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Visual arts

For the video game publisher, see Visual Arts (company).

The visual arts are art forms such as painting, drawing, printmaking, sculpture, ceramics, photography, video, filmmaking, design, crafts and architecture. Many artistic disciplines such as performing arts, conceptual art, and textile arts also involve aspects of visual arts as well as arts of other types. Also included within the visual arts are the applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art.

Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied or decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term 'artist' had for some centuries often been restricted to a person working in the fine arts (such as painting, sculpture, or printmaking) and not the decorative arts, craft, or applied Visual arts media. The distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms. Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts, maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of the arts.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art in Manhattan. Museums constitute a primary forum for the display of visual arts.

The increasing tendency to privilege painting, and to a lesser degree sculpture, above other arts has been a feature of Western art as well as East Asian art. In both regions painting has been seen as relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist, and the furthest removed from manual labour – in Chinese painting the most highly valued styles were those of "scholar-painting", at least in theory practiced by gentleman amateurs. The Western hierarchy of genres reflected similar attitudes.

Contents

Main article: Visual arts education

Training in the visual arts has generally been through variations of the apprentice and workshop systems. In Europe the Renaissance movement to increase the prestige of the artist led to the academy system for training artists, and today most of the people who are pursuing a career in arts train in art schools at tertiary levels. Visual arts have now become an elective subject in most education systems.

Main article: Drawing

Drawing is a means of making an image, illustration or graphic using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques available online and offline. It generally involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface using dry media such as graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoals, pastels, and markers. Digital tools, including pens, stylus, Apple pencil that simulate the effects of these are also used. The main techniques used in drawing are: line drawing, hatching, crosshatching, random hatching, shading, scribbling, stippling, and blending. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draftsman or draughtsman.

Drawing and painting goes back tens of thousands of years. Art of the Upper Paleolithic includes figurative art beginning between about 40,000 to 35,000 years ago. Non-figurative cave paintings consisting of hand stencils and simple geometric shapes are even older. Paleolithic cave representations of animals are found in areas such as Lascaux, France and Altamira, Spain in Europe, Maros, Sulawesi in Asia, and Gabarnmung, Australia.

In ancient Egypt, ink drawings on papyrus, often depicting people, were used as models for painting or sculpture. Drawings on Greek vases, initially geometric, later developed to the human form with black-figure pottery during the 7th century BC.

With paper becoming common in Europe by the 15th century, drawing was adopted by masters such as Sandro Botticelli, Raphael, Michelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci who sometimes treated drawing as an art in its own right rather than a preparatory stage for painting or sculpture.

Mosaic of Battle of Issus
Main article: Painting
Nefertari with Isis

Painting taken literally is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier (or medium) and a binding agent (a glue) to a surface (support) such as paper, canvas or a wall. However, when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this activity in combination with drawing, composition, or other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Painting is also used to express spiritual motifs and ideas; sites of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery to The Sistine Chapel to the human body itself.

History

Main article: History of painting

Origins and early history

Like drawing, painting has its documented origins in caves and on rock faces. The finest examples, believed by some to be 32,000 years old, are in the Chauvet and Lascaux caves in southern France. In shades of red, brown, yellow and black, the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison, cattle, horses and deer.

Raphael: Spasimo (1514–1516)

Paintings of human figures can be found in the tombs of ancient Egypt. In the great temple of Ramses II, Nefertari, his queen, is depicted being led by Isis. The Greeks contributed to painting but much of their work has been lost. One of the best remaining representations are the Hellenistic Fayum mummy portraits. Another example is mosaic of the Battle of Issus at Pompeii, which was probably based on a Greek painting. Greek and Roman art contributed to Byzantine art in the 4th century BC, which initiated a tradition in icon painting.

The Renaissance

Apart from the illuminated manuscripts produced by monks during the Middle Ages, the next significant contribution to European art was from Italy's renaissance painters. From Giotto in the 13th century to Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael at the beginning of the 16th century, this was the richest period in Italian art as the chiaroscuro techniques were used to create the illusion of 3-D space.

Rembrandt: The Night Watch, 1642

Painters in northern Europe too were influenced by the Italian school. Jan van Eyck from Belgium, Pieter Bruegel the Elder from the Netherlands and Hans Holbein the Younger from Germany are among the most successful painters of the times. They used the glazing technique with oils to achieve depth and luminosity.

Claude Monet: Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe (1866)

Dutch masters

The 17th century witnessed the emergence of the great Dutch masters such as the versatile Rembrandt who was especially remembered for his portraits and Bible scenes, and Vermeer who specialized in interior scenes of Dutch life.

