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Vitruvius

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, and civil and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura. He originated the idea that all buildings should have three attributes: firmitas, utilitas, and venustas ("strength", "utility", and "beauty"). These principles were later widely adopted in Roman architecture. His discussion of perfect proportion in architecture and the human body led to the famous Renaissance drawing of the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci.

Vitruvius
A 1684 depiction of Vitruvius (right) presenting De Architectura to Augustus
Born
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio

80–70 BC
Died15 BC (aged 55–65)
NationalityRoman
Occupation
Notable work
De architectura

Little is known about Vitruvius' life, but by his own description he served as an artilleryman, the third class of arms in the Roman military offices. He probably served as a senior officer of artillery in charge of doctores ballistarum (artillery experts) and libratores who actually operated the machines. As an army engineer he specialized in the construction of ballista and scorpio artillery war machines for sieges. It is possible that Vitruvius served with Julius Caesar's chief engineer Lucius Cornelius Balbus.

Vitruvius' De architectura was widely copied and survives in many dozens of manuscripts throughout the Middle Ages, though in 1414 it was "rediscovered" by the Florentine humanist Poggio Bracciolini in the library of Saint Gall Abbey. Leon Battista Alberti published it in his seminal treatise on architecture, De re aedificatoria (c. 1450). The first known Latin printed edition was by Fra Giovanni Sulpitius in Rome in 1486. Translations followed in Italian, French, English, German, Spanish, and several other languages. Though the original illustrations have been lost, the first illustrated edition was published in Venice in 1511 by Fra Giovanni Giocondo, with woodcut illustrations based on descriptions in the text.

Contents

Little is known about Vitruvius' life. Most inferences about him are extracted from his only surviving work De Architectura. Even his first name Marcus and his cognomen Pollio are uncertain. Marcus Cetius Faventinus writes of "Vitruvius Polio aliique auctores"; this can be read as "Vitruvius Polio, and others" or, less likely, as "Vitruvius, Polio, and others". An inscription in Verona, which names a Lucius Vitruvius Cordo, and an inscription from Thilbilis in North Africa, which names a Marcus Vitruvius Mamurra have been suggested as evidence that Vitruvius and Mamurra (who was a military praefectus fabrum under Julius Caesar) were from the same family; or were even the same individual. Neither association, however, is borne out by De Architectura (which Vitruvius dedicated to Augustus), nor by the little that is known of Mamurra.

Vitruvius was a military engineer (praefectus fabrum), or a praefect architectus armamentarius of the apparitor status group (a branch of the Roman civil service). He is mentioned in Pliny the Elder's table of contents for Naturalis Historia (Natural History), in the heading for mosaic techniques. Frontinus refers to "Vitruvius the architect" in his late 1st-century work De aquaeductu.

Likely born a free Roman citizen, by his own account, Vitruvius served in the Roman army under Caesar with the otherwise poorly identified Marcus Aurelius, Publius Minidius, and Gnaeus Cornelius. These names vary depending on the edition of De architectura. Publius Minidius is also written as Publius Numidicus and Publius Numidius, speculated as the same Publius Numisius inscribed on the Roman Theatre at Heraclea.

As an army engineer he specialized in the construction of ballista and scorpio artillery war machines for sieges. It is speculated that Vitruvius served with Caesar's chief engineer Lucius Cornelius Balbus.

The locations where he served can be reconstructed from, for example, descriptions of the building methods of various "foreign tribes". Although he describes places throughout De Architectura, he does not say he was present. His service likely included north Africa, Hispania, Gaul (including Aquitaine) and Pontus.

To place the role of Vitruvius the military engineer in context, a description of "The Prefect of the camp" or army engineer is quoted here as given by Flavius Vegetius Renatus in The Military Institutions of the Romans:

The Prefect of the camp, though inferior in rank to the [Prefect], had a post of no small importance. The position of the camp, the direction of the entrenchments, the inspection of the tents or huts of the soldiers and the baggage were comprehended in his province. His authority extended over the sick, and the physicians who had the care of them; and he regulated the expenses relative thereto. He had the charge of providing carriages, bathhouses and the proper tools for sawing and cutting wood, digging trenches, raising parapets, sinking wells and bringing water into the camp. He likewise had the care of furnishing the troops with wood and straw, as well as the rams, onagri, balistae and all the other engines of war under his direction. This post was always conferred on an officer of great skill, experience and long service, and who consequently was capable of instructing others in those branches of the profession in which he had distinguished himself.

At various locations described by Vitruvius,[citation needed] battles and sieges occurred. He is the only source for the siege of Larignum in 56 BC. Of the battlegrounds of the Gallic War there are references to:

  • The siege and massacre of the 40,000 residents at Avaricum in 52 BC. Vercingetorix commented that "the Romans did not conquer by valor nor in the field, but by a kind of art and skill in assault, with which they [Gauls] themselves were unacquainted."
  • The broken siege at Gergovia in 52 BC.
  • The circumvallation and Battle of Alesia in 52 BC. The women and children of the encircled city were evicted to conserve food, then starved to death between the opposing walls of the defenders and besiegers.
  • The siege of Uxellodunum in 51 BC.

These are all sieges of large Gallic oppida. Of the sites involved in Caesar's civil war, we find the Siege of Massilia in 49 BC, the Battle of Dyrrhachium of 48 BC (modern Albania), the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC (Hellas – Greece), the Battle of Zela of 47 BC (modern Turkey), and the Battle of Thapsus in 46 BC in Caesar's African campaign. A legion that fits the same sequence of locations is the Legio VI Ferrata, of which ballista would be an auxiliary unit.

Mainly known for his writings, Vitruvius was himself an architect. In Roman times architecture was a broader subject than at present including the modern fields of architecture, construction management, construction engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, materials engineering, mechanical engineering, military engineering and urban planning; architectural engineers consider him the first of their discipline, a specialization previously known as technical architecture.

In his work describing the construction of military installations, he also commented on the miasma theory – the idea that unhealthy air from wetlands was the cause of illness, saying:

For fortified towns the following general principles are to be observed. First comes the choice of a very healthy site. Such a site will be high, neither misty nor frosty, and in a climate neither hot nor cold, but temperate; further, without marshes in the neighbourhood. For when the morning breezes blow toward the town at sunrise, if they bring with them mists from marshes and, mingled with the mist, the poisonous breath of the creatures of the marshes to be wafted into the bodies of the inhabitants, they will make the site unhealthy. Again, if the town is on the coast with a southern or western exposure, it will not be healthy, because in summer the southern sky grows hot at sunrise and is fiery at noon, while a western exposure grows warm after sunrise, is hot at noon, and at evening all aglow.

