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Vitamin

For other uses, see Vitamin (disambiguation).

A vitamin is an organic molecule (or a set of molecules closely related chemically, i.e. vitamers) that is an essential micronutrient which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism. Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the organism, either at all or not in sufficient quantities, and therefore must be obtained through the diet. Vitamin C can be synthesized by some species but not by others; it is not a vitamin in the first instance but is in the second. The term vitamin does not include the three other groups of essential nutrients: minerals, essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids. Most vitamins are not single molecules, but groups of related molecules called vitamers. For example, there are eight vitamers of vitamin E: four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. Some sources list fourteen vitamins, by including choline, but major health organizations list thirteen: vitamin A (as all-trans-retinol, all-trans-retinyl-esters, as well as all-trans-beta-carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids), vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B3 (niacin), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B7 (biotin), vitamin B9 (folic acid or folate), vitamin B12 (cobalamins), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin D (calciferols), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), and vitamin K (phylloquinone and menaquinones).

Vitamin
Drug class
A bottle of B-complex vitamin pills
PronunciationUK:
US:
In Wikidata

Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. Vitamin A acts as a regulator of cell and tissue growth and differentiation. Vitamin D provides a hormone-like function, regulating mineral metabolism for bones and other organs. The B complex vitamins function as enzyme cofactors (coenzymes) or the precursors for them. Vitamins C and E function as antioxidants. Both deficient and excess intake of a vitamin can potentially cause clinically significant illness, although excess intake of water-soluble vitamins is less likely to do so.

Before 1935, the only source of vitamins was from food.[citation needed] If intake of vitamins was lacking, the result was vitamin deficiency and consequent deficiency diseases. Then, commercially produced tablets of yeast-extract vitamin B complex and semi-synthetic vitamin C became available.[citation needed] This was followed in the 1950s by the mass production and marketing of vitamin supplements, including multivitamins, to prevent vitamin deficiencies in the general population. Governments have mandated the addition of some vitamins to staple foods such as flour or milk, referred to as food fortification, to prevent deficiencies. Recommendations for folic acid supplementation during pregnancy reduced risk of infant neural tube defects.

The term vitamin is derived from the word vitamine, which was coined in 1912 by Polish biochemist Casimir Funk, who isolated a complex of micronutrients essential to life, all of which he presumed to be amines. When this presumption was later determined not to be true, the "e" was dropped from the name. All vitamins were discovered (identified) between 1913 and 1948.[citation needed]

Contents

Vitamin Vitamers (incomplete) Solubility US recommended dietary allowances
(male/female, age 19–70)
Deficiency disease(s) Overdose syndrome/symptoms Food sources
Vitamin A all-trans-Retinol, Retinals, and
alternative provitamin A-functioning Carotenoids
including all-trans-beta-carotene
Fat 900 µg/700 µg Night blindness, hyperkeratosis, and keratomalacia Hypervitaminosis A from animal origin as Vitamin A / all-trans-Retinol: Fish in general, liver and dairy products;

from plant origin as provitamin A / all-trans-beta-carotene: orange, ripe yellow fruits, leafy vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, squash, spinach

Vitamin B1 Thiamine Water 1.2 mg/1.1 mg Beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome Drowsiness and muscle relaxation Pork, wholemeal grains, brown rice, vegetables, potatoes, liver, eggs
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Water 1.3 mg/1.1 mg Ariboflavinosis, glossitis, angular stomatitis Dairy products, bananas, green beans, asparagus
Vitamin B3 Niacin, Niacinamide, Nicotinamide riboside Water 16 mg/14 mg Pellagra Liver damage (doses > 2g/day) and other problems Meat, fish, eggs, many vegetables, mushrooms, tree nuts
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Water 5 mg/5 mg Paresthesia Diarrhea; possibly nausea and heartburn. Meat, broccoli, avocados
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine, Pyridoxamine, Pyridoxal Water 1.3–1.7 mg/1.2–1.5 mg Anemia, Peripheral neuropathy Impairment of proprioception, nerve damage (doses > 100 mg/day) Meat, vegetables, tree nuts, bananas
Vitamin B7 Biotin Water AI: 30 µg/30 µg Dermatitis, enteritis Raw egg yolk, liver, peanuts, leafy green vegetables
Vitamin B9 Folates, Folic acid Water 400 µg/400 µg Megaloblastic anemia and deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neural tube defects May mask symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency; other effects. Leafy vegetables, pasta, bread, cereal, liver
Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin, Hydroxocobalamin, Methylcobalamin, Adenosylcobalamin Water 2.4 µg/2.4 µg Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia None proven Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk
Vitamin C Ascorbic acid Water 90 mg/75 mg Scurvy Stomach Pain, Diarrhoea and Flatulence. Many fruits and vegetables, liver
Vitamin D Cholecalciferol (D3), Ergocalciferol (D2) Fat 15 µg/15 µg Rickets and osteomalacia Hypervitaminosis D Eggs, liver, certain fish species such as sardines, certain mushroom species such as shiitake
Vitamin E Tocopherols, Tocotrienols Fat 15 mg/15 mg Deficiency is very rare; mild hemolytic anemia in newborn infants Possible increased incidence of congestive heart failure. Many fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, and seed oils
Vitamin K Phylloquinone, Menaquinones Fat AI: 110 µg/120 µg Bleeding diathesis Decreased anticoagulation effect of warfarin. Leafy green vegetables such as spinach; egg yolks; liver

Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble. In humans there are 13 vitamins: 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C). Water-soluble vitamins dissolve easily in water and, in general, are readily excreted from the body, to the degree that urinary output is a strong predictor of vitamin consumption. Because they are not as readily stored, more consistent intake is important. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids (fats). Vitamins A and D can accumulate in the body, which can result in dangerous hypervitaminosis. Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency due to malabsorption is of particular significance in cystic fibrosis.

Main article: Antinutrient

Anti-vitamins are chemical compounds that inhibit the absorption or actions of vitamins. For example, avidin is a protein in raw egg whites that inhibits the absorption of biotin; it is deactivated by cooking. Pyrithiamine, a synthetic compound, has a molecular structure similar to thiamine, vitamin B1, and inhibits the enzymes that use thiamine.

Each vitamin is typically used in multiple reactions, and therefore most have multiple functions.

On fetal growth and childhood development

Vitamins are essential for the normal growth and development of a multicellular organism. Using the genetic blueprint inherited from its parents, a fetus develops from the nutrients it absorbs. It requires certain vitamins and minerals to be present at certain times. These nutrients facilitate the chemical reactions that produce among other things, skin, bone, and muscle. If there is serious deficiency in one or more of these nutrients, a child may develop a deficiency disease. Even minor deficiencies may cause permanent damage.

On adult health maintenance

Once growth and development are completed, vitamins remain essential nutrients for the healthy maintenance of the cells, tissues, and organs that make up a multicellular organism; they also enable a multicellular life form to efficiently use chemical energy provided by food it eats, and to help process the proteins, carbohydrates, and fats required for cellular respiration.

Sources

For the most part, vitamins are obtained from the diet, but some are acquired by other means: for example, microorganisms in the gut flora produce vitamin K and biotin; and one form of vitamin D is synthesized in skin cells when they are exposed to a certain wavelength of ultraviolet light present in sunlight. Humans can produce some vitamins from precursors they consume: for example, vitamin A is synthesized from beta carotene; and niacin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan. Vitamin C can be synthesized by some species but not by others. Vitamin B12 is the only vitamin or nutrient not available from plant sources. The Food Fortification Initiative lists countries which have mandatory fortification programs for vitamins folic acid, niacin, vitamin A and vitamins B1, B2 and B12.

Deficient intake

The body's stores for different vitamins vary widely; vitamins A, D, and B12 are stored in significant amounts, mainly in the liver, and an adult's diet may be deficient in vitamins A and D for many months and B12 in some cases for years, before developing a deficiency condition. However, vitamin B3 (niacin and niacinamide) is not stored in significant amounts, so stores may last only a couple of weeks. For vitamin C, the first symptoms of scurvy in experimental studies of complete vitamin C deprivation in humans have varied widely, from a month to more than six months, depending on previous dietary history that determined body stores.

