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Visual culture

"Visual studies" redirects here. For the academic journal, see Visual Studies (journal).
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Visual culture is the aspect of culture expressed in visual images. Many academic fields study this subject, including cultural studies, art history, critical theory, philosophy, media studies, Deaf Studies and anthropology.

The field of visual culture studies in the United States corresponds or parallels the Bildwissenschaft ("image studies") in Germany. Both fields are not entirely new, as they can be considered reformulations of issues of photography and film theory that had been raised from the 1920s and 1930s by authors like Béla Balázs, László Moholy-Nagy, Siegfried Kracauer and Walter Benjamin.

Contents

Among theorists working within contemporary culture, this field of study often overlaps with film studies, psychoanalytic theory, sex studies, queer theory, and the study of television; it can also include video game studies, comics, traditional artistic media, advertising, the Internet, and any other medium that has a crucial visual component.

The field's versatility stems from the range of objects contained under the term "visual culture", which aggregates "visual events in which information, meaning or pleasure is sought by the consumer in an interface with visual technology". The term "visual technology" refers any media designed for purposes of perception or with the potential to augment our visual capability.

Because of the changing technological aspects of visual culture as well as a scientific method-derived desire to create taxonomies or articulate what the "visual" is, many aspects of Visual Culture overlap with the study of science and technology, including hybrid electronic media, cognitive science, neurology, and image and brain theory. In an interview with the Journal of Visual Culture, academic Martin Jay explicates the rise of this tie between the visual and the technological: "Insofar as we live in a culture whose technological advances abet the production and dissemination of such images at a hitherto unimagined level, it is necessary to focus on how they work and what they do, rather than move past them too quickly to the ideas they represent or the reality they purport to depict. In so doing, we necessarily have to ask questions about ... technological mediations and extensions of visual experience."

"Visual Culture" goes by a variety of names at different institutions, including Visual and Critical Studies, Visual and Cultural Studies, and Visual Studies.[citation needed]

In the development of Visual Studies, WJT Mitchell's text on the "Pictorial Turn" was highly influential. In analogy to the linguistic turn, Mitchell stated that we were undergoing a major paradigm shift in sciences and society which turned images, rather than verbal language, to the paradigmatic vectors of our relationship to the world. Gottfried Boehm made similar claims in the German-speaking context, when talking about an "iconic turn"., as did Marshall McLuhan when speaking of television in terms of creating an "intensely visual culture"

The term "Visualism" was developed by the German anthropologist Johannes Fabian to criticise the dominating role of vision in scientific discourse, through such terms as observation. He points to an under theorised approach to the use of visual representation which leads to a corpuscular theory of knowledge and information which leads to their atomisation.

Art history

As visual culture studies, in the United States, have begun to address areas previously studied by art history, there have been disputes between the two fields. One of the reason for controversy was that the various approaches in art history, like formalism, iconology, social history of art, or New Art History, focused only on artistic images, assuming a distinction with non-artistic ones, while in visual culture studies there is typically no such distinction.

Performance studies

Visual culture studies may also overlap with another emerging field, that of performance studies. As "the turn from art history to visual culture studies parallels a turn from theater studies to performance studies", it is clear that the perspectival shift that both emerging fields embody is comparable.

Image studies

While the image remains a focal point in visual culture studies, it is the relations between images and consumers that are evaluated for their cultural significance, not just the image in and of itself. Martin Jay clarifies, "Although images of all kinds have long served as illustrations of arguments made discursively, the growth of visual culture as a field has allowed them to be examined more in their own terms as complex figural artifacts or the stimulants to visual experiences."

Likewise, W. J. T. Mitchell explicitly distinguishes the two fields in his claim that visual culture studies "helps us to see that even something as broad as the image does not exhaust the field of visuality; that visual studies is not the same thing as image studies, and that the study of the visual image is just one component of the larger field."

