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Coordinates:55°11′N30°10′E /55.183°N 30.167°E /55.183; 30.167

Vitebsk Governorate (Russian:Витебская губерния,Vitebskaya guberniya) was an administrative unit (guberniya) of the Russian Empire, with the seat of governorship in Vitebsk. It was established in 1802 by splitting the Byelorussia Governorate and existed until 1924. Today most of the area belongs to Belarus, the northwestern part to Latvia and the northeastern part to Pskov and Smolensk Oblasts of Russia.Together with the Vilna, Kovno, Grodno, Minsk, and Mogilev Governorates, it formed the Northwestern Krai. The provincial city was Vitebsk, the largest city was Dvinsk.

Vitebsk Governorate
Витебская губерния
Governorate of Russian Empire
1802–1924
Coat of arms

Map of Vitebsk Governorate, ca 1821 (Russian-Polish)
CapitalVitebsk
History
History
• Established
1802
• Disestablished
1924
Political subdivisionstwelve uyezds
Today part ofBelarus
Latvia
Russia

On January 1, 1919, the Provisional Revolutionary Government issued a manifesto proclaiming the formation of the Socialist Soviet Republic of Belarus (SSRB) within the RSFSR, which included the Vitebsk, Grodno, Mogilev, Minsk and Smolensk provinces. On January 16, 1919 by the decision of the Central Committee of the RCP the Vitebsk, Mogilev and Smolensk provinces were returned into direct subordination to the RSFSR. By the decision of the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR of February 4, 1924 "On the transfer of the areas with a predominantly Belarusian population to Belarus" and by the resolution of the VI All-Belarusian extraordinary congress of the Soviets of the BSSR of March 13, 1924, the Vitebsk Polotsk, Sennensk, Surazh, Gorodok, Drissen, Lepel and Orsha counties of the Vitebsk province were transferred to the BSSR , while Sebezh, Nevelsk and Velizhsk counties remained in the RSFSR.

The province occupied the northeastern part of the modern Vitebsk region of Belarus, as well as the southeastern part of Latvia with the cities of Daugavpils (Dvinsk), Rezekne (Rezhitsa) and Ludza (Lyutsin) and some Russian regions (Nevel and Sebezh - Pskov Oblast, Velizh - Smolensk Oblast, the village of Ilyino, which was part of the Velizh District - Tver Oblast).

Contents

The European part of the Russian Empire in 1917. Vitebsk Governorate is shown in yellow.

In 1772, as a result of the First Partition of Poland, Inflanty Voivodeship and eastern Belarus were transferred to Russia. In order to accommodate these areas, Pskov Governorate was created. It was proven too big to be manageable, and in 1776 it was split into Pskov and Polotsk Governorates. In 1778 Polotsk Governorate was transformed into Polotsk Viceroyalty. In 1793, the Second Partition of Poland followed, which resulted in the expansion of Polotsk Viceroyalty. In 1796, viceroyalties were abolished. In particular, Polotsk and Mogilev Viceroyalties were merged into Byelorussia Governorate. On February 27, 1802 Byelorussia Governorate was split into Vitebsk and Mogilev Governorates.

The governorate consisted of 12 uyezds (the administrative centers, which all had the town status, are given in parentheses)

In 1866, Surazhsky Uyezd was abolished and split between Gorodoksky, Velizhsky, and Vitebsky Uyezd.

On 31 December 1917, Dvinsky, Lyutsinsky and Rezhitsky Uyezds, populated mostly by Latvians and known in Latvian as Latgale, were transferred to Governorate of Livonia, becoming a part of the Latvian Soviet autonomy of Iskolat. Following the Latvian War of Independence, in 1920 the area became a part of the Republic of Latvia under the Latvian–Soviet Peace Treaty. After 1919, the rest of Vitebsk Governorate was a part of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.

In 1924, Vitebsk Governorate was abolished. Most of it was transferred to Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, which at the time had districts as the first-level administrative division. Three uyezds, Sebezhsky, Nevelsky, and Velizhsky, were transferred to Pskov Governorate.

