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Vlachs

For other uses, see Vlachs (disambiguation).
"Vlach", "Wallach", and "Oláh" redirect here. For other uses, see Vlach (disambiguation), Wallach (disambiguation), and Oláh (disambiguation).

Vlachs (English: or), also Wallachians (and many other variants), is a historical term and exonym used from the Middle Ages until the Modern Era to designate mainly Romanians but also Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians and other Eastern Romance-speaking subgroups of Central and Eastern Europe.

Théodore Valerio [fr], 1852: Pâtre valaque de Zabalcz ("Wallahian Shepherd from Zăbalț")
Map of the Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs (Eastern Romance speakers) highlighted
Map depicting the current distribution of Balkan Romance-speaking peoples
Vlach Herdsmen in Greece (Amand von Schweiger-Lerchenfeld [de], 1887)
Vlach shepherd of Banat (Auguste Raffet, c. 1837)

As a contemporary term, in the English language, the Vlachs are the Balkan Romance-speaking peoples who live south of the Danube in what are now southern Albania, Bulgaria, northern Greece, North Macedonia, and eastern Serbia as native ethnic groups, such as the Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians and Timok Romanians. The term also became a synonym in the Balkans for the social category of shepherds, and was also used for non-Romance-speaking peoples, in recent times in the western Balkans derogatively. The term is also used to refer to the ethnographic group of Moravian Vlachs who speak a Slavic language but originate from Romanians.

"Vlachs" were initially identified and described during the 11th century by George Kedrenos. According to one origin theory, modern Romanians, Moldovans and Aromanians originated from Dacians. According to some linguists and scholars, the Eastern Romance languages prove the survival of the Thraco-Romans in the lower Danube basin during the Migration Period and western Balkan populations known as "Vlachs" also have had Romanized Illyrian origins.

Nowadays, Eastern Romance-speaking communities are estimated at 26–30 million people worldwide (including the Romanian diaspora and Moldovan diaspora).

Contents

Further information: Walhaz

The word Vlach/Wallachian (and other variants such as Vlah, Valah, Valach, Voloh, Blac, oláh, Vlas, Ilac, Ulah, etc.) is etymologically derived from the ethnonym of a Celtic tribe, adopted into Proto-Germanic *Walhaz, which meant "stranger", from *Wolkā- (Caesar's Latin: Volcae, Strabo and Ptolemy's Greek:Ouolkai). Via Latin, in Gothic, as *walhs, the ethnonym took on the meaning "foreigner" or "Romance-speaker", and was adopted into Greek Vláhoi (Βλάχοι), Slavic Vlah, Hungarian oláh and olasz, etc. The root word was notably adopted in Germanic for Wales and Walloon, and in Switzerland for Romansh-speakers (German: Welsch), and in Poland Włochy or in Hungary olasz became an exonym for Italians. The Slovenian term Lahi has also been used to designate Italians.

Historically, the term was used primarily for the Romanians. Testimonies from the 13th to 14th centuries show that, although in the European (and even extra-European) space they were called Vlachs or Wallachians (oláh in Hungarian, Vláchoi (Βλάχοι) in Greek, Volóxi (Воло́хи) in Russian, Walachen in German, Valacchi in Italian, Valaques in French, Valacos in Spanish), the Romanians used for themselves the endonym "Rumân/Român", from the Latin "Romanus" (in memory of Rome). Vlachs are referred in late Byzantine documents as Bulgaro-Albano-Vlachs ("Bulgaralbanitoblahos"), or Serbo-Albano-Bulgaro-Vlachs

Via both Germanic and Latin, the term started to signify "stranger, foreigner" also in the Balkans, where it in its early form was used for Romance-speakers, but the term eventually took on the meaning of "shepherd, nomad". The Romance-speaking communities themselves however used the endonym (they called themselves) "Romans". Term Vlach can denote various ethnic elements: "Slovak, Hungarian, Balkan, Transylvanian, Romanian, or even Albanian". According to historian Sima Ćirković, the name "Vlach" in medieval sources has the same rank as the name "Greek", "Serb" or "Latin".

During the early history of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, there was a military class of Vlachs in Serbia and Ottoman Macedonia, made up of Christians who served as auxiliary forces and had the same rights as Muslims, but their origin is not entirely clear. Some Greeks used "vlachos" as a pejorative term. The term "Vlach" may be used in the whole Balkan area in a derogatory manner because, according to Arno Tanner, "nomads are traditionally considered dirty and aggressive", while some Croats used that term for Serbs, the city dwellers, the country people and so on. In Žumberak members of the Greek Catholic Church were called Vlachs, in Carniola residents of Žumberak in general were Vlachs. In Posavina and Bihać area Muslims called Vlachs as Christians (both Orthodox and Catholics) while Catholics under that name consider Orthodox Christians. For residents of the Dalmatian islands population of immigrants (either Croats or Serbs) were called as Vlachs. The name Vlach in Dalmatia also has negative connotations as "newcomer", "peasant", "ignorant" while in Istria the ethnonym Vlach is used to make a distinction between the native Croats and newly settled Istro-Romanian old catholic Vlachs and Slavic population which was coming in the 15th and 16th century.

Romanian scholars have suggested that the term Vlach appeared for the first time in the Eastern Roman Empire and was subsequently spread to the Germanic- and then Slavic-speaking worlds through the Norsemen (possibly by Varangians), who were in trade and military contact with Byzantium during the early Middle Ages (see also Blakumen).

Nowadays, the term Vlachs (also known under other names, such as "Koutsovlachs", "Tsintsars", "Karagouni", "Chobani", "Vlasi", etc.) is used in scholarship for the Romance-speaking communities in the Balkans, especially those in Greece, Albania and North Macedonia. In Serbia the term Vlach (Serbian Vlah, plural Vlasi) is also used to refer to Romanian speakers, especially those living in eastern Serbia. Aromanians themselves use the endonym "Armãn" (plural "Armãni") or "Rãmãn" (plural "Rãmãni"), etymologically from "Romanus", meaning "Roman". Megleno-Romanians designate themselves with the Macedonian form Vla (plural Vlaš) in their own language.

The Jireček Line between Latin- and Greek-language Roman inscriptions
Transhumance paths of the Vlach shepherds of the past

The Hellenic chronicle could possibly qualify to the first testimony of Vlachs in Pannonia and Eastern Europe during the time of Attila.