Baroque

Main article: Baroque

The Baroque started after the Renaissance, from the late 16th century to the late 17th century. Main artists of the Baroque included Caravaggio, who made heavy use of tenebrism. Peter Paul Rubens, a Flemish painter who studied in Italy, worked for local churches in Antwerp and also painted a series for Marie de' Medici. Annibale Carracci took influences from the Sistine Chapel and created the genre of illusionistic ceiling painting. Much of the development that happened in the Baroque was because of the Protestant Reformation and the resulting Counter Reformation. Much of what defines the Baroque is dramatic lighting and overall visuals.

Impressionism

Main article: Impressionism

Impressionism began in France in the 19th century with a loose association of artists including Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Paul Cézanne who brought a new freely brushed style to painting, often choosing to paint realistic scenes of modern life outside rather than in the studio. This was achieved through a new expression of aesthetic features demonstrated by brush strokes and the impression of reality. They achieved intense colour vibration by using pure, unmixed colours and short brush strokes. The movement influenced art as a dynamic, moving through time and adjusting to new found techniques and perception of art. Attention to detail became less of a priority in achieving, whilst exploring a biased view of landscapes and nature to the artists eye.

Paul Gauguin: The Vision After the Sermon (1888)
Edvard Munch: The Scream (1893)

Post-impressionism

Main article: Post-Impressionism

Towards the end of the 19th century, several young painters took impressionism a stage further, using geometric forms and unnatural colour to depict emotions while striving for deeper symbolism. Of particular note are Paul Gauguin, who was strongly influenced by Asian, African and Japanese art, Vincent van Gogh, a Dutchman who moved to France where he drew on the strong sunlight of the south, and Toulouse-Lautrec, remembered for his vivid paintings of night life in the Paris district of Montmartre.

Symbolism, expressionism and cubism

Main article: Modern art

Edvard Munch, a Norwegian artist, developed his symbolistic approach at the end of the 19th century, inspired by the French impressionist Manet. The Scream (1893), his most famous work, is widely interpreted as representing the universal anxiety of modern man. Partly as a result of Munch's influence, the German expressionist movement originated in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century as artists such as Ernst Kirschner and Erich Heckel began to distort reality for an emotional effect.

In parallel, the style known as cubism developed in France as artists focused on the volume and space of sharp structures within a composition. Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque were the leading proponents of the movement. Objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form. By the 1920s, the style had developed into surrealism with Dali and Magritte.

Ancient Chinese engraving of female instrumentalists
Main article: Printmaking

Printmaking is creating, for artistic purposes, an image on a matrix that is then transferred to a two-dimensional (flat) surface by means of ink (or another form of pigmentation). Except in the case of a monotype, the same matrix can be used to produce many examples of the print.

Albrecht Dürer: Melancholia I (1541)

Historically, the major techniques (also called media) involved are woodcut, line engraving, etching, lithography, and screen printing (serigraphy, silk screening) but there are many others, including modern digital techniques. Normally, the print is printed on paper, but other mediums range from cloth and vellum to more modern materials.

European history

Main article: Old master print

Prints in the Western tradition produced before about 1830 are known as old master prints. In Europe, from around 1400 AD woodcut, was used for master prints on paper by using printing techniques developed in the Byzantine and Islamic worlds. Michael Wolgemut improved German woodcut from about 1475, and Erhard Reuwich, a Dutchman, was the first to use cross-hatching. At the end of the century Albrecht Dürer brought the Western woodcut to a stage that has never been surpassed, increasing the status of the single-leaf woodcut.

Chinese origin and practice

The Chinese Diamond Sutra, the world's oldest printed book (868 CE)
Main article: Woodblock printing

In China, the art of printmaking developed some 1,100 years ago as illustrations alongside text cut in woodblocks for printing on paper. Initially images were mainly religious but in the Song Dynasty, artists began to cut landscapes. During the Ming (1368–1644) and Qing (1616–1911) dynasties, the technique was perfected for both religious and artistic engravings.

Development in Japan 1603–1867

Woodblock printing in Japan (Japanese: 木版画, moku hanga) is a technique best known for its use in the ukiyo-e artistic genre; however, it was also used very widely for printing illustrated books in the same period. Woodblock printing had been used in China for centuries to print books, long before the advent of movable type, but was only widely adopted in Japan during the Edo period (1603–1867). Although similar to woodcut in western printmaking in some regards, moku hanga differs greatly in that water-based inks are used (as opposed to western woodcut, which uses oil-based inks), allowing for a wide range of vivid color, glazes and color transparency.