Deficiencies of vitamins are classified as either primary or secondary. A primary deficiency occurs when an organism does not get enough of the vitamin in its food. A secondary deficiency may be due to an underlying disorder that prevents or limits the absorption or use of the vitamin, due to a "lifestyle factor", such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, or the use of medications that interfere with the absorption or use of the vitamin. People who eat a varied diet are unlikely to develop a severe primary vitamin deficiency, but may be consuming less than the recommended amounts; a national food and supplement survey conducted in the US over 2003-2006 reported that over 90% of individuals who did not consume vitamin supplements were found to have inadequate levels of some of the essential vitamins, notably vitamins D and E.

Well-researched human vitamin deficiencies involve thiamine (beriberi), niacin (pellagra), vitamin C (scurvy), folate (neural tube defects) and vitamin D (rickets). In much of the developed world these deficiencies are rare due to an adequate supply of food and the addition of vitamins to common foods. In addition to these classical vitamin deficiency diseases, some evidence has also suggested links between vitamin deficiency and a number of different disorders.

Excess intake

Some vitamins have documented acute or chronic toxicity at larger intakes, which is referred to as hypertoxicity. The European Union and the governments of several countries have established Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for those vitamins which have documented toxicity (see table). The likelihood of consuming too much of any vitamin from food is remote, but excessive intake (vitamin poisoning) from dietary supplements does occur. In 2016, overdose exposure to all formulations of vitamins and multi-vitamin/mineral formulations was reported by 63,931 individuals to the American Association of Poison Control Centers with 72% of these exposures in children under the age of five. In the US, analysis of a national diet and supplement survey reported that about 7% of adult supplement users exceeded the UL for folate and 5% of those older than age 50 years exceeded the UL for vitamin A.

Effects of cooking

The USDA has conducted extensive studies on the percentage losses of various nutrients from food types and cooking methods. Some vitamins may become more "bio-available" – that is, usable by the body – when foods are cooked. The table below shows whether various vitamins are susceptible to loss from heat—such as heat from boiling, steaming, frying, etc. The effect of cutting vegetables can be seen from exposure to air and light. Water-soluble vitamins such as B and C dissolve into the water when a vegetable is boiled, and are then lost when the water is discarded.

Vitamin Soluble in Water Stable to Air Exposure Stable to Light Exposure Stable to Heat Exposure
Vitamin A no partially partially relatively stable
Vitamin C very unstable yes no no
Vitamin D no no no no
Vitamin E no yes yes no
Vitamin K no no yes no
Thiamine (B1) highly no ? > 100 °C
Riboflavin (B2) slightly no in solution no
Niacin (B3) yes no no no
Pantothenic Acid (B5) quite stable no no yes
Vitamin B6 yes ? yes < 160 °C
Biotin (B7) somewhat ? ? no
Folic Acid (B9) yes ? when dry at high temp
Cobalamin (B12) yes ? yes no

In setting human nutrient guidelines, government organizations do not necessarily agree on amounts needed to avoid deficiency or maximum amounts to avoid the risk of toxicity. For example, for vitamin C, recommended intakes range from 40 mg/day in India to 155 mg/day for the European Union. The table below shows U.S. Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamins, PRIs for the European Union (same concept as RDAs), followed by what three government organizations deem to be the safe upper intake. RDAs are set higher than EARs to cover people with higher than average needs. Adequate Intakes (AIs) are set when there is not sufficient information to establish EARs and RDAs. Governments are slow to revise information of this nature. For the U.S. values, with the exception of calcium and vitamin D, all of the data date to 1997–2004.

Nutrient U.S. EAR Highest U.S.
RDA or AI
Highest EU
PRI or AI
Upper limit (UL) Unit
U.S. EU Japan
Vitamin A 625 900 1300 3000 3000 2700 µg
Vitamin C 75 90 155 2000 ND ND mg
Vitamin D 10 15 15 100 100 100 µg
Vitamin K NE 120 70 ND ND ND µg
α-tocopherol (Vitamin E) 12 15 13 1000 300 650-900 mg
Thiamin (Vitamin B1) 1.0 1.2 0.1 mg/MJ ND ND ND mg
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) 1.1 1.3 2.0 ND ND ND mg
Niacin (Vitamin B3) 12 16 1.6 mg/MJ 35 10 60-85 mg
Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5) NE 5 7 ND ND ND mg
Vitamin B6 1.1 1.3 1.8 100 25 40-60 mg
Biotin (Vitamin B7) NE 30 45 ND ND ND µg
Folate (Vitamin B9) 320 400 600 1000 1000 900-1000 µg
Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) 2.0 2.4 5.0 ND ND ND µg

EAR US Estimated Average Requirements.

RDA US Recommended Dietary Allowances; higher for adults than for children, and may be even higher for women who are pregnant or lactating.

AI US and EFSA Adequate Intake; AIs established when there is not sufficient information to set EARs and RDAs.

PRI Population Reference Intake is European Union equivalent of RDA; higher for adults than for children, and may be even higher for women who are pregnant or lactating. For Thiamin and Niacin the PRIs are expressed as amounts per MJ of calories consumed. MJ = megajoule = 239 food calories.

UL or Upper Limit Tolerable upper intake levels.

ND ULs have not been determined.

NE EARs have not been established.

Calcium combined with vitamin D (as calciferol) supplement tablets with fillers.

In those who are otherwise healthy, there is little evidence that supplements have any benefits with respect to cancer or heart disease. Vitamin A and E supplements not only provide no health benefits for generally healthy individuals, but they may increase mortality, though the two large studies that support this conclusion included smokers for whom it was already known that beta-carotene supplements can be harmful. A 2018 meta-analysis found no evidence that intake of vitamin D or calcium for community-dwelling elderly people reduced bone fractures.

Europe has regulations that define limits of vitamin (and mineral) dosages for their safe use as dietary supplements. Most vitamins that are sold as dietary supplements are not supposed to exceed a maximum daily dosage referred to as the tolerable upper intake level (UL or Upper Limit). Vitamin products above these regulatory limits are not considered supplements and should be registered as prescription or non-prescription (over-the-counter drugs) due to their potential side effects. The European Union, United States and Japan establish ULs.

Dietary supplements often contain vitamins, but may also include other ingredients, such as minerals, herbs, and botanicals. Scientific evidence supports the benefits of dietary supplements for persons with certain health conditions. In some cases, vitamin supplements may have unwanted effects, especially if taken before surgery, with other dietary supplements or medicines, or if the person taking them has certain health conditions. They may also contain levels of vitamins many times higher, and in different forms, than one may ingest through food.

Governmental regulation

Most countries place dietary supplements in a special category under the general umbrella of foods, not drugs. As a result, the manufacturer, and not the government, has the responsibility of ensuring that its dietary supplement products are safe before they are marketed. Regulation of supplements varies widely by country. In the United States, a dietary supplement is defined under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. There is no FDA approval process for dietary supplements, and no requirement that manufacturers prove the safety or efficacy of supplements introduced before 1994. The Food and Drug Administration must rely on its Adverse Event Reporting System to monitor adverse events that occur with supplements.

In 2007, the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 21, part III took effect, regulating Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) in the manufacturing, packaging, labeling, or holding operations for dietary supplements. Even though product registration is not required, these regulations mandate production and quality control standards (including testing for identity, purity and adulterations) for dietary supplements. In the European Union, the Food Supplements Directive requires that only those supplements that have been proven safe can be sold without a prescription. For most vitamins, pharmacopoeial standards have been established. In the United States, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) sets standards for the most commonly used vitamins and preparations thereof. Likewise, monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph.Eur.) regulate aspects of identity and purity for vitamins on the European market.

Nomenclature of reclassified vitamins
Previous name Chemical name Reason for name change
Vitamin B4 Adenine DNA metabolite; synthesized in body
Vitamin B8 Adenylic acid DNA metabolite; synthesized in body
Vitamin BT Carnitine Synthesized in body
Vitamin F Essential fatty acids Needed in large quantities (does
not fit the definition of a vitamin).
Vitamin G Riboflavin Reclassified as Vitamin B2
Vitamin H Biotin Reclassified as Vitamin B7
Vitamin J Catechol, Flavin Catechol nonessential; flavin reclassified
as Vitamin B2
Vitamin L1 Anthranilic acid Nonessential
Vitamin L2 Adenylthiomethylpentose RNA metabolite; synthesized in body
Vitamin M or Bc Folate Reclassified as Vitamin B9
Vitamin P Flavonoids Many compounds, not proven essential
Vitamin PP Niacin Reclassified as Vitamin B3
Vitamin S Salicylic acid Nonessential
Vitamin U S-Methylmethionine Protein metabolite; synthesized in body

The reason that the set of vitamins skips directly from E to K is that the vitamins corresponding to letters F–J were either reclassified over time, discarded as false leads, or renamed because of their relationship to vitamin B, which became a complex of vitamins.