Bildwissenschaft

Though the development of Bildwissenschaft ("image-science") in the German-speaking world to an extent paralleled that of the field of visual culture in the United Kingdom and United States, Bildwissenschaft occupies a more central role in the liberal arts and humanities than that afforded to visual culture. Significant differences between Bildwissenschaft and Anglophone cultural and visual studies include the former's examination of images dating from the early modern period, and its emphasis on continuities over breaks with the past. Whereas Anglo-American visual studies can be seen as a continuation of critical theory in its attempt to reveal power relations, Bildwissenschaft is not explicitly political. WJT Mitchell and Gottfried Boehm have had a discussion about these potential differences in an exchange of letters

Early work on visual culture has been done by John Berger (Ways of Seeing, 1972) and Laura Mulvey (Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema, 1975) that follows on from Jacques Lacan's theorization of the unconscious gaze. Twentieth-century pioneers such as György Kepes and William Ivins, Jr. as well as iconic phenomenologists like Maurice Merleau-Ponty also played important roles in creating a foundation for the discipline. For the history of art, Svetlana Alpers published a pioneering study on The Art of Describing: Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century (Chicago 1983) in which she took up an earlier impulse of Michael Baxandall to study the visual culture of a whole region of early-modern Europe in all its facets: landscape painting and perception, optics and perspectival studies, geography and topographic measurements, united in a common mapping impulse.

Major works on visual culture include those by W. J. T. Mitchell, Griselda Pollock, Giuliana Bruno, Stuart Hall, Roland Barthes, Jean-François Lyotard, Rosalind Krauss, Paul Crowther and Slavoj Žižek[citation needed]. Continuing work has been done by Lisa Cartwright, Marita Sturken, Margaret Dikovitskaya, Nicholas Mirzoeff, Irit Rogoff and Jackie Stacey. The first book titled Visual Culture (Vizuális Kultúra) was written by Pál Miklós in 1976. For history of science and technology, Klaus Hentschel has published a systematic comparative history in which various patterns of their emergence, stabilization and diffusion are identified.

In the German-speaking world, analogous discussions about "Bildwissenschaft" (image studies) are conducted, a.o., by Gottfried Boehm, Hans Belting, and Horst Bredekamp. In the French-speaking world, the visual culture and the visual studies have been recently discussed, a.o., by Maxime Boidy, André Gunthert, Gil Bartholeyns.

Visual culture studies have been increasingly important in religious studies through the work of David Morgan, Sally Promey, Jeffrey F. Hamburger, and S. Brent Plate.

  1. Bahan, Ben (2014). "Raising the Stakes for Human Diversity". Senses and Culture: Exploring the World Through Sensory Orientations. Minneapolis, Minn: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 233–254. ISBN 978-0816691227. JSTOR 10.5749/j.ctt9qh3m7.
  2. Pinotti, Somaini (2016) Cultura visuale, pp.67-8
  3. Mirzoeff, Nicholas (1998).What is Visual Culture?. The Visual Culture Reader (2nd ed.). ISBN 978-0-415-14134-5. Retrieved2 November 2011.
  4. "That Visual Turn"(PDF). Journal of Visual Culture. Retrieved2 November 2011.
  5. W. J. T. Mitchell, "The Pictorial Turn", ArtForum, n° 5, 1992, p. 89-94 ;Gottfried Boehm, "Die Wiederkehr der Bilder", in Boehm (ed.) Was ist ein Bild?, Munich, Fink, 1994m, p. 11-38; Emmanuel Alloa, "Iconic Turn: A Plea for Three Turns of the Screw", Culture, Theory and Critique 57.2 (2016) 228-250
  6. Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media MIT Press (1964) 45
  7. Rarey, Matthew (2012). "Visualism". In Elkins, James; McGuire, Kristi; Burns, Maureen; Chester, Alicia; Kuennen, Joel (eds.). Theorizing Visual Studies: Writing Through the Discipline. Routledge. pp. 278–281. ISBN 9781136159169.
  8. Jackson, Shannon. "Performing Show and Tell: Disciplines of Visual Culture and Performance Studies". Retrieved2 November 2011.
  9. Schober, Anna (2003). Blue Jeans. Alterations of a Thing, a Body, a Nation In: Heinz Tschachler, Maureen Devine, Michael Draxlbauer (eds.), The EmBodyment of American Culture, Muenster: LIT Verlag, 2003, 87–100.
  10. "Visual Culture/Visual Studies: Inventory of Recent Definitions". Retrieved2 November 2011.
  11. Rampley, Matthew (2012). "Bildwissenschaft: Theories of the Image in German-Language Scholarship". In Rampley, Matthew; Lenain, Thierry; Locher, Hubert; Pinotti, Andrea; Schoell-Glass, Charlotte; Zijlmans, Kitty (eds.). Art History and Visual Studies in Europe: Transnational Discourses and National Frameworks. Brill Publishers. p. 121.
  12. Craven, David (2014). "The New German Art History: From Ideological Critique and the Warburg Renaissance to the Bildwissenschaft of the Three Bs". Art in Translation. 6 (2): 140. doi:10.2752/175613114X13998876655059.
  13. Gaiger, Jason (2014). "The Idea of a Universal Bildwissenschaft". Estetika: The Central European Journal of Aesthetic. LI (2): 212.
  14. Gaiger 2014, p. 213.
  15. Boehm, Gottfried & Mitchell, W.. (2009). Pictorial versus Iconic Turn: Two Letters. Culture, Theory and Critique. 50. 103-121. 10.1080/14735780903240075.
  16. Miklós, Pál (1976). Vizuális Kultúra: Elméleti és kritikai tanulmányok a képzőművészet köréből. Magvető. ISBN 978-9632702988.
  17. See Klaus Hentschel: Visual Cultures in Science and Technology - A Comparative History, Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press 2014.

