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Vladivostok

Vladivostok (Russian:Владивосто́к) is the largest city and the administrative centre of Primorsky Krai, Russia. The city is located around the Golden Horn Bay on the Sea of Japan, covering an area of 331.16 square kilometres (127.86 square miles), with a population of 606,561 residents, up to 812,319 residents in the urban agglomeration. Vladivostok is the second-largest city in the Far Eastern Federal District, as well as the Russian Far East, after Khabarovsk.

Vladivostok
Владивосток
Top-down, left-to-right: View of Zolotoy Bridge and the Golden Horn Bay at night, with the Russky Bridge in the distance; GUM Department Store; Vladimir K. Arseniev Museum of Far East History; the campus of Far Eastern Federal University; Vladivostok Railway Station; and Central Square
Flag
Coat of arms
Location of Vladivostok
Vladivostok
Location of Vladivostok
Show map of Primorsky Krai
Vladivostok
Vladivostok (Russia)
Show map of Russia
Coordinates:43°08′N131°54′E /43.133°N 131.900°E /43.133; 131.900Coordinates: 43°08′N131°54′E /43.133°N 131.900°E /43.133; 131.900
CountryRussia
Federal subjectPrimorsky Krai
Founded2 July 1860
City status since22 April 1880
Government
• BodyCity Duma
• HeadOleg Gumenyuk
Area
• Total331.16 km2 (127.86 sq mi)
Elevation
8 m (26 ft)
Population
• Estimate
(2018)
604,901
• Rank22nd in 2010
Subordinated toVladivostok City Under Krai Jurisdiction
Capital ofPrimorsky Krai, Vladivostok City Under Krai Jurisdiction
Urban okrugVladivostoksky Urban Okrug
Capital ofVladivostoksky Urban Okrug
Time zoneUTC+10 (MSK+7 )
Postal code(s)
690xxx
Dialing code(s)+7 423
OKTMO ID05701000001
City DayFirst Sunday of July
Websitewww.vlc.ru

The city was founded in 1860 as a Russian military outpost. In 1872, the main Russian naval base on the Pacific Ocean was transferred to the city, and thereafter Vladivostok began to grow. After the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917, Vladivostok was occupied in 1918 by foreign troops, the last of whom were not withdrawn until 1922, by that time the anti-revolutionary White Army forces in Vladivostok promptly collapsed, and Soviet power was established in the city. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Vladivostok became the administrative centre of Primorsky Krai.

Vladivostok is the largest Russian port on the Pacific Ocean, and the chief economic, scientific and cultural centre of the Russian Far East, as well as an important tourism centre in Russia. As the terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway, the city was visited by over three million tourists in 2017. The city is the administrative centre of the Far Eastern Federal District, and is the home to the headquarters of the Pacific Fleet of the Russian Navy. For its unique geographical location, and its Russian culture, the city is called "Europe in the Orient". Many foreign consulates and businesses have offices in Vladivostok. With an annual mean temperature of around 5 °C (41 °F) Vladivostok has a cold climate for its mid-latitude coastal setting. This is due to winds from the vast Eurasian landmass in winter, also cooling the ocean temperatures.

Vladivostok means 'Lord of the East' or 'Ruler of the East'. The name derives from Slavicвладь (vlad, 'to rule') and Russianвосток (vostok, 'east'); see the etymology of Vladimir (name).

It was first named in 1859 along with other features in the Peter the Great Gulf area by Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky. The name initially applied to the bay but, following an expedition by Alexey Karlovich Shefner [ru] in 1860, was later applied to the new settlement. The form of the name appears analogous to that of the city of Vladikavkaz ("Ruler of the Caucasus" or "Rule the Caucasus") in Northern Ossetia, founded and named by Russians in 1784.

Colloquial Russian speech may use a short form: Vladik (Russian:Владик) to refer to the city.

Chinese maps from the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) label Vladivostok as Yongmingcheng (永明城; Yǒngmíngchéng).[citation needed] Since the Qing dynasty, the city is known as Haishenwai (海參崴; Hǎishēnwǎi) in Chinese, from the Manchu Haišenwai (Manchu:ᡥᠠᡳᡧᡝᠨᠸᡝᡳ; Möllendorff: Haišenwai; Abkai: Haixenwai) or 'small seaside village'.

In China, Vladivostok is now officially known by the transliteration符拉迪沃斯托克 (Fúlādíwòsītuōkè), although the historical Chinese name海参崴 (Hǎishēnwǎi) is still often used in common parlance and outside Mainland China to refer to the city. According to the provisions of the Chinese government, all maps published in China have to bracket the city's Chinese name.

The modern-day Japanese name of the city is transliterated as Urajiosutoku (ウラジオストク). Historically, the city's name was transliterated with Kanji as浦塩斯徳 and shortened to Urajio (ウラジオ,浦塩).

Foundation

Steamship-corvette "America" on the Golden Horn Bay

For a long time, the Russian government was looking for a stronghold in the Far East; this role was played in turn by the settlements of Okhotsk, Ayan, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, and Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. By the middle of the 19th century, the search for the outpost had reached a dead end: none of the ports met the necessary requirement: to have a convenient and protected harbour, next to trade routes. The Aigun Treaty was concluded by the forces of the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky, active exploration of the Amur region began, and later, as a result of the signing of the Treaty of Tientsin and the Convention of Peking, the territory of modern Vladivostok were annexed to Russia. The very name Vladivostok appeared in the middle of 1859, was used in newspaper articles and denoted a bay. On 20 June, (2 July) 1860 the transport of the Siberian Military Flotilla "Mandzhur" under the command of Lieutenant-Commander Alexei Karlovich Shefner delivered a military unit to the Golden Horn Bay to establish a military post, which has now officially received the name of Vladivostok.

The port can be considered the best of all. He reminds many of Olga, but only less of her, more comfortable, but warmer and more fun. However, the same oaks all around, the same picturesque mountains. In the lowlands, rivers murmur; there are many springs on the banks. Our post, set up the other day, with its white tents, looks good in a group of oak trees that have not yet been cut down and have just cleared.

— The first days of the port in the description of the ethnographer Sergei Maksimov.

19th century – early 20th century

On 31 October 1861, the first civilian settler, a merchant, Yakov Lazarevich Semyonov, arrived in Vladivostok with his family. On 15 March 1862, the first act of his purchase of land was registered, and in 1870 Semyonov was elected the first head of the post, and a local self-government emerged. By this time, a special commission decided to designate Vladivostok as the main port of the Russian Empire in the Far East. In 1871, the main naval base of the Siberian Military Flotilla, the headquarters of the military governor and other naval departments were transferred from Nikolaevsk-on-Amur to Vladivostok.

General view of Vladivostok, 1880

In the 1870s, the government encouraged resettlement to the South Ussuri region, which contributed to an increase in the population of the post: according to the first census of 1878, there were 4,163 inhabitants. The city status was adopted and the city Duma was established, the post of the city head, the coat of arms was adopted, although Vladivostok was not officially recognized as a city.

Due to the constant threat of attack from the Royal Navy, Vladivostok also actively developed as a naval base.

Intersection of Svetlanskaya and Aleutskaya streets in the 1910s

In 1880, the post officially received the status of a city. The 1890s saw a demographic and economic boom associated with the completion of the construction of the Ussuriyskaya branch of the Trans-Siberian Railway and the Chinese-Eastern Railway. According to the first census of the population of Russia on 9 February 1897, roughly 29,000 inhabitants lived in Vladivostok, and ten years later the city's population tripled.

The first decade of the 20th century was characterized by a protracted crisis caused by the political situation: the government's attention was shifted to Port Arthur and the Port of Dalny. As well as the Boxer uprising in North China in 1900–1901, the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, and finally the first Russian revolution led to stagnation in the economic activity of Vladivostok.

Since 1907, a new stage in the development of the city began: the loss of Port Arthur and Dalny again made Vladivostok the main port of Russia on the Pacific Ocean. A free port regime was introduced, and until 1914 the city experienced rapid growth, becoming an important economic centre in the Asia-Pacific, as well as an ethnically diverse city with a population exceeding over 100,000 inhabitants: during the time ethnic Russians made up less than half of the population, and large Asian communities developed in the city. The public life of the city flourished; many public associations were created, from charities to hobby groups.

World War I, Revolution and Occupation

Map of Vladivostok, 1911

During World War I, no active hostilities took place in the city. However, Vladivostok was an important staging post for the import of military-technical equipment for troops from allied and neutral countries, as well as raw materials and equipment for industry.

Immediately after the October Revolution in 1917, during which the Bolsheviks came to power, the Decree on Peace was announced, and as a result of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk concluded between the Bolshevik government of Russia and the Central Powers, led to the end of Soviet Russia's participation in World War I. On October 30, the sailors of the Siberian Military Flotilla decided to "rally around the united power of the Soviets", and the power of Vladivostok, as well as all of the Trans-Siberian Railway passed to the Bolsheviks. During the Russian Civil War, from May 1918, they lost control of the city to the White Army-allied Czechoslovak Legion, who declared the city to be an Allied protectorate. Vladivostok became the staging point for the Allies' Siberian intervention, a multi-national force including Japan, the United States and China; China sent forces to protect the local Chinese community after appeals from Chinese merchants. The intervention ended in the wake of the collapse of the White Army and regime in 1919; all Allied forces except the Japanese withdrew by the end of 1920.

American troops marching on Vladivostok following the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, 1918

Throughout 1919 the region was engulfed in a partisan war. To avoid a war with Japan, with the filing of the Soviet leadership, the Far Eastern Republic, a Soviet-backed buffer state between Soviet Russia and Japan, was proclaimed on 6 April 1920. The Soviet government officially recognized the new republic in May, but in Primorye a riot occurred, where significant forces of the White Movement were located, leading to the creation of the Provisional Priamurye Government, with Vladivostok as its capital.