Frontinus mentions Vitruvious in connection with the standard sizes of pipes: the role he is most widely respected. He is often credited as father of architectural acoustics for describing the technique of echeas placement in theaters. The only building, however, that we know Vitruvius to have worked on is one he tells us about, a basilica completed in 19 BC. It was built at Fanum Fortunae, now the modern town of Fano. The Basilica di Fano (to give the building its Italian name) has disappeared so completely that its very site is a matter of conjecture, although various attempts have been made to visualise it. The early Christian practice of converting Roman basilicae (public buildings) into cathedrals implies the basilica may be incorporated into the cathedral in Fano.

In later years the emperor Augustus, through his sister Octavia Minor, sponsored Vitruvius, entitling him with what may have been a pension to guarantee financial independence.

Whether De architectura was written by one author or is a compilation completed by subsequent librarians and copyists, remains an open question. The date of his death is unknown, which suggests that he had enjoyed only little popularity during his lifetime.[citation needed]

Gerolamo Cardano, in his 1552 book De subtilitate rerum, ranks Vitruvius as one of the 12 persons whom he supposes to have excelled all men in the force of genius and invention; and would not have scrupled[clarification needed] to have given him the first place, if it could be imagined that he had delivered nothing but his own discoveries.

Further information: Mathematics and architecture
Roman house plan after Vitruvius

Vitruvius is the author of De architectura, libri decem, known today as The Ten Books on Architecture, a treatise written in Latin on architecture, dedicated to the emperor Augustus. In the preface of Book I, Vitruvius dedicates his writings so as to give personal knowledge of the quality of buildings to the emperor. Likely Vitruvius is referring to Marcus Agrippa's campaign of public repairs and improvements. This work is the only surviving major book on architecture from classical antiquity. According to Petri Liukkonen, this text "influenced deeply from the Early Renaissance onwards artists, thinkers, and architects, among them Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472), Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519), and Michelangelo (1475–1564)." The next major book on architecture, Alberti's reformulation of Ten Books, was not written until 1452.

Vitruvius is famous for asserting in his book De architectura that a structure must exhibit the three qualities of firmitatis, utilitatis, venustatis – that is, stability, utility, beauty. These are sometimes termed the Vitruvian virtues or the Vitruvian Triad. According to Vitruvius, architecture is an imitation of nature. As birds and bees built their nests, so humans constructed housing from natural materials, that gave them shelter against the elements. When perfecting this art of building, the Greeks invented the architectural orders: Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. It gave them a sense of proportion, culminating in understanding the proportions of the greatest work of art: the human body. This led Vitruvius in defining his Vitruvian Man, as drawn later by Leonardo da Vinci: the human body inscribed in the circle and the square (the fundamental geometric patterns of the cosmic order). In this book series, Vitruvius, also wrote about climate in relation to housing architecture and how to choose locations for cities.

Scope

Vitruvius designed and supervised the construction of this basilica in Fano (reconstruction). However, many of the other things he did would not now be considered the realm of architecture

Vitruvius is sometimes loosely referred to as the first architect, but it is more accurate to describe him as the first Roman architect to have written surviving records of his field. He himself cites older but less complete works. He was less an original thinker or creative intellect than a codifier of existing architectural practice. Vitruvius had a much wider scope than modern architects. Roman architects practised a wide variety of disciplines; in modern terms, they could be described as being engineers, architects, landscape architects, surveyors, artists, and craftsmen combined. Etymologically the word architect derives from Greek words meaning 'master' and 'builder'. The first of the Ten Books deals with many subjects which now come within the scope of landscape architecture.

In Book I, Chapter 1, titled The Education of the Architect, Vitruvius instructs...

1. Architecture is a science arising out of many other sciences, and adorned with much and varied learning; by the help of which a judgment is formed of those works which are the result of other arts. Practice and theory are its parents. Practice is the frequent and continued contemplation of the mode of executing any given work, or of the mere operation of the hands, for the conversion of the material in the best and readiest way. Theory is the result of that reasoning which demonstrates and explains that the material wrought has been so converted as to answer the end proposed.

2. Wherefore the mere practical architect is not able to assign sufficient reasons for the forms he adopts; and the theoretic architect also fails, grasping the shadow instead of the substance. He who is theoretic as well as practical, is therefore doubly armed; able not only to prove the propriety of his design, but equally so to carry it into execution.

He goes on to say that the architect should be versed in drawing, geometry, optics (lighting), history, philosophy, music, theatre, medicine, and law.

In Book I, Chapter 3 (The Departments of Architecture), Vitruvius divides architecture into three branches, namely; building; the construction of sundials and water clocks; and the design and use of machines in construction and warfare. He further divides building into public and private. Public building includes city planning, public security structures such as walls, gates and towers; the convenient placing of public facilities such as theatres, forums and markets, baths, roads and pavings; and the construction and position of shrines and temples for religious use. Later books are devoted to the understanding, design and construction of each of these.

Proportions of man

"Vitruvian Man", illustration in the edition of De architectura by Vitruvius; illustrated edition by Cesare Cesariano (1521)
Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, an illustration of the human body inscribed in the circle and the square derived from a passage about geometry and human proportions in Vitruvius' writings

In Book III, Chapter 1, Paragraph 3, Vitruvius writes about the proportions of man:

3. Just so the parts of Temples should correspond with each other, and with the whole. The navel is naturally placed in the centre of the human body, and, if in a man lying with his face upward, and his hands and feet extended, from his navel as the centre, a circle be described, it will touch his fingers and toes. It is not alone by a circle, that the human body is thus circumscribed, as may be seen by placing it within a square. For measuring from the feet to the crown of the head, and then across the arms fully extended, we find the latter measure equal to the former; so that lines at right angles to each other, enclosing the figure, will form a square.

It was upon these writings that Renaissance engineers, architects and artists like Mariano di Jacopo Taccola, Pellegrino Prisciani and Francesco di Giorgio Martini and finally Leonardo da Vinci based the illustration of the Vitruvian Man.

Vitruvius described the human figure as being the principal source of proportion.

The drawing itself is often used as an implied symbol of the essential symmetry of the human body, and by extension, of the universe as a whole.

