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Vladimir Kryuchkov

For the Soviet cyclist, see Vladimir Kryuchkov (cyclist).
In this Eastern Slavic naming convention, the patronymic is Alexandrovich and the family name is Kryuchkov.
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Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov (Russian:Влади́мир Алекса́ндрович Крючко́в; 29 February 1924 – 23 November 2007) was a Soviet lawyer, diplomat, and head of the KGB, member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU.

Vladimir Kryuchkov
Владимир Крючков
7th Chairman of the Committee for State Security (KGB)
In office
1 October 1988 – 28 August 1991
PremierNikolai Ryzhkov
Valentin Pavlov
Preceded byViktor Chebrikov
Succeeded byVadim Bakatin
Full member of the 27th Politburo
In office
20 September 1989 – 14 July 1990
Personal details
Born(1924-02-29)29 February 1924
Tsaritsyn, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
(now Volgograd, Russia)
Died23 November 2007(2007-11-23) (aged 83)
Moscow, Russia
NationalitySoviet and Russian
Political partyCPSU (1944–1991)
Kryuchkov (center) being interviewed by journalists following the fourth convocation of the Congress of People's Deputies

Initially working in the Soviet justice system as a prosecutor's assistant, Kryuchkov then graduated from the Diplomatic Academy of the Soviet Foreign Ministry and became a diplomat. During his years in the foreign service, he met Yuri Andropov, who became his main patron. From 1974 until 1988, Kryuchkov headed the foreign intelligence branch of the KGB, the First Chief Directorate (PGU). During these years, the Directorate was involved in funding and supporting various communist, socialist, and anti-colonial movements across the world, some of which came to power in their countries and established pro-Soviet governments; in addition, under Kryuchkov's leadership the Directorate had major triumphs in penetrating Western intelligence agencies, acquiring valuable scientific and technical intelligence and perfecting the techniques of disinformation and active measures. At the same time, during his tenure the Directorate became plagued with defectors and had the major responsibility for encouraging the Soviet government to invade Afghanistan, and its ability to influence Western European communist parties diminished even further.

From 1988 until 1991, Kryuchkov served as the 7th Chairman of the KGB. He was the leader of the abortive August coup and its governing committee.

Contents

Kryuchkov was born in February 1924 in Tsaritsyn (later Stalingrad, and now Volgograd), to a working-class family. His parents were strong supporters of Joseph Stalin. He joined the Communist Party in 1944 and became a full-time employee of the Communist Youth League (Komsomol). After earning a law degree, Kryuchkov embarked on a career in the Soviet justice system, working as an investigator for the prosecutor's office in his home city of Stalingrad.

Kryuchkov then joined the Soviet diplomatic service, stationed in Hungary until 1959. He then worked for the Communist Party Central Committee for eight years, before joining the KGB in 1967 together with his patron Yuri Andropov. He was appointed head of the First Chief Directorate in the summer of 1971, upon the order of Andropov, and Deputy Chairman in 1978. In June 1978, he traveled to Afghanistan, and in July 1978 became the KGB rezident in Kabul where he took a very active part in the overthrow of its government. In 1988, he was promoted to the rank of General of the Army and became KGB Chairman. In 1989–1990, he was a member of the Politburo.

A political hard-liner, Kryuchkov was among the members of the Soviet intelligence community who misinterpreted the 1983 NATO exercise Able Archer 83 as a prelude to a nuclear attack. Many historians, such as Robert Cowley and John Lewis Gaddis, believe the Able Archer incident was the closest the world has come to nuclear war since the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.

According to Sergei Tretyakov, Kryuchkov secretly sent US$50 billion worth of funds of the Communist Party to an unknown location in the lead up to the collapse of the Soviet Union.

During the August Coup of 1991, Kryuchkov was the initiator of creation of the State Committee on the State of Emergency which arrested President Mikhail Gorbachev. After the defeat of the Committee, Kryuchkov was imprisoned for his participation. Kryuchkov was replaced as chairman of the KGB by Vadim Bakatin, released on recognizance not to leave in January 1993, and pardoned by the State Duma in 1994.

On 3 July 1992, Kryuchkov appealed to Russian president Boris Yeltsin, accusing him of laying the blame for the dissolution of the Soviet Union on members of the State Committee on the State of Emergency.

His son was a resident of Switzerland in the 1990s where very large sums were transiting during the 1990s looting of Russia. Yevgeny Primakov blocked the Duma's Ponomarev investigative commission from accessing KGB, FCD, and SVR documents.

Kryuchkov died at the age of 83 on 23 November 2007. His body was buried at the Troyekurovskoye Cemetery in Moscow.