In October 1922, the troops of the Red Army of the Far Eastern Republic under the command of Ieronim Uborevich occupied Vladivostok, displacing the White Army formations from it. In November, the Far Eastern Republic liquidated and became a part of Soviet Russia.

Soviet period

By the time of the establishment of Soviet power, Vladivostok was in decline. The retreating forces of the Japanese army removed items of material value from the city. Life was paralyzed; there was no money in the banks, and the equipment of enterprise was plundered. Due to mass migration and repression, the city's population decreased to 106,000 inhabitants. Between 1923 and 1925, the government adopted a "three-year restoration" plan, during which operations at the commercial port were resumed, and it became the most profitable in the country (from 1924 to 1925). The "restoration" period was distinguished by a number of peculiarities: the Russian Far East did not adopt 'war communism', but was, immediately, inducted to the New Economic Policy.

In 1925, the government decided to accelerate the industrialization of the country. A number of subsequent "five-year plans" changed the face of Primorye, making it an industrial region, partly as a result of the creation of numerous concentration camps in the region. In the 1930s and 1940s, Vladivostok served as a transit point on the route used to deliver prisoners and cargo for the Sevvostlag of the Soviet super-trust Dalstroy. The notorious Vladivostok transit camp was located in the city. In addition, in the late 1930s and early 1940s, the Vladivostok forced labour camp (Vladlag) was located in the area of the Vtoraya Rechka railway station.

Vladivostok was not a place of hostilities during the Great Patriotic War, although there was a constant threat of attack from Japan. In the city, a "Defense Fund" was created (the first in the country), to which the residents of Vladivostok contributed personal wealth. During the war years Vladivostok handled imported cargo (lend-lease) of a volume almost four times more than Murmansk and almost five times more than Arkhangelsk.

The city centre of Vladivostok in 1982

By the decree of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union "Issues of the Fifth Navy" dated 11 August 1951, a special regime was introduced in Vladivostok (it began to operate on 1 January 1952); the city was closed to foreigners. It was planned to remove from Vladivostok not only foreign consulates, but also the merchant and fish fleet and transfer all regional authorities to Voroshilov (now Ussuriysk). However, these plans were not implemented.

During the years of the Khrushchev Thaw, Vladivostok received special attention from state authorities. For the first time, Nikita Khrushchev visited the city in 1954 to finally decide whether to secure the status of a closed naval base for him. It was noted that at that time the urban infrastructure was in a deplorable state. In 1959, Khrushchev visited the city again. The result is a decision on the accelerated development of the city, which was formalized by the decree of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union on 18 January 1960. During the 1960s, a new tram line was built, a trolleybus was launched, the city became a huge construction site: residential neighborhoods were being erected on the outskirts, and new buildings for public and civil purposes were erected in the center.

In 1974, Gerald Ford paid an official visit to Vladivostok, to meet with Leonid Brezhnev, becoming the first President of the United States to visit the Soviet Union. Both sides signed the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, which helped to contain the nuclear arms race between the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War.

On 20 September 1991, Boris Yeltsin signed decree No. 123 "On the opening of Vladivostok for visiting by foreign citizens", which entered into force on 1 January 1992, ending Vladivostok's status as a closed city.

Modern period

In 2012, Vladivostok hosted the 24th APEC summit. Leaders from the APEC member countries met at Russky Island, off the coast of Vladivostok. With the summit on Russky Island, the government and private businesses inaugurated resorts, dinner and entertainment facilities, in addition to the renovation and upgrading of Vladivostok International Airport. Two giant cable-stayed bridges were built in preparation for the summit, the Zolotoy Rog bridge over the Zolotoy Rog Bay in the center of the city, and the Russky Island Bridge from the mainland to Russky Island (the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world). The new campus of Far Eastern Federal University was completed on Russky Island in 2012.

Vladivostok (1955)
Aerial view of Vladivostok and the Golden Horn Bay in 2014
Valdivostok and surrounding region (DMA, 1988)

The city is located in the southern extremity of Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula, which is about 30 kilometres (19 mi) long and 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) wide.

The highest point is Mount Kholodilnik, 257 metres (843 ft). Eagle's Nest Hill is often called the highest point of the city; but, with a height of only 199 metres (653 ft), or 214 metres (702 ft) according to other sources, it is the highest point of the centre, but not of the whole city.

Located in the extreme southeast of the Russian Far East, in the extreme southeast of North Asia. Vladivostok is geographically closer to Anchorage, Alaska, US and even Darwin, Australia than it is to the nation's capital of Moscow. Vladivostok is also closer to Honolulu, Hawaii, US than to the city of Sochi in Southern Russia. It also is further east than any area south of it in China and the entire Korean peninsula.

Climate

Vladivostok has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwb) with warm, humid and rainy summers and cold, dry winters. Owing to the influence of the Siberian High, winters are far colder than a latitude of 43 °N should warrant given its low elevation and coastal location, with a January average of −12.3 °C (9.9 °F). Since the maritime influence is strong in summer, Vladivostok has a relatively cold annual climate for its latitude.

In winter, temperatures can drop below −20 °C (−4 °F) while mild spells of weather can raise daytime temperatures above freezing. The average monthly precipitation, mainly in the form of snow, is around 18.5 millimetres (0.73 in) from December to March. Snow is common during winter, but individual snowfalls are light, with a maximum snow depth of only 5 centimeters (2.0 in) in January. During winter, clear sunny days are common.

Summers are warm, humid and rainy, due to the East Asian monsoon. The warmest month is August, with an average temperature of +19.8 °C (67.6 °F). Vladivostok receives most of its precipitation during the summer months, and most summer days see some rainfall. Cloudy days are fairly common and because of the frequent rainfall, humidity is high, on average about 90% from June to August.

On average, Vladivostok receives 840 millimetres (33 in) per year, but the driest year was 1943, when 418 millimetres (16.5 in) of precipitation fell, and the wettest was 1974, with 1,272 millimetres (50.1 in) of precipitation. The winter months from December to March are dry, and in some years they have seen no measurable precipitation at all. Extremes range from −31.4 °C (−24.5 °F) in January 1931 to +33.6 °C (92.5 °F) in July 1939.

Climate data for Vladivostok (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1872–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.0
(41.0)
9.9
(49.8)
19.4
(66.9)
27.7
(81.9)
29.5
(85.1)
31.8
(89.2)
33.6
(92.5)
32.6
(90.7)
30.0
(86.0)
23.4
(74.1)
17.5
(63.5)
9.4
(48.9)
33.6
(92.5)
Average high °C (°F) −7.8
(18.0)
−3.8
(25.2)
2.7
(36.9)
10.1
(50.2)
14.9
(58.8)
17.9
(64.2)
21.6
(70.9)
23.3
(73.9)
20.1
(68.2)
13.2
(55.8)
3.3
(37.9)
−5.4
(22.3)
9.2
(48.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −11.9
(10.6)
−8.1
(17.4)
−1.5
(29.3)
5.3
(41.5)
10.0
(50.0)
13.8
(56.8)
18.1
(64.6)
20.0
(68.0)
16.3
(61.3)
9.2
(48.6)
−0.7
(30.7)
−9.2
(15.4)
5.1
(41.2)
Average low °C (°F) −15.0
(5.0)
−11.3
(11.7)
−4.5
(23.9)
2.1
(35.8)
7.0
(44.6)
11.3
(52.3)
16.1
(61.0)
17.9
(64.2)
13.5
(56.3)
6.2
(43.2)
−3.5
(25.7)
−12.0
(10.4)
2.3
(36.1)
Record low °C (°F) −31.4
(−24.5)
−28.9
(−20.0)
−21.3
(−6.3)
−7.8
(18.0)
−0.8
(30.6)
3.7
(38.7)
8.7
(47.7)
10.1
(50.2)
1.3
(34.3)
−9.7
(14.5)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−28.1
(−18.6)
−31.4
(−24.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 12
(0.5)
16
(0.6)
27
(1.1)
43
(1.7)
97
(3.8)
105
(4.1)
159
(6.3)
176
(6.9)
103
(4.1)
67
(2.6)
36
(1.4)
19
(0.7)
860
(33.9)
Average rainy days 0.3 0.3 4 13 20 22 22 19 14 12 5 1 133
Average snowy days 7 8 11 4 0.3 0 0 0 0 1 7 9 47
Average relative humidity (%) 58 57 60 67 76 87 92 87 77 65 60 60 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 178 184 216 192 199 130 122 149 197 205 168 156 2,096
Source 1: Погода и Климат
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)
Sea temperature data for Vladivostok
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) -1.2
(29.8)
-1.6
(29.1)
-0.9
(30.4)
2.6
(36.7)
8.8
(47.8)
14.2
(57.6)
19.4
(66.9)
22.4
(72.3)
19.4
(66.9)
13.7
(56.7)
6.2
(43.2)
0.7
(33.3)
8.64
(47.6)
Source:


Vladivostok City department of the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations

The structure of the city administration has the City Council at the top.

The responsibilities of the administration of Vladivostok are:

  • Exercise of the powers to address local issues of Vladivostok in accordance with federal laws, normative legal acts of the Duma of Vladivostok, decrees and orders of the head of the city of Vladivostok;
  • The development and organization of the concepts, plans and programs for the development of the city, approved by the Duma of Vladivostok;
  • Development of the draft budget of the city;
  • Ensuring implementation of the budget;
  • The use of territory and infrastructure of the city;
  • Possession, use and disposal of municipal property in the manner specified by decision of the Duma of Vladivostok

Legislative authority is vested in the City Council. The new City Council began operations in 2001 and in June that year, deputies of the Duma of the first convocation of Vladivostok began their work. On 17 December 2007, the Duma of the third convocation began. The deputies consist of 35 elected members, including 18 members chosen by a single constituency, and 17 deputies from single-seat constituencies.