Lists of names given in Book VII Introduction

In the introduction to book seven, Vitruvius goes to great lengths to present why he is qualified to write De Architectura. This is the only location in the work where Vitruvius specifically addresses his personal breadth of knowledge. Similar to a modern reference section, the author's position as one who is knowledgeable and educated is established. The topics range across many fields of expertise reflecting that in Roman times as today construction is a diverse field. Vitruvius is clearly a well-read man.

In addition to providing his qualification, Vitruvius summarizes a recurring theme throughout the 10 books, a non-trivial and core contribution of his treatise beyond simply being a construction book. Vitruvius makes the point that the work of some of the most talented are unknown, while many of those of lesser talent but greater political position are famous. This theme runs through Vitruvius's ten books repeatedly – echoing an implicit prediction that he and his works will also be forgotten.

Vitruvius illustrates this point by naming what he considers are the most talented individuals in history. Implicitly challenging the reader that they have never heard of some of these people, Vitruvius goes on and predicts that some of these individuals will be forgotten and their works lost, while other, less deserving political characters of history will be forever remembered with pageantry.

Rediscovery

Battle of Thapsus as depicted in an engraving after Andrea Palladio
The interior of the Pantheon (from an 18th-century painting by Panini). Although built after Vitruvius' death, its excellent state of preservation makes it of great importance to those interested in Vitruvian architecture

Vitruvius' De architectura was "rediscovered" in 1414 by the Florentine humanist Poggio Bracciolini in the library of Saint Gall Abbey. Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472) publicised it in his seminal treatise on architecture, De re aedificatoria (c. 1450). The first known Latin printed edition was by Fra Giovanni Sulpitius in Rome, 1486. Translations followed in Italian (Cesare Cesariano, 1521), French (Jean Martin, 1547), English, German (Walther H. Ryff, 1543) and Spanish and several other languages. The original illustrations had been lost and the first illustrated edition was published in Venice in 1511 by Fra Giovanni Giocondo, with woodcut illustrations based on descriptions in the text. Later in the 16th-century Andrea Palladio provided illustrations for Daniele Barbaro's commentary on Vitruvius, published in Italian and Latin versions. The most famous illustration is probably Da Vinci's Vitruvian Man.

The surviving ruins of Roman antiquity, the Roman Forum, temples, theatres, triumphal arches and their reliefs and statues offered visual examples of the descriptions in the Vitruvian text. Printed and illustrated editions of De Architectura inspired Renaissance, Baroque and Neoclassical architecture. Filippo Brunelleschi, for example, invented a new type of hoist to lift the large stones for the dome of the cathedral in Florence and was inspired by De Architectura as well as surviving Roman monuments such as the Pantheon and the Baths of Diocletian.

Notable editions

Latin

Italian

French

English

Drainage wheel from Rio Tinto mines

Books VIII, IX and X form the basis of much of what we know about Roman technology, now augmented by archaeological studies of extant remains, such as the water mills at Barbegal in France. The other major source of information is the Naturalis Historia compiled by Pliny the Elder much later in c. 75 AD.

Machines

The work is important for its descriptions of the many different machines used for engineering structures such as hoists, cranes and pulleys, as well as war machines such as catapults, ballistae, and siege engines. As a practising engineer, Vitruvius must be speaking from personal experience rather than simply describing the works of others. He also describes the construction of sundials and water clocks, and the use of an aeolipile (the first steam engine) as an experiment to demonstrate the nature of atmospheric air movements (wind).

Aqueducts

His description of aqueduct construction includes the way they are surveyed, and the careful choice of materials needed, although Frontinus (a general who was appointed in the late 1st century AD to administer the many aqueducts of Rome), writing a century later, gives much more detail of the practical problems involved in their construction and maintenance. Surely Vitruvius' book would have been of great assistance in this. Vitruvius was writing in the 1st century BC when many of the finest Roman aqueducts were built, and survive to this day, such as those at Segovia and the Pont du Gard. The use of the inverted siphon is described in detail, together with the problems of high pressures developed in the pipe at the base of the siphon, a practical problem with which he seems to be acquainted.

Materials

He describes many different construction materials used for a wide variety of different structures, as well as such details as stucco painting. Concrete and lime receive in-depth descriptions.

Vitruvius is cited as one of the earliest sources to connect lead mining and manufacture, its use in drinking water pipes, and its adverse effects on health. For this reason, he recommended the use of clay pipes and masonry channels in the provision of piped drinking-water.

Vitruvius is the source for the anecdote that credits Archimedes with the discovery of the mass-to-volume ratio while relaxing in his bath. Having been asked to investigate the suspected adulteration of the gold used to make a crown, Archimedes realised that the crown's volume could be measured exactly by its displacement of water, and ran into the street with the cry of Eureka!

Dewatering machines

Design for an Archimedean water-screw

He describes the construction of Archimedes' screw in Chapter X (without mentioning Archimedes by name). It was a device widely used for raising water to irrigate fields and drain mines. Other lifting machines he mentions include the endless chain of buckets and the reverse overshot water-wheel. Remains of the water wheels used for lifting water were discovered when old mines were re-opened at Rio Tinto in Spain, Rosia Montana in Romania and Dolaucothi in west Wales. The Rio Tinto wheel is now shown in the British Museum, and the Dolaucothi specimen in the National Museum of Wales.

Surveying instruments

That he must have been well practised in surveying is shown by his descriptions of surveying instruments, especially the water level or chorobates, which he compares favourably with the groma, a device using plumb lines. They were essential in all building operations, but especially in aqueduct construction, where a uniform gradient was important to the provision of a regular supply of water without damage to the walls of the channel. He also developed one of the first odometers, consisting of a wheel of known circumference that dropped a pebble into a container on every rotation.

Central heating

Ruins of the hypocaust under the floor of a Roman villa. The part under the exedra is covered.

He describes the many innovations made in building design to improve the living conditions of the inhabitants. Foremost among them is the development of the hypocaust, a type of central heating where hot air developed by a fire was channelled under the floor and inside the walls of public baths and villas. He gives explicit instructions how to design such buildings so that fuel efficiency is maximised, so that for example, the caldarium is next to the tepidarium followed by the frigidarium. He also advises on using a type of regulator to control the heat in the hot rooms, a bronze disc set into the roof under a circular aperture which could be raised or lowered by a pulley to adjust the ventilation. Although he does not suggest it himself, it is likely that his dewatering devices such as the reverse overshot water-wheel were used in the larger baths to lift water to header tanks at the top of the larger thermae, such as the Baths of Diocletian. The one which was used in Bath of Caracalla for grinding flour.