  1. Robert W Pringle, Historical Dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence Kryuchkov, Vladimir
  2. Robert W Pringle, Historical Dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence Kryuchkov, Vladimir
  3. "Soviet Union's hawkish KGB chief Kryuchkov dies at 83". Reuters. 25 November 2007.
  4. Gale Encyclopedia of Russian History: Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov
  5. Млечин, Леонид Михайлович (Mlechin, Leonid Mikhailovich) (2004). Служба внешней разведки [Foreign Intelligence Service] (in Russian). Moscow: Eksmo. ISBN 5 699 08094 5.
  6. Levy, Clifford J. (26 November 2007). "Vladimir Kryuchkov, 83, Ex-Chief of K.G.B." The New York Times. p. 21.
  7. Wise, David (27 January 2008). "Spy vs. Spy". The Washington Post. Retrieved30 January 2008.
  8. "Press-konferentsiya po delu GKCHP" Пресс-конференция по делу ГКЧП [Press Conference on the GKChP Case]. Kommersant (in Russian) (13). 27 January 1993. Retrieved21 September 2021.
  9. "Biografiya Vladimira Kryuchkova: sotrudnichayet s Luzhkovym" Биография Владимира Крючкова: сотрудничает с Лужковым [Biography of Vladimir Kryuchkov: In Collaboration with Luzhkov]. Temadnya (in Russian). Retrieved21 September 2021.
  10. "Kryuchkov Vladimir Aleksandrovich" Крючков Владимир Александрович [Kryuchkov Vladimir Aleksandrovich]. Biografija (in Russian). Retrieved21 September 2021.
  11. Leach, James A., ed. (21 September 1999). Russian Money Laudering: United States Congressional Hearing (serial number 106–38). Diane Publishing. p. 318. Retrieved15 December 2020.

Bibliography

  • Kryuchkov, Vladimir Alexandrovich (1996). Personal Business. Moscow: Olympus. pp. 872.
Government offices
Preceded by Head of Soviet Committee of State Security
1988–1991
Succeeded by