6th century

Byzantine historians used the term Vlachs for Latin speakers.

The 7th century Byzantine historiographer Theophylact Simocatta wrote about "Blachernae" in connection with some historical data of the 6th century, during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Maurice.

8th century

First precise data about Vlachs are in connection with the Vlachs of the Rynchos river; the original document containing the information is from the Konstamonitou monastery.

9th century

During the late 9th century the Hungarians invaded the Carpathian Basin, where the province of Pannonia was inhabited by the "Slavs [Sclavi], Bulgarians [Bulgarii] and Vlachs [Blachii], and the shepherds of the Romans [pastores Romanorum]" (sclauij, Bulgarij et Blachij, ac pastores romanorum —according to the Gesta Hungarorum, written around 1200 by the anonymous chancellor of King Béla III of Hungary.

10th century

Chroniclers John Skylitzes and George Kedrenos wrote that in 971, during battles between Romans (Byzantines) and Rus' people led by Sveinald (Sviatoslav I), the dwellers of the north side of Danube came to Emperor John I Tzimiskes and they handed over their fortresses and the Emperor sent troops to guard the fortresses. During those times, Northern part of Danube were dwelled by sedentary Vlachs and tribes of nomad Pechenegs who lived in tents.

George Kedrenos mentioned about Vlachs in 976. The Vlachs were guides and guards of Roman (Byzantine) caravans in Balkans. Between Prespa and Kastoria they met and fought with a Bulgarian rebel named David. The Vlachs killed David in their first documented battle.

Mutahhar al-Maqdisi, "They say that in the Turkic neighbourhood there are the Khazars, Russians, Slavs, Waladj, Alans, Greeks and many other peoples".

Ibn al-Nadīm published in 938 the work Kitāb al-Fihrist mentioning "Turks, Bulgars and Vlahs" (using Blagha for Vlachs)

11th century

Byzantine writer Kekaumenos, author of the Strategikon (1078), described a 1066 revolt against the emperor in Northern Greece led by Nicolitzas Delphinas and other Vlachs.

The names Blakumen or Blökumenn is mentioned in Nordic sagas dating between the 11th–13th centuries, with respect to events that took place in either 1018 or 1019 somewhere at the northwestern part of the Black Sea and believed by some to be related to the Vlachs.

In the Bulgarian state of the 11th and 12th century, Vlachs live in large numbers, and they were equals to the Bulgarian population.

12th century

The Russian Primary Chronicle, written in ca. 1113, wrote when the Volochi (Vlachs) attacked the Slavs of the Danube and settled among them and oppressed them, the Slavs departed and settled on the Vistula, under the name of Leshi. The Hungarians drove away the Vlachs and took the land and settled there.

Map of Central-Southern Europe during the late Middle Ages/early Modern period by Transylvanian Saxon humanist Johannes Honterus.

Traveler Benjamin of Tudela (1130–1173) of the Kingdom of Navarre was one of the first writers to use the word Vlachs for a Romance-speaking population.

Byzantine historian John Kinnamos described Leon Vatatzes' military expedition along the northern Danube, where Vatatzes mentioned the participation of Vlachs in battles with the Magyars (Hungarians) in 1166.

The uprising of brothers Asen and Peter was a revolt of Bulgarians and Vlachs living in the theme of Paristrion of the Byzantine Empire, caused by a tax increase. It began on 26 October 1185, the feast day of St. Demetrius of Thessaloniki, and ended with the creation of the Second Bulgarian Empire, also known in its early history as the Empire of Bulgarians and Vlachs.

13th century

In 1213 an army of Romans (Vlachs), Transylvanian Saxons, and Pechenegs, led by Ioachim of Sibiu, attacked the Bulgars and Cumans from Vidin. After this, all Hungarian battles in the Carpathian region were supported by Romance-speaking soldiers from Transylvania.

At the end of the 13th century, during the reign of Ladislaus the Cuman, Simon of Kéza wrote about the Blacki people and placed them in Pannonia with the Huns. Archaeological discoveries indicate that Transylvania was gradually settled by the Magyars, and the last region defended by the Vlachs and Pechenegs (until 1200) was between the Olt River and the Carpathians.

Shortly after the fall of the Olt region, a church was built at the Cârța Monastery and Catholic German-speaking settlers from Rhineland and Mosel Valley (known as Transylvanian Saxons) began to settle in the Orthodox region. In the Diploma Andreanum issued by King Andrew II of Hungary in 1224, "silva blacorum et bissenorum" was given to the settlers. The Orthodox Vlachs spread further northward along the Carpathians to Poland, Slovakia, and Moravia and were granted autonomy under Ius Vlachonicum (Walachian law).

In 1285 Ladislaus the Cuman fought the Tatars and Cumans, arriving with his troops at the Moldova River. A town, Baia (near the said river), was documented in 1300 as settled by the Transylvanian Saxons (see also Foundation of Moldavia). In 1290 Ladislaus the Cuman was assassinated; the new Hungarian king allegedly drove voivode Radu Negru and his people across the Carpathians, where they formed Wallachia along with its first capital Câmpulung (see also Foundation of Wallachia).

14th century

The biggest caravan shipment between Podvisoki in Bosnia and Republic of Ragusa was recorded on August 9, 1428, where Vlachs transported 1500 modius of salt with 600 horses. In the 14th century royal charters include and some segregation policies declaring that "a Serb shall not marry a Vlach." Although this could be related to the term of the same origin, used for dependent shepherds of that time, like in the Dušan's Code, since the dependent population was encouraged to switch to agriculture, it being of more worth to the crown.

Bolohoveni territory, according to V. A. Boldur
Little Wallachia in Croatia and Bosnia

In addition to the ethnic groups of Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, and Istro-Romanians who emerged during the Migration Period, other Vlachs could be found as far north as Poland, as far west as Moravia and Dalmatia. In search of better pasture, they were called Vlasi or Valaši by the Slavs. States mentioned in medieval chronicles were:[citation needed]

Regions and places are:

As national states appeared in the area of the former Ottoman Empire, new state borders were developed that divided the summer and winter habitats of many of the pastoral groups. During the Middle Ages, many Vlachs were shepherds who drove their flocks through the mountains of Central and Eastern Europe. Vlach shepherds may be found as far north as southern Poland (Podhale) and the eastern Czech Republic (Moravia) by following the Carpathians, the Dinaric Alps in the west, the Pindus Mountains in the south, and the Caucasus Mountains in the east.