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Vitruvius
Vitruvius Language Watch Edit Marcus Vitruvius Pollio v ɪ ˈ t r uː v i e s ˈ p ɒ l i oʊ c 80 70 BC after c 15 BC commonly known as Vitruvius was a Roman author architect and civil and military engineer during the 1st century BC known for his multi volume work entitled De architectura 1 He originated the idea that all buildings should have three attributes firmitas utilitas and venustas strength utility and beauty 2 These principles were later widely adopted in Roman architecture His discussion of perfect proportion in architecture and the human body led to the famous Renaissance drawing of the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci VitruviusA 1684 depiction of Vitruvius right presenting De Architectura to AugustusBornMarcus Vitruvius Pollio 80 70 BC Roman RepublicDied15 BC aged 55 65 NationalityRomanOccupationAuthorarchitectcivil engineermilitary engineerNotable workDe architectura Little is known about Vitruvius life but by his own description 3 he served as an artilleryman the third class of arms in the Roman military offices He probably served as a senior officer of artillery in charge of doctores ballistarum artillery experts and libratores who actually operated the machines 4 As an army engineer he specialized in the construction of ballista and scorpio artillery war machines for sieges It is possible that Vitruvius served with Julius Caesar s chief engineer Lucius Cornelius Balbus Vitruvius De architectura was widely copied and survives in many dozens of manuscripts throughout the Middle Ages 5 though in 1414 it was rediscovered by the Florentine humanist Poggio Bracciolini in the library of Saint Gall Abbey Leon Battista Alberti published it in his seminal treatise on architecture De re aedificatoria c 1450 The first known Latin printed edition was by Fra Giovanni Sulpitius in Rome in 1486 Translations followed in Italian French English German Spanish and several other languages Though the original illustrations have been lost the first illustrated edition was published in Venice in 1511 by Fra Giovanni Giocondo with woodcut illustrations based on descriptions in the text Contents 1 Life and career 2 De architectura 2 1 Scope 2 2 Proportions of man 2 3 Lists of names given in Book VII Introduction 2 4 Rediscovery 2 5 Notable editions 3 Roman technology 3 1 Machines 3 2 Aqueducts 3 3 Materials 3 4 Dewatering machines 3 5 Surveying instruments 3 6 Central heating 4 Legacy 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 Further reading 10 External linksLife and career EditLittle is known about Vitruvius life Most inferences about him are extracted from his only surviving work De Architectura Even his first name Marcus and his cognomen Pollio are uncertain Marcus Cetius Faventinus writes of Vitruvius Polio aliique auctores this can be read as Vitruvius Polio and others or less likely as Vitruvius Polio and others An inscription in Verona which names a Lucius Vitruvius Cordo and an inscription from Thilbilis in North Africa which names a Marcus Vitruvius Mamurra have been suggested as evidence that Vitruvius and Mamurra who was a military praefectus fabrum under Julius Caesar were from the same family 6 or were even the same individual Neither association however is borne out by De Architectura which Vitruvius dedicated to Augustus nor by the little that is known of Mamurra Vitruvius was a military engineer praefectus fabrum or a praefect architectus armamentarius of the apparitor status group a branch of the Roman civil service He is mentioned in Pliny the Elder s table of contents for Naturalis Historia Natural History in the heading for mosaic techniques 7 Frontinus refers to Vitruvius the architect in his late 1st century work De aquaeductu Likely born a free Roman citizen by his own account Vitruvius served in the Roman army under Caesar with the otherwise poorly identified Marcus Aurelius Publius Minidius and Gnaeus Cornelius These names vary depending on the edition of De architectura Publius Minidius is also written as Publius Numidicus and Publius Numidius speculated as the same Publius Numisius inscribed on the Roman Theatre at Heraclea 8 As an army engineer he specialized in the construction of ballista and scorpio artillery war machines for sieges It is speculated that Vitruvius served with Caesar s chief engineer Lucius Cornelius Balbus 9 The locations where he served can be reconstructed from for example descriptions of the building methods of various foreign tribes Although he describes places throughout De Architectura he does not say he was present His service likely included north Africa Hispania Gaul including Aquitaine and Pontus To place the role of Vitruvius the military engineer in context a description of The Prefect of the camp or army engineer is quoted here as given by Flavius Vegetius Renatus in The Military Institutions of the Romans The Prefect of the camp though inferior in rank to the Prefect had a post of no small importance The position of the camp the direction of the entrenchments the inspection of the tents or huts of the soldiers and the baggage were comprehended in his province His authority extended over the sick and the physicians who had the care of them and he regulated the expenses relative thereto He had the charge of providing carriages bathhouses and the proper tools for sawing and cutting wood digging trenches raising parapets sinking wells and bringing water into the camp He likewise had the care of furnishing the troops with wood and straw as well as the rams onagri balistae and all the other engines of war under his direction This post was always conferred on an officer of great skill experience and long service and who consequently was capable of instructing others in those branches of the profession in which he had distinguished himself 10 At various locations described by Vitruvius citation needed battles and sieges occurred He is the only source for the siege of Larignum in 56 BC 11 Of the battlegrounds of the Gallic War there are references to The siege and massacre of the 40 000 residents at Avaricum in 52 BC Vercingetorix commented that the Romans did not conquer by valor nor in the field but by a kind of art and skill in assault with which they Gauls themselves were unacquainted 12 The broken siege at Gergovia in 52 BC The circumvallation and Battle of Alesia in 52 BC The women and children of the encircled city were evicted to conserve food then starved to death between the opposing walls of the defenders and besiegers The siege of Uxellodunum in 51 BC These are all sieges of large Gallic oppida Of the sites involved in Caesar s civil war we find the Siege of Massilia in 49 BC 13 the Battle of Dyrrhachium of 48 BC modern Albania the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC Hellas Greece the Battle of Zela of 47 BC modern Turkey and the Battle of Thapsus in 46 BC in Caesar s African campaign 14 A legion that fits the same sequence of locations is the Legio VI Ferrata of which ballista would be an auxiliary unit Mainly known for his writings Vitruvius was himself an architect In Roman times architecture was a broader subject than at present including the modern fields of architecture construction management construction engineering chemical engineering civil engineering materials engineering mechanical