol 2 Leiden Brill Academic Publishers ISBN 978 9 00410 846 2 Collins 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978 1 57607 263 9 Friedrich Johann 1910 Die sogenannte frankische Volkertafel Sitzungsberichte der Munchener Akademie der Wissenschaften 11 1 27 Fuller J F C 1998 Armaments amp History New York Da Capo Press ISBN 978 0 30680 859 3 Galeano Rafael 2016 Historia y arquitectura visigoda Historia del Arte UNED National University of Distance Education Spain Retrieved June 12 2020 Georgescu Vlad 1991 The Romanians A History Columbus Ohio State University Press ISBN 0814205119 Gerber Jane 1992 The Jews of Spain A History of the Sephardic Experience New York Free Press ISBN 978 0 02911 573 2 Goffart Walter 1983 The Supposedly Frankish Table of Nations An Edition and Study Fruhmittelalterliche Studien 17 1 98 130 doi 10 1515 9783110242164 98 S2CID 201734002 Gonzalez Salinero Raul 1999 Catholic Anti Judaism in Visigothic Spain In Alberto Ferreiro ed The Visigoths Studies in Culture and Society Leiden Brill ISBN 978 9 00411 206 3 Graetz Heinrich 1894 History of the Jews 3 Philadelphia The Jewish Publication Society of America ASIN B000JRBM60 Guerra M F Galligaro T Perea A 2007 The Treasure of Guarrazar Tracing the Gold Supplies in the Visigothic Iberian Peninsula Archeometry 49 1 53 74 doi 10 1111 j 1475 4754 2007 00287 x Halsall Guy 2007 Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West 376 568 Cambridge and New York Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 52143 543 7 Heather Peter 1998 The Goths Oxford UK Blackwell Publishers ASIN B00RWST3HE Heather Heather ed 1999 The creation of the Visigoths The Visigoths from the Migration Period to the Seventh Century An Ethnographic Perspective ISBN 9780851157627 Heather Peter 2005 The Fall of the Roman Empire A New History of Rome and the Barbarians Oxford and New York Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19515 954 7 Heather Peter 2013 The Restoration of Rome Barbarian Popes and Imperial Pretenders Oxford and New York Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19936 851 8 Hillgarth J N 2010 The Visigoths in History and Legend Turnhout Brepols Publishers ISBN 978 0 88844 166 9 Howatson M C 2011 Visigoths The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature 3 ed Oxford University Press ISBN 9780191739422 Retrieved January 26 2020 James Edward 2009 Europe s Barbarians AD 200 600 New York Routledge ISBN 978 0 58277 296 0 Jordanes 1915 The Gothic History of Jordanes Translated by Charles C Mierow London Oxford University Press OCLC 463056290 Katz Solomon 1955 The Decline of Rome and the Rise of Mediaeval Europe Ithaca NY Cornell University Press ASIN B002S62FYI Lim Richard 1999 Christian Triumph and Controversy In G W Bowersock Peter Brown Oleg Grabar eds Late Antiquity A Guide to the Postclassical World Cambridge MA The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press ISBN 978 0 67451 173 6 Mathisen Ralph W Sivan Hagith S 1999 Forging a New Identity The Kingdom of Toulouse and the Frontiers of Aquitania 418 507 In Alberto Ferreiro ed The Visigoths Studies in Culture and Society Leiden Boston Koln Brill ISBN 978 9 00411 206 3 Metropolitan Museum of Art Belt Buckle 550 600 The Metropolitan Museum of Art Nadeau Jean Benoit Barlow Julie 2013 The Story of Spanish New York St Martin s Press ISBN 978 0 31265 602 7 O Callaghan Joseph 1975 A History of Medieval Spain Ithaca NY Cornell University Press ISBN 978 0 80149 264 8 Odobescu Alexandru 1889 Le Tresor de Petrossa Etude sur l orfevrerie antique Paris Editions J Rothschchild Olalde Inigo March 15 2019 The genomic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the past 8000 years Science American Association for the Advancement of Science 363 6432 1230 1234 Bibcode 2019Sci 363 1230O doi 10 1126 science aav4040 PMC 6436108 PMID 30872528 Ostler Nicholas 2006 Empires of the Word A Language History of the World New York Harper Perennial ISBN 978 0 06093 572 6 Roberts J M 1997 A History of Europe New York Allen Lane ISBN 978 0 96584 319 5 Roth Norman 1994 Jews Visigoths and Muslims in Medieval Spain Cooperation and Conflict Leiden New York Koln Brill ISBN 978 9 00409 971 5 Salvador Conejo Diego Cripta visigoda de San Antolin Rutas con historia Retrieved April 19 2020 Sarris Peter 2002 The Eastern Roman Empire from Constantine to Heraclius 306 641 In Cyril Mango ed The Oxford History of Byzantium New York Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19814 098 6 Sivan Hagith 1987 On Foederati Hospitalitas and the Settlement of the Goths in A D 418 American Journal of Philology 108 4 759 772 doi 10 2307 294799 JSTOR 294799 Stevenson W H 1899 The Beginnings of Wessex The English Historical Review Oxford UK Oxford University Press 14 53 32 46 JSTOR 548095 Todd Malcolm 2000 The Early Germans Oxford UK Blackwell ISBN 978 0 63119 904 5 Waldman Carl Mason Catherine 2006 Encyclopedia of European Peoples New York Facts on File ISBN 978 0816049646 Williams Mark 2004 The Story of Spain San Mateo CA Golden Era Books ISBN 978 0 97069 692 2 Wolf Kenneth Baxter 2014 Christian Martyrs in Muslim Spain Cambridge and New York Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 1 10763 481 7 Wolfram Herwig 1988 History of the Goths Berkeley University of California Press ISBN 978 0 52005 259 8 Wolfram Herwig 1997 The Roman Empire and its Germanic Peoples Berkeley and Los Angeles University of California Press ISBN 0 520 08511 6 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Visigoths Lex Visigothorum Visigothic Symposia Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Visigoths amp oldid 1052479553, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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