Vladivostok is the administrative centre of the krai. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with five rural localities, incorporated as Vladivostok City Under Krai Jurisdiction; an administrative unit equal to that of the districts in status. As a municipal division, Vladivostok City Under Krai Jurisdiction is incorporated as Vladivostoksky Urban Okrug.

Administrative divisions

Administrative divisions of the city of Vladivostok

Vladivostok is divided into five administrative districts:

  1. Leninsky
  2. Pervomaisky
  3. Pervorechensky
  4. Sovietsky
  5. Frunzensky

Local government

Vladivostok City Hall

The city charter approved the following structure of local government bodies:

  • City Duma is a representative body
  • The head of the city is its highest official
  • Administration is the executive and administrative body
  • Chamber of Control and Accounts – controls the body

Vladivostok City Duma's history dates from November 21, 1875, when 30 "vowels" were elected. Great changes took place after the 1917 Revolution, when the first general elections were held and women were allowed to vote. The last meeting of the Vladivostok City Duma took place on October 19, 1922, and on October 27 it was officially abolished. In Soviet times, its functions were performed by the City Council. In 1993, by a presidential decree, the Soviets were dissolved and, until 2001, all attempts to elect a new Duma were unsuccessful. The Duma of the city of Vladivostok of the fifth (current) convocation began work in the fall of 2017, consisting of 35 deputies.

The head of Vladivostok, on the principles of one-man management, manages the city's administration, which he forms in accordance with federal laws, laws of the Primorsky Territory and the city charter. The city's administrative structure is approved by the City Duma on the proposal of the head, and may include sectoral (functional) and territorial bodies of the administration of Vladivostok.

Igor Pushkaryov was the city's mayor from May 2008 to June 2016; previously he was a Federation Council member of Primorsky Krai. On June 27, 2016, Konstantin Loboda, the first deputy mayor, was appointed as the Vladivostok's new acting mayor. On December 21, 2017, Vitaly Vasilyevich Verkeenko was appointed the head of the city.

Population, dynamics, age and gender structure

Russians walking by the Pacific Ocean in Vladivostok

According to the Russian Census of 2010, Vladivostok had a population of over 592,000, with over 616,800 residents in the greater urban area. The Primorsky State Statistics Service reported that for 2016, the total permanent population of the city's urban agglomeration was over 633,167. Since the city's founding its population has actively grown, save for the periods of the Russian Civil War and the demographic crisis after dissolution of the Soviet Union in the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s. In the 1970s, the population exceeded over 500,000, and in 1992 reached a historical high of over 648,000. The average population density is about 1,832 people/km2.

In recent years, the population gradually has grown through migration and a rise in the birth rate. In the past five years, the population has risen by 30,000. Since 2013, natural growth dynamics added 727 individuals to this figure by 2015's end. By 2020, Vladivostok's population reached over 600,000, as reported by the Russian Federal Statistics Bureau.

The city's age distribution includes a large segment of older adults. Overall, the population includes 12.7% who are younger than able-bodied; 66.3% who are able-bodied; and 21% who are older than able-bodied. Vladivostok's population, like that of Russia as a whole, includes a significantly greater number of women over men.

Ethnic composition

According to the Russian Census of 2010, Vladivostok's residents include representatives of over seventy nationalities and ethnic groups. Among them, the largest ethnic groups (over 1,000 people) are: 475,200 ethnic Russians; 10,474 Ukrainians; 7,109 Uzbeks; 4,192 Koreans; 2,446 Chinese; 2,446 Tatars; 1,642 Belarusians; 1,635 Armenians; and 1,252 Azerbaijanis.

Ethnicity Population Percentage
Russians 475,170 92.4%
Ukrainians 10,474 2.0%
Uzbeks 7,109 1.4%
Koreans 4,192 0.8%
Chinese 2,446 0.5%
Others 14,850 2.9%

Studies indicate that since 2002 the city's ethnic composition has changed through migration: the share of Uzbeks increased by 14.4 times; the share of Chinese and Tajiks by 5.4 times, the share of Kyrgyz by 8.5 times, and the share of by Koreans by 1.6 times. Over half of the Primorsky Territory's Koreans live compactly in two cities, Vladivostok and Ussuriysk. Over 80% of Primorye Uzbeks live in Vladivostok. As noted, the proportion of Ukrainians, Belarusians, Russians, Tatars in the city has declined.

Vladivostok is regarded as an ethnically diverse city, despite its ethnic Russian majority. It remains among few Russian cities with a large East Asian population. However, today Vladivostok lacks the same multinational diversity it had from the 19th century to the Great Patriotic War, when entire national quarters existed in it, including the Chinese Millionka, the Korean Slobodka, and the Japanese quarter of Nihonzin Mati. Historical German, French, Estonian, American, and Central Asian diasporas at the start of the 21st century have been studied little.

The city's main industries are shipping, commercial fishing, and the naval base. Fishing accounts for almost four-fifths of Vladivostok's commercial production. Other food production totals 11%.

A very important employer and a major source of revenue for the city's inhabitants is the import of Japanese cars. Besides salesmen, the industry employs repairmen, fitters, import clerks as well as shipping and railway companies. The Vladivostok dealers sell 250,000 cars a year, with 200,000 going to other parts of Russia. Every third worker in the Primorsky Krai has some relation to the automobile import business. In recent years, the Russian government has made attempts to improve the country's own car industry. This has included raising tariffs for imported cars, which has put the car import business in Vladivostok in difficulties. To compensate, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin ordered the car manufacturing company Sollers to move one of its factories from Moscow to Vladivostok. The move was completed in 2009, and the factory now employs about 700 locals. It is planned to produce 13,200 cars in Vladivostok in 2010.

Seaport

Vladivostok is a link between the Trans-Siberian Railway and the Pacific Sea routes, making it an important cargo and passenger port. It processes both cabotage and export-import general cargo of a wide range. 20 stevedoring companies operate in the port. The cargo turnover of the Vladivostok port, including the total turnover of all stevedoring companies, at the end of 2018 amounted to 21.2 million tons.

In 2015, the total volume of external trade seaport amounted to more than 11.8 billion dollars. Foreign economic activity was carried out with 104 countries.

Tourism

A sanatorium on the shores of the Ussuri Bay

Vladivostok is located in the extreme southeast of the Russian Far East, and is the closest city to the countries of the Asia-Pacific with an exotic European culture, which makes it attractive to tourists. The city is included in the project for the development of the Far East tourism "Eastern Ring". Within the framework of the project, the Primorsky Stage of the Mariinsky Theatre was opened, and there are plans to open branches of the Hermitage Museum, the Russian Museum, the Tretyakov Gallery and the State Museum of Oriental Art. Vladivostok entered the top ten Russian cities for recreation and tourism according to Forbes, and also took the fourteenth place in the National Tourism Rating.

In addition to being the cultural centre, the city also is the centre of tourism in the Peter the Great Gulf. The city's resort area is located on the coast of Amur Bay, which includes over 11 sanatoriums. Vladivostok also has a bustling gambling zone, which has over 11 casinos planned to open by 2023. Tigre de Cristal, the city's first casino, was visited by over 80,000 tourists, in less than a year of its opening.

In 2017, the city was visited by around 3,000,000 tourists, including 640,000 foreigners, of which over 90% are tourists from Asia, specifically China, South Korea and Japan. Domestic tourism is based on business tourism (business trips to exhibitions, conferences), which accounts for up to 70% of the inbound flow. In Vladivostok, diplomatic tourism is also developed, as there are 18 foreign consulates in the city. There are 46 hotels in the city, with a total fund of 2561 rooms. The vast majority of the travel companies of Primorsky Krai (86%) are concentrated in Vladivostok, and their number was around 233 companies in 2011.

Zolotoy Bridge across bay in the city

The Trans-Siberian Railway was built to connect European Russia with Vladivostok, Russia's most important Pacific Ocean port. Finished in 1905, the rail line ran from Moscow to Vladivostok via several of Russia's main cities. Part of the railway, known as the Chinese Eastern Line, crossed over into China, passing through Harbin, a major city in Manchuria. Today, Vladivostok serves as the main starting point for the Trans-Siberian portion of the Eurasian Land Bridge.

Vladivostok is the main air hub in the Russian Far East. Vladivostok International Airport (VVO) is the home base of Aurora, a subsidiary of Aeroflot. The airline was formed by Aeroflot in 2013 by amalgamating SAT Airlines and Vladivostok Avia. The Vladivostok International Airport was significantly upgraded in 2013 with a new 3,500-metre runway capable of accommodating all aircraft types without any restrictions. The Terminal A was built in 2012 with a capacity of 3.5 million passengers per year.

International flights connect Vladivostok with Japan, China, Philippines, North Korea, South Korea and Vietnam.

It is possible to get to Vladivostok from several of the larger cities in Russia. Regular flights to Seattle, Washington, were available in the 1990s but have been cancelled since. Vladivostok Air was flying to Anchorage, Alaska, from July 2008 to 2013, before its transformation into Aurora airline.

Svetlanskaya Street in the central part of Vladivostok (August 2005)

Vladivostok is the starting point of Ussuri Highway (M60) to Khabarovsk, the easternmost part of Trans-Siberian Highway that goes all the way to Moscow and Saint Petersburg via Novosibirsk. The other main highways go east to Nakhodka and south to Khasan.

Urban transportation

On 28 June 1908, Vladivostok's first tram line was started along Svetlanskaya Street, running from the railway station on Lugovaya Street.[citation needed] On 9 October 1912, the first wooden carriages manufactured in Belgium entered service. Today, Vladivostok's means of public transportation include trolleybus, bus, tram, train, funicular and ferryboat. The main urban traffic lines are City Centre—Vtoraya Rechka, City Centre—Pervaya Rechka—3ya Rabochaya—Balyayeva, and City Centre—Lugovaya Street.