engineering military engineering and urban planning 15 architectural engineers consider him the first of their discipline a specialization previously known as technical architecture In his work describing the construction of military installations he also commented on the miasma theory the idea that unhealthy air from wetlands was the cause of illness saying For fortified towns the following general principles are to be observed First comes the choice of a very healthy site Such a site will be high neither misty nor frosty and in a climate neither hot nor cold but temperate further without marshes in the neighbourhood For when the morning breezes blow toward the town at sunrise if they bring with them mists from marshes and mingled with the mist the poisonous breath of the creatures of the marshes to be wafted into the bodies of the inhabitants they will make the site unhealthy Again if the town is on the coast with a southern or western exposure it will not be healthy because in summer the southern sky grows hot at sunrise and is fiery at noon while a western exposure grows warm after sunrise is hot at noon and at evening all aglow 16 Frontinus mentions Vitruvious in connection with the standard sizes of pipes 17 the role he is most widely respected He is often credited as father of architectural acoustics for describing the technique of echeas placement in theaters 18 The only building however that we know Vitruvius to have worked on is one he tells us about 19 a basilica completed in 19 BC 20 It was built at Fanum Fortunae now the modern town of Fano The Basilica di Fano to give the building its Italian name has disappeared so completely that its very site is a matter of conjecture although various attempts have been made to visualise it 21 The early Christian practice of converting Roman basilicae public buildings into cathedrals implies the basilica may be incorporated into the cathedral in Fano In later years the emperor Augustus through his sister Octavia Minor sponsored Vitruvius entitling him with what may have been a pension to guarantee financial independence 3 Whether De architectura was written by one author or is a compilation completed by subsequent librarians and copyists remains an open question The date of his death is unknown which suggests that he had enjoyed only little popularity during his lifetime citation needed Gerolamo Cardano in his 1552 book De subtilitate rerum ranks Vitruvius as one of the 12 persons whom he supposes to have excelled all men in the force of genius and invention and would not have scrupled clarification needed to have given him the first place if it could be imagined that he had delivered nothing but his own discoveries 22 De architectura EditFurther information Mathematics and architecture Roman house plan after Vitruvius Vitruvius is the author of De architectura libri decem known today as The Ten Books on Architecture 23 a treatise written in Latin on architecture dedicated to the emperor Augustus In the preface of Book I Vitruvius dedicates his writings so as to give personal knowledge of the quality of buildings to the emperor Likely Vitruvius is referring to Marcus Agrippa s campaign of public repairs and improvements This work is the only surviving major book on architecture from classical antiquity According to Petri Liukkonen this text influenced deeply from the Early Renaissance onwards artists thinkers and architects among them Leon Battista Alberti 1404 1472 Leonardo da Vinci 1452 1519 and Michelangelo 1475 1564 14 The next major book on architecture Alberti s reformulation of Ten Books was not written until 1452 Vitruvius is famous for asserting in his book De architectura that a structure must exhibit the three qualities of firmitatis utilitatis venustatis that is stability utility beauty These are sometimes termed the Vitruvian virtues or the Vitruvian Triad According to Vitruvius architecture is an imitation of nature As birds and bees built their nests so humans constructed housing from natural materials that gave them shelter against the elements When perfecting this art of building the Greeks invented the architectural orders Doric Ionic and Corinthian It gave them a sense of proportion culminating in understanding the proportions of the greatest work of art the human body This led Vitruvius in defining his Vitruvian Man as drawn later by Leonardo da Vinci the human body inscribed in the circle and the square the fundamental geometric patterns of the cosmic order In this book series Vitruvius also wrote about climate in relation to housing architecture and how to choose locations for cities 24 25 Scope Edit Vitruvius designed and supervised the construction of this basilica in Fano reconstruction However many of the other things he did would not now be considered the realm of architecture Vitruvius is sometimes loosely referred to as the first architect but it is more accurate to describe him as the first Roman architect to have written surviving records of his field He himself cites older but less complete works He was less an original thinker or creative intellect than a codifier of existing architectural practice Vitruvius had a much wider scope than modern architects Roman architects practised a wide variety of disciplines in modern terms they could be described as being engineers architects landscape architects surveyors artists and craftsmen combined Etymologically the word architect derives from Greek words meaning master and builder The first of the Ten Books deals with many subjects which now come within the scope of landscape architecture In Book I Chapter 1 titled The Education of the Architect Vitruvius instructs 1 Architecture is a science arising out of many other sciences and adorned with much and varied learning by the help of which a judgment is formed of those works which are the result of other arts Practice and theory are its parents Practice is the frequent and continued contemplation of the mode of executing any given work or of the mere operation of the hands for the conversion of the material in the best and readiest way Theory is the result of that reasoning which demonstrates and explains that the material wrought has been so converted as to answer the end proposed 2 Wherefore the mere practical architect is not able to assign sufficient reasons for the forms he adopts and the theoretic architect also fails grasping the shadow instead of the substance He who is theoretic as well as practical is therefore doubly armed able not only to prove the propriety of his design but equally so to carry it into execution 26 He goes on to say that the architect should be versed in drawing geometry optics lighting history philosophy music theatre medicine and law In Book I Chapter 3 The Departments of Architecture Vitruvius divides architecture into three branches namely building the construction of sundials and water clocks 27 and the design and use of machines in construction and warfare 28 29 He further divides building into public and private Public building includes city planning public security structures such as walls gates and towers the convenient placing of public facilities such as theatres forums and markets baths roads and pavings and the construction and position of shrines and temples for religious use 26 Later books are devoted to the understanding design and construction