Visual culture
Visual culture Language Watch Edit Visual studies redirects here For the academic journal see Visual Studies journal This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Visual culture news newspapers books scholar JSTOR April 2011 Learn how and when to remove this template message Visual culture is the aspect of culture expressed in visual images Many academic fields study this subject including cultural studies art history critical theory philosophy media studies Deaf Studies 1 and anthropology The field of visual culture studies in the United States corresponds or parallels the Bildwissenschaft image studies in Germany 2 Both fields are not entirely new as they can be considered reformulations of issues of photography and film theory that had been raised from the 1920s and 1930s by authors like Bela Balazs Laszlo Moholy Nagy Siegfried Kracauer and Walter Benjamin 2 Contents 1 Overview 2 Pictorial Turn 3 Visualism 4 Relationship with other areas of study 4 1 Art history 4 2 Performance studies 4 3 Image studies 4 4 Bildwissenschaft 5 History 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksOverview EditAmong theorists working within contemporary culture this field of study often overlaps with film studies psychoanalytic theory sex studies queer theory and the study of television it can also include video game studies comics traditional artistic media advertising the Internet and any other medium that has a crucial visual component The field s versatility stems from the range of objects contained under the term visual culture which aggregates visual events in which information meaning or pleasure is sought by the consumer in an interface with visual technology The term visual technology refers any media designed for purposes of perception or with the potential to augment our visual capability 3 Because of the changing technological aspects of visual culture as well as a scientific method derived desire to create taxonomies or articulate what the visual is many aspects of Visual Culture overlap with the study of science and technology including hybrid electronic media cognitive science neurology and image and brain theory In an interview with the Journal of Visual Culture academic Martin Jay explicates the rise of this tie between the visual and the technological Insofar as we live in a culture whose technological advances abet the production and dissemination of such images at a hitherto unimagined level it is necessary to focus on how they work and what they do rather than move past them too quickly to the ideas they represent or the reality they purport to depict In so doing we necessarily have to ask questions about technological mediations and extensions of visual experience 4 Visual Culture goes by a variety of names at different institutions including Visual and Critical Studies Visual and Cultural Studies and Visual Studies citation needed Pictorial Turn EditIn the development of Visual Studies WJT Mitchell s text on the Pictorial Turn was highly influential In analogy to the linguistic turn Mitchell stated that we were undergoing a major paradigm shift in sciences and society which turned images rather than verbal language to the paradigmatic vectors of our relationship to the world Gottfried Boehm made similar claims in the German speaking context when talking about an iconic turn 5 as did Marshall McLuhan when speaking of television in terms of creating an intensely visual culture 6 Visualism EditThe term Visualism was developed by the German anthropologist Johannes Fabian to criticise the dominating role of vision in scientific discourse through such terms as observation He points to an under theorised approach to the use of visual representation which leads to a corpuscular theory of knowledge and information which leads to their atomisation 7 Relationship with other areas of study EditArt history Edit As visual culture studies in the United States