When zemstvo institutions were introduced in 1864, the province was left non-zemstvo. In 1903, the "Regulations on the management of zemstvo economy in the provinces of Vitebsk, Volyn, Kiev, Minsk, Mogilev and Podolsk" was adopted according to which a modified order of zemstvo administration was introduced in the provinces, with the appointment of all members of zemstvo boards and zemstvo speakers by the government. This order was unsuccessful, after which a bill on the introduction of elective zemstvo institutions in these provinces was developed from 1910, but also with exceptions from the general order, aimed at the exclusion of Polish landowners from participation in zemstvos. The adoption of this law in 1911 was accompanied by an acute political crisis. The elective zemstvo in these six provinces began operation since 1912.

The administration of the governorate was performed by a governor. The governors of Vitebsk Governorate were

  • 1802–1808 Sergey Aleksandrovich Shishkin, governor
  • 1808–1812 Pavel Ivanovich Sumarokov, governor
  • 1812–1813 Ivan Frantsevich Leshern, governor
  • 1813 Ivan Leontyevich Sushko, governor, died before his inauguration
  • 1813–1818 Pyotr Petrovich Tormasov, governor
  • 1818–1823 Alexey Petrovich Butovich, governor
  • 1823–1829 Akinfy Ivanovich Sorokunsky, governor
  • 1829–1830 Alexey Nikitovich Peshchurov, governor
  • 1830–1831 Nikolay Mikhaylovich Gamaleya, governor
  • 1831–1836 Nikolay Ivanovich Shryoder (Schroeder), governor
  • 1836–1838 Ivan Stepanovich Zhirkevich, governor
  • 1839–1840 Pyotr Petrovich Lvov, governor
  • 1840–1846 Niktopolion Mikhaylovich Klementyev, governor
  • 1846–1847 Mikhail Mikhaylovich Tatarinov, governor
  • 1847–1848 Afanasy Alexandrovich Radishchev, governor
  • 1848–1849 Yury Alexeyevich Dolgorukov, governor
  • 1849–1853 Sergey Nikolayevich Yermolov, governor
  • 1853–1856 Yegor Sergeyevich Tilicheyev, governor
  • 1856–1858 Grigory Dmitriyevich Kolokoltsov, governor
  • 1858–1861 Pavel Nikolayevich Kluchin, governor
  • 1861–1863 Alexander Stepanovich Ogolin, governor
  • 1863–1867 Vladimir Nikolayevich Veryovkin, governor
  • 1867–1868 Pavel Pavlovich Kosagovsky, governor
  • 1868–1869 Vladimir Nikolayevich Tokarev, governor
  • 1869–1880 Pavel Yakovlevich Rostovtsev, governor
  • 1880–1884 Viktor Vilgelmovich fon Val (von Wal), governor
  • 1884–1894 Vasily Mikhaylovich Dolgorukov, governor
  • 1894–1899 Vladimir Alexeyevich Levashov, governor
  • 1899–1904 Ivan Ilyich Chepelevsky, governor
  • 1904–1911 Berngard Berngardovich Gershau-Flotov, governor
  • 1911–1915 Mikhail Viktorovich Artsimovich, governor
  • 1915–1916 Nikolay Pavlovich Galakhov, governor
  • 1916–1917 Boris Nikolayevich Khitrovo, governor

74% of the population is employed in agriculture (farming, horticulture, forestry), 8% in manufacturing.

Industries

In 1903 there were 39 thousand workers engaged in cottage industries (diggers on the railroads, forestry, fishery); 48 thousand workers in handicrafts (woodwork, tailoring, shoe-making, fish-netting, coarse fleece weaving); 1293 factories and plants with 7 thousand workers and a volume of output of 6.5 and 5.5 million. 1 flax mill, 2 distilleries, 126 tanneries, 142 brickyards, 424 mills).

Agriculture

Rye, oats, barley, potato were grown. On average 13.2 million poods of winter rye, 3.6 million poods of barley, 7.2 million poods of oats and 20.2 million poods of potato were produced during 1900-1904; flax-growing was developed, industrial horticulture (apples, pears, plums); cattle breeding is in decline; forests occupy up to 35% of the gubernia's area, a lot of timber (pine, spruce), forest trades are developed, shipbuilding on the banks of the Western Dvina River; fishing on the lakes.

Educational institutions: according to Pavlenkov - 5 secondary schools, 9 special schools, 1,281 lower schools; according to Brockhaus-Efron - 1,667 in total with 61,000 pupils. Among them were 349 elementary schools of the Ministry of Public Education, 246 parochial schools, 659 literacy schools, 5 secondary schools with 2248 pupils, cadet corps, teachers' seminary, 5 religious schools, agricultural and craft schools; 385 Jewish schools (including 23 state schools) with 7095 pupils; literate - 24.5%.