Main article: Photography

Photography is the process of making pictures by means of the action of light. The light patterns reflected or emitted from objects are recorded onto a sensitive medium or storage chip through a timed exposure. The process is done through mechanical shutters or electronically timed exposure of photons into chemical processing or digitizing devices known as cameras.

The word comes from the Greek φως phos ("light"), and γραφις graphis ("stylus", "paintbrush") or γραφη graphê, together meaning "drawing with light" or "representation by means of lines" or "drawing." Traditionally, the product of photography has been called a photograph. The term photo is an abbreviation; many people also call them pictures. In digital photography, the term image has begun to replace photograph. (The term image is traditional in geometric optics.)

Main article: Architecture
Saint Basil's Cathedral from the Red Square in Moscow. Its prominent onion-shaped domes, painted in bright colors, create a memorable skyline, making St. Basil's a symbol both of Moscow and Russia as a whole.
Tenements, by Jörg Blobelt, in Dresden (Germany). These buildings are decorated with Neoclassical motifs, giving them elegance, balance and refinement.

Architecture is the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.

The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, utilitas, venustas, commonly known by the original translation – firmness, commodity and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be:

  1. Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition.
  2. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used.
  3. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing.

Building first evolved out of the dynamics between needs (shelter, security, worship, etc.) and means (available building materials and attendant skills). As human cultures developed and knowledge began to be formalized through oral traditions and practices, building became a craft, and "architecture" is the name given to the most highly formalized and respected versions of that craft.

Main article: Filmmaking

Filmmaking is the process of making a motion-picture, from an initial conception and research, through scriptwriting, shooting and recording, animation or other special effects, editing, sound and music work and finally distribution to an audience; it refers broadly to the creation of all types of films, embracing documentary, strains of theatre and literature in film, and poetic or experimental practices, and is often used to refer to video-based processes as well

Main article: Computer art
Desmond Paul Henry, Picture by Drawing Machine 1, c. 1960

Visual artists are no longer limited to traditional Visual arts media. Computers have been used as an ever more common tool in the visual arts since the 1960s. Uses include the capturing or creating of images and forms, the editing of those images and forms (including exploring multiple compositions) and the final rendering or printing (including 3D printing). Computer art is any in which computers played a role in production or display. Such art can be an image, sound, animation, video, CD-ROM, DVD, video game, website, algorithm, performance or gallery installation. Many traditional disciplines are now integrating digital technologies and, as a result, the lines between traditional works of art and new media works created using computers have been blurred. For instance, an artist may combine traditional painting with algorithmic art and other digital techniques. As a result, defining computer art by its end product can be difficult. Nevertheless, this type of art is beginning to appear in art museum exhibits, though it has yet to prove its legitimacy as a form unto itself and this technology is widely seen in contemporary art more as a tool rather than a form as with painting. On the other hand, there are computer-based artworks which belong to a new conceptual and postdigital strand, assuming the same technologies, and their social impact, as an object of inquiry.

Computer usage has blurred the distinctions between illustrators, photographers, photo editors, 3-D modelers, and handicraft artists. Sophisticated rendering and editing software has led to multi-skilled image developers. Photographers may become digital artists. Illustrators may become animators. Handicraft may be computer-aided or use computer-generated imagery as a template. Computer clip art usage has also made the clear distinction between visual arts and page layout less obvious due to the easy access and editing of clip art in the process of paginating a document, especially to the unskilled observer.

Main article: Plastic arts

Plastic arts is a term for art forms that involve physical manipulation of a plastic medium by moulding or modeling such as sculpture or ceramics. The term has also been applied to all the visual (non-literary, non-musical) arts.

Materials that can be carved or shaped, such as stone or wood, concrete or steel, have also been included in the narrower definition, since, with appropriate tools, such materials are also capable of modulation.[citation needed] This use of the term "plastic" in the arts should not be confused with Piet Mondrian's use, nor with the movement he termed, in French and English, "Neoplasticism."

Sculpture

Main article: Sculpture

Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard or plastic material, sound, or text and or light, commonly stone (either rock or marble), clay, metal, glass, or wood. Some sculptures are created directly by finding or carving; others are assembled, built together and fired, welded, molded, or cast. Sculptures are often painted. A person who creates sculptures is called a sculptor.