have begun to address areas previously studied by art history there have been disputes between the two fields 2 One of the reason for controversy was that the various approaches in art history like formalism iconology social history of art or New Art History focused only on artistic images assuming a distinction with non artistic ones while in visual culture studies there is typically no such distinction 2 Performance studies Edit Visual culture studies may also overlap with another emerging field that of performance studies As the turn from art history to visual culture studies parallels a turn from theater studies to performance studies it is clear that the perspectival shift that both emerging fields embody is comparable 8 Image studies Edit While the image remains a focal point in visual culture studies it is the relations between images and consumers that are evaluated for their cultural significance not just the image in and of itself 9 Martin Jay clarifies Although images of all kinds have long served as illustrations of arguments made discursively the growth of visual culture as a field has allowed them to be examined more in their own terms as complex figural artifacts or the stimulants to visual experiences 4 Likewise W J T Mitchell explicitly distinguishes the two fields in his claim that visual culture studies helps us to see that even something as broad as the image does not exhaust the field of visuality that visual studies is not the same thing as image studies and that the study of the visual image is just one component of the larger field 10 Bildwissenschaft Edit Though the development of Bildwissenschaft image science in the German speaking world to an extent paralleled that of the field of visual culture in the United Kingdom and United States 11 Bildwissenschaft occupies a more central role in the liberal arts and humanities than that afforded to visual culture 12 Significant differences between Bildwissenschaft and Anglophone cultural and visual studies include the former s examination of images dating from the early modern period and its emphasis on continuities over breaks with the past 13 Whereas Anglo American visual studies can be seen as a continuation of critical theory in its attempt to reveal power relations Bildwissenschaft is not explicitly political 14 WJT Mitchell and Gottfried Boehm have had a discussion about these potential differences in an exchange of letters 15 History EditEarly work on visual culture has been done by John Berger Ways of Seeing 1972 and Laura Mulvey Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema 1975 that follows on from Jacques Lacan s theorization of the unconscious gaze Twentieth century pioneers such as Gyorgy Kepes and William Ivins Jr as well as iconic phenomenologists like Maurice Merleau Ponty also played important roles in creating a foundation for the discipline For the history of art Svetlana Alpers published a pioneering study on The Art of Describing Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century Chicago 1983 in which she took up an earlier impulse of Michael Baxandall to study the visual culture of a whole region of early modern Europe in all its facets landscape painting and perception optics and perspectival studies geography and topographic measurements united in a common mapping impulse Major works on visual culture include those by W J T Mitchell Griselda Pollock Giuliana Bruno Stuart Hall Roland Barthes Jean Francois Lyotard Rosalind Krauss Paul Crowther and Slavoj Zizek citation needed Continuing work has been done by Lisa Cartwright Marita Sturken Margaret Dikovitskaya Nicholas Mirzoeff Irit Rogoff and Jackie Stacey The first book titled Visual Culture Vizualis Kultura was written by Pal Miklos in 1976 16 For history of science and technology Klaus Hentschel has published a systematic comparative history in which various patterns of their emergence stabilization and diffusion are identified 