In 2012, Vladivostok hosted the 24th Summit of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum. In preparation for the event, the infrastructure of the city was renovated and improved. Two giant cable-stayed bridges were constructed in Vladivostok, namely the Zolotoy Rog Bridge over the Golden Horn Bay in the centre of the city, and the Russky Bridge from the mainland to Russky Island, where the summit took place. The latter bridge is the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world.

Videoconferencing in Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service

There are 114 general education institutions in Vladivostok, with a total number of students of 50,700 people (in 2015). The municipal education system of the city consists of preschool organizations, primary, basic, secondary general education schools, lyceums, gymnasiums, schools with an in-depth study of individual subjects, and centers of additional education.

The municipal educational network includes 2 gymnasiums, 2 lyceums, 13 schools with advanced study of individual subjects, one primary school, 2 basic schools, 58 secondary schools, four evening schools, one boarding school, one boarding school. Three Vladivostok schools are included in the Top-500 schools of the Russian Federation. At the municipal level, there is a city system of school olympiads, a city scholarship has been established for outstanding achievements of students.

In 2016, branches of the Academy of Russian Ballet and the Nakhimov Naval School were opened.

Dozens of colleges, schools and universities provide vocational education in Vladivostok. The beginning of higher education was laid in the city with the founding of the Oriental Institute. At the moment, the largest university in Vladivostok is the Far Eastern Federal University. More than 41,000 students study in it, 5,000 employees work, including 1,598 teachers. It accounts for a large share (64%) of scientific publications among Far Eastern universities.

Students in Vladivostok celebrating St Tatyana's Day, or Russian Students Day

Also, higher education in the city is represented by such local universities:

Over fifty newspapers and regional editions to Moscow publications are issued in Vladivostok. The largest newspaper of the Primorsky Krai and the whole Russian Far East is Vladivostok News with a circulation of 124,000 copies at the beginning of 1996. Its founder, joint-stock company Vladivostok-News, also issues a weekly English-language newspaper Vladivostok News. The subjects of the publications issued in these newspapers vary from information about Vladivostok and Primorye to major international events. Newspaper Zolotoy Rog (Golden Horn) gives every detail of economic news. Entertainment materials and cultural news constitute a larger part of Novosti (News) newspaper which is the most popular among Primorye's young people. Also, new online mass media about the Russian Far East for foreigners is the Far East Times. This source invites readers to take part in the informational support of R.F.E. for visitors, travellers and businessmen. Vladivostok operates many online news agencies, such as NewsVL.ru, Primamedia, Primorye24 and Vesti-Primorye. From 2012 to 2017 there operates youth online magazine Vladivostok-3000.

As of 2020, there operate nineteen radio stations, including three 24-hour local stations. Radio VBC (FM 101,7 MHz, since 1993) broadcasts classic and modern rock music, oldies and music of the 1980s–1990s. Radio Lemma (FM 102,7 MHz, since 1996) broadcasts news, radio shows and various Russian and European-American songs. Vladivostok FM (FM 106,4 MHz, was launched in 2008) broadcasts local news and popular music (Top 40). The State broadcasting company "Vladivostok" broadcasts local news and music programs from 7 to 9, from 12 to 14 and from 18 to 19 on weekdays on the frequency of Radio Rossii (Radio of Russia).

Theatres

Maxim Gorky Theatre

Maxim Gorky Academic Theatre, named after the Russian author Maxim Gorky, was founded in 1931 and is used for drama, musical and children's theatre performances.

There are five professional theatres in the city. In 2014, they were visited by 369,800 spectators. The Primorsky Regional Academic Drama Theatre named after Maxim Gorky is the oldest state theater in Vladivostok, opened on 3 November 1932. The theater employs 202 people: 41 actors (of them, three folk and nine honoured artists of Russia).

Manor of Julius Bryner, in front of which stands the statue of his grandson Juli (the actor Yul Brynner), Aleutskaya St.

The Primorsky Pushkin Theatre was built in 1907–1908, and is currently one of the main cultural centers of the city. In the 1930s–40s, the following still operating ones were successively opened: the Drama Theatre of the Pacific Fleet, the Primorsky Regional Puppet Theatre, and the Primorsky Regional Drama Theatre of Youth. The regional puppet theatre gave 484 performances in 2015, which were attended by more than 52,000 spectators. There are 500 puppets in the theatre, where 15 artists work. The troupe regularly goes on tour to Europe and Asia.

In September 2012, a granite statue of the actor Yul Brynner (1920–1985) was inaugurated in Yul Brynner Park, directly in front of the house where he was born at 15 Aleutskaya St.

Music, opera and ballet

The city is home to the Vladivostok Pops Orchestra.

Russian rock band Mumiy Troll hails from Vladivostok and frequently puts on shows there. In addition, the city hosted the "VladiROCKstok" International Music Festival in September 1996. Hosted by the mayor and governor, and organized by two young American expatriates, the festival drew nearly 10,000 people and top-tier musical acts from St. Petersburg (Akvarium and DDT) and Seattle (Supersuckers, Goodness), as well as several leading local bands.[citation needed]

Nowadays there is another annual music festival in Vladivostok, Vladivostok Rocks International Music Festival and Conference (V-ROX). Vladivostok Rocks is a three-day open-air city festival and international conference for the music industry and contemporary cultural management. It offers the opportunity for aspiring artists and producers to gain exposure to new audiences and leading international professionals.

The musical theater in Vladivostok is represented by the Primorsky Regional Philharmonic Society, the largest concert organization in Primorsky Krai. The Philharmonic has organized the Pacific Symphony Orchestra and the Governor's Brass Orchestra. In 2013, the Primorsky Opera and Ballet Theater was opened. On January 1, 2016, it was transformed into a branch of the Mariinsky Theatre. The Russian Opera House houses the State Primorsky Opera and Ballet Theater.

Museums

The Vladimir K. Arseniev Museum of Far East History, opened in 1890, is the main museum of Primorsky Krai. Besides the main facility, it has three branches in Vladivostok itself (including Arsenyev's Memorial House), and five branches elsewhere in the state. Among the items in the museum's collection are the famous 15th-century Yongning Temple Steles from the lower Amur.

Galleries and showrooms

"Recovering" (1889) by Cyril Lemokh – Primorsky State Art Gallery

The active development of art museums in Vladivostok began in the 1950s. In 1960, the House of Artists was built, in which there were exhibition halls. In 1965, the Primorsky State Art Gallery was separated into a separate institution, and later, on the basis of its collection, the Children's Art Gallery was created. In Soviet times, one of the largest areas for exhibitions in Vladivostok was the exhibition hall of the Primorsky branch of the Union of Artists of Soviet Russia. In 1989 the gallery of contemporary art "Artetage" was opened.

In 1995, the Arka gallery of contemporary art was opened, the first exposition of which consisted of 100 paintings donated by the collector Alexander Glezer. The gallery participates in international exhibitions and fairs. In 2005, a non-commercial private gallery "Roytau" appeared. In recent years, the centers of contemporary art "Salt" (created on the basis of the FEFU art museum) and "Zarya", have been active.

Cinemas

In 2014, 21 cinemas operated in Vladivostok, and the total number of film screenings was 1,501,000.

Most of the city's cinemas – Ocean, Galaktika, Moscow (formerly called New Wave Cinema), Neptune 3D (formerly called Neptune and Borodino), Illusion, Vladivostok – are renovated cinemas built in the Soviet years. Among them stands out "Ocean" with the largest (22 by 10 metres) screen in the Far East of the country, located in the centre of the city in the area of Sports Harbour. Together with the cinema "Ussuri", it is the venue for the annual international film festival "Pacific Meridians" (since 2002). Since December 2014 the IMAX 3D hall has been operating in the Ocean cinema.

Admirala Fokina Street (September 2014)
Practicing yoga at Yoga Day in Vladivostok, 2016

Parks and squares in Vladivostok include Pokrovskiy Park, Minnyy Gorodok, Detskiy Razvlekatelnyy Park, Park of Sergeya Lazo, Admiralskiy Skver, Skver im. Neveskogo, Nagornyy Park, Skver im. Sukhanova, Fantaziya Park, Skver Rybatskoy Slavy, Skver im. A.I.Shchetininoy.

Pokrovskiy Park

Pokrovskiy Park was once a cemetery. Converted into a park in 1934 but was closed in 1990. Since 1990 the land the park sits on belongs to the Russian Orthodox Church. During the rebuilding of the Orthodox Church, graves were found.

Minny Gorodok

Minny Gorodok is a 91-acre (37 ha) public park. Minny Gorodok means "Mine Borough Park" in English. The park is a former military base that was founded in 1880. The military base was used for storing mines in underground storage. Converted into a park in 1985, Minny Gorodok contains several lakes, ponds, and an ice-skating rink.

Detsky Razvlekatelny Park

Detsky Razvlekatelny Park is a children's amusement park located near the centre of the city. The park contains a carousel, gaming machines, a Ferris wheel, cafés, an aquarium, cinema and a stadium.

Admiralsky Skver

Admiralsky Skver is a landmark located near the city's centre. The Square is an open space, dominated by the Triumfalnaya Arka. South of the square sits a museum of Soviet submarine S-56.

Fetisov Arena in Vladivostok in December 2017

Vladivostok is home to the football club FC Luch-Energiya Vladivostok, who plays in the Russian First Division, ice hockey club Admiral Vladivostok from the Kontinental Hockey League's Chernyshev Division, and basketball club Spartak Primorye, who plays in the Russian Basketball Super League. It is also home to the Vostok Vladivostok motorcycle speedway club.

Local ecologists from the Ecocenter organization have claimed that much of Vladivostok's suburbs are polluted and that living in them can be classified as a health hazard.[citation needed] The pollution has a number of causes, according to Ecocenter geo-chemical expert Sergey Shlykov. Vladivostok has about eighty industrial sites, which may not be many compared to Russia's most industrialized areas, but those around the city are particularly environmentally unfriendly, such as shipbuilding and repairing, power stations, printing, fur farming, and mining.