Because sculpture involves the use of materials that can be moulded or modulated, it is considered one of the plastic arts. The majority of public art is sculpture. Many sculptures together in a garden setting may be referred to as a sculpture garden. Sculptors do not always make sculptures by hand. With increasing technology in the 20th century and the popularity of conceptual art over technical mastery, more sculptors turned to art fabricators to produce their artworks. With fabrication, the artist creates a design and pays a fabricator to produce it. This allows sculptors to create larger and more complex sculptures out of material like cement, metal and plastic, that they would not be able to create by hand. Sculptures can also be made with 3-d printing technology.

In the United States, the law protecting the copyright over a piece of visual art gives a more restrictive definition of "visual art".

A "work of visual art" is —
(1) a painting, drawing, print or sculpture, existing in a single copy, in a limited edition of 200 copies or fewer that are signed and consecutively numbered by the author, or, in the case of a sculpture, in multiple cast, carved, or fabricated sculptures of 200 or fewer that are consecutively numbered by the author and bear the signature or other identifying mark of the author; or
(2) a still photographic image produced for exhibition purposes only, existing in a single copy that is signed by the author, or in a limited edition of 200 copies or fewer that are signed and consecutively numbered by the author.

A work of visual art does not include —
(A)(i) any poster, map, globe, chart, technical drawing, diagram, model, applied art, motion picture or other audiovisual work, book, magazine, newspaper, periodical, data base, electronic information service, electronic publication, or similar publication;
(ii) any merchandising item or advertising, promotional, descriptive, covering, or packaging material or container;
(iii) any portion or part of any item described in clause (i) or (ii);
(B) any work made for hire; or
(C) any work not subject to copyright protection under this title.

  1. An About.com article by art expert, Shelley Esaak: What Is Visual Art?
  2. Different Forms of Art – Applied Art. Buzzle.com. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
  3. "Centre for Arts and Design in Toronto, Canada". Georgebrown.ca. 15 February 2011. Archived from the original on 28 October 2011. Retrieved30 October 2011.
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  5. Ulger, Kani (1 March 2016). "The creative training in the visual arts education". Thinking Skills and Creativity. 19: 73–87. doi:10.1016/j.tsc.2015.10.007. ISSN 1871-1871.
  6. Adrone, Gumisiriza. "School of industrial art and design".Cite journal requires |journal= ()
  7. "drawing | Principles, Techniques, & History". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved12 August 2020.
  8. History of Drawing. From Dibujos para Pintar. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
  9. "Drawing". History.com. 2006. Archived from the original on 14 March 2009. Retrieved23 October 2009.
  10. "painting | History, Elements, Techniques, Types, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved12 August 2020.
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  13. History of Renaissance Painting. From ART 340 Painting. Retrieved 24 October 2009.
  14. Mutsaers, Inge. "Ashgate Joins Routledge – Routledge"(PDF). Ashgate.com. Retrieved15 October 2018.
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  16. Impressionism. Webmuseum, Paris. Retrieved 24 October 2009
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  18. Modern Art Movements. Irish Art Encyclopedia. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
  19. The Printed Image in the West: History and Techniques. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 25 October 2009.
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  24. Gods in Color: Painted Sculpture of Classical Antiquity 22 September 2007 Through 20 January 2008, The Arthur M. Sackler Museum Archived 4 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
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Wikimedia Commons has media related toVisual arts.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Visual arts.