17 In the German speaking world analogous discussions about Bildwissenschaft image studies are conducted a o by Gottfried Boehm Hans Belting and Horst Bredekamp In the French speaking world the visual culture and the visual studies have been recently discussed a o by Maxime Boidy Andre Gunthert Gil Bartholeyns Visual culture studies have been increasingly important in religious studies through the work of David Morgan Sally Promey Jeffrey F Hamburger and S Brent Plate See also EditArt education Art history Asemic writing Media influence Mediascape Sublime Visual anthropology Visual communication Visual ethics Visual literacy Visual rhetoric Visual sociologyReferences Edit Bahan Ben 2014 Raising the Stakes for Human Diversity Senses and Culture Exploring the World Through Sensory Orientations Minneapolis Minn University of Minnesota Press pp 233 254 ISBN 978 0816691227 JSTOR 10 5749 j ctt9qh3m7 a b c d Pinotti Somaini 2016 Cultura visuale pp 67 8 Mirzoeff Nicholas 1998 What is Visual Culture The Visual Culture Reader 2nd ed ISBN 978 0 415 14134 5 Retrieved 2 November 2011 a b That Visual Turn PDF Journal of Visual Culture Retrieved 2 November 2011 W J T Mitchell The Pictorial Turn ArtForum n 5 1992 p 89 94 Gottfried Boehm Die Wiederkehr der Bilder in Boehm ed Was ist ein Bild Munich Fink 1994m p 11 38 Emmanuel Alloa Iconic Turn A Plea for Three Turns of the Screw Culture Theory and Critique 57 2 2016 228 250 Marshall McLuhan Understanding Media MIT Press 1964 45 Rarey Matthew 2012 Visualism In Elkins James McGuire Kristi Burns Maureen Chester Alicia Kuennen Joel eds Theorizing Visual Studies Writing Through the Discipline Routledge pp 278 281 ISBN 9781136159169 Jackson Shannon Performing Show and Tell Disciplines of Visual Culture and Performance Studies Retrieved 2 November 2011 Schober Anna 2003 Blue Jeans Alterations of a Thing a Body a Nation In Heinz Tschachler Maureen Devine Michael Draxlbauer eds The EmBodyment of American Culture Muenster LIT Verlag 2003 87 100 Visual Culture Visual Studies Inventory of Recent Definitions Retrieved 2 November 2011 Rampley Matthew 2012 Bildwissenschaft Theories of the Image in German Language Scholarship In Rampley Matthew Lenain Thierry Locher Hubert Pinotti Andrea Schoell Glass Charlotte Zijlmans Kitty eds Art History and Visual Studies in Europe Transnational Discourses and National Frameworks Brill Publishers p 121 Craven David 2014 The New German Art History From Ideological Critique and the Warburg Renaissance to the Bildwissenschaft of the Three Bs Art in Translation 6 2 140 doi 10 2752 175613114X13998876655059 Gaiger Jason 2014 The Idea of a Universal Bildwissenschaft Estetika The Central European Journal of Aesthetic LI 2 212 Gaiger 2014 p 213 Boehm Gottfried amp Mitchell W 2009 Pictorial versus Iconic Turn Two Letters Culture Theory and Critique 50 103 121 10 1080 14735780903240075 Miklos Pal 1976 Vizualis Kultura Elmeleti es kritikai tanulmanyok a kepzomuveszet korebol Magveto ISBN 978 9632702988 See Klaus Hentschel Visual Cultures in Science and Technology A Comparative History Oxford Oxford Univ Press 2014 Further reading EditAlloa Emmanuel ed Gottfried Boehm Marie Jose Mondzain Jean Luc Nancy Emanuele Coccia W J T Mitchell Horst Bredekamp Georges Didi Huberman Hans Belting 2011 Penser l image 2nd ed Dijon Presses du reel ISBN 978 2840663430 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Alloa Emmanuel Cappelletto Chiara eds Dynamis of the Image Moving Images in a Global World New York De Gruyter 2020 Bartholeyns Gil 2018 History of Visual Culture in P Burke amp Marek Tamm Debating New Approaches to History London Bloomsbury ISBN 9781474281928 Bartholeyns Gil Dierkens Alain amp Golsenne Thomas ed 2010 La Performance des images 1st ed Brussels Editions de l universite de Bruxelles ISBN 978 2 8004 1474 4 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link CS1 maint extra text authors list link Bartholeyns Gil ed 2016 Politiques