The Danish-speaking scientists who isolated and described vitamin K (in addition to naming it as such) did so because the vitamin is intimately involved in the coagulation of blood following wounding (from the Danish word Koagulation). At the time, most (but not all) of the letters from F through to J were already designated, so the use of the letter K was considered quite reasonable. The table Nomenclature of reclassified vitamins lists chemicals that had previously been classified as vitamins, as well as the earlier names of vitamins that later became part of the B-complex.

The missing B vitamins were reclassified or determined not to be vitamins. For example, B9 is folic acid and five of the folates are in the range B11 through B16. Others, such as PABA (formerly B10), are biologically inactive, toxic, or with unclassifiable effects in humans, or not generally recognised as vitamins by science, such as the highest-numbered, which some naturopath practitioners call B21 and B22. There are also nine lettered B complex vitamins (e.g., Bm). There are other D vitamins now recognised as other substances, which some sources of the same type number up to D7. The controversial cancer treatment laetrile was at one point lettered as vitamin B17. There appears to be no consensus on any vitamins Q, R, T, V, W, X, Y or Z, nor are there substances officially designated as vitamins N or I, although the latter may have been another form of one of the other vitamins or a known and named nutrient of another type.

The value of eating certain foods to maintain health was recognized long before vitamins were identified. The ancient Egyptians knew that feeding liver to a person may help with night blindness, an illness now known to be caused by a vitamin A deficiency. The advancement of ocean voyages during the Age of Discovery resulted in prolonged periods without access to fresh fruits and vegetables, and made illnesses from vitamin deficiency common among ships' crews.

The discovery dates of the vitamins and their sources
Year of discovery Vitamin Food source
1913 Vitamin A (Retinol) Cod liver oil
1910 Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Rice bran
1920 Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Citrus, most fresh foods
1920 Vitamin D (Calciferol) Cod liver oil
1920 Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Meat, dairy products, eggs
1922 Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Wheat germ oil,
unrefined vegetable oils
1929 Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone) Leaf vegetables
1931 Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) Meat, whole grains,
in many foods
1934 Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Meat, dairy products
1936 Vitamin B7 (Biotin) Meat, dairy products, Eggs
1936 Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Meat, grains
1941 Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) Leaf vegetables
1948 Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins) Meat, organs (Liver), Eggs

In 1747, the Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered that citrus foods helped prevent scurvy, a particularly deadly disease in which collagen is not properly formed, causing poor wound healing, bleeding of the gums, severe pain, and death. In 1753, Lind published his Treatise on the Scurvy, which recommended using lemons and limes to avoid scurvy, which was adopted by the British Royal Navy. This led to the nickname limey for British sailors. Lind's discovery, however, was not widely accepted by individuals in the Royal Navy's Arctic expeditions in the 19th century, where it was widely believed that scurvy could be prevented by practicing good hygiene, regular exercise, and maintaining the morale of the crew while on board, rather than by a diet of fresh food. As a result, Arctic expeditions continued to be plagued by scurvy and other deficiency diseases. In the early 20th century, when Robert Falcon Scott made his two expeditions to the Antarctic, the prevailing medical theory at the time was that scurvy was caused by "tainted" canned food.

During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the use of deprivation studies allowed scientists to isolate and identify a number of vitamins. Lipid from fish oil was used to cure rickets in rats, and the fat-soluble nutrient was called "antirachitic A". Thus, the first "vitamin" bioactivity ever isolated, which cured rickets, was initially called "vitamin A"; however, the bioactivity of this compound is now called vitamin D. In 1881, Russian medical doctor Nikolai I. Lunin [ru] studied the effects of scurvy at the University of Tartu. He fed mice an artificial mixture of all the separate constituents of milk known at that time, namely the proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and salts. The mice that received only the individual constituents died, while the mice fed by milk itself developed normally. He made a conclusion that "a natural food such as milk must therefore contain, besides these known principal ingredients, small quantities of unknown substances essential to life." However, his conclusions were rejected by his advisor, Gustav von Bunge. A similar result by Cornelius Pekelharing appeared in a Dutch medical journal in 1905, but it was not widely reported.

In East Asia, where polished white rice was the common staple food of the middle class, beriberi resulting from lack of vitamin B1 was endemic. In 1884, Takaki Kanehiro, a British-trained medical doctor of the Imperial Japanese Navy, observed that beriberi was endemic among low-ranking crew who often ate nothing but rice, but not among officers who consumed a Western-style diet. With the support of the Japanese navy, he experimented using crews of two battleships; one crew was fed only white rice, while the other was fed a diet of meat, fish, barley, rice, and beans. The group that ate only white rice documented 161 crew members with beriberi and 25 deaths, while the latter group had only 14 cases of beriberi and no deaths. This convinced Takaki and the Japanese Navy that diet was the cause of beriberi, but they mistakenly believed that sufficient amounts of protein prevented it. That diseases could result from some dietary deficiencies was further investigated by Christiaan Eijkman, who in 1897 discovered that feeding unpolished rice instead of the polished variety to chickens helped to prevent a kind of polyneuritis that was the equivalent of beriberi. The following year, Frederick Hopkins postulated that some foods contained "accessory factors" — in addition to proteins, carbohydrates, fats etc. — that are necessary for the functions of the human body. Hopkins and Eijkman were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1929 for their discoveries.

Jack Drummond’s single-paragraph article in 1920 which provided structure and nomenclature used today for vitamins

"Vitamine" to vitamin

In 1910, the first vitamin complex was isolated by Japanese scientist Umetaro Suzuki, who succeeded in extracting a water-soluble complex of micronutrients from rice bran and named it aberic acid (later Orizanin). He published this discovery in a Japanese scientific journal. When the article was translated into German, the translation failed to state that it was a newly discovered nutrient, a claim made in the original Japanese article, and hence his discovery failed to gain publicity. In 1912 Polish-born biochemist Casimir Funk, working in London, isolated the same complex of micronutrients and proposed the complex be named "vitamine". It was later to be known as vitamin B3 (niacin), though he described it as "anti-beri-beri-factor" (which would today be called thiamine or vitamin B1). Funk proposed the hypothesis that other diseases, such as rickets, pellagra, coeliac disease, and scurvy could also be cured by vitamins. Max Nierenstein a friend and Reader of Biochemistry at Bristol University reportedly suggested the "vitamine" name (from "vital amine"). The name soon became synonymous with Hopkins' "accessory factors", and, by the time it was shown that not all vitamins are amines, the word was already ubiquitous. In 1920, Jack Cecil Drummond proposed that the final "e" be dropped to deemphasize the "amine" reference, hence "vitamin," after researchers began to suspect that not all "vitamines" (in particular, vitamin A) have an amine component.

Nobel Prizes for vitamin research

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1929 was awarded to Christiaan Eijkman and Frederick Gowland Hopkins for their contributions to the discovery of vitamins. Thirty-five years earlier, Eijkman had observed that chickens fed polished white rice developed neurological symptoms similar to those observed in military sailors and soldiers fed a rice-based diet, and that the symptoms were reversed when the chickens were switched to whole-grain rice. He called this "the anti-beriberi factor", which was later identified as vitamin B1, thiamine.

In 1930, Paul Karrer elucidated the correct structure for beta-carotene, the main precursor of vitamin A, and identified other carotenoids. Karrer and Norman Haworth confirmed Albert Szent-Györgyi's discovery of ascorbic acid and made significant contributions to the chemistry of flavins, which led to the identification of lactoflavin. For their investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2, they both received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1937.

In 1931, Albert Szent-Györgyi and a fellow researcher Joseph Svirbely suspected that "hexuronic acid" was actually vitamin C, and gave a sample to Charles Glen King, who proved its anti-scorbutic activity in his long-established guinea pig scorbutic assay. In 1937, Szent-Györgyi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery. In 1943, Edward Adelbert Doisy and Henrik Dam were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of vitamin K and its chemical structure. In 1967, George Wald was awarded the Nobel Prize (along with Ragnar Granit and Haldan Keffer Hartline) for his discovery that vitamin A could participate directly in a physiological process.