Some researchers, like Bogumil Hrabak and Marian Wenzel, theorized that the origins of Stećci tombstones, which appeared in medieval Bosnia between 12th and 16th century, could be attributed to Vlach burial culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina of that times.

  • Medieval necropolis in Radimlja, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  • Detailed map depicting Vlach transhumance in the Western Balkans, showcasing several examples of Vlach necropolises.

According to Ilona Czamańska "for several recent centuries the investigation of the Vlachian ethnogenesis was so much dominated by political issues that any progress in this respect was incredibly difficult." Migration of the Vlachs may be the key for solving the problem of ethno genesis, but the problem is that many migrations were in multiple directions during the same time. These migrations were not just part of the Balkans and the Carpathians, they exist and in the Caucasus, the Adriatic islands and possibly over the entire region of the Mediterranean Sea. Because of this, our knowledge concerning primary migrations of the Vlachs and the ethnogenesis is more than modes.

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  • Asterios I. Koukoudis, The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora, 2003, ISBN 960-7760-86-7
  • George Murnu, Istoria românilor din Pind, Vlahia Mare 980–1259 ("History of the Romanians of the Pindus, Greater Vlachia, 980–1259"), Bucharest, 1913
  • Ilie Gherghel, Câteva consideraţiuni la cuprinsul noţiunii cuvântului "Vlach". Bucuresti: Convorbiri Literare,(1920).
  • Nikola Trifon, Les Aroumains, un peuple qui s'en va (Paris, 2005) ; Cincari, narod koji nestaje (Beograd, 2010)
  • Steriu T. Hagigogu, "Romanus şi valachus sau Ce este romanus, roman, român, aromân, valah şi vlah", Bucharest, 1939
  • G. Weigand, Die Aromunen, Bd.Α΄-B΄, J. A. Barth (A.Meiner), Leipzig 1895–1894.
  • A. Keramopoulos, Ti einai oi koutsovlachoi [What are the Koutsovlachs?], publ 2 University Studio Press, Thessaloniki 2000.
  • A.Hâciu, Aromânii, Comerţ. Industrie. Arte. Expasiune. Civiliytie, tip. Cartea Putnei, Focşani 1936.
  • Τ. Winnifrith, The Vlachs. The History of a Balkan People, Duckworth 1987
  • A. Koukoudis, Oi mitropoleis kai i diaspora ton Vlachon [Major Cities and Diaspora of the Vlachs], publ. University Studio Press, Thessaloniki 1999.
  • Th Capidan, Aromânii, Dialectul Aromân, ed2 Εditură Fundaţiei Culturale Aromâne, București 2005
  • Theodor Capidan, Aromânii, dialectul aromân. Studiul lingvistic ("Aromanians, The Aromanian dialect. A Linguistic Study"), Bucharest, 1932
  • Gheorghe Bogdan, MEMORY, IDENTITY, TYPOLOGY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY RECONSTRUCTION OF VLACH ETHNOHISTORY, B.A., University of British Columbia, 1992
  • Adina Berciu-Drăghicescu, Aromâni, meglenoromâni, istroromâni : aspecte identitare şi culturale, Editura Universităţii din București, 2012, ISBN 978-606-16-0148-6
  • Victor A. Friedman, "The Vlah Minority in Macedonia: Language, Identity, Dialectology, and Standardization" in Selected Papers in Slavic, Balkan, and Balkan Studies, ed. Juhani Nuoluoto, et al. Slavica Helsingiensa:21, Helsinki: University of Helsinki. 2001. 26–50. full text Though focussed on the Vlachs of North Macedonia, has in-depth discussion of many topics, including the origins of the Vlachs, their status as a minority in various countries, their political use in various contexts, and so on.
  • Asterios I. Koukoudis, The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora, 2003, ISBN 960-7760-86-7
  • George Murnu, Istoria românilor din Pind, Vlahia Mare 980–1259 ("History of the Romanians of the Pindus, Greater Vlachia, 980–1259"), Bucharest, 1913
  • Nikola Trifon, Les Aroumains, un peuple qui s'en va (Paris, 2005) ; Cincari, narod koji nestaje (Beograd, 2010)
  • Steriu T. Hagigogu, "Romanus şi valachus sau Ce este romanus, roman, român, aromân, valah şi vlah", Bucharest, 1939
  • Franck Vogel, a photo-essay on the Valchs published by GEO magazine (France), 2010.
  • John Kennedy Campbell, 'Honour Family and Patronage' A Study of Institutions and Moral Values in a Greek Mountain Community, Oxford University Press, 1974
  • The Watchmen, a documentary film by Alastair Kenneil and Tod Sedgwick (USA) 1971 describes life in the Vlach village of Samarina in Epiros, Northern Greece
Look up Vlach in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toVlachs.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article "Vlachs".

