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Wikipedia

Vitis

For other uses, see Vitis (disambiguation).
"Grapevine" redirects here. For other uses, see Grapevine (disambiguation).

Vitis (grapevines) is a genus of 79 accepted species of vining plants in the flowering plant family Vitaceae. The genus is made up of species predominantly from the Northern hemisphere. It is economically important as the source of grapes, both for direct consumption of the fruit and for fermentation to produce wine. The study and cultivation of grapevines is called viticulture.

Vitis
Temporal range:60–0 MaPaleocene- Recent
Vitis californica with fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Vitales
Family: Vitaceae
Subfamily: Vitoideae
Genus: Vitis
L.
Type species
Vitis vinifera
Species
List

Most Vitis varieties are wind-pollinated with hermaphroditic flowers containing both male and female reproductive structures. These flowers are grouped in bunches called inflorescences. In many species, such as Vitis vinifera, each successfully pollinated flower becomes a grape berry with the inflorescence turning into a cluster of grapes. While the flowers of the grapevines are usually very small, the berries are often large and brightly colored with sweet flavors that attract birds and other animals to disperse the seeds contained within the berries.

Grapevines usually only produce fruit on shoots that came from buds that were developed during the previous growing season. In viticulture, this is one of the principles behind pruning the previous year's growth (or "One year old wood") that includes shoots that have turned hard and woody during the winter (after harvest in commercial viticulture). These vines will be pruned either into a cane which will support 8 to 15 buds or to a smaller spur which holds 2 to 3 buds.

Contents

Developing inflorescences of Vitis vinifera

Flower buds are formed late in the growing season and overwinter for blooming in spring of the next year. They produce leaf-opposed cymes. Vitis is distinguished from other genera of Vitaceae by having petals which remain joined at the tip and detach from the base to fall together as a calyptra or 'cap'. The flowers are mostly bisexual,: 143 pentamerous, with a hypogynous disk. The calyx is greatly reduced or nonexistent in most species and the petals are joined together at the tip into one unit but separated at the base. The fruit is a berry, ovoid in shape and juicy, with a two-celled ovary each containing two ovules, thus normally producing four seeds per flower (or fewer by way of aborted embryos).

Other parts of the vine include the tendrils which are leaf-opposed, branched in Vitis vinifera, and are used to support the climbing plant by twining onto surrounding structures such as branches or the trellising of a vine-training system.

In the wild, all species of Vitis are normally dioecious, but under domestication, variants with perfect flowers appear to have been selected.

The genus Vitis is divided into two subgenera Euvitis Planch. have 38 chromosomes (n=19) with berries borne on clusters and Muscadinia Planch. 40 (n=20) with small clusters.

Vitis coignetiae with autumn leaves

Most Vitis species are found mostly in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in North America and eastern Asia, exceptions being a few in the tropics and the wine grape Vitis vinifera which originated in southern Europe and southwestern Asia. Grape species occur in widely different geographical areas and show a great diversity of form.

Their growth makes leaf collection challenging and polymorphic leaves make identification of species difficult. Mature grapevines can grow up to 48 cm (19 in) in diameter at breast height and reach the upper canopy of trees more than 35 m (115 ft) in height.

Many species are sufficiently closely related to allow easy interbreeding and the resultant interspecific hybrids are invariably fertile and vigorous. Thus the concept of a species is less well defined and more likely represents the identification of different ecotypes of Vitis that have evolved in distinct geographical and environmental circumstances.

The exact number of species is not certain, with species in Asia in particular being poorly defined. Approximately 25 species are known in North American and about 55 in eastern Asia. Just one, Vitis vinifera has Eurasian origins. Some of the more notable include:

There are many cultivars of grapevines; most are cultivars of V. vinifera. One of them includes, Vitis 'Ornamental Grape'.