At the beginning of the XX century (1897) the territory of the province was 38,649.5 square miles (according to Brockhaus-Efron) or 39,700 square miles (according to Pavlenkov). The surface is undulating, the most elevated strip stretches from the Pskov Gubernia to Nevel and Gorodok (up to 952 feet high), then along the watershed of the Western Dvina and Dnieper; the western part (the Dvina, Lyutsinsk and Rezhitsa districts) is lowland; many lakes (about 2500), swamps and forests; the soil is low fertile, clay and sandy loam.

Rivers

The Western Dvina is navigable throughout its length, its tributaries Mezha, Kasplya (or Kisplya) and Ulla are navigable; the main rafting rivers are Luchessa (Luchosa), Ushach (Ushacha), Usyacha, Poloto (Polota) and Drissa.

Lakes

Major lakes are: Luban (112 square miles), Razno (75 square miles) and Osveiskoe (49 square miles); marshes occupy up to 4000 square miles.

Climate

West of the country is milder than east; West Dvina near Dvinsk is ice free 247 days a year

In 1928, the American composer Aaron Copland composed the piano trio Vitebsk: Study on a Jewish Theme, and the work was premiered in 1929. Based on a Jewish folk song from S. Ansky's play The Dybbuk, Copland's piece is named for Vitebsk Governorate, where Ansky was born, and where he first heard the tune.

Wikimedia Commons has media related toVitebsk Governorate.
  1. ИнфоРост, Н. П. "ГПИБ | № 1 : Февраль-апрель 1924 года. - 1924". elib.shpl.ru. Retrieved2022-06-08.
  2. "«Укрупнение БССР» в 1923-1924 годы: фактор советского влияния в Польше". zapadrus.su. Retrieved2022-06-08.
  3. Коломыцева, Н. В. Псковской губернии 225 лет [The Pskov province is 225 years old] (in Russian). Краеведческий архив Псковской области. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved5 April 2012.
  4. "1906 - Витебская губерния". Radzima.net (in Russian). Retrieved9 December 2012.
  5. Область (местность) [Region (locality)] (in Russian). Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved9 November 2012.
  6. Герасимёнок, Т. Е.; Коломыцев, Н. В.; Пожидаев, И. С.; Фёдоров, С. М.; Карпов, К. И. (2002). Территориальное деление Псковской области (in Russian). Pskov. ISBN 5-94542-031-X.
  7. "Полное собрание законов Российской Империи. Собрание Третье. 1 марта 1881 — 1913 гг. — Алфавитный каталог — Электронная библиотека Руниверс". runivers.ru. Retrieved2022-06-08.
  8. "Полное собрание законов Российской Империи. Собрание Третье. 1 марта 1881 — 1913 гг. — Алфавитный каталог — Электронная библиотека Руниверс". runivers.ru. Retrieved2022-06-08.
  9. Н. Ф. Самохвалов, ed. (2003). Губернии Российской Империи. История и руководители. 1708-1917. Moscow: Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russian Federation. pp. 64–66, 407.
  10. История памятника героям войны 1812 года в Витебске (in Russian). Народныя навіны Віцебска / Народные новости Витебска. 19 December 2012. Retrieved28 January 2013.
  11. Арцимович Михаил Викторович, губернатор Тульской губернии в 1905-1907 гг. (in Russian). http://тульский-край.рф. Retrieved28 January 2013.
  12. Витебская область (in Russian). narod.ru. Archived from the original on 17 April 2013. Retrieved28 January 2013.
  13. Vitebsk : ėnt︠s︡iklopedicheskiĭ spravochnik. Ivan Shami︠a︡kin. Minsk: Izd-vo "Belorusskai︠a︡ sov. ėnt︠s︡iklopedii︠a︡" im. Petrusi︠a︡ Brovki. 1988. ISBN 5-85700-004-1. OCLC 19685537.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  14. "Vitebsk (1928) | Works". 5 August 2019.