In addition, Vladivostok has particularly vulnerable geography which compounds the effect of pollution. Winds cannot clear pollution from some of the most densely populated areas around the Pervaya and Vtoraya Rechka as they sit in basins which the winds blow over. In addition, there is little snow in winter and no leaves or grass to catch the dust to make it settle down.

Vladivostok is twinned with:

In 2010, arches with the names of each of Vladivostok's twin towns were placed in a park within the city.

From Vladivostok ferry port next to the train station, a ferry of the DBS Cruise Ferry travels regularly to Donghae, South Korea and from there to Sakaiminato on the Japanese main island of Honshu.

Notes

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Sources

  • Законодательное Собрание Приморского края. Закон №161-КЗ от 14 ноября 2001 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Приморского края», в ред. Закона №673-КЗ от 6 октября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Приморского края "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Приморского края"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красное знамя Приморья", №69 (119), 29 ноября 2001 г. (Legislative Assembly of Primorsky Krai. Law #161-KZ of November 14, 2001 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Primorsky Krai, as amended by the Law #673-KZ of October 6, 2015 On Amending the Law of Primorsky Krai "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Primorsky Krai". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Приморского края. Закон №179-КЗ от 6 декабря 2004 г. «О Владивостокском городском округе», в ред. Закона №48-КЗ от 7 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Приморского края "О Владивостокском городском округе"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2005 г.. Опубликован: "Ведомости Законодательного Собрания Приморского края", №76, 7 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Primorsky Krai. Law #179-KZ of December 6, 2004 On Vladivostoksky Urban Okrug, as amended by the Law #48-KZ of June 7, 2012 On Amending the Law of Primorsky Krai "On Vladivostoksky Urban Okrug". Effective as of January 1, 2005.).
  • Faulstich, Edith. M. "The Siberian Sojourn" Yonkers, N.Y. (1972–1977)
  • Narangoa, Li (2014). Historical Atlas of Northeast Asia, 1590–2010: Korea, Manchuria, Mongolia, Eastern Siberia. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231160704.
  • Poznyak, Tatyana Z. 2004. Foreign Citizens in the Cities of the Russian Far East (the second half of the 19th and 20th centuries). Vladivostok: Dalnauka, 2004. 316 p. (ISBN 5-8044-0461-X).
  • Stephan, John. 1994. The Far East a History. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1994. 481 p.
  • Trofimov, Vladimir et al., 1992, Old Vladivostok. Utro Rossii Vladivostok, ISBN 5-87080-004-8
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Vladivostok
Vladivostok Language Watch Edit Vladivostok Russian Vladivosto k is the largest city and the administrative centre of Primorsky Krai Russia The city is located around the Golden Horn Bay on the Sea of Japan covering an area of 331 16 square kilometres 127 86 square miles with a population of 606 561 residents 11 up to 812 319 residents in the urban agglomeration Vladivostok is the second largest city in the Far Eastern Federal District as well as the Russian Far East after Khabarovsk Vladivostok VladivostokCity 1 Top down left to right View of Zolotoy Bridge and the Golden Horn Bay at night with the Russky Bridge in the distance GUM Department Store Vladimir K Arseniev Museum of Far East History the campus of Far Eastern Federal University Vladivostok Railway Station and Central SquareFlagCoat of armsLocation of VladivostokVladivostokLocation of VladivostokShow map of Primorsky KraiVladivostokVladivostok Russia Show map of RussiaCoordinates 43 08 N 131 54 E 43 133 N 131 900 E 43 133 131 900 Coordinates 43 08 N 131 54 E 43 133 N 131 900 E 43 133 131 900CountryRussiaFederal subjectPrimorsky Krai 1 Founded2 July 1860 2 City status since22 April 1880Government BodyCity Duma HeadOleg Gumenyuk 3 Area 4 Total331 16 km2 127 86 sq mi Elevation8 m 26 ft Population Estimate 2018 5 604 901 Rank22nd in 2010Administrative status Subordinated toVladivostok City Under Krai Jurisdiction 1 Capital ofPrimorsky Krai 6 Vladivostok City Under Krai Jurisdiction 1 Municipal status Urban okrugVladivostoksky Urban Okrug 7 Capital ofVladivostoksky Urban Okrug 7 Time zoneUTC 10 MSK 7 8 Postal code s 9 690xxxDialing code s 7 423 10 OKTMO ID05701000001City DayFirst Sunday of JulyWebsitewww wbr vlc wbr ru The city was founded in 1860 as a Russian military outpost In 1872 the main Russian naval base on the Pacific Ocean was transferred to the city and thereafter Vladivostok began to grow After the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917 Vladivostok was occupied in 1918 by foreign troops the last of whom were not withdrawn until 1922 by that time the anti revolutionary White Army forces in Vladivostok promptly collapsed and Soviet power was established in the city After the dissolution of the Soviet Union Vladivostok became the administrative centre of Primorsky Krai Vladivostok is the largest Russian port on the Pacific Ocean and the chief economic scientific and cultural centre of the Russian Far East as well as an important tourism centre in Russia As the terminus of the Trans Siberian Railway the city was visited by over three million tourists in 2017 12 The city is the administrative centre of the Far Eastern Federal District and is the home to the headquarters of the Pacific Fleet of the Russian Navy For its unique geographical location and its Russian culture the city is called Europe in the Orient 13 14 Many foreign consulates and businesses have offices in Vladivostok With an annual mean temperature of around 5 C 41 F Vladivostok has a cold climate for its mid latitude coastal setting This is due to winds from the vast Eurasian landmass in winter also cooling the ocean temperatures Names and etymology EditSee also Names of Vladivostok in different languages Vladivostok means Lord of the East or Ruler of the East The name derives from Slavic vlad vlad to rule and Russian vostok vostok east see the etymology of Vladimir name It was first named in 1859 along with other features in the Peter the Great Gulf area by Nikolay Muravyov Amursky The name initially applied to the bay but following an expedition by Alexey Karlovich Shefner ru in 1860 was later applied to the new settlement 15 The form of the name appears analogous to that of the city of Vladikavkaz Ruler of the Caucasus or Rule the Caucasus in Northern Ossetia founded and named by Russians in 1784 Colloquial Russian speech may use a short form Vladik Russian Vladik to refer to the city 16 Chinese maps from the Yuan Dynasty 1271 1368 label Vladivostok as Yongmingcheng 永明城 Yǒngmingcheng citation needed Since the Qing dynasty the city is known as Haishenwai 海參崴 Hǎishenwǎi in Chinese from the Manchu Haisenwai Manchu ᡥᠠᡳᡧᡝᠨᠸᡝᡳ Mollendorff Haisenwai Abkai Haixenwai or small seaside village 17 In China Vladivostok is now officially known by the transliteration 符拉迪沃斯托克 Fuladiwosituōke although the historical Chinese name 海参崴 Hǎishenwǎi is still often used in common parlance and outside Mainland China to refer to the city 18 19 According to the provisions of the Chinese government all maps published in China have to bracket the city s Chinese name 20 The modern day Japanese name of the city is transliterated as Urajiosutoku ウラジオストク Historically the city s name was transliterated with Kanji as 浦塩斯徳 and shortened to Urajio ウラジオ 浦塩 21 History EditMain articles History of Vladivostok and Timeline of Vladivostok Foundation Edit Steamship corvette America on the Golden Horn Bay For a long time the Russian government was looking for a stronghold in the Far East this role was played in turn by the settlements of Okhotsk Ayan Petropavlovsk Kamchatsky and Nikolaevsk on Amur By the middle of the 19th century the search for the outpost had reached a dead end none of the ports met the necessary requirement to have a convenient and protected harbour next to trade routes 22 The Aigun Treaty was concluded by the forces of the Governor General of Eastern Siberia Nikolay Muravyov Amursky active exploration of the Amur region began and later as a result of the signing of the Treaty of Tientsin and the Convention of Peking the territory of modern Vladivostok were annexed to Russia The very name Vladivostok appeared in the middle of 1859 was used in newspaper articles and denoted a bay 22 On 20 June 2 July 1860 the transport of the Siberian Military Flotilla Mandzhur under the command of Lieutenant Commander Alexei Karlovich Shefner delivered a military unit to the Golden Horn Bay to establish a military post which has now officially received the name of Vladivostok 23 The port can be considered the best of all He reminds many of Olga but only less of her more comfortable but warmer and more fun However the same oaks all around the same picturesque mountains In the lowlands rivers murmur there are many springs on the banks Our post set up the other day with its white tents looks good in a group of oak trees that have not yet been cut down and have just cleared The first days of the port in the description of the ethnographer Sergei Maksimov 24 19th century early 20th century Edit On 31 October 1861 the first civilian settler a merchant Yakov Lazarevich Semyonov arrived in Vladivostok with his family On 15 March 1862 the first act of his purchase of land was registered and in 1870 Semyonov was elected the first head of the post and a local self government emerged 22 By this time a special commission decided to designate Vladivostok as the main port of the Russian Empire in the Far East 25 In 1871 the main naval base of the Siberian Military Flotilla the headquarters of the military governor and other naval departments were transferred from Nikolaevsk on Amur to Vladivostok 26 General view of Vladivostok 1880 In the 1870s the government encouraged resettlement to the South Ussuri region which contributed to an increase in the population of the post according to the first census of 1878 there were 4 163 inhabitants The city status was adopted and the city Duma was established the post of the city head the coat of arms was adopted although Vladivostok was not officially recognized as a city 26 Due to the constant threat of attack from the Royal Navy Vladivostok also actively developed as a naval base Intersection of Svetlanskaya and Aleutskaya streets in the 1910s In 1880 the post officially received the status of a city The 1890s saw a demographic and economic boom associated with the completion of the construction of the Ussuriyskaya branch of the Trans Siberian Railway and the Chinese Eastern Railway 26 According to the first census of the population of Russia on 9 February 1897 roughly 29 000 inhabitants lived in Vladivostok and ten years later the city s population tripled 26 The first decade of the 20th century was characterized by a protracted crisis caused by the political situation the government s attention