Hybrid grapes also exist, and these are primarily crosses between V. vinifera and one or more of V. labrusca, V. riparia or V. aestivalis. Hybrids tend to be less susceptible to frost and disease (notably phylloxera), but wine from some hybrids may have a little of the characteristic "foxy" taste of V. labrusca.

The Latin word Vitis has feminine grammatical gender, and therefore species names with adjectival specific epithets take feminine forms, such as V. vinifera.

The fruit of several Vitis species are grown commercially for consumption as fresh grapes and for fermentation into wine. Vitis vinifera is the most important such species.

The leaves of several species of grapevine are edible and are used in the production of dolmades and Vietnamese lot leaves.

Vitis for producing Sherry at Jerez.
Vitis near a house in Hontecillas.

According to the "Food and Agriculture Organization" (FAO), 75,866 square kilometres of the world is dedicated to grapes. Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, and 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be used as a sweetener for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural". The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year.

The following list of top wine-producers shows the corresponding areas dedicated to grapes (regardless of the grapes’ final destination):

Country Area under vine (ha x103) Grape production (metric ton x106)
World 7511 75.7
Spain 1021 6.0
China 830 12.6
France 786 6.3
Italy 682 8.2
Turkey 497 3.6
United States 419 7.0
Argentina 225 2.4
Iran 223 2.1
Portugal 217
Chile 211 3.1
Romania 192
Australia 149 1.7
Moldova 140
South Africa 130 2.0
India 120 2.6
Brazil 85 1.5
Bulgaria 60
New Zealand 39

Grapevines are widely cultivated by gardeners, and numerous suppliers cater specifically for this trade. The plants are valued for their decorative foliage, often colouring brightly in autumn; their ability to clothe walls, pergolas and arches, thus providing shade; and their fruits, which may be eaten as dessert or provide the basis for homemade wines. Popular varieties include:-

The following varieties have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-

  • 'Boskoop Glory' (dessert/wine)
  • 'Brant' (black dessert)
  • 'Claret Cloak' or 'Frovit' (ornamental)
  • 'New York Muscat' (black dessert)
  • 'Purpurea' (ornamental)
'Palatina', a Hungary grape

Phylloxera is an American root aphid that devastated V. vinifera vineyards in Europe when accidentally introduced in the late 19th century. Attempts were made to breed in resistance from American species, but many winemakers didn't like the unusual flavour profile of the hybrid vines. However, V. vinifera grafts readily onto rootstocks of the American species and their hybrids with V. vinifera, and most commercial production of grapes now relies on such grafts.

The black vine weevil is another root pest.

Grapevines are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species - see list of Lepidoptera that feed on grapevines

The grapevine (typically Vitis vinifera) has been used as a symbol since ancient times. In Greek mythology, Dionysus (called Bacchus by the Romans) was god of the vintage and, therefore, a grapevine with bunches of the fruit are among his attributes. His attendants at the Bacchanalian festivals hence had the vine as an attribute, together with the thyrsus, the latter often entwined with vine branches. For the same reason, the Greek wine cup (cantharos) is commonly decorated with the vine and grapes, wine being drunk as a libation to the god.

In Christian iconography, the vine also frequently appears. It is mentioned several times in the New Testament. We have the parable of the kingdom of heaven likened to the father starting to engage laborers for his vineyard. The vine is used as symbol of Jesus Christ based on his own statement, “I am the true vine (John 15:1).” In that sense, a vine is placed as sole symbol on the tomb of Constantia, the sister of Constantine the Great, and elsewhere. In Byzantine art, the vine and grapes figure in early mosaics, and on the throne of Maximianus of Ravenna it is used as a decoration.

The vine as symbol of the chosen people is employed several times in the Old Testament. The vine and wheat ear have been frequently used as symbol of the blood and flesh of Christ, hence figuring as symbols (bread and wine) of the Eucharist and are found depicted on ostensories. Often the symbolic vine laden with grapes is found in ecclesiastical decorations with animals biting at the grapes. At times, the vine is used as symbol of temporal blessing.