Vlachs
Vlachs Language Watch Edit For other uses see Vlachs disambiguation Vlach Wallach and Olah redirect here For other uses see Vlach disambiguation Wallach disambiguation and Olah disambiguation Vlachs English ˈ v l ɑː x or ˈ v l ae k also Wallachians and many other variants 1 is a historical term and exonym used from the Middle Ages until the Modern Era to designate mainly Romanians but also Aromanians Megleno Romanians and other Eastern Romance speaking subgroups of Central and Eastern Europe 2 Theodore Valerio fr 1852 Patre valaque de Zabalcz Wallahian Shepherd from Zăbalț Map of the Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians Vlachs Eastern Romance speakers highlighted Map depicting the current distribution of Balkan Romance speaking peoples Vlach Herdsmen in Greece Amand von Schweiger Lerchenfeld de 1887 Vlach shepherd of Banat Auguste Raffet c 1837 As a contemporary term in the English language the Vlachs are the Balkan Romance speaking peoples who live south of the Danube in what are now southern Albania Bulgaria northern Greece North Macedonia and eastern Serbia as native ethnic groups such as the Aromanians Megleno Romanians and Timok Romanians 3 The term also became a synonym in the Balkans for the social category of shepherds 4 and was also used for non Romance speaking peoples in recent times in the western Balkans derogatively 5 The term is also used to refer to the ethnographic group of Moravian Vlachs who speak a Slavic language but originate from Romanians Vlachs were initially identified and described during the 11th century by George Kedrenos According to one origin theory modern Romanians Moldovans and Aromanians originated from Dacians 6 According to some linguists and scholars the Eastern Romance languages prove the survival of the Thraco Romans in the lower Danube basin during the Migration Period 7 and western Balkan populations known as Vlachs also have had Romanized Illyrian origins 8 Nowadays Eastern Romance speaking communities are estimated at 26 30 million people worldwide including the Romanian diaspora and Moldovan diaspora 9 Contents 1 Etymology and names 2 Medieval usage 2 1 6th century 2 2 8th century 2 3 9th century 2 4 10th century 2 5 11th century 2 6 12th century 2 7 13th century 2 8 14th century 3 Toponymy 4 Shepherd culture 5 Legacy 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksEtymology and names EditFurther information Walhaz The word Vlach Wallachian and other variants such as Vlah Valah Valach Voloh Blac olah Vlas Ilac Ulah etc 1 is etymologically derived from the ethnonym of a Celtic tribe 5 adopted into Proto Germanic Walhaz which meant stranger from Wolka 10 Caesar s Latin Volcae Strabo and Ptolemy s Greek Ouolkai 11 Via Latin in Gothic as walhs the ethnonym took on the meaning foreigner or Romance speaker 11 and was adopted into Greek Vlahoi Blaxoi Slavic Vlah Hungarian olah and olasz etc 12 13 The root word was notably adopted in Germanic for Wales and Walloon and in Switzerland for Romansh speakers German Welsch 5 and in Poland Wlochy or in Hungary olasz became an exonym for Italians 11 1 The Slovenian term Lahi has also been used to designate Italians 14 Historically the term was used primarily for the Romanians 1 3 Testimonies from the 13th to 14th centuries show that although in the European and even extra European space they were called Vlachs or Wallachians olah in Hungarian Vlachoi Blaxoi in Greek Voloxi Volo hi in Russian Walachen in German Valacchi in Italian Valaques in French Valacos in Spanish the Romanians used for themselves the endonym Ruman Roman from the Latin Romanus in memory of Rome 1 Vlachs are referred in late Byzantine documents as Bulgaro Albano Vlachs Bulgaralbanitoblahos or Serbo Albano Bulgaro Vlachs 15 Via both Germanic and Latin the term started to signify stranger foreigner also in the Balkans where it in its early form was used for Romance speakers but the term eventually took on the meaning of shepherd nomad 5 The Romance speaking communities themselves however used the endonym they called themselves Romans 16 Term Vlach can denote various ethnic elements Slovak Hungarian Balkan Transylvanian Romanian or even Albanian 17 According to historian Sima Cirkovic the name Vlach in medieval sources has the same rank as the name Greek Serb or Latin 18 During the early history of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans there was a military class of Vlachs in Serbia and Ottoman Macedonia made up of Christians who served as auxiliary forces and had the same rights as Muslims but their origin is not entirely clear 4 Some Greeks used vlachos as a pejorative term The term Vlach may be used in the whole Balkan area in a derogatory manner because according to Arno Tanner nomads are traditionally considered dirty and aggressive while some Croats used that term for Serbs the city dwellers the country people and so on 19 In Zumberak members of the Greek Catholic Church were called Vlachs in Carniola residents of Zumberak in general were Vlachs In Posavina and Bihac area Muslims called Vlachs as Christians both Orthodox and Catholics while Catholics under that name consider Orthodox Christians For residents of the Dalmatian islands population of immigrants either Croats or Serbs were called as Vlachs The name Vlach in Dalmatia also has negative connotations as newcomer peasant ignorant while in Istria the ethnonym Vlach is used to make a distinction between the native Croats and newly settled Istro Romanian old catholic Vlachs and Slavic population which was coming in the 15th and 16th century 20 Romanian scholars have suggested that the term Vlach appeared for the first time in the Eastern Roman Empire and was subsequently spread to the Germanic and then Slavic speaking worlds through the Norsemen possibly by Varangians who were in trade and military contact with Byzantium during the early Middle Ages see also Blakumen 21 22 Nowadays the term Vlachs also known under other names such as Koutsovlachs Tsintsars Karagouni Chobani Vlasi etc 23 is used in scholarship for the Romance speaking communities in the Balkans especially those in Greece Albania and North Macedonia 24 25 In Serbia the term Vlach Serbian Vlah plural Vlasi is also used to refer to Romanian speakers especially those living in eastern Serbia 3 Aromanians themselves use the endonym Arman plural Armani or Raman plural Ramani etymologically