was shifted to Port Arthur and the Port of Dalny As well as the Boxer uprising in North China in 1900 1901 the Russo Japanese War of 1904 1905 and finally the first Russian revolution led to stagnation in the economic activity of Vladivostok 27 Since 1907 a new stage in the development of the city began the loss of Port Arthur and Dalny again made Vladivostok the main port of Russia on the Pacific Ocean A free port regime was introduced and until 1914 the city experienced rapid growth becoming an important economic centre in the Asia Pacific as well as an ethnically diverse city with a population exceeding over 100 000 inhabitants during the time ethnic Russians made up less than half of the population 27 and large Asian communities developed in the city The public life of the city flourished many public associations were created from charities to hobby groups 28 World War I Revolution and Occupation Edit See also Far Eastern Republic and Provisional Priamurye Government Map of Vladivostok 1911 During World War I no active hostilities took place in the city 29 However Vladivostok was an important staging post for the import of military technical equipment for troops from allied and neutral countries as well as raw materials and equipment for industry 30 Immediately after the October Revolution in 1917 during which the Bolsheviks came to power the Decree on Peace was announced and as a result of the Treaty of Brest Litovsk concluded between the Bolshevik government of Russia and the Central Powers led to the end of Soviet Russia s participation in World War I On October 30 the sailors of the Siberian Military Flotilla decided to rally around the united power of the Soviets and the power of Vladivostok as well as all of the Trans Siberian Railway passed to the Bolsheviks 29 During the Russian Civil War from May 1918 31 they lost control of the city to the White Army allied Czechoslovak Legion who declared the city to be an Allied protectorate Vladivostok became the staging point for the Allies Siberian intervention a multi national force including Japan the United States and China China sent forces to protect the local Chinese community after appeals from Chinese merchants 32 The intervention ended in the wake of the collapse of the White Army and regime in 1919 all Allied forces except the Japanese withdrew by the end of 1920 29 American troops marching on Vladivostok following the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War 1918 Throughout 1919 the region was engulfed in a partisan war 29 To avoid a war with Japan with the filing of the Soviet leadership the Far Eastern Republic a Soviet backed buffer state between Soviet Russia and Japan was proclaimed on 6 April 1920 The Soviet government officially recognized the new republic in May but in Primorye a riot occurred where significant forces of the White Movement were located leading to the creation of the Provisional Priamurye Government with Vladivostok as its capital 33 In October 1922 the troops of the Red Army of the Far Eastern Republic under the command of Ieronim Uborevich occupied Vladivostok displacing the White Army formations from it In November the Far Eastern Republic liquidated and became a part of Soviet Russia 26 Soviet period Edit By the time of the establishment of Soviet power Vladivostok was in decline The retreating forces of the Japanese army removed items of material value from the city Life was paralyzed there was no money in the banks and the equipment of enterprise was plundered Due to mass migration and repression the city s population decreased to 106 000 inhabitants 34 Between 1923 and 1925 the government adopted a three year restoration plan during which operations at the commercial port were resumed and it became the most profitable in the country from 1924 to 1925 34 35 The restoration period was distinguished by a number of peculiarities the Russian Far East did not adopt war communism but was immediately inducted to the New Economic Policy 35 In 1925 the government decided to accelerate the industrialization of the country A number of subsequent five year plans changed the face of Primorye making it an industrial region partly as a result of the creation of numerous concentration camps in the region 35 In the 1930s and 1940s Vladivostok served as a transit point on the route used to deliver prisoners and cargo for the Sevvostlag of the Soviet super trust Dalstroy The notorious Vladivostok transit camp was located in the city In addition in the late 1930s and early 1940s the Vladivostok forced labour camp Vladlag was located in the area of the Vtoraya Rechka railway station 36 Vladivostok was not a place of hostilities during the Great Patriotic War although there was a constant threat of attack from Japan In the city a Defense Fund was created the first in the country to which the residents of Vladivostok contributed personal wealth 37 During the war years Vladivostok handled imported cargo lend lease of a volume almost four times more than Murmansk and almost five times more than Arkhangelsk 38 The city centre of Vladivostok in 1982 By the decree of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union Issues of the Fifth Navy dated 11 August 1951 a special regime was introduced in Vladivostok it began to operate on 1 January 1952 the city was closed to foreigners 39 It was planned to remove from Vladivostok not only foreign consulates but also the merchant and fish fleet and transfer all regional authorities to Voroshilov now Ussuriysk However these plans were not implemented 39 During the years of the Khrushchev Thaw Vladivostok received special attention from state authorities For the first time Nikita Khrushchev visited the city in 1954 to finally decide whether to secure the status of a closed naval base for him 40 It was noted that at that time the urban infrastructure was in a deplorable state 40 In 1959 Khrushchev visited the city again The result is a decision on the accelerated development of the city which was formalized by the decree of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union on 18 January 1960 40 During the 1960s a new tram line was built a trolleybus was launched the city became a huge construction site residential neighborhoods were being erected on the outskirts and new buildings for public and civil purposes were erected in the center 40 In 1974 Gerald Ford paid an official visit to Vladivostok to meet with Leonid Brezhnev becoming the first President of the United States to visit the Soviet Union Both sides signed the Anti Ballistic Missile Treaty which helped to contain the nuclear arms race between the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War 41 On 20 September 1991 Boris Yeltsin signed decree No 123 On the opening of Vladivostok for visiting by foreign citizens which entered into force on 1 January 1992 ending Vladivostok s status as a closed city 42 Modern period Edit In 2012 Vladivostok hosted the 24th APEC summit Leaders from the APEC member countries met at Russky Island off the coast of Vladivostok 43 With the summit on Russky Island the government and private businesses inaugurated resorts dinner and entertainment facilities in addition to the renovation and upgrading of Vladivostok International Airport 44 Two giant cable stayed bridges were built in preparation for the summit the Zolotoy Rog bridge over the Zolotoy Rog Bay in the center of the city and the Russky Island Bridge from the mainland to Russky Island the longest cable stayed bridge in the world The new campus of Far Eastern Federal University was completed on Russky Island in 2012 45 Geography Edit Vladivostok 1955 Aerial view of Vladivostok and the Golden Horn Bay in 2014 Valdivostok and surrounding region DMA 1988 The city is located in the southern extremity of Muravyov Amursky Peninsula which is about 30 kilometres 19 mi long and 12 kilometres 7 5 mi wide The highest point is Mount Kholodilnik 257 metres 843 ft Eagle s Nest Hill is often called the highest point of the city but with a height of only 199 metres 653 ft or 214 metres 702 ft according to other sources it is the highest point of the centre but not of the whole city Located in the extreme southeast of the Russian Far East in the extreme southeast of North Asia Vladivostok is geographically closer to Anchorage Alaska US and even Darwin Australia than it is to the nation s capital of Moscow Vladivostok is also closer to Honolulu Hawaii US than to the city of Sochi in Southern Russia It also is further east than any area south of it in China and the entire Korean peninsula Climate Edit Vladivostok has a monsoon influenced humid continental climate Koppen climate classification Dwb with warm humid and rainy summers and cold dry winters Owing to the influence of the Siberian High winters are far colder than a latitude of 43 N should warrant given its low elevation and coastal location with a January average of 12 3 C 9 9 F Since the maritime influence is strong in summer Vladivostok has a relatively cold annual climate for its latitude In winter temperatures can drop below 20 C 4 F while mild spells of weather can raise daytime temperatures above freezing The average monthly precipitation mainly in the form of snow is around 18 5 millimetres 0 73 in from December to March Snow is common during winter but individual snowfalls are light with a maximum snow depth of only 5 centimeters 2 0 in in January During winter clear sunny days are common Summers are warm humid and rainy due to the East Asian monsoon The warmest month is August with an average temperature of 19 8 C 67 6 F Vladivostok receives most of its precipitation during the summer months and most summer days see some rainfall Cloudy days are fairly common and because of the frequent rainfall humidity is high on average about 90 from June to August On average Vladivostok receives 840 millimetres 33 in per year but the driest year was 1943 when 418 millimetres 16 5 in of precipitation fell and the wettest was 1974 with 1 272 millimetres 50 1 in of precipitation The winter months from December to March are dry and in some years they have seen no measurable precipitation at all Extremes range from 31 4 C 24 5 F in January 1931 to 33 6 C 92 5 F in July 1939 46 vteClimate data for Vladivostok 1991 2020 normals extremes 1872 present Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearRecord high C F 5 0 41 0 9 9 49 8 19 4 66 9 27 7 81 9 29 5 85 1 31 8 89 2 33 6 92 5 32 6 90 7 30 0 86 0 23 4 74 1 17 5 63 5 9 4 48 9 33 6 92 5 Average high C F 7 8 18 0 3 8 25 2 2 7 36 9 10 1 50 2 14 9 58 8 17 9 64 2 21 6 70 9 23 3 73 9 20 1 68 2 13 2 55 8 3 3 37 9 5 4 22 3 9 2 48 6 Daily mean C F 11 9 10 6 8 1 17 4 1 5 29 3 5 3 41 5 10 0 50 0 13 8 56 8 18 1 64 6 20 0 68 0 16 3 61 3 9 2 48 6 0 7 30 7 9 2 15 4 5 1 41 2 Average low C F 15 0 5 0 11 3 11 7 4 5 23 9 2 1 35 8 7 0 44 6 11 3 52 3 16 1 61 0 17 9 64 2 13 5 56 3 6 2 43 2 3 5 25 7 12 0 10 4 2 3 36 1 Record low C F 31 4 24 5 28 9 20 0 21 3 6 3 7 8 18 0 0 8 30 6 3 7 38 7 8 7 47 7 10 1 50 2 1 3 34 3 9 7 14 5 20 0 4 0 28 1 18 6 31 4 24 5 Average precipitation mm inches 12 0 5 16 0 6 27 1 1 43 1 7 97 3 8 105 4 1 159 6 3 176 6 9 103 4 1 67 2 