Notes

  1. -fer is an adjectival suffix, with forms -fer (M), -fera (F), and -ferum (N).

Citations

  1. "PLANTS Profile for Vitis (grape)". USDA. RetrievedNovember 16, 2009.
  2. GRIN. "Species in GRIN for genus Vitis". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. RetrievedApril 20, 2010.
  3. V. kelungensis, V. yeshanensis Ahmet Güner; =Gábor Gyulai; Zoltán Tóth; Gülsüm Asena Başlı; Zoltán Szabó; Ferenc Gyulai; András Bittsánszky; Luther Waters Jr.; László Heszky (2008). "Grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds from Antiquity and the Middle Ages Excavated in Hungary - LM and SEM analysis"(PDF). Anadolu Univ J Sci Technol. Archived from the original(PDF) on October 23, 2012. RetrievedMay 23, 2010.
  4. "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". RetrievedJuly 9, 2015.
  5. "The Plant List: Vitis". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2013.
  6. Wine & Spirits Education Trust "Wine and Spirits: Understanding Wine Quality" pgs 2-5, Second Revised Edition (2012), London, ISBN 9781905819157
  7. Stace, C. A. (2010). New Flora of the British Isles (Third ed.). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521707725.
  8. Gleason and Cronquist volume 2, New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, p. 517. LCCN 63-16478
  9. Bennett, M.D.; Leitch, I.J. (2012). "Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Plant DNA C-values database, release 6.0". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original on 2016-03-19. Retrieved2016-04-02.
  10. "Vitis rotundifolia Muscadine Grape, Scuppernong". Plant of the Week: Vitis rotundifolia Muscadine Grape, Scuppernong. University of Arkansas. Retrieved2019-08-06.
  11. Lu, Jiang; Lamikanra, Olusola (1996). "Barriers to Intersubgeneric Crosses between Muscadinia and Euvitis". HortScience. American Society for Horticultural Science. 31 (2): 269–271. doi:10.21273/hortsci.31.2.269. ISSN 0018-5345.
  12. Everhart SE (2010). "Upper Canopy Collection and Identification of Grapevines (Vitis) from Selected Forests in the Southeastern United States". Castanea (From University of Nebraska Digital Commons). 75 (1): 141–149.
  13. Galet, Pierre (2000). Dictionnaire encyclopédique des cépages. Hachette Pratique. ISBN 2-01-236331-8.
  14. "Distribution of the world's grapevine varieties"(PDF). Paris: OIV - International Organization of Vine and Wine. 2017. ISBN 979-10-91799-89-8.
  15. "SEINet Portal Network - Vitis arizonica".
  16. "PLANTS Profile for Vitis vulpina (snow grape)". USDA. RetrievedNovember 16, 2009.
  17. Jain, E.; Bairoch, A.; Duvaud, S.; Phan, I.; Redaschi, N.; Suzek, B.E.; Martin, M.J.; McGarvey, P.; Gasteiger, E. (November 3, 2009). "Vitis riparia (Frost grape) (Vitis vulpina)". The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt). The UniProt Consortium. RetrievedNovember 16, 2009.
  18. Lewis, C.T.; Short, C. (1958), A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  19. McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W.F.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J. (2012), International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011, Regnum Vegetabile 154, A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG, ISBN 978-3-87429-425-6 Article 23.5
  20. Stearn, W.T. (1992), Botanical Latin: History, grammar, syntax, terminology and vocabulary, Fourth edition, David and Charles
  21. Frenkel, Omer; Brewer, Marin Talbot; Milgroom, Michael G. (2010). "Variation in Pathogenicity and Aggressiveness of Erysiphe necator from Different Vitis spp. and Geographic Origins in the Eastern United States". Phytopathology. 100 (11): 1185–1193. doi:10.1094/PHYTO-01-10-0023. ISSN 0031-949X. PMID 20932167.
  22. Brown, Kelly; Sims, Charles; Odabasi, Asli; Bartoshuk, Linda; Conner, Patrick; Gray, Dennis (2016). "Consumer Acceptability of Fresh-Market Muscadine Grapes". Journal of Food Science. 81 (11): S2808–S2816. doi:10.1111/1750-3841.13522. ISSN 1750-3841. PMID 27741360. Nearly all table grapes that are sold in commercial markets are V. vinifera.
  23. Cosme, Fernanda; Pinto, Teresa; Vilela, Alice (2017). "Oenology in the Kitchen: The Sensory Experience Offered by Culinary Dishes Cooked with Alcoholic Drinks, Grapes and Grape Leaves". Beverages. 3 (4): 42. doi:10.3390/beverages3030042.
  24. "OIV Statistical Report on World Vitiviniculture 2016"(PDF). Retrieved7 September 2017.
  25. Klein, Carol (2009). Grow your own fruit. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845334345.
  26. "AGM Plants - Ornamental"(PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 107. Retrieved18 February 2019.
  27. "Vitis 'Boskoop Glory'". RHS. Retrieved5 March 2021.
  28. "RHS Plant Selector - Vitis 'Brant'". RHS. Retrieved5 March 2021.
  29. "VitisClaret Cloak = 'Frovit'". RHS. Retrieved5 March 2021.
  30. "RHS Plant Selector - Vitis 'New York Muscat'". RHS. Retrieved5 March 2021.
  31. "RHS Plant Selector - Vitis 'Purpurea'". Retrieved1 June 2013.
  32. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Clement W. Coumbe (1920)."Vine in Art and Symbolism" . In Rines, George Edwin (ed.). Encyclopedia Americana.