Visual arts
Visual arts Language Watch Edit For the video game publisher see Visual Arts company The visual arts are art forms such as painting drawing printmaking sculpture ceramics photography video filmmaking design crafts and architecture Many artistic disciplines such as performing arts conceptual art and textile arts also involve aspects of visual arts as well as arts of other types Also included within the visual arts 1 are the applied arts 2 such as industrial design graphic design fashion design interior design and decorative art 3 The Church at Auvers an oil painting by Vincent van Gogh 1890 Current usage of the term visual arts includes fine art as well as the applied or decorative arts and crafts but this was not always the case Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century the term artist had for some centuries often been restricted to a person working in the fine arts such as painting sculpture or printmaking and not the decorative arts craft or applied Visual arts media The distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms 4 Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of the arts The Metropolitan Museum of Art in Manhattan Museums constitute a primary forum for the display of visual arts The increasing tendency to privilege painting and to a lesser degree sculpture above other arts has been a feature of Western art as well as East Asian art In both regions painting has been seen as relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist and the furthest removed from manual labour in Chinese painting the most highly valued styles were those of scholar painting at least in theory practiced by gentleman amateurs The Western hierarchy of genres reflected similar attitudes Contents 1 Education and training 2 Drawing 3 Painting 3 1 History 3 1 1 Origins and early history 3 1 2 The Renaissance 3 1 3 Dutch masters 3 1 4 Baroque 3 1 5 Impressionism 3 1 6 Post impressionism 3 1 7 Symbolism expressionism and cubism 4 Printmaking 4 1 European history 4 2 Chinese origin and practice 4 3 Development in Japan 1603 1867 5 Photography 6 Architecture 7 Filmmaking 8 Computer art 9 Plastic arts 9 1 Sculpture 10 US copyright definition of visual art 11 See also 12 References 13 Bibliography 14 External linksEducation and training EditMain article Visual arts education Training in the visual arts has generally been through variations of the apprentice and workshop systems In Europe the Renaissance movement to increase the prestige of the artist led to the academy system for training artists and today most of the people who are pursuing a career in arts train in art schools at tertiary levels Visual arts have now become an elective subject in most education systems 5 6 Drawing EditMain article Drawing Drawing is a means of making an image illustration or graphic using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques available online and offline It generally involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool or moving a tool across a surface using dry media such as graphite pencils pen and ink inked brushes wax color pencils crayons charcoals pastels and markers Digital tools including pens stylus Apple pencil that simulate the effects of these are also used The main techniques used in drawing are line drawing hatching crosshatching random hatching shading scribbling stippling and blending An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draftsman or draughtsman 7 Drawing and painting goes back tens of thousands of years Art of the Upper Paleolithic includes figurative art beginning between about 40 000 to 35 000 years ago Non figurative cave paintings consisting of hand stencils and simple geometric shapes are even older Paleolithic cave representations of animals are found in areas such as Lascaux France and Altamira Spain in Europe Maros Sulawesi in Asia and Gabarnmung Australia In ancient Egypt ink drawings on papyrus often depicting people were used as models for painting or sculpture Drawings on Greek vases initially geometric later developed to the human form with black figure pottery during the 7th century BC 8 With paper becoming common in Europe by the 15th century drawing was adopted by masters such as Sandro Botticelli Raphael Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci who sometimes treated drawing as an art in its own right rather than a preparatory stage for painting or sculpture 9 Painting Edit Mosaic of Battle of Issus Main article Painting Nefertari with Isis Painting taken literally is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier or medium and a binding agent a glue to a surface support such as paper canvas or a wall However when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this activity in combination with drawing composition or other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner Painting is also used to express spiritual motifs and ideas sites of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery to The Sistine Chapel to the human body itself 10 History Edit Main article History of painting Origins and early history Edit Like drawing painting has its documented origins in caves and on rock faces The finest examples believed by some to be 32 000 years old are in the Chauvet and Lascaux caves in southern France In shades of red brown yellow and black the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison cattle horses and deer Raphael Spasimo 1514 1516 Paintings of human figures can be found in the tombs of ancient Egypt In the great temple of Ramses II Nefertari his queen is depicted being led by Isis 11 The Greeks contributed to painting but much of their work has been lost One of the best remaining representations are the Hellenistic Fayum mummy portraits Another example is mosaic of the Battle of Issus at Pompeii which was probably based on a Greek painting Greek and Roman art contributed to Byzantine art in the 4th century BC which initiated a tradition in icon painting 12 The Renaissance Edit Main article Italian Renaissance painting Apart from the illuminated manuscripts produced by monks during the Middle Ages the next significant contribution to European art was from Italy s renaissance painters From Giotto in the 13th