from Romanus meaning Roman Megleno Romanians designate themselves with the Macedonian form Vla plural Vlas in their own language 3 Medieval usage EditSee also History of Romania Origin of the Romanians and History of the Aromanians The Jirecek Line between Latin and Greek language Roman inscriptions Transhumance paths of the Vlach shepherds of the past The Hellenic chronicle could possibly qualify to the first testimony of Vlachs in Pannonia and Eastern Europe during the time of Attila 26 27 28 6th century Edit Byzantine historians used the term Vlachs for Latin speakers 29 30 31 The 7th century Byzantine historiographer Theophylact Simocatta wrote about Blachernae in connection with some historical data of the 6th century during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Maurice 32 8th century Edit First precise data about Vlachs are in connection with the Vlachs of the Rynchos river the original document containing the information is from the Konstamonitou monastery 33 9th century Edit During the late 9th century the Hungarians invaded the Carpathian Basin where the province of Pannonia was inhabited by the Slavs Sclavi Bulgarians Bulgarii and Vlachs Blachii and the shepherds of the Romans pastores Romanorum sclauij Bulgarij et Blachij ac pastores romanorum according to the Gesta Hungarorum written around 1200 by the anonymous chancellor of King Bela III of Hungary 34 10th century Edit Chroniclers John Skylitzes and George Kedrenos wrote that in 971 during battles between Romans Byzantines and Rus people led by Sveinald Sviatoslav I the dwellers of the north side of Danube came to Emperor John I Tzimiskes and they handed over their fortresses and the Emperor sent troops to guard the fortresses During those times Northern part of Danube were dwelled by sedentary Vlachs and tribes of nomad Pechenegs who lived in tents 35 George Kedrenos mentioned about Vlachs in 976 The Vlachs were guides and guards of Roman Byzantine caravans in Balkans Between Prespa and Kastoria they met and fought with a Bulgarian rebel named David The Vlachs killed David in their first documented battle Mutahhar al Maqdisi They say that in the Turkic neighbourhood there are the Khazars Russians Slavs Waladj Alans Greeks and many other peoples 36 Ibn al Nadim published in 938 the work Kitab al Fihrist mentioning Turks Bulgars and Vlahs using Blagha for Vlachs 37 38 11th century Edit Byzantine writer Kekaumenos author of the Strategikon 1078 described a 1066 revolt against the emperor in Northern Greece led by Nicolitzas Delphinas and other Vlachs 39 The names Blakumen or Blokumenn is mentioned in Nordic sagas dating between the 11th 13th centuries with respect to events that took place in either 1018 or 1019 somewhere at the northwestern part of the Black Sea and believed by some to be related to the Vlachs 40 41 In the Bulgarian state of the 11th and 12th century Vlachs live in large numbers and they were equals to the Bulgarian population 42 12th century Edit The Russian Primary Chronicle written in ca 1113 wrote when the Volochi Vlachs attacked the Slavs of the Danube and settled among them and oppressed them the Slavs departed and settled on the Vistula under the name of Leshi 43 The Hungarians drove away the Vlachs and took the land and settled there 44 45 Map of Central Southern Europe during the late Middle Ages early Modern period by Transylvanian Saxon humanist Johannes Honterus Traveler Benjamin of Tudela 1130 1173 of the Kingdom of Navarre was one of the first writers to use the word Vlachs for a Romance speaking population 46 Byzantine historian John Kinnamos described Leon Vatatzes military expedition along the northern Danube where Vatatzes mentioned the participation of Vlachs in battles with the Magyars Hungarians in 1166 47 48 The uprising of brothers Asen and Peter was a revolt of Bulgarians and Vlachs living in the theme of Paristrion of the Byzantine Empire caused by a tax increase It began on 26 October 1185 the feast day of St Demetrius of Thessaloniki and ended with the creation of the Second Bulgarian Empire also known in its early history as the Empire of Bulgarians and Vlachs 13th century Edit In 1213 an army of Romans Vlachs Transylvanian Saxons and Pechenegs led by Ioachim of Sibiu attacked the Bulgars and Cumans from Vidin 49 After this all Hungarian battles in the Carpathian region were supported by Romance speaking soldiers from Transylvania 50 At the end of the 13th century during the reign of Ladislaus the Cuman Simon of Keza wrote about the Blacki people and placed them in Pannonia with the Huns 51 52 Archaeological discoveries indicate that Transylvania was gradually settled by the Magyars and the last region defended by the Vlachs and Pechenegs until 1200 was between the Olt River and the Carpathians 53 54 Shortly after the fall of the Olt region a church was built at the Carța Monastery and Catholic German speaking settlers from Rhineland and Mosel Valley known as Transylvanian Saxons began to settle in the Orthodox region 55 In the Diploma Andreanum issued by King Andrew II of Hungary in 1224 silva blacorum et bissenorum was given to the settlers 56 The Orthodox Vlachs spread further northward along the Carpathians to Poland Slovakia and Moravia and were granted autonomy under Ius Vlachonicum Walachian law 57 In 1285 Ladislaus the Cuman fought the Tatars and Cumans arriving with his troops at the Moldova River A town Baia near the said river was documented in 1300 as settled by the Transylvanian Saxons see also Foundation of Moldavia 58 59 In 1290 Ladislaus the Cuman was assassinated the new Hungarian king allegedly drove voivode Radu Negru and his people across the Carpathians where they formed Wallachia along with its first capital Campulung see also Foundation of Wallachia 60 14th century Edit The biggest caravan shipment between Podvisoki in Bosnia and Republic of Ragusa was recorded on August 9 1428 where Vlachs transported 1500 modius of salt with 600 horses 61 62 In the 14th century royal charters include and some segregation policies declaring that a Serb shall not marry a Vlach 63 Although this could be related to the term of the same origin used for dependent shepherds of that time like in the Dusan s Code since the dependent population was encouraged to switch to agriculture it being of more worth to the crown Toponymy Edit Bolohoveni territory according to V A Boldur