Sources

Further reading

  • Media related to Vitis at Wikimedia Commons
  • Data related to Vitis at Wikispecies
  • List of 48 descriptors defined in the GRAPEGEN06 project (selected from the 151 OIV descriptors published in June 2007)

Vitis
Vitis Language Watch Edit For other uses see Vitis disambiguation Grapevine redirects here For other uses see Grapevine disambiguation Vitis grapevines is a genus of 79 accepted species 5 of vining plants in the flowering plant family Vitaceae The genus is made up of species predominantly from the Northern hemisphere It is economically important as the source of grapes both for direct consumption of the fruit and for fermentation to produce wine The study and cultivation of grapevines is called viticulture Vitis Temporal range 60 0 Ma PreꞒ Ꞓ O S D C P T J K Pg N Paleocene RecentVitis californica with fruitScientific classificationKingdom PlantaeClade TracheophytesClade AngiospermsClade EudicotsClade RosidsOrder VitalesFamily VitaceaeSubfamily VitoideaeGenus Vitis L 1 Type speciesVitis vinifera L Species 2 3 4 List V acerifolia V adenoclada V aestivalis V amazonica V amurensis V andersonii V arizonica V baileyana V balansana V bashanica V bellula V berlandieri V betulifolia V biformis V blancoi V bloodworthiana V bourgaeana V bryoniifolia V californica V champinii V chontalensis V chunganensis V chungii V cinerea V cissoides V coignetiae V cordifolia V davidii V doaniana V erythrophylla V fengqinensis V figariana V flexuosa V girdiana V hancockii V heyneana V hui V jacquemontii V jaegeriana V jinggangensis V jinzhainensis V kelungensis V labrusca V labruscana V lanceolatifoliosa V linsecomii V longquanensis V luochengensis V menghaiensis V mengziensis V monticola V mustangensis V nesbittiana V novae angliae V palmata V peninsularis V piasezkii V pilosonerva V popenoei V pseudoreticulata V pubescens V retordii V riparia V romanetii V rotundifolia V rupestris V ruyuanensis V shenxiensis V shuttleworthii V silvestrii V sinocinerea V slavinii V thunbergii V tiliifolia V treleasei V tsoii V vinifera V vulpina V wenchouensis V wilsonae V wuhanensis V xunyangensis V yeshanensis V yunnanensis V zhejiang adstricta Most Vitis varieties are wind pollinated with hermaphroditic flowers containing both male and female reproductive structures These flowers are grouped in bunches called inflorescences In many species such as Vitis vinifera each successfully pollinated flower becomes a grape berry with the inflorescence turning into a cluster of grapes While the flowers of the grapevines are usually very small the berries are often large and brightly colored with sweet flavors that attract birds and other animals to disperse the seeds contained within the berries 6 Grapevines usually only produce fruit on shoots that came from buds that were developed during the previous growing season In viticulture this is one of the principles behind pruning the previous year s growth or One year old wood that includes shoots that have turned hard and woody during the winter after harvest in commercial viticulture These vines will be pruned either into a cane which will support 8 to 15 buds or to a smaller spur which holds 2 to 3 buds 6 Contents 1 Biology 2 Species 3 Uses 4 Commercial distribution 5 Domestic cultivation 6 Pests and diseases 7 Symbolism 8 See also 9 References 9 1 Notes 9 2 Citations 9 3 Sources 9 4 Further reading 10 External linksBiology Edit Developing inflorescences of Vitis vinifera Flower buds are formed late in the growing season and overwinter for blooming in spring of the next year They produce leaf opposed cymes Vitis is distinguished from other genera of Vitaceae by having petals which remain joined at the tip and detach from the base to fall