In 1938, Richard Kuhn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on carotenoids and vitamins, specifically B2 and B6.

Five people have been awarded Nobel Prizes for direct and indirect studies of vitamin B12: George Whipple, George Minot and William P. Murphy (1934), Alexander R. Todd (1957), and Dorothy Hodgkin (1964).

History of promotional marketing

Once discovered, vitamins were actively promoted in articles and advertisements in McCall's, Good Housekeeping, and other media outlets. Marketers enthusiastically promoted cod-liver oil, a source of vitamin D, as "bottled sunshine", and bananas as a “natural vitality food". They promoted foods such as yeast cakes, a source of B vitamins, on the basis of scientifically-determined nutritional value, rather than taste or appearance. World War II researchers focused on the need to ensure adequate nutrition, especially in processed foods. Robert W. Yoder is credited with first using the term vitamania, in 1942, to describe the appeal of relying on nutritional supplements rather than on obtaining vitamins from a varied diet of foods. The continuing preoccupation with a healthy lifestyle has led to an obsessive consumption of additives, the beneficial effects of which are questionable.

The term vitamin was derived from "vitamine", a compound word coined in 1912 by the Polish biochemist Casimir Funk when working at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine. The name is from vital and amine, meaning amine of life, because it was suggested in 1912 that the organic micronutrient food factors that prevent beriberi and perhaps other similar dietary-deficiency diseases might be chemical amines. This was true of thiamine, but after it was found that other such micronutrients were not amines the word was shortened to vitamin in English.

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Wikisource has the text of the 1922 Encyclopædia Britannica article "Vitamine".