Little Wallachia in Croatia and Bosnia In addition to the ethnic groups of Aromanians Megleno Romanians and Istro Romanians who emerged during the Migration Period other Vlachs could be found as far north as Poland as far west as Moravia and Dalmatia 64 In search of better pasture they were called Vlasi or Valasi by the Slavs States mentioned in medieval chronicles were citation needed Wallachia between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube Ţara Romanească in Romanian Bassarab Wallachia Bassarab s Wallachia and Ungro Wallachia or Wallachia Transalpina in administrative sources which Istro Vlachia citation needed Danubian Wallachia in Byzantine sources which and Velacia secunda on Spanish maps which citation needed Moldavia between the Carpathians and the Dniester river Bogdano Wallachia Bogdan s Wallachia citation needed Moldo Wallachia or Maurovlachia Black Wallachia Moldovlachia or Rousso Vlachia in Byzantine sources 65 Bogdan Iflak or Wallachia in Polish sources which L otra Wallachia the other Wallachia in Genovese sources which and Velacia tertia on Spanish maps which citation needed Transylvania between the Carpathians and the Hungarian plain Wallachia interior in administrative sources which and Velacia prima on Spanish maps which citation needed Second Bulgarian Empire between the Carpathians and the Balkan Mountains Regnum Bulgarorum et Blachorum in documents by Pope Innocent III which citation needed Terra Prodnicorum or Terra Brodnici mentioned by Pope Honorius III in 1222 Vlachs led by Ploskanea supported the Tatars in the 1223 Battle of Kalka Vlach lands near Galicia in the west Volhynia in the north Moldova in the south and the Bolohoveni lands in the east were conquered by Galicia 66 neutrality is disputed Bolokhoveni was Vlach land between Kiev and the Dniester in Ukraine Place names were Olohovets Olshani Voloschi and Vlodava mentioned in 11th to 13th century Slavonic chronicles It was conquered by Galicia 67 neutrality is disputed Regions and places are White Wallachia in Moesia 68 need quotation to verify Great Wallachia Megalh Blaxia Megali vlahia in Thessaly 68 Small Wallachia Mikrh Blaxia Mikri vlahia in Aetolia Acarnania Dorida and Locrida 68 Morlachia in Lika Dalmatia Upper Valachia of Moscopole and Metsovon Anw Blaxia Ano Vlahia in southern Macedonia Albania and Epirus Stari Vlah the Old Vlach a region in southwestern Serbia Romanija mountain Romanija planina in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina 69 Vlașca County a former county of southern Wallachia derived from Slavic Vlaska Greater Wallachia an older name for the region of Muntenia southeastern Romania Lesser Wallachia an older name for the region of Oltenia southwestern Romania An Italian writer called the Banat Valachia citeriore Wallachia on this side in 1550 70 Valahia transalpina including Făgăraș and Hațeg Moravian Wallachia Czech Moravske Valassko in the Beskid Mountains Czech Beskydy of the Czech Republic 71 Shepherd culture EditAs national states appeared in the area of the former Ottoman Empire new state borders were developed that divided the summer and winter habitats of many of the pastoral groups During the Middle Ages many Vlachs were shepherds who drove their flocks through the mountains of Central and Eastern Europe Vlach shepherds may be found as far north as southern Poland Podhale and the eastern Czech Republic Moravia by following the Carpathians the Dinaric Alps in the west the Pindus Mountains in the south and the Caucasus Mountains in the east 72 Some researchers like Bogumil Hrabak and Marian Wenzel theorized that the origins of Stecci tombstones which appeared in medieval Bosnia between 12th and 16th century could be attributed to Vlach burial culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina of that times 73 Medieval necropolis in Radimlja Bosnia and Herzegovina Detailed map depicting Vlach transhumance in the Western Balkans showcasing several examples of Vlach necropolises 74 Legacy EditAccording to Ilona Czamanska for several recent centuries the investigation of the Vlachian ethnogenesis was so much dominated by political issues that any progress in this respect was incredibly difficult Migration of the Vlachs may be the key for solving the problem of ethno genesis but the problem is that many migrations were in multiple directions during the same time These migrations were not just part of the Balkans and the Carpathians they exist and in the Caucasus the Adriatic islands and possibly over the entire region of the Mediterranean Sea Because of this our knowledge concerning primary migrations of the Vlachs and the ethnogenesis is more than modes 75 See also EditOlah Morlachs Romania in the Early Middle Ages Statuta Valachorum Supplex Libellus Valachorum Vlach Ottoman social class Vlach law Vlachs in medieval Serbia Vlachs in the history of Croatia Vlachs in medieval Bosnia and HerzegovinaNotes Edit a b c d e Ioan Aurel Pop On the Significance of Certain Names Romanian Wallachian and Romania Wallachia PDF Retrieved 18 June 2018 Valah Dicționare ale limbii romane dexonline ro Retrieved 18 June 2018 a b c d Vlach at the Encyclopaedia Britannica a b Peter F Sugar 1 July 2012 Southeastern Europe under Ottoman Rule 1354 1804 University of Washington Press p 39 ISBN 978 0 295 80363 0 a b c d Tanner 2004 p 203 Fine 1991 p Traditionally scholars have seen the Dacians as ancestors of the modern Rumanians and Vlachs According to Cornelia Bodea Stefan Pascu Liviu Constantinescu Romania Atlas Istorico geografic Academia Romană 1996 ISBN 973 27 0500 0 chap II Historical landmarks p 50 English text the survival of the Thraco Romans in the Lower Danube basin during the Migration Period is an obvious fact Thraco Romans haven t vanished in the soil amp Vlachs haven t appeared after 1000 years by spontaneous generation Badlands Borderland A History of Southern Albania Northern Epirus ILLUSTRATED Hardcover by T J Winnifruth ISBN 0 7156 3201 9 2003 page 44 Romanized Illyrians the ancestors of the modern Vlachs Council of Europe Parliamentary Recommendation 1333 1997 Assembly coe int 24 June 1997 Retrieved 8 February 2013 Ringe Don Inheritance versus lexical borrowing a case with decisive sound change evidence Language Log January 2009 a b c Juhani Nuorluoto Martti Leiwo Jussi Halla aho 2001 Papers in Slavic Baltic and Balkan studies Dept of Slavonic and Baltic Languages