together as a calyptra or cap The flowers are mostly bisexual 7 143 pentamerous with a hypogynous disk The calyx is greatly reduced or nonexistent in most species and the petals are joined together at the tip into one unit but separated at the base The fruit is a berry ovoid in shape and juicy with a two celled ovary each containing two ovules thus normally producing four seeds per flower or fewer by way of aborted embryos 8 Other parts of the vine include the tendrils which are leaf opposed branched in Vitis vinifera and are used to support the climbing plant by twining onto surrounding structures such as branches or the trellising of a vine training system In the wild all species of Vitis are normally dioecious but under domestication variants with perfect flowers appear to have been selected The genus Vitis is divided into two subgenera Euvitis Planch have 38 chromosomes n 19 with berries borne on clusters 9 and Muscadinia Planch 40 n 20 with small clusters 10 11 Species Edit Vitis coignetiae with autumn leaves Most Vitis species are found mostly in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in North America and eastern Asia exceptions being a few in the tropics and the wine grape Vitis vinifera which originated in southern Europe and southwestern Asia Grape species occur in widely different geographical areas and show a great diversity of form Their growth makes leaf collection challenging and polymorphic leaves make identification of species difficult Mature grapevines can grow up to 48 cm 19 in in diameter at breast height and reach the upper canopy of trees more than 35 m 115 ft in height 12 Many species are sufficiently closely related to allow easy interbreeding and the resultant interspecific hybrids are invariably fertile and vigorous Thus the concept of a species is less well defined and more likely represents the identification of different ecotypes of Vitis that have evolved in distinct geographical and environmental circumstances The exact number of species is not certain with species in Asia in particular being poorly defined 13 Approximately 25 species are known in North American and about 55 in eastern Asia Just one Vitis vinifera has Eurasian origins 14 Some of the more notable include Vitis arizonica The Arizona grape is native to Arizona Utah Nevada California New Mexico Texas and Northern Mexico 15 Vitis vinifera the European grapevine Native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia Vitis labrusca the fox grapevine sometimes used for winemaking and for jam Native to the Eastern United States and Canada The Concord grape is a common cultivar Vitis riparia the riverbank grapevine sometimes used for winemaking and for jam Native to the entire Eastern U S and north to Quebec Vitis aestivalis the summer grape native to the Eastern United States especially the Southeastern United States Vitis rotundifolia syn Muscadinia rotundifolia the muscadine used for jams and wine Native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico Vitis rupestris the rock grapevine used for breeding of Phylloxera resistant rootstock Native to the Southern United States Vitis coignetiae the crimson glory vine a species from East Asia grown as an ornamental plant for its crimson autumn foliage Vitis amurensis native to the Asian continent including parts of Siberia and China Vitis vulpina the frost grape native to the Eastern United States from Massachusetts to Florida and west to Nebraska Kansas and Texas 16 Treated by some as a synonym of V riparia 17 Vitis californica the California wild grape or Northern California grape or Pacific grape is a wild grape species widespread across much of California as well as southwestern Oregon Vitis berlandieri native