of each of these Proportions of man Edit Vitruvian Man illustration in the edition of De architectura by Vitruvius illustrated edition by Cesare Cesariano 1521 Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci an illustration of the human body inscribed in the circle and the square derived from a passage about geometry and human proportions in Vitruvius writings In Book III Chapter 1 Paragraph 3 Vitruvius writes about the proportions of man 3 Just so the parts of Temples should correspond with each other and with the whole The navel is naturally placed in the centre of the human body and if in a man lying with his face upward and his hands and feet extended from his navel as the centre a circle be described it will touch his fingers and toes It is not alone by a circle that the human body is thus circumscribed as may be seen by placing it within a square For measuring from the feet to the crown of the head and then across the arms fully extended we find the latter measure equal to the former so that lines at right angles to each other enclosing the figure will form a square 30 It was upon these writings that Renaissance engineers architects and artists like Mariano di Jacopo Taccola Pellegrino Prisciani and Francesco di Giorgio Martini and finally Leonardo da Vinci based the illustration of the Vitruvian Man 31 Vitruvius described the human figure as being the principal source of proportion The drawing itself is often used as an implied symbol of the essential symmetry of the human body and by extension of the universe as a whole 32 Lists of names given in Book VII Introduction Edit In the introduction to book seven Vitruvius goes to great lengths to present why he is qualified to write De Architectura This is the only location in the work where Vitruvius specifically addresses his personal breadth of knowledge Similar to a modern reference section the author s position as one who is knowledgeable and educated is established The topics range across many fields of expertise reflecting that in Roman times as today construction is a diverse field Vitruvius is clearly a well read man In addition to providing his qualification Vitruvius summarizes a recurring theme throughout the 10 books a non trivial and core contribution of his treatise beyond simply being a construction book Vitruvius makes the point that the work of some of the most talented are unknown while many of those of lesser talent but greater political position are famous 23 This theme runs through Vitruvius s ten books repeatedly echoing an implicit prediction that he and his works will also be forgotten Vitruvius illustrates this point by naming what he considers are the most talented individuals in history 23 Implicitly challenging the reader that they have never heard of some of these people Vitruvius goes on and predicts that some of these individuals will be forgotten and their works lost while other less deserving political characters of history will be forever remembered with pageantry List of physicists Thales Democritus Anaxagoras Xenophanes List of philosophers Socrates Plato Aristotle Zeno Epicurus List of kings Croesus Alexander the Great Darius On plagiarism Aristophanes Ptolemy I Soter a person named Attalus On abusing dead authors Zoilus Homeromastix Ptolemy II Philadelphus On divergence of the visual rays Agatharchus Aeschylus Democritus Anaxagoras List of writers on temples Silenus Theodorus Chersiphron and Metagenes Ictinus and Carpion Theodorus the Phocian Hermogenes Arcesius Satyrus and a person named Pytheos List of artists Leochares Bryaxis Scopas Praxiteles Timotheos List of writers on laws of symmetry Nexaris Theocydes a person named Demophilus Pollis a person named Leonidas Silanion Melampus Sarnacus Euphranor List of writers on machinery Diades of Pella Archytas Archimedes Ctesibius Nymphodorus Philo of Byzantium Diphilus Democles Charias Polyidus of Thessaly Pyrrus Agesistratus List of writers on architecture Fuficius Terentius Varro Publius Septimius writer List of architects Antistates Callaeschrus Antimachides Pormus Cossutius List of greatest temple architects Chersiphron of Gnosus Metagenes Demetrius Paeonius the Milesian Ephesian Daphnis Ictinus Philo Cossutius Gaius MucianusRediscovery Edit Battle of Thapsus as depicted in an engraving after Andrea Palladio The interior of the Pantheon from an 18th century painting by Panini Although built after Vitruvius death its excellent state of preservation makes it of great importance to those interested in Vitruvian architecture Vitruvius De architectura was rediscovered in 1414 by the Florentine humanist Poggio Bracciolini in the library of Saint Gall Abbey Leon Battista Alberti 1404 1472 publicised it in his seminal treatise on architecture De re aedificatoria c 1450 The first known Latin printed edition was by Fra Giovanni Sulpitius in Rome 1486 33 34 Translations followed in Italian Cesare Cesariano 1521 French Jean Martin 1547 35 English German Walther H Ryff 1543 and Spanish and several other languages The original illustrations had been lost and the first illustrated edition was published in Venice in 1511 by Fra Giovanni Giocondo with woodcut illustrations based on descriptions in the text 36 Later in the 16th century Andrea Palladio provided illustrations for Daniele Barbaro s commentary on Vitruvius published in Italian and Latin versions The most famous illustration is probably Da Vinci s Vitruvian Man The surviving ruins of Roman antiquity the Roman Forum temples theatres triumphal arches and their reliefs and statues offered visual examples of the descriptions in the Vitruvian text Printed and illustrated editions of De Architectura inspired Renaissance Baroque and Neoclassical architecture Filippo Brunelleschi for example invented a new type of hoist to lift the large stones for the dome of the cathedral in Florence and was inspired by De Architectura as well as surviving Roman monuments such as the Pantheon and the Baths of Diocletian Notable editions Edit Latin 1800 Augustus Rode Berlin 37 1857 Teubner Edition by Valentin Rose 1899 Teubner Edition 1912 Teubner edition at The Latin Library 38 Bill Thayer transcription of the 1912 Teubner Edition 39 Italian Cesare Cesariano 1521 Como Italy includes illustrations by Cesare Cesariano Danielle Barbaro includes illustration by Andrea Palladio French Jean Martin 1547 40 Claude Perrault 1673 41 Auguste Choisy 1909 English Henry Wotton 1624 Joseph Gwilt 1826 Bill Thayer transcription of the Gwilt 1826 Edition 26 Morris H MorganMorris Hickey Morgan with illustrations prepared by Herbert Langford Warren 1914 Harvard University Press 42 Frank Granger Loeb Edition 1931 43 Ingrid Rowland 2001 44 Thomas Gordon Smith The Monacelli Press January 5 2004 45 Roman technology Edit Drainage wheel from Rio Tinto mines Books VIII IX and X form the basis of much of what we know about Roman technology now augmented by archaeological studies of extant remains such as the water mills at Barbegal in France The other major source of information is the Naturalis Historia compiled by Pliny the Elder much later in c 75 AD Machines Edit The work is important for its descriptions of the many different machines used for engineering structures such as hoists cranes and pulleys as well as war machines such as catapults ballistae and siege engines As a practising engineer Vitruvius must be