century to Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael at the beginning of the 16th century this was the richest period in Italian art as the chiaroscuro techniques were used to create the illusion of 3 D space 13 Rembrandt The Night Watch 1642 Painters in northern Europe too were influenced by the Italian school Jan van Eyck from Belgium Pieter Bruegel the Elder from the Netherlands and Hans Holbein the Younger from Germany are among the most successful painters of the times They used the glazing technique with oils to achieve depth and luminosity Claude Monet Le Dejeuner sur l herbe 1866 Dutch masters Edit Main article Dutch Golden Age painting The 17th century witnessed the emergence of the great Dutch masters such as the versatile Rembrandt who was especially remembered for his portraits and Bible scenes and Vermeer who specialized in interior scenes of Dutch life Baroque Edit Main article Baroque The Baroque started after the Renaissance from the late 16th century to the late 17th century Main artists of the Baroque included Caravaggio who made heavy use of tenebrism Peter Paul Rubens a Flemish painter who studied in Italy worked for local churches in Antwerp and also painted a series for Marie de Medici Annibale Carracci took influences from the Sistine Chapel and created the genre of illusionistic ceiling painting Much of the development that happened in the Baroque was because of the Protestant Reformation and the resulting Counter Reformation Much of what defines the Baroque is dramatic lighting and overall visuals 14 Impressionism Edit Main article Impressionism Impressionism began in France in the 19th century with a loose association of artists including Claude Monet Pierre Auguste Renoir and Paul Cezanne who brought a new freely brushed style to painting often choosing to paint realistic scenes of modern life outside rather than in the studio This was achieved through a new expression of aesthetic features demonstrated by brush strokes and the impression of reality They achieved intense colour vibration by using pure unmixed colours and short brush strokes The movement influenced art as a dynamic moving through time and adjusting to new found techniques and perception of art Attention to detail became less of a priority in achieving whilst exploring a biased view of landscapes and nature to the artists eye 15 16 Paul Gauguin The Vision After the Sermon 1888 Edvard Munch The Scream 1893 Post impressionism Edit Main article Post Impressionism Towards the end of the 19th century several young painters took impressionism a stage further using geometric forms and unnatural colour to depict emotions while striving for deeper symbolism Of particular note are Paul Gauguin who was strongly influenced by Asian African and Japanese art Vincent van Gogh a Dutchman who moved to France where he drew on the strong sunlight of the south and Toulouse Lautrec remembered for his vivid paintings of night life in the Paris district of Montmartre 17 Symbolism expressionism and cubism Edit Main article Modern art Edvard Munch a Norwegian artist developed his symbolistic approach at the end of the 19th century inspired by the French impressionist Manet The Scream 1893 his most famous work is widely interpreted as representing the universal anxiety of modern man Partly as a result of Munch s influence the German expressionist movement originated in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century as artists such as Ernst Kirschner and Erich Heckel began to distort reality for an emotional effect In parallel the style known as cubism developed in France as artists focused on the volume and space of sharp structures within a composition Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque were the leading proponents of the movement Objects are broken up analyzed and re assembled in an abstracted form By the 1920s the style had developed into surrealism with Dali and Magritte 18 Printmaking Edit Ancient Chinese engraving of female instrumentalists Main article Printmaking Printmaking is creating for artistic purposes an image on a matrix that is then transferred to a two dimensional flat surface by means of ink or another form of pigmentation Except in the case of a monotype the same matrix can be used to produce many examples of the print Albrecht Durer Melancholia I 1541 Historically the major techniques also called media involved are woodcut line engraving etching lithography and screen printing serigraphy silk screening but there are many others including modern digital techniques Normally the print is printed on paper but other mediums range from cloth and vellum to more modern materials European history Edit Main article Old master print Prints in the Western tradition produced before about 1830 are known as old master prints In Europe from around 1400 AD woodcut was used for master prints on paper by using printing techniques developed in the Byzantine and Islamic worlds Michael Wolgemut improved German woodcut from about 1475 and Erhard Reuwich a Dutchman was the first to use cross hatching At the end of the century Albrecht Durer brought the Western woodcut to a stage that has never been surpassed increasing the status of the single leaf woodcut 19 Chinese origin and practice Edit The Chinese Diamond Sutra the world s oldest printed book 868 CE Main article Woodblock printing In China the art of printmaking developed some 1 100 years ago as illustrations alongside text cut in woodblocks for printing on paper Initially images were mainly religious but in the Song Dynasty artists began to cut landscapes During the Ming 1368 1644 and Qing 1616 1911 dynasties the technique was perfected for both religious and artistic engravings 20 21 Development in Japan 1603 1867 Edit Hokusai Red Fuji from Thirty six Views of Mount Fuji 1830 1832 Main article Woodblock printing in Japan Woodblock printing in Japan Japanese 木版画 moku hanga is a technique best known for its use in the ukiyo e artistic genre however it was also used very widely for printing illustrated books in the same period Woodblock printing had been used in China for centuries to print books long before the advent of movable type but was only widely adopted in Japan during the Edo period 