Vladimir Kryuchkov
Vladimir Kryuchkov Language Watch Edit For the Soviet cyclist see Vladimir Kryuchkov cyclist In this Eastern Slavic naming convention the patronymic is Alexandrovich and the family name is Kryuchkov This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Russian December 2019 Click show for important translation instructions View a machine translated version of the Russian article Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate rather than simply copy pasting machine translated text into the English Wikipedia Consider adding a topic to this template there are already 2 186 articles in the main category and specifying topic will aid in categorization Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low quality If possible verify the text with references provided in the foreign language article You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation A model attribution edit summary Content in this edit is translated from the existing Russian Wikipedia article at ru Kryuchkov Vladimir Aleksandrovich see its history for attribution You should also add the template Translated ru Kryuchkov Vladimir Aleksandrovich to the talk page For more guidance see Wikipedia Translation Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov Russian Vladi mir Aleksa ndrovich Kryuchko v 29 February 1924 23 November 2007 was a Soviet lawyer diplomat and head of the KGB member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU Vladimir Kryuchkov Vladimir Kryuchkov7th Chairman of the Committee for State Security KGB In office 1 October 1988 28 August 1991PremierNikolai Ryzhkov Valentin PavlovPreceded byViktor ChebrikovSucceeded byVadim BakatinFull member of the 27th PolitburoIn office 20 September 1989 14 July 1990Personal detailsBorn 1924 02 29 29 February 1924 Tsaritsyn Russian SFSR Soviet Union now Volgograd Russia Died23 November 2007 2007 11 23 aged 83 Moscow RussiaNationalitySoviet and RussianPolitical partyCPSU 1944 1991 Kryuchkov center being interviewed by journalists following the fourth convocation of the Congress of People s Deputies Initially working in the Soviet justice system as a prosecutor s assistant Kryuchkov then graduated from the Diplomatic Academy of the Soviet Foreign Ministry and became a diplomat During his years in the foreign service he met Yuri Andropov who became his main patron From 1974 until 1988 Kryuchkov headed the foreign intelligence branch of the KGB the First Chief Directorate PGU During these years the Directorate was involved in funding and supporting various communist socialist and anti colonial movements across the world some of which came to power in their countries and established pro Soviet governments in addition under Kryuchkov s leadership the Directorate had major triumphs in penetrating Western intelligence agencies acquiring valuable scientific and technical intelligence and perfecting the techniques of disinformation and active measures 1 At the same time during his tenure the Directorate became plagued with defectors and had the major responsibility for encouraging the Soviet government to invade Afghanistan and its ability to influence Western European communist parties diminished even further 2 From 1988 until 1991 Kryuchkov served as the 7th Chairman of the KGB He was the leader of the abortive August coup and its governing committee Contents 1 Early life and career 2 Diplomatic service 3 August Coup 4 Family 5 Death 6 References 6 1 BibliographyEarly life and career EditKryuchkov was born in February 1924 in Tsaritsyn later Stalingrad and now Volgograd 3 to a working class family His parents were strong supporters of Joseph Stalin He joined the Communist Party in 1944 and became a full time employee of the Communist Youth League Komsomol After earning a law degree Kryuchkov embarked on a career in the Soviet justice system working as an investigator for the prosecutor s office in his home city of Stalingrad 4 Diplomatic service EditKryuchkov then joined the Soviet diplomatic service stationed in Hungary until 1959 He then worked for the Communist Party Central Committee for eight years before joining the KGB in 1967 together with his patron Yuri Andropov He was appointed head of the First Chief Directorate in the summer of 1971 upon the order of Andropov and Deputy Chairman in 1978 In June 1978 he traveled to Afghanistan and in July 1978 became the KGB rezident in Kabul where he took a very active part in the overthrow of its government 5 In 1988 he was promoted to the rank of General of the Army and became KGB Chairman 6 In 1989 1990 he was a member of the Politburo A political hard liner Kryuchkov was among the members of the Soviet intelligence community who misinterpreted the 1983 NATO exercise Able Archer 83 as a prelude to a nuclear attack Many historians such as Robert Cowley and John Lewis Gaddis believe the Able Archer incident was the closest the world has come to nuclear war since the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 According to Sergei Tretyakov Kryuchkov secretly sent US 50 billion worth of funds of the Communist Party to an unknown location in the lead up to the collapse of the Soviet Union 7 August Coup EditDuring the August Coup of 1991 Kryuchkov was the initiator of creation of the State Committee on the State of Emergency which arrested President Mikhail Gorbachev After the defeat of the Committee Kryuchkov was imprisoned for his participation Kryuchkov was replaced as chairman of the KGB by Vadim Bakatin released on recognizance not to leave in January 1993 8 and pardoned by the State Duma in 1994 On 3 July 1992 Kryuchkov appealed to Russian president Boris Yeltsin 9 accusing him of laying the blame for the dissolution of the Soviet Union on members of the State Committee on the State of Emergency 10 Family EditHis son was a resident of Switzerland in the 1990s where very large sums were transiting during the 1990s looting of Russia Yevgeny Primakov blocked the Duma s Ponomarev investigative commission from accessing KGB FCD and SVR documents 11 Death EditKryuchkov died at the age of 83 on 23 November 2007 6 His body was buried at the Troyekurovskoye Cemetery in Moscow References Edit Robert W Pringle Historical Dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence Kryuchkov Vladimir Robert W Pringle Historical Dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence Kryuchkov Vladimir Soviet Union s hawkish KGB chief Kryuchkov dies at 83 Reuters 25 November 2007 Gale Encyclopedia of Russian History Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov Mlechin Leonid Mihajlovich Mlechin Leonid Mikhailovich 2004 Sluzhba vneshnej razvedki Foreign Intelligence Service in Russian Moscow Eksmo ISBN 5 699 08094 5 a b Levy Clifford J 26 November 2007 Vladimir Kryuchkov 83 Ex Chief of K G B The New York Times p 21 Wise David 27 January 2008 Spy vs Spy The Washington Post Retrieved 30 January 2008 Press konferentsiya po delu GKCHP Press konferenciya po delu GKChP Press Conference on the GKChP Case Kommersant in Russian 13 27 January 1993 Retrieved 21 September 2021 Biografiya Vladimira Kryuchkova sotrudnichayet s Luzhkovym Biografiya Vladimira Kryuchkova sotrudnichaet s Luzhkovym Biography of Vladimir Kryuchkov In Collaboration with Luzhkov Temadnya in Russian Retrieved 21 September 2021 Kryuchkov Vladimir Aleksandrovich Kryuchkov Vladimir Aleksandrovich Kryuchkov Vladimir Aleksandrovich Biografija in Russian Retrieved 21 September 2021 Leach James A ed 21 September 1999 Russian Money Laudering United States Congressional Hearing serial number 106 38 Diane Publishing p 318 Retrieved 15 December 2020 Bibliography Edit Kryuchkov Vladimir Alexandrovich 1996 Personal Business Moscow Olympus pp 872 Government officesPreceded byViktor Chebrikov Head of Soviet Committee of State Security 1988 1991 Succeeded by Leonid Shebarshin Acting Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vladimir Kryuchkov amp oldid 1054112581, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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