speaking from personal experience rather than simply describing the works of others He also describes the construction of sundials and water clocks and the use of an aeolipile the first steam engine as an experiment to demonstrate the nature of atmospheric air movements wind Aqueducts Edit His description of aqueduct construction includes the way they are surveyed and the careful choice of materials needed although Frontinus a general who was appointed in the late 1st century AD to administer the many aqueducts of Rome writing a century later gives much more detail of the practical problems involved in their construction and maintenance Surely Vitruvius book would have been of great assistance in this Vitruvius was writing in the 1st century BC when many of the finest Roman aqueducts were built and survive to this day such as those at Segovia and the Pont du Gard The use of the inverted siphon is described in detail together with the problems of high pressures developed in the pipe at the base of the siphon a practical problem with which he seems to be acquainted Materials Edit He describes many different construction materials used for a wide variety of different structures as well as such details as stucco painting Concrete and lime receive in depth descriptions Vitruvius is cited as one of the earliest sources to connect lead mining and manufacture its use in drinking water pipes and its adverse effects on health For this reason he recommended the use of clay pipes and masonry channels in the provision of piped drinking water 46 Vitruvius is the source for the anecdote that credits Archimedes with the discovery of the mass to volume ratio while relaxing in his bath Having been asked to investigate the suspected adulteration of the gold used to make a crown Archimedes realised that the crown s volume could be measured exactly by its displacement of water and ran into the street with the cry ofEureka Dewatering machines Edit Design for an Archimedean water screw He describes the construction of Archimedes screw in Chapter X without mentioning Archimedes by name It was a device widely used for raising water to irrigate fields and drain mines Other lifting machines he mentions include the endless chain of buckets and the reverse overshot water wheel Remains of the water wheels used for lifting water were discovered when old mines were re opened at Rio Tinto in Spain Rosia Montana in Romania and Dolaucothi in west Wales The Rio Tinto wheel is now shown in the British Museum and the Dolaucothi specimen in the National Museum of Wales Surveying instruments Edit That he must have been well practised in surveying is shown by his descriptions of surveying instruments especially the water level or chorobates which he compares favourably with the groma a device using plumb lines They were essential in all building operations but especially in aqueduct construction where a uniform gradient was important to the provision of a regular supply of water without damage to the walls of the channel He also developed one of the first odometers consisting of a wheel of known circumference that dropped a pebble into a container on every rotation Central heating Edit Ruins of the hypocaust under the floor of a Roman villa The part under the exedra is covered He describes the many innovations made in building design to improve the living conditions of the inhabitants Foremost among them is the development of the hypocaust a type of central heating where hot air developed by a fire was channelled under the floor and inside the walls of public baths and villas He gives explicit instructions how to design such buildings so that fuel efficiency is maximised so that for example the caldarium is next to the tepidarium followed by the frigidarium He also advises on using a type of regulator to control the heat in the hot rooms a bronze disc set into the roof under a circular aperture which could be raised or lowered by a pulley to adjust the ventilation Although he does not suggest it himself it is likely that his dewatering devices such as the reverse overshot water wheel were used in the larger baths to lift water to header tanks at the top of the larger thermae such as the Baths of Diocletian The one which was used in Bath of Caracalla for grinding flour Legacy EditVitruvian Man a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci Vitruvius Britannicus 18th century work on British architecture named after Vitruvius Den Danske Vitruvius 18th century work on Danish architecture inspired by Vitruvius Britannicus 47 The American Vitruvius 20th century work on civil architecture by Werner Hegemann William Vitruvius Morrison 1794 1838 the son of Irish architect Sir Richard Morrison and himself a noted architect of great houses bridges court houses and prisons A small lunar crater has been named after Vitruvius and also an elongated lunar mountain Mons Vitruvius close by The Design Quality Indicator DQI tool for buildings uses Vitruvius s principles In popular culture EditThe leader of the Master Builders in The Lego Movie is named Vitruvius Vitruvius appears as a non player character in the 2017 video game Assassin s Creed Origins Vitruvius work appears in The Rule of Four a 2004 novel by Ian Caldwell and Dustin Thomason See also EditAristotle Ctesibius Colen Campbell Frontinus Pliny the Elder Roman architecture Roman aqueducts Roman engineering Roman technology Vitruvian man Vitruvian scroll Lucius Vitruvius CordoReferences Edit Chisholm Hugh ed 1911 Vitruvius Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th ed Cambridge University Press The Oxford handbook of Greek and Roman art and architecture Marconi Clemente 1966 New York 2015 ISBN 978 0 19 978330 4 OCLC 881386276 CS1 maint others link a b De Arch Book 1 preface section 2 Yann Le Bohec The Imperial Roman Army Routledge p 49 2000 ISBN 0 415 22295 8 Krinsky Carol Herselle 1967 Seventy Eight Vitruvius Manuscripts Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 30 36 70 doi 10 2307 750736 JSTOR 750736 Pais E Ricerche sulla storia e sul diritto publico di Roma Rome 1916 Moore Richard E M January 1968 A Newly Observed Stratum in Roman Floor Mosaics American Journal of Archaeology Archaeological Institute of America 72 1 57 68 doi 10 2307 501823 JSTOR 501823 Niccolo Marcello Venuti Description of the First Discoveries of the Ancient City of Heraclea Found Near Portici A Country Palace Belonging to the King of the Two Sicilies published by R Baldwin translated by Wickes Skurray 1750 p62 1 Trumbull David 2007 Classical Sources Greek and Roman Esthetics Reading The Grand Tour Reader Vitruvius Background Life of Marcus Vitruvius Pollio c 90 20 BC An Epitome of Book III of Vitruvius Retrieved 18 November 2009 dead link Flavius Vegetius Renatus 390 BC John Clarke tr 1767 The Military Institutions of the Romans Mary Corbin Sies and Christopher Silver 1996 Planning the twentieth century American city JHU Press 1996 p 42 Julius Caesar De bello Gallico 7 29 Archived 8 July 2012 at archive today Vitruvius mentions Massilia several times and the siege itself in Book X a b Liukkonen Petri Vitruvius Books and Writers kirjasto sci fi Finland Kuusankoski Public Library Archived from the original on 13 January 2015 The Vitruvius Project Carnegie Mellon University Computer Science Department Retrieved 2008 Vitruvius 1914 The Ten Books on Architecture