6 36 1 4 19 0 7 860 33 9 Average rainy days 0 3 0 3 4 13 20 22 22 19 14 12 5 1 133Average snowy days 7 8 11 4 0 3 0 0 0 0 1 7 9 47Average relative humidity 58 57 60 67 76 87 92 87 77 65 60 60 71Mean monthly sunshine hours 178 184 216 192 199 130 122 149 197 205 168 156 2 096Source 1 Pogoda i Klimat 47 Source 2 NOAA sun 1961 1990 48 Sea temperature data for VladivostokMonth Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearAverage sea temperature C F 1 2 29 8 1 6 29 1 0 9 30 4 2 6 36 7 8 8 47 8 14 2 57 6 19 4 66 9 22 4 72 3 19 4 66 9 13 7 56 7 6 2 43 2 0 7 33 3 8 64 47 6 Source 49 Politics Edit Vladivostok City department of the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations The structure of the city administration has the City Council at the top The responsibilities of the administration of Vladivostok are Exercise of the powers to address local issues of Vladivostok in accordance with federal laws normative legal acts of the Duma of Vladivostok decrees and orders of the head of the city of Vladivostok The development and organization of the concepts plans and programs for the development of the city approved by the Duma of Vladivostok Development of the draft budget of the city Ensuring implementation of the budget The use of territory and infrastructure of the city Possession use and disposal of municipal property in the manner specified by decision of the Duma of Vladivostok Legislative authority is vested in the City Council The new City Council began operations in 2001 and in June that year deputies of the Duma of the first convocation of Vladivostok began their work On 17 December 2007 the Duma of the third convocation began The deputies consist of 35 elected members including 18 members chosen by a single constituency and 17 deputies from single seat constituencies Administrative and municipal status EditVladivostok is the administrative centre of the krai Within the framework of administrative divisions it is together with five rural localities incorporated as Vladivostok City Under Krai Jurisdiction an administrative unit equal to that of the districts in status 1 As a municipal division Vladivostok City Under Krai Jurisdiction is incorporated as Vladivostoksky Urban Okrug 7 Administrative divisions Edit Administrative divisions of the city of Vladivostok Vladivostok is divided into five administrative districts Leninsky Pervomaisky Pervorechensky Sovietsky FrunzenskyLocal government Edit Vladivostok City Hall The city charter approved the following structure of local government bodies 50 City Duma is a representative body The head of the city is its highest official Administration is the executive and administrative body Chamber of Control and Accounts controls the body Vladivostok City Duma s history dates from November 21 1875 when 30 vowels were elected Great changes took place after the 1917 Revolution when the first general elections were held and women were allowed to vote The last meeting of the Vladivostok City Duma took place on October 19 1922 and on October 27 it was officially abolished In Soviet times its functions were performed by the City Council In 1993 by a presidential decree the Soviets were dissolved and until 2001 all attempts to elect a new Duma were unsuccessful The Duma of the city of Vladivostok of the fifth current convocation began work in the fall of 2017 consisting of 35 deputies 51 The head of Vladivostok on the principles of one man management manages the city s administration which he forms in accordance with federal laws laws of the Primorsky Territory and the city charter The city s administrative structure is approved by the City Duma on the proposal of the head and may include sectoral functional and territorial bodies of the administration of Vladivostok 52 Igor Pushkaryov was the city s mayor from May 2008 to June 2016 previously he was a Federation Council member of Primorsky Krai On June 27 2016 Konstantin Loboda the first deputy mayor was appointed as the Vladivostok s new acting mayor 53 On December 21 2017 Vitaly Vasilyevich Verkeenko was appointed the head of the city Demographics EditPopulation dynamics age and gender structure Edit Russians walking by the Pacific Ocean in Vladivostok According to the Russian Census of 2010 Vladivostok had a population of over 592 000 with over 616 800 residents in the greater urban area 54 The Primorsky State Statistics Service reported that for 2016 the total permanent population of the city s urban agglomeration was over 633 167 55 Since the city s founding its population has actively grown save for the periods of the Russian Civil War and the demographic crisis after dissolution of the Soviet Union in the 1990s and the beginning of the 2000s In the 1970s the population exceeded over 500 000 and in 1992 reached a historical high of over 648 000 The average population density is about 1 832 people km2 In recent years the population gradually has grown through migration and a rise in the birth rate In the past five years the population has risen by 30 000 Since 2013 natural growth dynamics added 727 individuals to this figure by 2015 s end 56 By 2020 Vladivostok s population reached over 600 000 as reported by the Russian Federal Statistics Bureau 57 The city s age distribution includes a large segment of older adults Overall the population includes 12 7 who are younger than able bodied 66 3 who are able bodied and 21 who are older than able bodied 54 Vladivostok s population like that of Russia as a whole includes a significantly greater number of women over men 54 Ethnic composition Edit According to the Russian Census of 2010 Vladivostok s residents include representatives of over seventy nationalities and ethnic groups Among them the largest ethnic groups over 1 000 people are 475 200 ethnic Russians 10 474 Ukrainians 7 109 Uzbeks 4 192 Koreans 2 446 Chinese 2 446 Tatars 1 642 Belarusians 1 635 Armenians and 1 252 Azerbaijanis 58 Ethnicity Population PercentageRussians 475 170 92 4 Ukrainians 10 474 2 0 Uzbeks 7 109 1 4 Koreans 4 192 0 8 Chinese 2 446 0 5 Others 14 850 2 9 Studies indicate that since 2002 the city s ethnic composition has changed through migration the share of Uzbeks increased by 14 4 times the share of Chinese and Tajiks by 5 4 times the share of Kyrgyz by 8 5 times and the share of by Koreans by 1 6 times Over half of the Primorsky Territory s Koreans live compactly in two cities Vladivostok and Ussuriysk Over 80 of Primorye Uzbeks live in Vladivostok As noted the proportion of Ukrainians Belarusians Russians Tatars in the city has declined 59 Vladivostok is regarded as an ethnically diverse city 60 despite its ethnic Russian majority It remains among few Russian cities with a large East Asian population However today Vladivostok lacks the same multinational diversity it had from the 19th century to the Great Patriotic War when entire national quarters existed in it including the Chinese Millionka the Korean Slobodka and the Japanese quarter of Nihonzin Mati Historical German French Estonian American and Central Asian diasporas at the start of the 21st century have been studied little 60 Economy EditThe city s main industries are shipping commercial fishing and the naval base Fishing accounts for almost four fifths of Vladivostok s commercial production Other food production totals 11 A very important employer and a major source of revenue for the city s inhabitants is the import of Japanese cars 61 Besides salesmen the industry employs repairmen fitters import clerks as well as shipping and railway companies 62 The Vladivostok dealers sell 250 000 cars a year with 200 000 going to other parts of Russia 62 Every third worker in the Primorsky Krai has some relation to the automobile import business In recent years the Russian government has made attempts to improve the country s own car industry This has included raising tariffs for imported cars which has put the car import business in Vladivostok in difficulties To compensate Prime Minister Vladimir Putin ordered the car manufacturing company Sollers to move one of its factories from Moscow to Vladivostok The move was completed in 2009 and the factory now employs about 700 locals It is planned to produce 13 200 cars in Vladivostok in 2010 61 Seaport Edit See also Free port of Vladivostok Port of Vladivostok Vladivostok is a link between the Trans Siberian Railway and the Pacific Sea routes making it an important cargo and passenger port It processes both cabotage and export import general cargo of a wide range 20 stevedoring companies operate in the port 63 The cargo turnover of the Vladivostok port including the total turnover of all stevedoring companies at the end of 2018 amounted to 21 2 million tons 64 In 2015 the total volume of external trade seaport amounted to more than 11 8 billion dollars 65 Foreign economic activity was carried out with 104 countries 65 Tourism Edit A sanatorium on the shores of the Ussuri Bay Vladivostok is located in the extreme southeast of the Russian Far East and is the closest city to the countries of the Asia Pacific with an exotic European culture which makes it attractive to tourists 66 The city is included in the project for the development of the Far East tourism Eastern Ring Within the framework of the project the Primorsky Stage of the Mariinsky Theatre was opened and there are plans to open branches of the Hermitage Museum the Russian Museum the Tretyakov Gallery and the State Museum of Oriental Art 67 Vladivostok entered the top ten Russian cities for recreation and tourism according to Forbes and also took the fourteenth place in the National Tourism Rating 68 In addition to being the cultural centre the city also is the centre of tourism in the Peter the Great Gulf The city s resort area is located on the coast of Amur Bay which includes over 11 sanatoriums 69 Vladivostok also has a bustling gambling zone 70 which has over 11 casinos planned to open by 2023 71 Tigre de Cristal the city s first casino was visited by over 80 000 tourists in less than a year of its opening 72 In 2017 the city was visited by around 3 000 000 tourists including 640 000 foreigners of which over 90 are tourists from Asia specifically China South Korea and Japan 12 Domestic tourism is based on business tourism business trips to exhibitions conferences which accounts for up to 70 of the inbound flow In Vladivostok diplomatic tourism is also developed as there are 18 foreign consulates in the city 73 There are 46 hotels in the city with a total fund of 2561 rooms 73 The vast majority of the travel companies of Primorsky Krai 86 are concentrated in Vladivostok and their number was around 233 companies in 2011 74 Transportation Edit Zolotoy Bridge across bay in the city Russky Bridge The Trans Siberian Railway was built to connect European Russia with Vladivostok Russia s most important Pacific Ocean port Finished in 1905 the rail line ran from Moscow to Vladivostok via several of Russia s main cities Part of the railway known as the Chinese Eastern Line crossed over into China passing through Harbin a major city in Manchuria Today Vladivostok serves as the main starting point for the Trans Siberian portion of