1603 1867 Although similar to woodcut in western printmaking in some regards moku hanga differs greatly in that water based inks are used as opposed to western woodcut which uses oil based inks allowing for a wide range of vivid color glazes and color transparency Photography EditMain article Photography Photography is the process of making pictures by means of the action of light The light patterns reflected or emitted from objects are recorded onto a sensitive medium or storage chip through a timed exposure The process is done through mechanical shutters or electronically timed exposure of photons into chemical processing or digitizing devices known as cameras The word comes from the Greek fws phos light and grafis graphis stylus paintbrush or grafh graphe together meaning drawing with light or representation by means of lines or drawing Traditionally the product of photography has been called a photograph The term photo is an abbreviation many people also call them pictures In digital photography the term image has begun to replace photograph The term image is traditional in geometric optics Architecture EditMain article Architecture Saint Basil s Cathedral from the Red Square in Moscow Its prominent onion shaped domes painted in bright colors create a memorable skyline making St Basil s a symbol both of Moscow and Russia as a whole Tenements by Jorg Blobelt in Dresden Germany These buildings are decorated with Neoclassical motifs giving them elegance balance and refinement Architecture is the process and the product of planning designing and constructing buildings or any other structures Architectural works in the material form of buildings are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD According to Vitruvius a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas utilitas venustas commonly known by the original translation firmness commodity and delight An equivalent in modern English would be Durability a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition Utility it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used Beauty it should be aesthetically pleasing Building first evolved out of the dynamics between needs shelter security worship etc and means available building materials and attendant skills As human cultures developed and knowledge began to be formalized through oral traditions and practices building became a craft and architecture is the name given to the most highly formalized and respected versions of that craft Filmmaking EditMain article Filmmaking Filmmaking is the process of making a motion picture from an initial conception and research through scriptwriting shooting and recording animation or other special effects editing sound and music work and finally distribution to an audience it refers broadly to the creation of all types of films embracing documentary strains of theatre and literature in film and poetic or experimental practices and is often used to refer to video based processes as wellComputer art EditMain article Computer art Desmond Paul Henry Picture by Drawing Machine 1 c 1960 Visual artists are no longer limited to traditional Visual arts media Computers have been used as an ever more common tool in the visual arts since the 1960s Uses include the capturing or creating of images and forms the editing of those images and forms including exploring multiple compositions and the final rendering or printing including 3D printing Computer art is any in which computers played a role in production or display Such art can be an image sound animation video CD ROM DVD video game website algorithm performance or gallery installation Many traditional disciplines are now integrating digital technologies and as a result the lines between traditional works of art and new media works created using computers have been blurred For instance an artist may combine traditional painting with algorithmic art and other digital techniques As a result defining computer art by its end product can be difficult Nevertheless this type of art is beginning to appear in art museum exhibits though it has yet to prove its legitimacy as a form unto itself and this technology is widely seen in contemporary art more as a tool rather than a form as with painting On the other hand there are computer based artworks which belong to a new conceptual and postdigital strand assuming the same technologies and their social impact as an object of inquiry Computer usage has blurred the distinctions between illustrators photographers photo editors 3 D modelers and handicraft artists Sophisticated rendering and editing software has led to multi skilled image developers Photographers may become digital artists Illustrators may become animators Handicraft may be computer aided or use computer generated imagery as a template Computer clip art usage has also made the clear distinction between visual arts and page layout less obvious due to the easy access and editing of clip art in the process of paginating a document especially to the unskilled observer Plastic arts EditMain article Plastic arts Plastic arts is a term for art forms that involve physical manipulation of a plastic medium by moulding or modeling such as sculpture or ceramics The term has also been applied to all the visual non literary non musical arts 22 23 Materials that can be carved or shaped such as stone or wood concrete or steel have also been included in the narrower definition since with appropriate tools such materials are also capable of modulation citation needed This use of the term plastic in the arts should not be confused with Piet Mondrian s use nor with the movement he termed in French and English Neoplasticism Sculpture Edit Main article Sculpture Sculpture is three dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard or plastic material sound or text and or light commonly stone either rock or marble clay metal glass or wood Some sculptures are created directly by finding or carving others are assembled built together and fired welded molded or cast Sculptures are often painted 24 A person who creates sculptures is called a sculptor Because sculpture involves the use of materials that can be moulded or modulated it is considered one of the plastic arts