Vitamin
Vitamin Language Watch Edit For other uses see Vitamin disambiguation A vitamin is an organic molecule or a set of molecules closely related chemically i e vitamers that is an essential micronutrient which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism Essential nutrients cannot be synthesized in the organism either at all or not in sufficient quantities and therefore must be obtained through the diet Vitamin C can be synthesized by some species but not by others it is not a vitamin in the first instance but is in the second The term vitamin does not include the three other groups of essential nutrients minerals essential fatty acids and essential amino acids 2 Most vitamins are not single molecules but groups of related molecules called vitamers For example there are eight vitamers of vitamin E four tocopherols and four tocotrienols Some sources list fourteen vitamins by including choline 3 but major health organizations list thirteen vitamin A as all trans retinol all trans retinyl esters as well as all trans beta carotene and other provitamin A carotenoids vitamin B1 thiamine vitamin B2 riboflavin vitamin B3 niacin vitamin B5 pantothenic acid vitamin B6 pyridoxine vitamin B7 biotin vitamin B9 folic acid or folate vitamin B12 cobalamins vitamin C ascorbic acid vitamin D calciferols vitamin E tocopherols and tocotrienols and vitamin K phylloquinone and menaquinones 4 5 6 VitaminDrug classA bottle of B complex vitamin pillsPronunciationUK ˈ v ɪ t e m ɪ n ˈ v aɪ US ˈ v aɪ t e m ɪ n 1 In Wikidata Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions Vitamin A acts as a regulator of cell and tissue growth and differentiation Vitamin D provides a hormone like function regulating mineral metabolism for bones and other organs The B complex vitamins function as enzyme cofactors coenzymes or the precursors for them Vitamins C and E function as antioxidants 7 Both deficient and excess intake of a vitamin can potentially cause clinically significant illness although excess intake of water soluble vitamins is less likely to do so Before 1935 the only source of vitamins was from food citation needed If intake of vitamins was lacking the result was vitamin deficiency and consequent deficiency diseases Then commercially produced tablets of yeast extract vitamin B complex and semi synthetic vitamin C became available citation needed This was followed in the 1950s by the mass production and marketing of vitamin supplements including multivitamins to prevent vitamin deficiencies in the general population Governments have mandated the addition of some vitamins to staple foods such as flour or milk referred to as food fortification to prevent deficiencies 8 Recommendations for folic acid supplementation during pregnancy reduced risk of infant neural tube defects 9 The term vitamin is derived from the word vitamine which was coined in 1912 by Polish biochemist Casimir Funk who isolated a complex of micronutrients essential to life all of which he presumed to be amines 10 When this presumption was later determined not to be true the e was dropped from the name 11 All vitamins were discovered identified between 1913 and 1948 citation needed Contents 1 List 2 Classification 3 Anti vitamins 4 Biochemical functions 4 1 On fetal growth and childhood development 4 2 On adult health maintenance 5 Intake 5 1 Sources 5 2 Deficient intake 5 3 Excess intake 5 4 Effects of cooking 6 Recommended levels 7 Supplementation 7 1 Governmental regulation 8 Naming 9 History 9 1 Vitamine to vitamin 9 2 Nobel Prizes for vitamin research 9 3 History of promotional marketing 10 Etymology 11 See also 12 References 13 External linksListVitamin Vitamers incomplete Solubility US recommended dietary allowances male female age 19 70 12 Deficiency disease s Overdose syndrome symptoms Food sourcesVitamin A all trans Retinol Retinals and alternative provitamin A functioning Carotenoids including all trans beta carotene Fat 900 µg 700 µg Night blindness hyperkeratosis and keratomalacia 13 Hypervitaminosis A from animal origin as Vitamin A all trans Retinol Fish in general liver and dairy products from plant origin as provitamin A all trans beta carotene orange ripe yellow fruits leafy vegetables carrots pumpkin squash spinachVitamin B1 Thiamine Water 1 2 mg 1 1 mg Beriberi Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome Drowsiness and muscle relaxation 14 Pork wholemeal grains brown rice vegetables potatoes liver eggsVitamin B2 Riboflavin Water 1 3 mg 1 1 mg Ariboflavinosis glossitis angular stomatitis Dairy products bananas green beans asparagusVitamin B3 Niacin Niacinamide Nicotinamide riboside Water 16 mg 14 mg Pellagra Liver damage doses gt 2g day 15 and other problems Meat fish eggs many vegetables mushrooms tree nutsVitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Water 5 mg 5 mg Paresthesia Diarrhea possibly nausea and heartburn 16 Meat broccoli avocadosVitamin B6 Pyridoxine Pyridoxamine Pyridoxal Water 1 3 1 7 mg 1 2 1 5 mg Anemia 17 Peripheral neuropathy Impairment of proprioception nerve damage doses gt 100 mg day 18 Meat vegetables tree nuts bananasVitamin B7 Biotin Water AI 30 µg 30 µg Dermatitis enteritis Raw egg yolk liver peanuts leafy green vegetablesVitamin B9 Folates Folic acid Water 400 µg 400 µg Megaloblastic anemia and deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects such as neural tube defects May mask symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency other effects Leafy vegetables pasta bread cereal liverVitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin Hydroxocobalamin Methylcobalamin Adenosylcobalamin Water 2 4 µg 2 4 µg Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia 19 None proven Meat poultry fish eggs milkVitamin C Ascorbic acid Water 90 mg 75 mg Scurvy Stomach Pain Diarrhoea and Flatulence 20 Many fruits and vegetables liverVitamin D Cholecalciferol D3 Ergocalciferol D2 Fat 15 µg 15 µg Rickets and osteomalacia Hypervitaminosis D Eggs liver certain fish species such as sardines certain mushroom species such as shiitakeVitamin E Tocopherols Tocotrienols Fat 15 mg 15 mg Deficiency is very rare mild hemolytic anemia in newborn infants 21 Possible increased incidence of congestive heart failure 22 23 Many fruits and vegetables nuts and seeds and seed oilsVitamin K Phylloquinone Menaquinones Fat AI 110 µg 120 µg Bleeding diathesis Decreased anticoagulation effect of warfarin 24 Leafy green vegetables such as spinach egg yolks liverClassificationVitamins are classified as either water soluble or fat soluble In humans there are 13 vitamins 4 fat soluble A D E and K and 9 water soluble 8 B vitamins and vitamin C Water soluble vitamins dissolve easily in water and in general are readily excreted from the body to the degree that urinary output is a strong predictor of vitamin consumption 25 Because they are not as readily stored more consistent intake is important 26 Fat soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids fats Vitamins A and D can accumulate in the body which can result in dangerous hypervitaminosis Fat soluble vitamin deficiency due to malabsorption is of particular significance in cystic fibrosis 27 Anti vitaminsMain article Antinutrient Anti vitamins are chemical compounds that inhibit the absorption or actions of vitamins For example avidin is a protein in raw egg whites that inhibits the absorption of biotin it is deactivated by cooking 28 Pyrithiamine a synthetic compound has a molecular structure similar to thiamine vitamin B1 and inhibits the enzymes that use thiamine 29 Biochemical functionsEach vitamin is typically used in multiple reactions and therefore most have multiple functions 30 On fetal growth and childhood development Main article Nutrition and pregnancy Vitamins are essential for the normal growth and development of a multicellular organism Using the genetic blueprint inherited from its parents a fetus develops from the nutrients it absorbs It requires certain vitamins and minerals to be present at certain times 9 These nutrients facilitate the chemical reactions that produce among other things skin bone and muscle If there is serious deficiency in one or more of these nutrients a child may develop a deficiency disease Even minor deficiencies may cause permanent damage 31 On adult health maintenance Once growth and development are completed vitamins remain essential nutrients for the healthy maintenance of the cells tissues and organs that make up a multicellular organism they also enable a multicellular life form to efficiently use chemical energy provided by food it eats and to help process the proteins carbohydrates and fats required for cellular respiration 7 IntakeSources For the most part vitamins are obtained from the diet but some are acquired by other means for example microorganisms in the gut flora produce vitamin K and biotin and one form of vitamin D is synthesized in skin cells when they are exposed to a certain wavelength of ultraviolet light present in sunlight Humans can produce some vitamins from precursors they consume for example vitamin A is synthesized from beta carotene and niacin is synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan 32 Vitamin C can be synthesized by some species but not by others Vitamin B12 is the only vitamin or nutrient not available from plant sources The Food Fortification Initiative lists countries which have mandatory fortification programs for vitamins folic acid niacin vitamin A and vitamins B1 B2 and B12 8 Deficient intake See also Vitamin deficiency The body s stores for different vitamins vary widely vitamins A D and B12 are stored in significant amounts mainly in the liver 21 and an adult s diet may be deficient in vitamins A and D for many months and B12 in some cases for years before developing a deficiency condition However vitamin B3 niacin and niacinamide is not stored in significant amounts so stores may last only a couple of weeks 13 21 For vitamin C the first symptoms of scurvy in experimental studies of complete vitamin C deprivation in humans have varied widely from a month to more than six months depending on previous dietary history that determined body stores 33 Deficiencies of vitamins are classified as either primary or secondary A primary deficiency occurs when an organism does not get enough of the vitamin in its food A secondary deficiency may be due to an underlying disorder that prevents or limits the absorption or use of the vitamin due to a lifestyle factor such as smoking excessive alcohol consumption or the use of medications that interfere with the absorption or use of the vitamin 21 People who eat a varied diet are unlikely to develop a severe primary vitamin deficiency but may be consuming less than the recommended amounts a national food and supplement survey conducted in the US over 2003 2006 reported that over 90 of individuals who did not consume vitamin supplements were found to have inadequate levels of some of the essential vitamins notably vitamins D and E 34 Well researched human vitamin deficiencies involve thiamine beriberi niacin pellagra 35 vitamin C scurvy folate neural tube defects and vitamin D rickets 