Translated by Morgan Morris Hicky Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press ISBN 978 0 486 20645 5 Retrieved 26 February 2021 via Project Gutenberg De Aquis I 25 in Latin ebook of work also known as De aquaeductu accessed August 2008 Reed Business Information 21 November 1974 New Scientist New Scientist Careers Guide The Employer Contacts Book for Scientists Reed Business Information 552 ISSN 0262 4079 Retrieved 6 May 2013 De Arch Book V i 6 in Latin but with link to English translation accessed August 2008 Fausto Pugnaloni and Paolo Clini Vitruvius Basilica in Fano Italy journey through the virtual space of the reconstructed memory GISdevelopment net last accessed 3 August 2008 Clini P 2002 Vitruvius basilica at Fano the drawings of a lost building from De architectura libri decem PDF The International Archives of the Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences vol XXXIV part 5 W12 pp 121 126 Archived from the original PDF on 17 May 2012 Retrieved 3 February 2016 Charles Hutton 1795 Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine a b c Vitruvius Pollio transl Morris Hicky Morgan 1960 The Ten Books on Architecture Courier Dover Publications ISBN 0 486 20645 9 Philosophy of Architecture Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2015 Vitruvius The Ten Books On Architecture The Project Gutenberg a b c LacusCurtius Vitruvius on Architecture Book I penelope uchicago edu Retrieved 20 June 2017 Turner A J in Folkrets M and Lorch R Editors Sic itur ad astra Studien zur Geschichte der Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften Festschrift fur den Arabisten Paul Kunitzsch zum 70 Harrassowitz Verlag 2000 p 563 ff Long Pamela O in Galison Peter and Thompson Emily Editors The Architecture of Science The MIT Press 1999 p 81 Borys Ann Marie Vincenzo Scamozzi and the Chorography of Early Modern Architecture Routledge 2014 pp 85 179 LacusCurtius Vitruvius on Architecture Book III penelope uchicago edu Retrieved 20 June 2017 Marc van den Broek 2019 Leonardo da Vinci Spirits of Invention A Search for Traces Hamburg A TE M ISBN 978 3 00 063700 1 Bibliographic reference The Whole Universe Book Retrieved 30 November 2011 CPSA Palladio s Literary Predecessors www palladiancenter org Retrieved 20 June 2017 Vitruvius De architectura the First Printed Work on Classical Architecture 1486 August 16 1487 HistoryofInformation com www historyofinformation com Archived from the original on 30 April 2019 Retrieved 20 June 2017 Architectura Les livres d Architecture in French Architectura Les livres d Architecture architectura cesr univ tours fr Retrieved 20 June 2017 bibliotheca Augustana www hs augsburg de Retrieved 20 June 2017 Vitruvius www thelatinlibrary com Archived from the original on 13 June 2017 Retrieved 20 June 2017 LacusCurtius Vitruvius de Architectura Liber Primus penelope uchicago edu Retrieved 20 June 2017 http homes chass utoronto ca wulfric vitruve http homes chass utoronto ca wulfric vitruve Books on architecture by Claude Perrault Architectura website Retrieved on 18 January 2020 Vitruvius Pollio 1914 The Ten Books on Architecture Translated by Morgan Morris Hicky Illustrations prepared by Herbert Langford Warren Cambridge Harvard University Press Granger Frank 1931 Vitruvius On Architecture Harvard University Press p 368 ISBN 0674992776 Rowland Ingrid 2001 Vitruvius Ten Books on Architecture Cambridge University Press p 352 ISBN 0521002923 Smith Thoma Granger 2004 Vitruvius on Architecture The Monacelli Press p 224 ISBN 1885254989 Hodge Trevor A October 1981 Vitruvius Lead Pipes and Lead Poisoning American Journal of Archaeology Archaeological Institute of America 85 4 486 491 doi 10 2307 504874 JSTOR 504874 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Den Danske Vitruvius AOK Retrieved 23 June 2009 Sources EditIndra Kagis McEwen Vitruvius Writing the Body of Architecture Cambridge MA MIT Press 2004 ISBN 0 262 63306 X B Baldwin The Date Identity and Career of Vitruvius In Latomus 49 1990 425 34 Kai Brodersen amp Christiane Brodersen Cetius Faventinus Das romische Eigenheim De architectura privata Latin and German Wiesbaden Marix 2015 ISBN 978 3 7374 0998 8Further reading EditClarke Georgia 2002 Vitruvian Paradigms Papers of the British School at Rome 70 319 346 De Angelis Francesco 2015 Greek and Roman Specialized Writing on Art and Architecture In The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Art and Architecture Edited by Clemente Marconi 41 69 Oxford Oxford Univ Press Konig Alice 2009 From Architect to Imperator Vitruvius and his Addressee in the De Architectura In Authorial Voices in Greco Roman Technical Writing Edited by Liba Chaia Taub and Aude Doody 31 52 Trier Germany WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier Milnor Kristina L 2005 Other Men s Wives In Gender Domesticity and the Age of Augustus Inventing Private Life By Kristina L Milnor 94 139 Oxford Oxford Univ Press Nichols Marden Fitzpatrick 2017 Author and Audience in Vitruvius De Architectura Cambridge UK Cambridge Univ Press Rowland Ingrid D 2014 Vitruvius and His Influence In A Companion to Roman Architecture Edited by Roger B Ulrich and Caroline K Quenemoen 412 425 Malden MA and Oxford Blackwell Sear Frank B 1990 Vitruvius and Roman Theater Design American Journal of Archaeology 94 2 249 258 Smith Thomas Gordon 2004 Vitruvius on Architecture New York Monacelli Press Wallace Hadrill Andrew 1994 The Articulation of the House In Houses and Society in Pompeii and Herculaneum By Andrew Wallace Hadrill 38 61 Princeton NJ Princeton Univ Press Wallace Hadrill Andrew 2008 Vitruvius Building Roman Identity In Rome s Cultural Revolution By Andrew Wallace Hadrill 144 210 Cambridge UK Cambridge Univ Press External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Vitruvius Wikisource has original works written by or about VitruviusLatin Wikisource has original text related to this article Marcus Vitruvius PollioWikiquote has quotations related to VitruviusWorks by Vitruvius at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Vitruvius at Internet Archive Works by Vitruvius at LibriVox public domain audiobooks The Ten Books on Architecture online cross linked Latin text and English translation The Ten Books on Architecture at the Perseus Classics Collection Latin and English text Latin text has hyperlinks to pop up dictionary Palladio s Literary Predecessors Latin text version 2 An Abridgment of the Architecture of VitruviusTen Books on Architecture at Project Gutenberg Morris Hicky Morgan translation with illustrations Vitruvius online Leonardo da Vincis Vitruvian man as an algorithm for the approximation of the squaring of the circle Vitruvius theories of beauty a learning resource from the British Library Animation The Odometer of Vitruv Discussion of the inventions of Vitruvius Online Galleries History of Science Collections University of Oklahoma Libraries High resolution images of works by Vitruvius in jpg and tiff format digital scans in high resolution of 73 editions of Vitruvius from 1497 to 1909 from the Werner Oechslin Library Einsiedeln Switzerland Vitruvius Summary VITRUVII M De architectura Naples c 1480 At Somni Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vitruvius amp oldid 1053224148, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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