Vitebsk Governorate Article Talk Language Watch Edit Coordinates 55 11 N 30 10 E 55 183 N 30 167 E 55 183 30 167 Vitebsk Governorate Russian Vitebskaya guberniya Vitebskaya guberniya was an administrative unit guberniya of the Russian Empire with the seat of governorship in Vitebsk It was established in 1802 by splitting the Byelorussia Governorate and existed until 1924 Today most of the area belongs to Belarus the northwestern part to Latvia and the northeastern part to Pskov and Smolensk Oblasts of Russia Together with the Vilna Kovno Grodno Minsk and Mogilev Governorates it formed the Northwestern Krai The provincial city was Vitebsk the largest city was Dvinsk Vitebsk GovernorateVitebskaya guberniyaGovernorate of Russian Empire1802 1924Coat of armsMap of Vitebsk Governorate ca 1821 Russian Polish CapitalVitebskHistoryHistory Established1802 Disestablished1924Political subdivisionstwelve uyezdsPreceded by Succeeded byBelarusian Governorate LatviaPskov GovernorateBelarausian SSRToday part ofBelarus Latvia Russia On January 1 1919 the Provisional Revolutionary Government issued a manifesto proclaiming the formation of the Socialist Soviet Republic of Belarus SSRB within the RSFSR which included the Vitebsk Grodno Mogilev Minsk and Smolensk provinces On January 16 1919 by the decision of the Central Committee of the RCP the Vitebsk Mogilev and Smolensk provinces were returned into direct subordination to the RSFSR By the decision of the Presidium of the All Russian Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR of February 4 1924 On the transfer of the areas with a predominantly Belarusian population to Belarus and by the resolution of the VI All Belarusian extraordinary congress of the Soviets of the BSSR of March 13 1924 the Vitebsk Polotsk Sennensk Surazh Gorodok Drissen Lepel and Orsha counties of the Vitebsk province were transferred to the BSSR while Sebezh Nevelsk and Velizhsk counties remained in the RSFSR 1 2 The province occupied the northeastern part of the modern Vitebsk region of Belarus as well as the southeastern part of Latvia with the cities of Daugavpils Dvinsk Rezekne Rezhitsa and Ludza Lyutsin and some Russian regions Nevel and Sebezh Pskov Oblast Velizh Smolensk Oblast the village of Ilyino which was part of the Velizh District Tver Oblast Contents 1 History 2 Parliament 3 Governors 4 Economy 4 1 Industries 4 2 Agriculture 5 Education 6 Geography 6 1 Rivers 6 2 Lakes 6 3 Climate 7 Artistic tributes 8 ReferencesHistory Edit The European part of the Russian Empire in 1917 Vitebsk Governorate is shown in yellow In 1772 as a result of the First Partition of Poland Inflanty Voivodeship and eastern Belarus were transferred to Russia In order to accommodate these areas Pskov Governorate was created 3 It was proven too big to be manageable and in 1776 it was split into Pskov and Polotsk Governorates In 1778 Polotsk Governorate was transformed into Polotsk Viceroyalty In 1793 the Second Partition of Poland followed which resulted in the expansion of Polotsk Viceroyalty In 1796 viceroyalties were abolished In particular Polotsk and Mogilev Viceroyalties were merged into Byelorussia Governorate On February 27 1802 Byelorussia Governorate was split into Vitebsk and Mogilev Governorates 4 The governorate consisted of 12 uyezds the administrative centers which all had the town status are given in parentheses Dinaburgsky Uyezd from 1893 Dvinsky Uyezd Dinaburg currently Daugavpils now in Latvia Drissensky Uyezd Drissa now Verkhnyadzvinsk Belarus Gorodoksky Uyezd Haradok Belarus Lepelsky Uyezd Lepiel Belarus Lyutsinsky Uyezd Ludza Latvia Nevelsky Uyezd Nevel Russia Polotsky Uyezd Polotsk Belarus Rezhitsky Uyezd Rezekne Latvia Sebezhsky Uyezd Sebezh Russia Surazhsky Uyezd Surazh split between Russia and Belarus Velizhsky Uyezd Velizh Russia Vitebsky Uyezd Vitebsk Belarus In 1866 Surazhsky Uyezd was abolished and split between Gorodoksky Velizhsky and Vitebsky Uyezd 4 On 31 December 1917 Dvinsky Lyutsinsky and Rezhitsky Uyezds populated mostly by Latvians and known in Latvian as Latgale were transferred to Governorate of Livonia becoming a part