and Literatures University of Helsinki ISBN 978 952 10 0246 5 Kelley L Ross 2003 Decadence Rome and Romania the Emperors Who Weren t and Other Reflections on Roman History The Proceedings of the Friesian School Retrieved 13 January 2008 Note The Vlach Connection Entangled Histories of the Balkans Volume One National Ideologies and Language Policies BRILL 13 June 2013 pp 42 ISBN 978 90 04 25076 5 Thomas M Wilson Hastings Donnan 2005 Culture and Power at the Edges of the State National Support and Subversion in European Border Regions LIT Verlag Munster pp 122 ISBN 978 3 8258 7569 5 Noel Malcolm 1996 Bosnia A Short History p 101 NYU Press ISBN 0814755615 H C Darby 1957 The face of Europe on the eve of the great discoveries The New Cambridge Modern History 1 p 34 Jan Gawron 2020 Locators of the settlements under Wallachian law in the Sambor starosty in XVth and XVIth c Territorial ethnic and social origins p 274 275 BALCANICA POSNANIENSIA xxVI 1 Cirkovic Sima 2020 Ziveti sa istorijom Belgrade Helsinski odbor za ljudska prava u Srbiji p 309 Tanner 2004 p 203 204 Spicijaric Paskvan Nina 2014 Vlasi i krcki Vlasi u literaturi i povijesnim izvorima Vlachs from the Island Krk in the Primary Historical and Literature Sources p 348 Studii si cercetări Actele Simpozionului Banat istorie si multiculturalitate 2 Ilie Gherghel Cateva considerațiuni la cuprinsul noțiunii cuvantului Vlach București Convorbiri Literare 1920 p 4 8 G Popa Lisseanu Continuitatea romanilor in Dacia Editura Vestala Bucuresti 2014 p 78 The Balkan Vlachs Born to Assimilate at culturalsurvival org Demirtas Coskun 2001 sfn error no target CITEREFDemirtas Coskun2001 help Tanner 2004 Dvoichenko Markov Demetrius THE RUSSIAN PRIMARY CHRONICLE AND THE VLACHS OF EASTERN EUROPE Byzantion vol 49 1979 pp 175 187 JSTOR www jstor org stable 44172681 Accessed 3 Apr 2020 O V Tvorogov Drevne Russkie Chronography Ancient Russian Chronographies Leningrad 1975 p 138 P P Panaitescu Introducere la Istoria Culturii Romanesti Introduction to the History of Rumanian Culture Bucharest 1969 p 130 A ARMBRUSTER ROMANITATEA ROMANILOR ISTORIA UNEI IDEI Editura Enciclopedica 1993 NL26 1 Misunderstood History The Vlach Connection and Further Reflections on Roman History Theophylact Simocatta 8 4 11 8 5 4 Publisher C de Boer 1972 Stelian Brezeanu O istorie a Bizanțului Editura Meronia București 2005 p 126 Gesta Hungarorum a translation by Martyn Rady FHDR Fontes Historiae Daco Romaniae Izvoarele istoriei Romaniei vol III p 141 A Decei V Ciociltan La mention des Roumains Walah chez Al Maqdisi in Romano arabica I Bucharest 1974 pp 49 54 Ibn al Nadim al Fihrist English translation The Fihrist of al Nadim Editor și traducător B Dodge New York Columbia University Press 1970 p 37 with n 82 Spinei Victor The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta from the Tenth to the Mid Thirteenth Century Brill 2009 p 83 G Murnu Cand si unde se ivesc romanii intaia dată in istorie in Convorbiri Literare XXX pp 97 112 Egils saga einhenda ok Asmundar berserkjabana in Drei lygisogur ed A Lagerholm Halle Saale 1927 p 29 V Spinei The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta from the Tenth to the Mid Thirteenth Century Brill 2009 p 106 ISBN 9789047428800 Andre Du Nay 1996 The Origins of the Rumanians The Early History of the Rumanian Language p 31 Matthias Corvinus Publishing ISBN 1882785088 HE RUSSIAN PRIMARY CHRONICLE AND THE VLACHS OF EASTERN EUROPE Demetrius Dvoichenko Markov Byzantion Vol 49 1979 pp 175 187 Peeters Publishers Samuel Hazzard Cross et Olgerd P Sherbowitz Wetzor English The Russian Primary Chronicle Laurentian Text The Medieval Academy of America Cambridge Massachusetts 2012 p 62 C A Macartney The Habsburg Empire 1790 1918 Faber amp Faber 4 sept 2014 paragraf 185 Tudela A Decei op cit p 25 V Spinei The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta From the Tenth to the Mid Thirteenth Century Brill 2009 p 132 ISBN 9789004175365 Curta 2006 p 385 S Papacostea Romanii in secolul al XIII lea intre cruciată si imperiul mongol București 1993 36 A Lukacs Ţara Făgărasului 156 T Sălăgean Transilvania in a doua jumătate a secolului al XIII lea Afirmarea regimului congregaţional Cluj Napoca 2003 26 27 Simon de Keza Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum IV G Popa Lisseanu Izvoarele istoriei Romanilor IV Bucuresti 1935 p 32 K HOREDT Contribuţii la istoria Transilvaniei in secolele IV XIII București 1958 p 109 131 IDEM Siebenburgen im Fruhmittelalter Bonn 1986 p 111 sqq I M Tiplic CONSIDERAŢII CU PRIVIRE LA LINIILE INTĂRITE DE TIPUL PRISĂCILOR DIN TRANSILVANIA sec IX XIII ACTA TERRAE SEPTEMCASTRENSIS I pp 147 164 A IONIŢĂ Date noi privind colonizarea germană in Ţara Barsei si graniţa de est a regatului maghiar in cea de a doua jumătate a secolului al XII lea in RI 5 1994 3 4 J DEER Der Weg zur Goldenen Bulle Andreas II Von 1222 in Schweizer Beitrage zur Allgemeinen Geschichte 10 1952 pp 104 138 Stefan Pascu A History of Transylvania Wayne State Univ Pr 1983 p 57 Pavel Parasca Cine a fost Laslău craiul unguresc din tradiţia medievală despre intemeierea Ţării Moldovei Who was Laslău Hungarian king of the medieval tradition on the foundation of Moldavia In Revista de istorie si politică An IV Nr 1 ULIM 2011 ISSN 1857 4076 O Pecican Dragoș vodă originea ciclului legendar despre intemeierea Moldovei In Anuarul Institutului de Istorie și Arheologie Cluj T XXXIII Cluj Napoca 1994 pp 221 232 D CĂPRĂROIU ON THE BEGINNINGS OF THE TOWN OF CAMPULUNG Historia Urbana t XVI nr 1 2 2008 pp 37 64 Kurtovic Esad Esad Kurtovic Konj u srednjovjekovnoj Bosni Filozofski fakultet Sarajevo 2014 Filozofski Fakultet Sarajevo 205 Crainich Miochouich et Stiepanus Glegieuich ad meliustenendem super se et omnia eorum bona se obligando promiserunt ser Thome de Bona presenti et acceptanti conducere et salauum dare in Souisochi in Bosna Dobrassino Veselcouich nomine dicti ser Thome modia salis mille quingenta super equis siue salmis sexcentis Et dicto sale conducto et presentato suprascripto Dobrassino in Souisochi medietatem illius salis dare et mensuratum consignare dicto Dobrassino Et aliam medietatem pro eorum mercede conducenda dictum salem pro ipsius conductoribus retinere et habere Promittentes vicissim omnia et singularia suprascripta firma et rata habere et tenere ut supra sub obligatione omnium suorum bonorum Renuntiando 09 08 1428 g Div Canc XLV 31v Sima Cirkovic 