to the southern North America primarily Texas New Mexico and Arkansas Primarily known for good tolerance against soils with a high content of lime which can cause chlorosis in many vines of American origin There are many cultivars of grapevines most are cultivars of V vinifera One of them includes Vitis Ornamental Grape Hybrid grapes also exist and these are primarily crosses between V vinifera and one or more of V labrusca V riparia or V aestivalis Hybrids tend to be less susceptible to frost and disease notably phylloxera but wine from some hybrids may have a little of the characteristic foxy taste of V labrusca The Latin word Vitis has feminine grammatical gender 18 and therefore species names with adjectival specific epithets take feminine forms such as V vinifera 19 a Uses EditThe fruit of several Vitis species are grown commercially for consumption as fresh grapes and for fermentation into wine 21 Vitis vinifera is the most important such species 22 The leaves of several species of grapevine are edible and are used in the production of dolmades and Vietnamese lot leaves 23 Commercial distribution Edit Vitis for producing Sherry at Jerez Vitis near a house in Hontecillas According to the Food and Agriculture Organization FAO 75 866 square kilometres of the world is dedicated to grapes Approximately 71 of world grape production is used for wine 27 as fresh fruit and 2 as dried fruit A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be used as a sweetener for fruits canned with no added sugar and 100 natural The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2 per year The following list of top wine producers shows the corresponding areas dedicated to grapes regardless of the grapes final destination 24 CountryArea under vine ha x103 Grape production metric ton x106 World751175 7 Spain10216 0 China83012 6 France7866 3 Italy6828 2 Turkey4973 6 United States4197 0 Argentina2252 4 Iran2232 1 Portugal217 Chile2113 1 Romania192 Australia1491 7 Moldova140 South Africa1302 0 India1202 6 Brazil851 5 Bulgaria60 New Zealand39Domestic cultivation EditGrapevines are widely cultivated by gardeners and numerous suppliers cater specifically for this trade The plants are valued for their decorative foliage often colouring brightly in autumn their ability to clothe walls pergolas and arches thus providing shade and their fruits which may be eaten as dessert or provide the basis for homemade wines Popular varieties include Buckland Sweetwater white dessert Chardonnay white wine Foster s Seedling white dessert Muscat of Alexandria white dessert Muller Thurgau white wine Phoenix white wine Pinot noir red wine Regent red wine Schiava Grossa red dessert Seyval blanc white wine 25 The following varieties have gained the Royal Horticultural Society s Award of Garden Merit 26 Boskoop Glory 27 dessert wine Brant 28 black dessert Claret Cloak or Frovit 29 ornamental New York Muscat 30 black dessert Purpurea 31 ornamental Pests and diseases Edit Palatina a Hungary grapeMain articles List of grape diseases and phylloxera Phylloxera is an American root aphid that devastated V vinifera vineyards in Europe when accidentally introduced in the late 19th century Attempts were made to breed in resistance from American species but many winemakers didn t like the unusual flavour profile of the hybrid vines However V vinifera grafts readily onto rootstocks of the American species and their hybrids with V vinifera and most commercial production of grapes now relies on such grafts The black vine weevil is another root pest Grapevines are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species see list of Lepidoptera that feed on grapevinesSymbolism EditThe grapevine typically Vitis vinifera has been used