of the Latvian Soviet autonomy of Iskolat Following the Latvian War of Independence in 1920 the area became a part of the Republic of Latvia under the Latvian Soviet Peace Treaty After 1919 the rest of Vitebsk Governorate was a part of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic 5 In 1924 Vitebsk Governorate was abolished Most of it was transferred to Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic which at the time had districts as the first level administrative division Three uyezds Sebezhsky Nevelsky and Velizhsky were transferred to Pskov Governorate 6 Parliament EditWhen zemstvo institutions were introduced in 1864 the province was left non zemstvo In 1903 the Regulations on the management of zemstvo economy in the provinces of Vitebsk Volyn Kiev Minsk Mogilev and Podolsk was adopted 7 according to which a modified order of zemstvo administration was introduced in the provinces with the appointment of all members of zemstvo boards and zemstvo speakers by the government This order was unsuccessful after which a bill on the introduction of elective zemstvo institutions in these provinces was developed from 1910 but also with exceptions from the general order aimed at the exclusion of Polish landowners from participation in zemstvos The adoption of this law in 1911 was accompanied by an acute political crisis The elective zemstvo in these six provinces began operation since 1912 8 Governors EditThe administration of the governorate was performed by a governor The governors of Vitebsk Governorate were 9 1802 1808 Sergey Aleksandrovich Shishkin governor 1808 1812 Pavel Ivanovich Sumarokov governor 1812 1813 Ivan Frantsevich Leshern governor 1813 Ivan Leontyevich Sushko governor died before his inauguration 1813 1818 Pyotr Petrovich Tormasov governor 1818 1823 Alexey Petrovich Butovich governor 1823 1829 Akinfy Ivanovich Sorokunsky governor 1829 1830 Alexey Nikitovich Peshchurov governor 1830 1831 Nikolay Mikhaylovich Gamaleya governor 1831 1836 Nikolay Ivanovich Shryoder Schroeder governor 1836 1838 Ivan Stepanovich Zhirkevich governor 1839 1840 Pyotr Petrovich Lvov governor 1840 1846 Niktopolion Mikhaylovich Klementyev governor 1846 1847 Mikhail Mikhaylovich Tatarinov governor 1847 1848 Afanasy Alexandrovich Radishchev governor 1848 1849 Yury Alexeyevich Dolgorukov governor 1849 1853 Sergey Nikolayevich Yermolov governor 1853 1856 Yegor Sergeyevich Tilicheyev governor 1856 1858 Grigory Dmitriyevich Kolokoltsov governor 1858 1861 Pavel Nikolayevich Kluchin governor 1861 1863 Alexander Stepanovich Ogolin governor 1863 1867 Vladimir Nikolayevich Veryovkin governor 1867 1868 Pavel Pavlovich Kosagovsky governor 1868 1869 Vladimir Nikolayevich Tokarev governor 1869 1880 Pavel Yakovlevich Rostovtsev governor 1880 1884 Viktor Vilgelmovich fon Val von Wal governor 1884 1894 Vasily Mikhaylovich Dolgorukov governor 1894 1899 Vladimir Alexeyevich Levashov governor 1899 1904 Ivan Ilyich Chepelevsky governor 1904 1911 Berngard Berngardovich Gershau Flotov governor 10 1911 1915 Mikhail Viktorovich Artsimovich governor 11 1915 1916 Nikolay Pavlovich Galakhov governor 1916 1917 Boris Nikolayevich Khitrovo governor 12 Economy Edit74 of the population is employed in agriculture farming horticulture forestry 8 in manufacturing Industries Edit In 1903 there were 39 thousand workers engaged in cottage industries diggers on the railroads forestry fishery 48 thousand workers in handicrafts woodwork tailoring shoe making fish netting coarse fleece weaving 1293 factories and plants with 7 thousand workers and a volume of output of 6 5 and 5 5 million 1 flax mill 2 distilleries 126 tanneries 142 brickyards 424 mills Agriculture Edit Rye oats barley potato were grown On average 13 2 million poods of winter rye 3 6 million poods of barley 7 2 million poods of oats and 20 2 million poods of potato were produced during 1900 1904 flax growing was developed industrial horticulture apples pears plums cattle breeding is in decline forests occupy up to 35 of the gubernia s area a lot of timber pine spruce forest trades are developed shipbuilding on the banks of the Western