36 In much of the developed world these deficiencies are rare due to an adequate supply of food and the addition of vitamins to common foods 21 In addition to these classical vitamin deficiency diseases some evidence has also suggested links between vitamin deficiency and a number of different disorders 37 38 Excess intake Some vitamins have documented acute or chronic toxicity at larger intakes which is referred to as hypertoxicity The European Union and the governments of several countries have established Tolerable upper intake levels ULs for those vitamins which have documented toxicity see table 12 39 40 The likelihood of consuming too much of any vitamin from food is remote but excessive intake vitamin poisoning from dietary supplements does occur In 2016 overdose exposure to all formulations of vitamins and multi vitamin mineral formulations was reported by 63 931 individuals to the American Association of Poison Control Centers with 72 of these exposures in children under the age of five 41 In the US analysis of a national diet and supplement survey reported that about 7 of adult supplement users exceeded the UL for folate and 5 of those older than age 50 years exceeded the UL for vitamin A 34 Effects of cooking The USDA has conducted extensive studies on the percentage losses of various nutrients from food types and cooking methods 42 Some vitamins may become more bio available that is usable by the body when foods are cooked 43 The table below shows whether various vitamins are susceptible to loss from heat such as heat from boiling steaming frying etc The effect of cutting vegetables can be seen from exposure to air and light Water soluble vitamins such as B and C dissolve into the water when a vegetable is boiled and are then lost when the water is discarded 44 Vitamin Soluble in Water Stable to Air Exposure Stable to Light Exposure Stable to Heat ExposureVitamin A no partially partially relatively stableVitamin C very unstable yes no noVitamin D no no no noVitamin E no yes yes noVitamin K no no yes noThiamine B1 highly no gt 100 CRiboflavin B2 slightly no in solution noNiacin B3 yes no no noPantothenic Acid B5 quite stable no no yesVitamin B6 yes yes lt 160 CBiotin B7 somewhat noFolic Acid B9 yes when dry at high tempCobalamin B12 yes yes noRecommended levelsIn setting human nutrient guidelines government organizations do not necessarily agree on amounts needed to avoid deficiency or maximum amounts to avoid the risk of toxicity 39 12 40 For example for vitamin C recommended intakes range from 40 mg day in India 45 to 155 mg day for the European Union 46 The table below shows U S Estimated Average Requirements EARs and Recommended Dietary Allowances RDAs for vitamins PRIs for the European Union same concept as RDAs followed by what three government organizations deem to be the safe upper intake RDAs are set higher than EARs to cover people with higher than average needs Adequate Intakes AIs are set when there is not sufficient information to establish EARs and RDAs Governments are slow to revise information of this nature For the U S values with the exception of calcium and vitamin D all of the data date to 1997 2004 47 Nutrient U S EAR 12 Highest U S RDA or AI 12 Highest EU PRI or AI 46 Upper limit UL UnitU S 12 EU 39 Japan 40 Vitamin A 625 900 1300 3000 3000 2700 µgVitamin C 75 90 155 2000 ND ND mgVitamin D 10 15 15 100 100 100 µgVitamin K NE 120 70 ND ND ND µga tocopherol Vitamin E 12 15 13 1000 300 650 900 mgThiamin Vitamin B1 1 0 1 2 0 1 mg MJ ND ND ND mgRiboflavin Vitamin B2 1 1 1 3 2 0 ND ND ND mgNiacin Vitamin B3 12 16 1 6 mg MJ 35 10 60 85 mgPantothenic acid Vitamin B5 NE 5 7 ND ND ND mgVitamin B6 1 1 1 3 1 8 100 25 40 60 mgBiotin Vitamin B7 NE 30 45 ND ND ND µgFolate Vitamin B9 320 400 600 1000 1000 900 1000 µgCyanocobalamin Vitamin B12 2 0 2 4 5 0 ND ND ND µg EAR US Estimated Average Requirements RDA US Recommended Dietary Allowances higher for adults than for children and may be even higher for women who are pregnant or lactating AI US and EFSA Adequate Intake AIs established when there is not sufficient information to set EARs and RDAs PRI Population Reference Intake is European Union equivalent of RDA higher for adults than for children and may be even higher for women who are pregnant or lactating For Thiamin and Niacin the PRIs are expressed as amounts per MJ of calories consumed MJ megajoule 239 food calories UL or Upper Limit Tolerable upper intake levels ND ULs have not been determined NE EARs have not been established Supplementation Calcium combined with vitamin D as calciferol supplement tablets with fillers In those who are otherwise healthy there is little evidence that supplements have any benefits with respect to cancer or heart disease 48 49 50 Vitamin A and E supplements not only provide no health benefits for generally healthy individuals but they may increase mortality though the two large studies that support this conclusion included smokers for whom it was already known that beta carotene supplements can be harmful 49 51 A 2018 meta analysis found no evidence that intake of vitamin D or calcium for community dwelling elderly people reduced bone fractures 52 Europe has regulations that define limits of vitamin and mineral dosages for their safe use as dietary supplements Most vitamins that are sold as dietary supplements are not supposed to exceed a maximum daily dosage referred to as the tolerable upper intake level UL or Upper Limit Vitamin products above these regulatory limits are not considered supplements and should be registered as prescription or non prescription over the counter drugs due to their potential side effects The European Union United States and Japan establish ULs 12 39 40 Dietary supplements often contain vitamins but may also include other ingredients such as minerals herbs and botanicals Scientific evidence supports the benefits of dietary supplements for persons with certain health conditions 53 In some cases vitamin supplements may have unwanted effects especially if taken before surgery with other dietary supplements or medicines or if the person taking them has certain health conditions 53 They may also contain levels of vitamins many times higher and in different forms than one may ingest through food See also Megavitamin therapy Governmental regulation Most countries place dietary supplements in a special category under the general umbrella of foods not drugs As a result the manufacturer and not the government has the responsibility of ensuring that its dietary supplement products are safe before they are marketed Regulation of supplements varies widely by country In the United States a dietary supplement is defined under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 54 There is no FDA approval process for dietary supplements and no requirement that manufacturers prove the safety or efficacy of supplements introduced before 1994 35 36 The Food and Drug Administration must rely on its Adverse Event Reporting System to monitor adverse events that occur with supplements 55 In 2007 the US Code of Federal Regulations CFR Title 21 part III took effect regulating Good Manufacturing Practices GMPs in the manufacturing packaging labeling or holding operations for dietary supplements Even though product registration is not required these regulations mandate production and quality control standards including testing for identity purity and adulterations for dietary supplements 56 In the European Union the Food Supplements Directive requires that only those supplements that have been proven safe can be sold without a prescription 57 For most vitamins pharmacopoeial standards have been established In the United States the United States Pharmacopeia USP sets standards for the most commonly used vitamins and preparations thereof Likewise monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia Ph Eur regulate aspects of identity and purity for vitamins on the European market NamingNomenclature of reclassified vitamins Previous name Chemical name Reason for name change 58 Vitamin B4 Adenine DNA metabolite synthesized in bodyVitamin B8 Adenylic acid DNA metabolite synthesized in bodyVitamin BT Carnitine Synthesized in bodyVitamin F Essential fatty acids Needed in large quantities does not fit the definition of a vitamin Vitamin G Riboflavin Reclassified as Vitamin B2Vitamin H Biotin Reclassified as Vitamin B7Vitamin J Catechol Flavin Catechol nonessential flavin reclassified as Vitamin B2Vitamin L1 59 Anthranilic acid NonessentialVitamin L2 59 Adenylthiomethylpentose RNA metabolite synthesized in bodyVitamin M or Bc 60 Folate Reclassified as Vitamin B9Vitamin P Flavonoids Many compounds not proven essentialVitamin PP Niacin Reclassified as Vitamin B3Vitamin S Salicylic acid NonessentialVitamin U S Methylmethionine Protein metabolite synthesized in body The reason that the set of vitamins skips directly from E to K is that the vitamins corresponding to letters F J were either reclassified over time discarded as false leads or renamed because of their relationship to vitamin B which became a complex of vitamins The Danish speaking scientists who isolated and described vitamin K in addition to naming it as such did so because the vitamin is intimately involved in the coagulation of blood following wounding from the Danish word Koagulation At the time most but not all of the letters from F through to J were already designated so the use of the letter K was considered quite reasonable 58 61 The table Nomenclature of reclassified vitamins lists chemicals that had previously been classified as vitamins as well as the earlier names of vitamins that later became part of the B complex The missing B vitamins were reclassified or determined not to be vitamins For example B9 is folic acid and five of the folates are in the range B11 through B16 Others such as PABA formerly B10 are biologically inactive toxic or with unclassifiable effects in humans or not generally recognised as vitamins by science 62 such as the highest numbered which some naturopath practitioners call B21 and B22 There are also nine lettered B complex vitamins e g Bm There are other D vitamins now recognised as other substances which some sources of the same type number up to D7 The controversial cancer treatment laetrile was at one point lettered as vitamin B17 There appears to be no consensus on any vitamins Q R T V W X Y or Z nor are there substances officially designated as vitamins N or I although the latter may have been another form of one of the other vitamins or a known and named nutrient of another type HistoryThe value of eating certain foods to maintain health was recognized long before vitamins were identified The ancient Egyptians knew that feeding liver to a person may help with night blindness an illness now known to be caused by a vitamin A deficiency 63 The advancement of ocean voyages during the Age of Discovery resulted in prolonged periods without access to fresh fruits and vegetables and made illnesses from vitamin deficiency common among ships crews 64 The discovery dates of the vitamins and their sources Year of discovery Vitamin Food source1913 