as a symbol since ancient times In Greek mythology Dionysus called Bacchus by the Romans was god of the vintage and therefore a grapevine with bunches of the fruit are among his attributes His attendants at the Bacchanalian festivals hence had the vine as an attribute together with the thyrsus the latter often entwined with vine branches For the same reason the Greek wine cup cantharos is commonly decorated with the vine and grapes wine being drunk as a libation to the god In Christian iconography the vine also frequently appears It is mentioned several times in the New Testament We have the parable of the kingdom of heaven likened to the father starting to engage laborers for his vineyard The vine is used as symbol of Jesus Christ based on his own statement I am the true vine John 15 1 In that sense a vine is placed as sole symbol on the tomb of Constantia the sister of Constantine the Great and elsewhere In Byzantine art the vine and grapes figure in early mosaics and on the throne of Maximianus of Ravenna it is used as a decoration The vine as symbol of the chosen people is employed several times in the Old Testament The vine and wheat ear have been frequently used as symbol of the blood and flesh of Christ hence figuring as symbols bread and wine of the Eucharist and are found depicted on ostensories Often the symbolic vine laden with grapes is found in ecclesiastical decorations with animals biting at the grapes At times the vine is used as symbol of temporal blessing 32 See also EditVine staff Annual growth cycle of grapevines Old vineReferences EditNotes Edit fer is an adjectival suffix with forms fer M fera F and ferum N 20 Citations Edit PLANTS Profile for Vitis grape USDA Retrieved November 16 2009 GRIN Species in GRIN for genus Vitis Taxonomy for Plants National Germplasm Resources Laboratory Beltsville Maryland USDA ARS National Genetic Resources Program Archived from the original on September 24 2015 Retrieved April 20 2010 V kelungensis V yeshanensis Ahmet Guner Gabor Gyulai Zoltan Toth Gulsum Asena Basli Zoltan Szabo Ferenc Gyulai Andras Bittsanszky Luther Waters Jr Laszlo Heszky 2008 Grape Vitis vinifera seeds from Antiquity and the Middle Ages Excavated in Hungary LM and SEM analysis PDF Anadolu Univ J Sci Technol Archived from the original PDF on October 23 2012 Retrieved May 23 2010 The Plant List A Working List of All Plant Species Retrieved July 9 2015 The Plant List Vitis Royal Botanic Gardens Kew 2013 a b Wine amp Spirits Education Trust Wine and Spirits Understanding Wine Quality pgs 2 5 Second Revised Edition 2012 London ISBN 9781905819157 Stace C A 2010 New Flora of the British Isles Third ed Cambridge U K Cambridge University Press ISBN 9780521707725 Gleason and Cronquist volume 2 New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada p 517 LCCN 63 16478 Bennett M D Leitch I J 2012 Royal Botanic Gardens Kew Plant DNA C values database release 6 0 Royal Botanic Gardens Kew Archived from the original on 2016 03 19 Retrieved 2016 04 02 Vitis rotundifolia Muscadine Grape Scuppernong Plant of the Week Vitis rotundifolia Muscadine Grape Scuppernong University of Arkansas Retrieved 2019 08 06 Lu Jiang Lamikanra Olusola 1996 Barriers to Intersubgeneric Crosses between Muscadinia and Euvitis HortScience American Society for Horticultural Science 31 2 269 271 doi 10 21273 hortsci 31 2 269 ISSN 0018 5345 Everhart SE 2010 Upper Canopy Collection and Identification of Grapevines Vitis from Selected Forests in the Southeastern United States Castanea From University of Nebraska Digital Commons 75 1 141 149 Galet Pierre 2000 Dictionnaire encyclopedique des cepages Hachette Pratique ISBN 2 01 236331 8 Distribution of the world s grapevine varieties PDF Paris OIV