2004 The Serbs p 130 Wiley Blackwell ISBN 0631204717 Hammel E A and Kenneth W Wachter The Slavonian Census of 1698 Part I Structure and Meaning European Journal of Population University of California Vasary Istvan 2005 Cumans and Tatars Oriental Military in the Pre Ottoman Balkans 1185 1365 Cambridge University Press pp 142 143 ISBN 978 0 521 83756 9 A Boldur Istoria Basarabiei Editura Victor Frunza Bucuresti 1992 pp 98 106 A Boldur Istoria Basarabiei Editura Victor Frunza Bucuresti 1992 a b c Since Theophanes Confessor and Kedrenos in A D Xenopol Istoria Romanilor din Dacia Traiană Nicolae Iorga Teodor Capidan C Giurescu Istoria Romanilor Petre Ș Năsturel Studii și Materiale de Istorie Medie vol XVI 1998 Map of Yugoslavia file East sq B f Istituto Geografico de Agostini Novara in Le Million encyclopedie de tous les pays du monde vol IV ed Kister Geneve Switzerland 1970 pp 290 291 and many other maps amp old atlases these names disappear after 1980 Mircea Mușat Ion Ardeleanu 1985 From Ancient Dacia to Modern Romania Editura Științifică și Enciclopedică that in 1550 a foreign writer the Italian Gromo called the Banat Valachia citeriore the Wallachia that stands on this side Z Konecny F Mainus Stopami minulosti Kapitoly z dejin Moravy a Slezska Traces of the Past Chapters from the History of Moravia and Silesia Brno Blok 1979 Silviu Dragomir Vlahii din nordul peninsulei Balcanice in evul mediu 1959 p 172 Marian Wenzel Bosnian and Herzegovinian Tombstobes Who Made Them and Why Sudost Forschungen 21 1962 102 143 Anca amp N S Tanașoca Unitate romanică și diversitate balcanică Editura Fundației Pro 2004 Ilona Czamanska 2015 The Vlachs several research problems p 14 BALCANICA POSNANIENSIA XXII 1 IUS VALACHICUM I 3 References EditBirgul Demirtas Coskun Ankara University Center for Eurasian Strategic Studies 2001 The Vlachs a forgotten minority in the Balkans Frank Cass Tanner Arno 2004 The Forgotten Minorities of Eastern Europe The History and Today of Selected Ethnic Groups in Five Countries East West Books pp 203 ISBN 978 952 91 6808 8 Theodor Capidan Aromanii dialectul aroman Studiul lingvistic Aromanians Aromanian dialect Linguistic Study Bucharest 1932 Victor A Friedman The Vlah Minority in Macedonia Language Identity Dialectology and Standardization in Selected Papers in Slavic Balkan and Balkan Studies ed Juhani Nuoluoto et al Slavica Helsingiensa 21 Helsinki University of Helsinki 2001 26 50 full text Though focussed on the Vlachs of North Macedonia has in depth discussion of many topics including the origins of the Vlachs their status as a minority in various countries their political use in various contexts and so on Asterios I Koukoudis The Vlachs Metropolis and Diaspora 2003 ISBN 960 7760 86 7 George Murnu Istoria romanilor din Pind Vlahia Mare 980 1259 History of the Romanians of the Pindus Greater Vlachia 980 1259 Bucharest 1913 Ilie Gherghel Cateva consideraţiuni la cuprinsul noţiunii cuvantului Vlach Bucuresti Convorbiri Literare 1920 Nikola Trifon Les Aroumains un peuple qui s en va Paris 2005 Cincari narod koji nestaje Beograd 2010 Steriu T Hagigogu Romanus si valachus sau Ce este romanus roman roman aroman valah si vlah Bucharest 1939 G Weigand Die Aromunen Bd A B J A Barth A Meiner Leipzig 1895 1894 A Keramopoulos Ti einai oi koutsovlachoi What are the Koutsovlachs publ 2 University Studio Press Thessaloniki 2000 A Haciu Aromanii Comerţ Industrie Arte Expasiune Civiliytie tip Cartea Putnei Focsani 1936 T Winnifrith The Vlachs The History of a Balkan People Duckworth 1987 A Koukoudis Oi mitropoleis kai i diaspora ton Vlachon Major Cities and Diaspora of the Vlachs publ University Studio Press Thessaloniki 1999 Th Capidan Aromanii Dialectul Aroman ed2 Editură Fundaţiei Culturale Aromane București 2005Further reading EditTheodor Capidan Aromanii dialectul aroman Studiul lingvistic Aromanians The Aromanian dialect A Linguistic Study Bucharest 1932 Gheorghe Bogdan MEMORY IDENTITY TYPOLOGY AN INTERDISCIPLINARY RECONSTRUCTION OF VLACH ETHNOHISTORY B A University of British Columbia 1992 Adina Berciu Drăghicescu Aromani meglenoromani istroromani aspecte identitare si culturale Editura Universităţii din București 2012 ISBN 978 606 16 0148 6 Victor A Friedman The Vlah Minority in Macedonia Language Identity Dialectology and Standardization in Selected Papers in Slavic Balkan and Balkan Studies ed Juhani Nuoluoto et al Slavica Helsingiensa 21 Helsinki University of Helsinki 2001 26 50 full text Though focussed on the Vlachs of North Macedonia has in depth discussion of many topics including the origins of the Vlachs their status as a minority in various countries their political use in various contexts and so on Asterios I Koukoudis The Vlachs Metropolis and Diaspora 2003 ISBN 960 7760 86 7 George Murnu Istoria romanilor din Pind Vlahia Mare 980 1259 History of the Romanians of the Pindus Greater Vlachia 980 1259 Bucharest 1913 Nikola Trifon Les Aroumains un peuple qui s en va Paris 2005 Cincari narod koji nestaje Beograd 2010 Steriu T Hagigogu Romanus si valachus sau Ce este romanus roman roman aroman valah si vlah Bucharest 1939 Franck Vogel a photo essay on the Valchs published by GEO magazine France 2010 John Kennedy Campbell Honour Family and Patronage A Study of Institutions and Moral Values in a Greek Mountain Community Oxford University Press 1974 The Watchmen a documentary film by Alastair Kenneil and Tod Sedgwick USA 1971 describes life in the Vlach village of Samarina in Epiros Northern GreeceExternal links EditLook up Vlach in Wiktionary the free dictionary Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vlachs Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica article Vlachs ROMANII BALCANICI AROMANII Maria Magiru about Aromanians in Romanian The Vlach Connection and Further Reflections on Roman History Orbis Latinus Wallachians Walloons Welschen Vlachs in Greece Cultural appropriation of Vlachs heritage French Vlachs Association in Vlach EN and FR Studies on the Vlachs by Asterios Koukoudis Vlachs in Greece in Greek Consiliul A Tinirlor Armanj Youth Aromanian community and their Projects in Vlach EN and RO Vlach in Serbia Online Since 1999 in Vlach EN and RO Old Wallachia a short Czech film from 1955 depicting life of Vlachs in Czech Moravia Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vlachs amp oldid 1043026609, 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