Vitamin A Retinol Cod liver oil1910 Vitamin B1 Thiamine Rice bran1920 Vitamin C Ascorbic acid Citrus most fresh foods1920 Vitamin D Calciferol Cod liver oil1920 Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Meat dairy products eggs1922 Vitamin E Tocopherol Wheat germ oil unrefined vegetable oils1929 Vitamin K1 Phylloquinone Leaf vegetables1931 Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Meat whole grains in many foods1934 Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine Meat dairy products1936 Vitamin B7 Biotin 65 Meat dairy products Eggs1936 Vitamin B3 Niacin Meat grains1941 Vitamin B9 Folic acid Leaf vegetables1948 66 Vitamin B12 Cobalamins Meat organs Liver Eggs In 1747 the Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered that citrus foods helped prevent scurvy a particularly deadly disease in which collagen is not properly formed causing poor wound healing bleeding of the gums severe pain and death 63 In 1753 Lind published his Treatise on the Scurvy which recommended using lemons and limes to avoid scurvy which was adopted by the British Royal Navy This led to the nickname limey for British sailors Lind s discovery however was not widely accepted by individuals in the Royal Navy s Arctic expeditions in the 19th century where it was widely believed that scurvy could be prevented by practicing good hygiene regular exercise and maintaining the morale of the crew while on board rather than by a diet of fresh food 63 As a result Arctic expeditions continued to be plagued by scurvy and other deficiency diseases In the early 20th century when Robert Falcon Scott made his two expeditions to the Antarctic the prevailing medical theory at the time was that scurvy was caused by tainted canned food 63 During the late 18th and early 19th centuries the use of deprivation studies allowed scientists to isolate and identify a number of vitamins Lipid from fish oil was used to cure rickets in rats and the fat soluble nutrient was called antirachitic A Thus the first vitamin bioactivity ever isolated which cured rickets was initially called vitamin A however the bioactivity of this compound is now called vitamin D 67 In 1881 Russian medical doctor Nikolai I Lunin ru studied the effects of scurvy at the University of Tartu He fed mice an artificial mixture of all the separate constituents of milk known at that time namely the proteins fats carbohydrates and salts The mice that received only the individual constituents died while the mice fed by milk itself developed normally He made a conclusion that a natural food such as milk must therefore contain besides these known principal ingredients small quantities of unknown substances essential to life However his conclusions were rejected by his advisor Gustav von Bunge 68 A similar result by Cornelius Pekelharing appeared in a Dutch medical journal in 1905 but it was not widely reported 68 In East Asia where polished white rice was the common staple food of the middle class beriberi resulting from lack of vitamin B1 was endemic In 1884 Takaki Kanehiro a British trained medical doctor of the Imperial Japanese Navy observed that beriberi was endemic among low ranking crew who often ate nothing but rice but not among officers who consumed a Western style diet With the support of the Japanese navy he experimented using crews of two battleships one crew was fed only white rice while the other was fed a diet of meat fish barley rice and beans The group that ate only white rice documented 161 crew members with beriberi and 25 deaths while the latter group had only 14 cases of beriberi and no deaths This convinced Takaki and the Japanese Navy that diet was the cause of beriberi but they mistakenly believed that sufficient amounts of protein prevented it 69 That diseases could result from some dietary deficiencies was further investigated by Christiaan Eijkman who in 1897 discovered that feeding unpolished rice instead of the polished variety to chickens helped to prevent a kind of polyneuritis that was the equivalent of beriberi 35 The following year Frederick Hopkins postulated that some foods contained accessory factors in addition to proteins carbohydrates fats etc that are necessary for the functions of the human body 63 Hopkins and Eijkman were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1929 for their discoveries 70 Jack Drummond s single paragraph article in 1920 which provided structure and nomenclature used today for vitamins Vitamine to vitamin In 1910 the first vitamin complex was isolated by Japanese scientist Umetaro Suzuki who succeeded in extracting a water soluble complex of micronutrients from rice bran and named it aberic acid later Orizanin He published this discovery in a Japanese scientific journal 71 When the article was translated into German the translation failed to state that it was a newly discovered nutrient a claim made in the original Japanese article and hence his discovery failed to gain publicity In 1912 Polish born biochemist Casimir Funk working in London isolated the same complex of micronutrients and proposed the complex be named vitamine 10 It was later to be known as vitamin B3 niacin though he described it as anti beri beri factor which would today be called thiamine or vitamin B1 Funk proposed the hypothesis that other diseases such as rickets pellagra coeliac disease and scurvy could also be cured by vitamins Max Nierenstein a friend and Reader of Biochemistry at Bristol University reportedly suggested the vitamine name from vital amine 72 73 The name soon became synonymous with Hopkins accessory factors and by the time it was shown that not all vitamins are amines the word was already ubiquitous In 1920 Jack Cecil Drummond proposed that the final e be dropped to deemphasize the amine reference hence vitamin after researchers began to suspect that not all vitamines in particular vitamin A have an amine component 69 Nobel Prizes for vitamin research The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 1929 was awarded to Christiaan Eijkman and Frederick Gowland Hopkins for their contributions to the discovery of vitamins 74 Thirty five years earlier Eijkman had observed that chickens fed polished white rice developed neurological symptoms similar to those observed in military sailors and soldiers fed a rice based diet and that the symptoms were reversed when the chickens were switched to whole grain rice He called this the anti beriberi factor which was later identified as vitamin B1 thiamine 75 In 1930 Paul Karrer elucidated the correct structure for beta carotene the main precursor of vitamin A and identified other carotenoids Karrer and Norman Haworth confirmed Albert Szent Gyorgyi s discovery of ascorbic acid and made significant contributions to the chemistry of flavins which led to the identification of lactoflavin For their investigations on carotenoids flavins and vitamins A and B2 they both received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1937 76 In 1931 Albert Szent Gyorgyi and a fellow researcher Joseph Svirbely suspected that hexuronic acid was actually vitamin C and gave a sample to Charles Glen King who proved its anti scorbutic activity in his long established guinea pig scorbutic assay In 1937 Szent Gyorgyi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery In 1943 Edward Adelbert Doisy and Henrik Dam were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of vitamin K and its chemical structure In 1967 George Wald was awarded the Nobel Prize along with Ragnar Granit and Haldan Keffer Hartline for his discovery that vitamin A could participate directly in a physiological process 70 In 1938 Richard Kuhn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on carotenoids and vitamins specifically B2 and B6 77 Five people have been awarded Nobel Prizes for direct and indirect studies of vitamin B12 George Whipple George Minot and William P Murphy 1934 Alexander R Todd 1957 and Dorothy Hodgkin 1964 74 History of promotional marketing Once discovered vitamins were actively promoted in articles and advertisements in McCall s Good Housekeeping and other media outlets 35 Marketers enthusiastically promoted cod liver oil a source of vitamin D as bottled sunshine and bananas as a natural vitality food They promoted foods such as yeast cakes a source of B vitamins on the basis of scientifically determined nutritional value rather than taste or appearance 78 World War II researchers focused on the need to ensure adequate nutrition especially in processed foods 35 Robert W Yoder is credited with first using the term vitamania in 1942 to describe the appeal of relying on nutritional supplements rather than on obtaining vitamins from a varied diet of foods The continuing preoccupation with a healthy lifestyle has led to an obsessive consumption of additives the beneficial effects of which are questionable 36 EtymologyThe term vitamin was derived from vitamine a compound word coined in 1912 by the Polish biochemist Casimir Funk 10 79 when working at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine The name is from vital and amine meaning amine of life because it was suggested in 1912 that the organic micronutrient food factors that prevent beriberi and perhaps other similar dietary deficiency diseases might be chemical amines This was true of thiamine but after it was found that other such micronutrients were not amines the word was shortened to vitamin in English See also Food portal Vitamin deficiency Hypervitaminosis Human nutrition PhytochemicalReferences Jones Daniel 2011 Roach Peter Setter Jane Esling John eds Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary 18th ed Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 15255 6 Maton Anthea Jean Hopkins Charles William McLaughlin Susan Johnson Maryanna Quon Warner David LaHart Jill D Wright 1993 Human Biology and Health Englewood Cliffs New Jersey USA Prentice Hall ISBN 978 0 13 981176 0 OCLC 32308337 Publishing Harvard Health 9 June 2009 Listing of vitamins Harvard Health Retrieved 12 May 2020 Vitamins and Minerals National Institute on Aging Retrieved 12 May 2020 Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition 2nd Edition World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2004 pp 340 341 ISBN 9241546123 EUR Lex 32006R1925 EN EUR Lex eur lex europa eu a b Bender DA 2003 Nutritional biochemistry of the vitamins Cambridge U K Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 80388 5 a b Food Fortification Initiative Food Fortification Initiative Enhancing Grains for Better Lives Archived from the original on 4 April 2017 Retrieved 18 August 2018 a b Wilson RD Wilson RD Audibert F Brock JA Carroll J Cartier L et al June 2015 Pre conception Folic Acid and Multivitamin Supplementation for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Neural Tube Defects and Other Folic Acid Sensitive Congenital Anomalies Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 37 6 534 52 doi 10 1016 s1701 2163 15 30230 9 PMID 26334606 a b c Funk Casimir 1912 The etiology of the deficiency diseases Beri beri polyneuritis in birds epidemic dropsy scurvy experimental scurvy in animals infantile