International Organization of Vine and Wine 2017 ISBN 979 10 91799 89 8 SEINet Portal Network Vitis arizonica PLANTS Profile for Vitis vulpina snow grape USDA Retrieved November 16 2009 Jain E Bairoch A Duvaud S Phan I Redaschi N Suzek B E Martin M J McGarvey P Gasteiger E November 3 2009 Vitis riparia Frost grape Vitis vulpina The Universal Protein Resource UniProt The UniProt Consortium Retrieved November 16 2009 Lewis C T Short C 1958 A Latin Dictionary Oxford Clarendon Press McNeill J Barrie F R Buck W R Demoulin V Greuter W Hawksworth D L Herendeen P S Knapp S Marhold K Prado J Prud homme Van Reine W F Smith G F Wiersema J H Turland N J 2012 International Code of Nomenclature for algae fungi and plants Melbourne Code adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne Australia July 2011 Regnum Vegetabile 154 A R G Gantner Verlag KG ISBN 978 3 87429 425 6 Article 23 5 Stearn W T 1992 Botanical Latin History grammar syntax terminology and vocabulary Fourth edition David and Charles Frenkel Omer Brewer Marin Talbot Milgroom Michael G 2010 Variation in Pathogenicity and Aggressiveness of Erysiphe necator from Different Vitis spp and Geographic Origins in the Eastern United States Phytopathology 100 11 1185 1193 doi 10 1094 PHYTO 01 10 0023 ISSN 0031 949X PMID 20932167 Brown Kelly Sims Charles Odabasi Asli Bartoshuk Linda Conner Patrick Gray Dennis 2016 Consumer Acceptability of Fresh Market Muscadine Grapes Journal of Food Science 81 11 S2808 S2816 doi 10 1111 1750 3841 13522 ISSN 1750 3841 PMID 27741360 Nearly all table grapes that are sold in commercial markets are V vinifera Cosme Fernanda Pinto Teresa Vilela Alice 2017 Oenology in the Kitchen The Sensory Experience Offered by Culinary Dishes Cooked with Alcoholic Drinks Grapes and Grape Leaves Beverages 3 4 42 doi 10 3390 beverages3030042 OIV Statistical Report on World Vitiviniculture 2016 PDF Retrieved 7 September 2017 Klein Carol 2009 Grow your own fruit United Kingdom Mitchell Beazley p 224 ISBN 9781845334345 AGM Plants Ornamental PDF Royal Horticultural Society July 2017 p 107 Retrieved 18 February 2019 Vitis Boskoop Glory RHS Retrieved 5 March 2021 RHS Plant Selector Vitis Brant RHS Retrieved 5 March 2021 Vitis Claret Cloak Frovit RHS Retrieved 5 March 2021 RHS Plant Selector Vitis New York Muscat RHS Retrieved 5 March 2021 RHS Plant Selector Vitis Purpurea Retrieved 1 June 2013 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain Clement W Coumbe 1920 Vine in Art and Symbolism In Rines George Edwin ed Encyclopedia Americana Sources Edit Further reading Edit Francesco Emanuelli Silvia Lorenzi Lukasz Grzeskowiak Valentina Catalano Marco Stefanini Michela Troggio Sean Myles Jose M Martinez Zapater Eva Zyprian Flavia M Moreira amp M Stella Grando 2013 Genetic diversity and population structure assessed by SSR and SNP markers in a large germplasm collection of grape BMC Plant Biology BioMed Central Ltd 13 39 doi 10 1186 1471 2229 13 39 PMC 3610244 PMID 23497049 Roberto Bacilieri Thierry Lacombe Loic Le Cunff Manuel Di Vecchi Staraz Valerie Laucou Blaise Genna Jean Pierre Peros Patrice This Jean Michel Boursiquot 2013 Genetic structure in cultivated grapevines is linked to geography and human selection BMC Plant Biology BioMed Central Ltd 13 25 doi 10 1186 1471 2229 13 25 PMC 3598926 PMID 23394135 External links Edit Media related to Vitis at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Vitis at Wikispecies List of 48 descriptors defined in the GRAPEGEN06 project selected from the 151 OIV descriptors published in June 2007 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vitis amp oldid 1047645902, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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