The majority of public art is sculpture Many sculptures together in a garden setting may be referred to as a sculpture garden Sculptors do not always make sculptures by hand With increasing technology in the 20th century and the popularity of conceptual art over technical mastery more sculptors turned to art fabricators to produce their artworks With fabrication the artist creates a design and pays a fabricator to produce it This allows sculptors to create larger and more complex sculptures out of material like cement metal and plastic that they would not be able to create by hand Sculptures can also be made with 3 d printing technology US copyright definition of visual art EditIn the United States the law protecting the copyright over a piece of visual art gives a more restrictive definition of visual art 25 A work of visual art is 1 a painting drawing print or sculpture existing in a single copy in a limited edition of 200 copies or fewer that are signed and consecutively numbered by the author or in the case of a sculpture in multiple cast carved or fabricated sculptures of 200 or fewer that are consecutively numbered by the author and bear the signature or other identifying mark of the author or 2 a still photographic image produced for exhibition purposes only existing in a single copy that is signed by the author or in a limited edition of 200 copies or fewer that are signed and consecutively numbered by the author A work of visual art does not include A i any poster map globe chart technical drawing diagram model applied art motion picture or other audiovisual work book magazine newspaper periodical data base electronic information service electronic publication or similar publication ii any merchandising item or advertising promotional descriptive covering or packaging material or container iii any portion or part of any item described in clause i or ii B any work made for hire or C any work not subject to copyright protection under this title See also EditMain article Outline of visual arts Visual arts portal Art materials Asemic writing Collage Crowdsourcing creative work Decollage Environmental art Found object Graffiti History of art Illustration Installation art Interactive art Landscape art Mathematics and art Mixed media Portraiture Process art Recording medium Sketch drawing Sound art Vexillography Video art Visual arts and Theosophy Visual impairment in art Visual poetryReferences Edit An About com article by art expert Shelley Esaak What Is Visual Art Different Forms of Art Applied Art Buzzle com Retrieved 11 December 2010 Centre for Arts and Design in Toronto Canada Georgebrown ca 15 February 2011 Archived from the original on 28 October 2011 Retrieved 30 October 2011 Art History Arts and Crafts Movement 1861 1900 From World Wide Arts Resources Archived 13 October 2009 at the Portuguese Web Archive Retrieved 24 October 2009 Ulger Kani 1 March 2016 The creative training in the visual arts education Thinking Skills and Creativity 19 73 87 doi 10 1016 j tsc 2015 10 007 ISSN 1871 1871 Adrone Gumisiriza School of industrial art and design Cite journal requires journal help drawing Principles Techniques amp History Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 12 August 2020 History of Drawing From Dibujos para Pintar Retrieved 23 October 2009 Drawing History com 2006 Archived from the original on 14 March 2009 Retrieved 23 October 2009 painting History Elements Techniques Types amp Facts Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 12 August 2020 History of Painting From History World Retrieved 23 October 2009 Art history visual arts Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 12 August 2020 History of Renaissance Painting From ART 340 Painting Retrieved 24 October 2009 Mutsaers Inge Ashgate Joins Routledge Routledge PDF Ashgate com Retrieved 15 October 2018 Impressionist art amp paintings What is Impressionist art Introduction to Impressionism Retrieved 24 September 2018 Impressionism Webmuseum Paris Retrieved 24 October 2009 Post Impressionism Metropolitan Museum of Art Retrieved 25 October 2009 Modern Art Movements Irish Art Encyclopedia Retrieved 25 October 2009 The Printed Image in the West History and Techniques The Metropolitan Museum of Art Retrieved 25 October 2009 Engraving in Chinese Art From Engraving Review Archived 29 July 2012 at archive today Retrieved 23 October 2009 The History of Engraving in China From ChinaVista Retrieved 25 October 2009 Art Terminology at KSU dead link Merriam Webster Online entry for plastic arts Merriam webster com Retrieved 30 October 2011 Gods in Color Painted Sculpture of Classical Antiquity 22 September 2007 Through 20 January 2008 The Arthur M Sackler Museum Archived 4 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine Copyright Law of the United States of America Chapter 1 101 Definitions gov Retrieved 30 October 2011 Bibliography EditBarnes A C The Art in Painting 3rd ed 1937 Harcourt Brace amp World Inc NY Bukumirovic D 1998 Maga Magazinovic Biblioteka Fatalne srpkinje knj br 4 Beograd Narodna knj Fazenda M J 1997 Between the pictorial and the expression of ideas the plastic arts and literature in the dance of Paula Massano n p Geron C 2000 Enciclopedia de las artes plasticas dominicanas 1844 2000 4th ed Dominican Republic s n Oliver Grau Ed MediaArtHistories MIT Press Cambridge 2007 with Rudolf Arnheim Barbara Stafford Sean Cubitt W J T Mitchell Lev Manovich Christiane Paul Peter Weibel a o Rezensionen Laban R V 1976 The language of movement a guidebook to choreutics Boston Plays La Farge O 1930 Plastic prayers dances of the Southwestern Indians n p Restany P 1974 Plastics in arts Paris New York n p University of Pennsylvania 1969 Plastics and new art Philadelphia The Falcon Pr External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Visual arts Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Visual arts ArtLex online dictionary of visual art terms Calendar for Artists calendar listing of visual art festivals Art History Timeline by the Metropolitan Museum of Art Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Visual arts amp oldid 1053248864, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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