scurvy ship beri beri pellagra Journal of State Medicine 20 341 368 The word vitamine is coined on p 342 It is now known that all these diseases with the exception of pellagra can be prevented and cured by the addition of certain preventative substances the deficient substances which are of the nature of organic bases we will call vitamines and we will speak of a beri beri or scurvy vitamine which means a substance preventing the special disease Combs GF 30 October 2007 The Vitamins Elsevier ISBN 9780080561301 a b c d e f g Dietary Reference Intakes DRIs Food and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine National Academies a b Vitamin A Fact Sheet for Health Professionals National Institute of Health Office of Dietary Supplements 5 June 2013 Retrieved 3 August 2013 Thiamin vitamin B1 MedlinePlus Supplements U S Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Hardman J G et al eds 2001 Goodman and Gilman s Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 10th ed p 992 ISBN 978 0071354691 Pantothenic acid dexpanthenol MedlinePlus Supplements MedlinePlus Retrieved 5 October 2009 Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Vitamin B6 Dietary supplements info nih gov 15 September 2011 Retrieved on 2013 08 03 Institute of Medicine 1998 Vitamin B6 Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin B6 Folate Vitamin B12 Pantothenic Acid Biotin and Choline Washington DC The National Academies Press pp 150 195 doi 10 17226 6015 ISBN 978 0 309 06554 2 LCCN 00028380 OCLC 475527045 PMID 23193625 Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Vitamin B12 Dietary supplements info nih gov 24 June 2011 Retrieved on 2013 08 03 Vitamins and minerals 3 March 2017 Retrieved on 2 June 2020 a b c d e The Merck Manual Nutritional Disorders Vitamin Introduction Please select specific vitamins from the list at the top of the page Gaby AR 2005 Does vitamin E cause congestive heart failure Literature Review amp Commentary Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients Archived from the original on 10 September 2016 Higdon Jane 2011 Vitamin E recommendations at Linus Pauling Institute s Micronutrient Information Center Rohde LE de Assis MC Rabelo ER January 2007 Dietary vitamin K intake and anticoagulation in elderly patients Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 10 1 120 124 doi 10 1097 MCO 0b013e328011c46c PMID 17143047 S2CID 20484616 Fukuwatari T Shibata K June 2008 Urinary water soluble vitamins and their metabolite contents as nutritional markers for evaluating vitamin intakes in young Japanese women Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 54 3 223 9 doi 10 3177 jnsv 54 223 PMID 18635909 Bellows L Moore R Water Soluble Vitamins Colorado State University Retrieved 7 December 2008 Maqbool A Stallings VA November 2008 Update on fat soluble vitamins in cystic fibrosis Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine 14 6 574 81 doi 10 1097 MCP 0b013e3283136787 PMID 18812835 S2CID 37143703 Roth KS September 1981 Biotin in clinical medicine a review The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34 9 1967 74 doi 10 1093 ajcn 34 9 1967 PMID 6116428 Rindi G Perri V July 1961 Uptake of pyrithiamine by tissue of rats The Biochemical Journal 80 1 214 6 doi 10 1042 bj0800214 PMC 1243973 PMID 13741739 Kutsky R J 1973 Handbook of Vitamins and Hormones New York Van Nostrand Reinhold ISBN 0 442 24549 1 Gavrilov Leonid A 10 February 2003 Pieces of the Puzzle Aging Research Today and Tomorrow fightaging org Institute of Medicine 1998 Niacin Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin B6 Folate Vitamin B12 Pantothenic Acid Biotin and Choline Washington DC The National Academies Press pp 123 149 ISBN 978 0 309 06554 2 Retrieved 29 August 2018 Pemberton J 2006 Medical experiments carried out in Sheffield on conscientious objectors to military service during the 1939 45 war International Journal of Epidemiology 35 3 556 558 doi 10 1093 ije dyl020 PMID 16510534 a b Bailey RL Fulgoni VL Keast DR Dwyer JT May 2012 Examination of vitamin intakes among US adults by dietary supplement use J Acad Nutr Diet 112 5 657 663 e4 doi 10 1016 j jand 2012 01 026 PMC 3593649 PMID 22709770 a b c d e Wendt D 2015 Packed full of questions Who benefits from dietary supplements Distillations Magazine 1 3 41 45 Retrieved 22 March 2018 a b c Price C 2015 Vitamania Our obsessive quest for nutritional perfection Penguin Press ISBN 978 1594205040 Lakhan SE Vieira KF 2008 Nutritional therapies for mental disorders Nutrition Journal 7 2 doi 10 1186 1475 2891 7 2 PMC 2248201 PMID 18208598 Boy E Mannar V Pandav C de Benoist B Viteri F Fontaine O Hotz C 2009 Achievements challenges and promising new approaches in vitamin and mineral deficiency control Nutrition Reviews 67 Suppl 1 Suppl 1 S24 S30 doi 10 1111 j 1753 4887 2009 00155 x PMID 19453674 a b c d Tolerable Upper Intake Levels For Vitamins And Minerals PDF European Food Safety Authority 2006 a b c d Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2010 National Institute of Health and Nutrition Japan Gummin DD Mowry JB Spyker DA Brooks DE Fraser MO Banner W 2017 2016 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers National Poison Data System NPDS 34th Annual Report PDF Clinical Toxicology 55 10 1072 1254 doi 10 1080 15563650 2017 1388087 PMID 29185815 S2CID 28547821 USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors Release 6 PDF USDA USDA December 2007 Comparison of Vitamin Levels in Raw Foods vs Cooked Foods Beyondveg com Retrieved on 3 August 2013 Effects of Cooking on Vitamins Table Beyondveg com Retrieved on 3 August 2013 Nutrient Requirements and Recommended Dietary Allowances for Indians A Report of the Expert Group of the Indian Council of Medical Research pp 283 295 2009 PDF Archived PDF from the original on June 15 2016 a b Overview on Dietary Reference Values for the EU population as derived by the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies PDF 2017 Archived PDF from the original on August 28 2017 Dietary Reference Intakes The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements published by the Institute of Medicine s Food and Nutrition Board currently available online at DRI Reports Archived from the original on 5 July 2014 Retrieved 14 July 2014 Fortmann SP Burda BU Senger CA Lin JS Whitlock EP 2013 Vitamin and mineral supplements in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer An updated systematic evidence review for the U S Preventive Services Task Force Annals of Internal Medicine 159 12 824 834 doi 10 7326 0003 4819 159 12 201312170 00729 PMID 24217421 a b Moyer VA 2014 Vitamin mineral and multivitamin supplements for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer U S Preventive services Task Force recommendation statement Annals of Internal Medicine 160 8 558 564 doi 10 7326 M14 0198 PMID 24566474 Jenkins DJ Spence JD Giovannucci EL Kim YI Josse R Vieth R et al 2018 Supplemental Vitamins and Minerals for CVD Prevention and Treatment Journal of the American College of Cardiology 71 22 2570 2584 doi 10 1016 j jacc 2018 04 020 PMID 29852980 Bjelakovic G Nikolova D Gluud LL Simonetti RG Gluud C 2007 Mortality in randomized trials of antioxidant supplements for primary and secondary prevention systematic review and meta analysis JAMA 297 8 842 857 doi 10 1001 jama 297 8 842 PMID 17327526 Zhao JG Zeng XT Wang J Liu L 2017 Association Between Calcium or Vitamin D Supplementation and Fracture Incidence in Community Dwelling Older Adults A Systematic Review and Meta analysis JAMA 318 24 2466 2482 doi 10 1001 jama 2017 19344 PMC 5820727 PMID 29279934 a b Use and Safety of Dietary Supplements NIH office of Dietary Supplements Legislation Fda gov 15 September 2009 Retrieved on 2010 11 12 Adverse Event Reporting System AERS FDA 20 August 2009 Retrieved 12 November 2010 U S Food and Drug Administration CFR Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 Retrieved 16 February 2014 not EUR Lex 32002L0046 EN Eur lex europa eu Retrieved on 12 November 2010 a b Bennett D Every Vitamin Page PDF All Vitamins and Pseudo Vitamins Archived from the original PDF on 24 October 2019 Retrieved 24 July 2008 a b Davidson Michael W 2004 Anthranilic Acid Vitamin L Florida State University Retrieved 20 02 07 Welch AD 1983 Folic acid discovery and the exciting first decade Perspect Biol Med 27 1 64 75 doi 10 1353 pbm 1983 0006 PMID 6359053 S2CID 31993927 Vitamins and minerals names and facts pubquizhelp 34sp com Archived from the original on 4 July 2007 Vitamins What Vitamins Do I Need Medical News Today Retrieved on 2015 11 30 a b c d e Jack Challem 1997 The Past Present and Future of Vitamins Archived 30 November 2005 at the Wayback Machine Jacob RA 1996 Three eras of vitamin C discovery Subcellular Biochemistry 25 pp 1 16 doi 10 1007 978 1 4613 0325 1 1 ISBN 978 1 4613 7998 0 PMID 8821966 Kogl and Tonnis 1936 Uber das Bios Problem Darstellung von krystallisiertem Biotin aus Eigelb 20 Mitteilung uber pflanzliche Wachstumsstoffe Hoppe Seyler s Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie 242 1 2 43 73 doi 10 1515 bchm2 1936 242 1 2 43 McDowell LR 2012 Vitamins in Animal Nutrition Comparative Aspects to Human Nutrition Elsevier p 398 ISBN 9780323139045 Bellis M Production Methods The History of the Vitamins Retrieved 1 February 2005 a b Gratzer W 2006 9 The quarry run to earth Terrors of the table the curious history of nutrition Oxford Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0199205639 Retrieved 5 November 2015 a b Rosenfeld L 1997 Vitamine vitamin The early years of discovery Clinical Chemistry 43 4 680 685 doi 10 1093 clinchem 43 4 680 PMID 9105273 a b Carpenter K 22 June 2004 The Nobel Prize and the Discovery of Vitamins Nobelprize org Retrieved 5 October 2009 Suzuki U Shimamura T 1911 Active constituent of rice grits preventing bird polyneuritis Tokyo Kagaku Kaishi 32 4 7 144 146 335 358 doi 10 1246 nikkashi1880 32 4 Combs Gerald 2008 The vitamins fundamental aspects in nutrition and health ISBN 9780121834937 Funk C and Dubin H E 1922 The Vitamines Baltimore Williams and Wilkins Company a b The Nobel Prize and the Discovery of Vitamins www nobelprize org Archived from the original on 16 January 2018 Retrieved 15 February 2018 Christiaan Eijkman Nobel Lecture Antineuritic Vitamin and Beriberi Nobelprize org Retrieved 24 June 2020 Paul Karrer Biographical Nobelprize org Retrieved 8 January 2013 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938 Nobelprize org Retrieved 5 July 2018 Price C Fall 2015 The healing power of compressed yeast Distillations Magazine 1 3 17 23 Retrieved 20 March 2018 Ilowiecki M 1981 Dzieje nauki polskiej Warszawa Wydawnictwo Interpress p 177 ISBN 978 83 223 1876 8 External linksWikisource has the text of the 1922 Encyclopaedia Britannica article Vitamine USDA RDA chart in PDF format Health Canada Dietary Reference Intakes Reference Chart for Vitamins NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Fact Sheets Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vitamin amp oldid 1050826386, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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