visuelles Dijon Presses du reel with a French translation of the Visual Culture Questionnaire October 1996 by Isabelle Decobecq ISBN 978 2 84066 745 2 Conti Uliano 2016 Lo spazio del visuale Manuale sull utilizzo dell immagine nella ricerca sociale Armando Roma ISBN 8869921409 Dikovitskaya Margaret 2005 Visual Culture The Study of the Visual after the Cultural Turn 1st ed Cambridge Ma The MIT Press ISBN 978 0 262 04224 6 Elkins James 2003 Visual Studies A Skeptical Introduction New York Routledge ISBN 978 0 415 96681 8 Ewen Stuart 1988 All Consuming Images The Politics of Style in Contemporary Culture 1st ed New York NY Basic Books ISBN 978 0 465 00101 9 Fuery Kelli amp Patrick Fuery 2003 Visual Culture and Critical Theory 1st ed London Arnold Publisher ISBN 978 0 340 80748 4 Oliver Grau Virtual Art From Illusion to Immersion MIT Press Cambridge Mass 2003 Oliver Grau Andreas Keil Hrsg Mediale Emotionen Zur Lenkung von Gefuhlen durch Bild und Sound Fischer Frankfurt am Main 2005 Oliver Grau Hrsg Imagery in the 21st Century MIT Press Cambridge 2011 Klaus Hentschel Visual Cultures in Science and Technology A Comparative History Oxford Oxford Univ Press 2014 ISBN 978 0 19 871787 4 Manghani Sunil Jon Simons Arthur Piper 2006 Images A Reader London Sage ISBN 978 1 4129 0045 4 Manghani Sunil 2008 Image Critique London Intellect Books ISBN 978 1 84150 190 1 Jay Martin ed The State of Visual Culture Studies themed issue of Journal of Visual Culture vol 4 no 2 August 2005 London Sage ISSN 1470 4129 eISSN 1741 2994 Mirzoeff Nicholas 1999 An Introduction to Visual Culture London Routledge ISBN 978 0 415 15876 3 Mirzoeff Nicholas ed 2002 The Visual Culture Reader 2nd ed London Routledge ISBN 978 0 415 25222 5 CS1 maint extra text authors list link Michael Ann Holly amp Moxey Keith 2002 Art History Aesthetics Visual Studies 1st ed Massachusetts Clark Art Institute and Yale University Press ISBN 978 0 300 09789 4 Morra Joanne amp Smith Marquard eds 2006 Visual Culture Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies 4 vols London Routledge ISBN 978 0 415 32641 4 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link CS1 maint extra text authors list link Plate S Brent Religion Art and Visual Culture New York Palgrave Macmillan 2002 ISBN 0 312 24029 5 Smith Marquard Visual Culture Studies Questions of History Theory and Practice in Jones Amelia ed A Companion to Contemporary Art Since 1945 Oxford Blackwell 2006 ISBN 978 1 4051 3542 9 Yoshida Yukihiko Leni Riefenstahl and German Expressionism A Study of Visual Cultural Studies Using Transdisciplinary Semantic Space of Specialized Dictionaries Technoetic Arts a journal of speculative research Editor Roy Ascott Volume 8 Issue3 intellect 2008 Sturken Marita Lisa Cartwright 2007 Practices of Looking An Introduction to Visual Culture 2nd ed Oxford Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 531440 3 External links EditJournal of Visual Culture Publisher s Website Visual Studies journal Culture Visuelle social media viz Rhetoric Visual Culture Pedagogy William Blake and Visual Culture A Special Issue of the Journal Imagetext Material collection from Introduction to Media Theory and Visual Culture by Professor Martin Irvine Visual Culture Collective Duke University Visual Studies Initiative Visual Studies University of Houston International Visual Sociology Association Visual Studies University of California Irvine Centre for Visual amp Cultural Studies Edinburgh College of Art Scotland Visual Studies University of California Santa Cruz Interfaces Studies in Visual Culture book series Contemporary International Visual Culture Visual Culture and Communication Zurich University of the Arts Sciences et Cultures du Visuel University of Lille Master SCV Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Visual culture amp oldid 1047373497, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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