Dvina River fishing on the lakes Education EditEducational institutions according to Pavlenkov 5 secondary schools 9 special schools 1 281 lower schools according to Brockhaus Efron 1 667 in total with 61 000 pupils Among them were 349 elementary schools of the Ministry of Public Education 246 parochial schools 659 literacy schools 5 secondary schools with 2248 pupils cadet corps teachers seminary 5 religious schools agricultural and craft schools 385 Jewish schools including 23 state schools with 7095 pupils literate 24 5 Geography EditAt the beginning of the XX century 1897 13 the territory of the province was 38 649 5 square miles according to Brockhaus Efron or 39 700 square miles according to Pavlenkov The surface is undulating the most elevated strip stretches from the Pskov Gubernia to Nevel and Gorodok up to 952 feet high then along the watershed of the Western Dvina and Dnieper the western part the Dvina Lyutsinsk and Rezhitsa districts is lowland many lakes about 2500 swamps and forests the soil is low fertile clay and sandy loam Rivers Edit The Western Dvina is navigable throughout its length its tributaries Mezha Kasplya or Kisplya and Ulla are navigable the main rafting rivers are Luchessa Luchosa Ushach Ushacha Usyacha Poloto Polota and Drissa Lakes Edit Major lakes are Luban 112 square miles Razno 75 square miles and Osveiskoe 49 square miles marshes occupy up to 4000 square miles Climate Edit West of the country is milder than east West Dvina near Dvinsk is ice free 247 days a yearArtistic tributes EditIn 1928 the American composer Aaron Copland composed the piano trio Vitebsk Study on a Jewish Theme and the work was premiered in 1929 Based on a Jewish folk song from S Ansky s play The Dybbuk Copland s piece is named for Vitebsk Governorate where Ansky was born and where he first heard the tune 14 References EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Vitebsk Governorate InfoRost N P GPIB 1 Fevral aprel 1924 goda 1924 elib shpl ru Retrieved 2022 06 08 Ukrupnenie BSSR v 1923 1924 gody faktor sovetskogo vliyaniya v Polshe zapadrus su Retrieved 2022 06 08 Kolomyceva N V Pskovskoj gubernii 225 let The Pskov province is 225 years old in Russian Kraevedcheskij arhiv Pskovskoj oblasti Archived from the original on 21 December 2012 Retrieved 5 April 2012 a b 1906 Vitebskaya guberniya Radzima net in Russian Retrieved 9 December 2012 Oblast mestnost Region locality in Russian Great Soviet Encyclopedia Archived from the original on 31 March 2014 Retrieved 9 November 2012 Gerasimyonok T E Kolomycev N V Pozhidaev I S Fyodorov S M Karpov K I 2002 Territorialnoe delenie Pskovskoj oblasti in Russian Pskov ISBN 5 94542 031 X Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossijskoj Imperii Sobranie Trete 1 marta 1881 1913 gg Alfavitnyj katalog Elektronnaya biblioteka Runivers runivers ru Retrieved 2022 06 08 Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossijskoj Imperii Sobranie Trete 1 marta 1881 1913 gg Alfavitnyj katalog Elektronnaya biblioteka Runivers runivers ru Retrieved 2022 06 08 N F Samohvalov ed 2003 Gubernii Rossijskoj Imperii Istoriya i rukovoditeli 1708 1917 Moscow Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russian Federation pp 64 66 407 Istoriya pamyatnika geroyam vojny 1812 goda v Vitebske in Russian Narodnyya naviny Vicebska Narodnye novosti Vitebska 19 December 2012 Retrieved 28 January 2013 Arcimovich Mihail Viktorovich gubernator Tulskoj gubernii v 1905 1907 gg in Russian http tulskij kraj rf Retrieved 28 January 2013 Vitebskaya oblast in Russian narod ru Archived from the original on 17 April 2013 Retrieved 28 January 2013 Vitebsk ent s iklopedicheskiĭ spravochnik Ivan Shami a kin Minsk Izd vo Belorusskai a sov ent s iklopedii a im Petrusi a Brovki 1988 ISBN 5 85700 004 1 OCLC 19685537 a href wiki Template Cite book title Template Cite book cite book a CS1 maint others link Vitebsk 1928 Works 5 August 2019 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vitebsk Governorate amp oldid 1093991953, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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