the Eurasian Land Bridge Vladivostok railway station Vladivostok is the main air hub in the Russian Far East Vladivostok International Airport VVO is the home base of Aurora a subsidiary of Aeroflot The airline was formed by Aeroflot in 2013 by amalgamating SAT Airlines and Vladivostok Avia The Vladivostok International Airport was significantly upgraded in 2013 with a new 3 500 metre runway capable of accommodating all aircraft types without any restrictions The Terminal A was built in 2012 with a capacity of 3 5 million passengers per year International flights connect Vladivostok with Japan China Philippines North Korea South Korea and Vietnam It is possible to get to Vladivostok from several of the larger cities in Russia Regular flights to Seattle Washington were available in the 1990s but have been cancelled since Vladivostok Air was flying to Anchorage Alaska from July 2008 to 2013 before its transformation into Aurora airline Svetlanskaya Street in the central part of Vladivostok August 2005 Vladivostok is the starting point of Ussuri Highway M60 to Khabarovsk the easternmost part of Trans Siberian Highway that goes all the way to Moscow and Saint Petersburg via Novosibirsk The other main highways go east to Nakhodka and south to Khasan Urban transportation Edit On 28 June 1908 Vladivostok s first tram line was started along Svetlanskaya Street running from the railway station on Lugovaya Street citation needed On 9 October 1912 the first wooden carriages manufactured in Belgium entered service Today Vladivostok s means of public transportation include trolleybus bus tram train funicular and ferryboat The main urban traffic lines are City Centre Vtoraya Rechka City Centre Pervaya Rechka 3ya Rabochaya Balyayeva and City Centre Lugovaya Street Cars of the Vladivostok funicular Buses in Vladivostok Trams in Vladivostok In 2012 Vladivostok hosted the 24th Summit of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation APEC forum In preparation for the event the infrastructure of the city was renovated and improved Two giant cable stayed bridges were constructed in Vladivostok namely the Zolotoy Rog Bridge over the Golden Horn Bay in the centre of the city and the Russky Bridge from the mainland to Russky Island where the summit took place The latter bridge is the longest cable stayed bridge in the world Education Edit Videoconferencing in Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service There are 114 general education institutions in Vladivostok with a total number of students of 50 700 people in 2015 The municipal education system of the city consists of preschool organizations primary basic secondary general education schools lyceums gymnasiums schools with an in depth study of individual subjects and centers of additional education The municipal educational network includes 2 gymnasiums 2 lyceums 13 schools with advanced study of individual subjects one primary school 2 basic schools 58 secondary schools four evening schools one boarding school one boarding school Three Vladivostok schools are included in the Top 500 schools of the Russian Federation 75 At the municipal level there is a city system of school olympiads a city scholarship has been established for outstanding achievements of students In 2016 branches of the Academy of Russian Ballet and the Nakhimov Naval School were opened 76 77 Dozens of colleges schools and universities provide vocational education in Vladivostok The beginning of higher education was laid in the city with the founding of the Oriental Institute 78 At the moment the largest university in Vladivostok is the Far Eastern Federal University More than 41 000 students study in it 5 000 employees work including 1 598 teachers It accounts for a large share 64 of scientific publications among Far Eastern universities 78 Students in Vladivostok celebrating St Tatyana s Day or Russian Students Day Also higher education in the city is represented by such local universities Far Eastern Federal University Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service Vladivostok State Medical University Maritime State University Far Eastern State Institute of Arts Far Eastern State Technical Fisheries University Pacific Higher Naval School and Pacific State Medical University Branches of the Russian Customs Academy The International Institute of Economics and Law Far Eastern Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia Saint Petersburg University of the State Fire Service of the Ministry of Emergencies of RussiaMedia EditOver fifty newspapers and regional editions to Moscow publications are issued in Vladivostok The largest newspaper of the Primorsky Krai and the whole Russian Far East is Vladivostok News with a circulation of 124 000 copies at the beginning of 1996 Its founder joint stock company Vladivostok News also issues a weekly English language newspaper Vladivostok News The subjects of the publications issued in these newspapers vary from information about Vladivostok and Primorye to major international events Newspaper Zolotoy Rog Golden Horn gives every detail of economic news Entertainment materials and cultural news constitute a larger part of Novosti News newspaper which is the most popular among Primorye s young people Also new online mass media about the Russian Far East for foreigners is the Far East Times This source invites readers to take part in the informational support of R F E for visitors travellers and businessmen Vladivostok operates many online news agencies such as NewsVL ru Primamedia Primorye24 and Vesti Primorye From 2012 to 2017 there operates youth online magazine Vladivostok 3000 As of 2020 there operate nineteen radio stations including three 24 hour local stations Radio VBC FM 101 7 MHz since 1993 broadcasts classic and modern rock music oldies and music of the 1980s 1990s Radio Lemma FM 102 7 MHz since 1996 broadcasts news radio shows and various Russian and European American songs Vladivostok FM FM 106 4 MHz was launched in 2008 broadcasts local news and popular music Top 40 The State broadcasting company Vladivostok broadcasts local news and music programs from 7 to 9 from 12 to 14 and from 18 to 19 on weekdays on the frequency of Radio Rossii Radio of Russia Culture EditTheatres Edit Maxim Gorky Theatre Maxim Gorky Academic Theatre named after the Russian author Maxim Gorky was founded in 1931 and is used for drama musical and children s theatre performances There are five professional theatres in the city In 2014 they were visited by 369 800 spectators The Primorsky Regional Academic Drama Theatre named after Maxim Gorky is the oldest state theater in Vladivostok opened on 3 November 1932 The theater employs 202 people 41 actors of them three folk and nine honoured artists of Russia 79 Manor of Julius Bryner in front of which stands the statue of his grandson Juli the actor Yul Brynner Aleutskaya St The Primorsky Pushkin Theatre was built in 1907 1908 and is currently one of the main cultural centers of the city In the 1930s 40s the following still operating ones were successively opened the Drama Theatre of the Pacific Fleet the Primorsky Regional Puppet Theatre and the Primorsky Regional Drama Theatre of Youth 80 The regional puppet theatre gave 484 performances in 2015 which were attended by more than 52 000 spectators There are 500 puppets in the theatre where 15 artists work The troupe regularly goes on tour to Europe and Asia 81 In September 2012 a granite statue of the actor Yul Brynner 1920 1985 was inaugurated in Yul Brynner Park directly in front of the house where he was born at 15 Aleutskaya St Music opera and ballet Edit The city is home to the Vladivostok Pops Orchestra Russian rock band Mumiy Troll hails from Vladivostok and frequently puts on shows there In addition the city hosted the VladiROCKstok International Music Festival in September 1996 Hosted by the mayor and governor and organized by two young American expatriates the festival drew nearly 10 000 people and top tier musical acts from St Petersburg Akvarium and DDT and Seattle Supersuckers Goodness as well as several leading local bands citation needed Nowadays there is another annual music festival in Vladivostok Vladivostok Rocks International Music Festival and Conference V ROX Vladivostok Rocks is a three day open air city festival and international conference for the music industry and contemporary cultural management It offers the opportunity for aspiring artists and producers to gain exposure to new audiences and leading international professionals 82 The musical theater in Vladivostok is represented by the Primorsky Regional Philharmonic Society the largest concert organization in Primorsky Krai The Philharmonic has organized the Pacific Symphony Orchestra and the Governor s Brass Orchestra In 2013 the Primorsky Opera and Ballet Theater was opened 83 On January 1 2016 it was transformed into a branch of the Mariinsky Theatre 84 The Russian Opera House houses the State Primorsky Opera and Ballet Theater 85 Museums Edit The Vladimir K Arseniev Museum of Far East History The Vladimir K Arseniev Museum of Far East History opened in 1890 is the main museum of Primorsky Krai Besides the main facility it has three branches in Vladivostok itself including Arsenyev s Memorial House and five branches elsewhere in the state 86 Among the items in the museum s collection are the famous 15th century Yongning Temple Steles from the lower Amur Galleries and showrooms Edit Recovering 1889 by Cyril Lemokh Primorsky State Art Gallery The active development of art museums in Vladivostok began in the 1950s In 1960 the House of Artists was built in which there were exhibition halls In 1965 the Primorsky State Art Gallery was separated into a separate institution and later on the basis of its collection the Children s Art Gallery was created In Soviet times one of the largest areas for exhibitions in Vladivostok was the exhibition hall of the Primorsky branch of the Union of Artists of Soviet Russia In 1989 the gallery of contemporary art Artetage was opened 87 In 1995 the Arka gallery of contemporary art was opened the first exposition of which consisted of 100 paintings donated by the collector Alexander Glezer 88 The gallery participates in international exhibitions and fairs In 2005 a non commercial private gallery Roytau appeared 87 In recent years the centers of contemporary art Salt created on the basis of the FEFU art museum and Zarya 89 90 have been active Cinemas Edit In 2014 21 cinemas operated in Vladivostok and the total number of film screenings was 1 501 000 Most of the city s cinemas Ocean Galaktika Moscow formerly called New Wave Cinema Neptune 3D formerly called Neptune and Borodino Illusion Vladivostok are renovated cinemas built in the Soviet years Among them stands out Ocean with the largest 22 by 10 metres screen in the Far East of the country located in the centre of the city in the area of Sports Harbour 91 Together with the cinema Ussuri it is the venue for the annual international film festival Pacific Meridians since 2002 92 Since December 2014 the IMAX 3D hall has been operating in the Ocean cinema 93 Parks and squares Edit Admirala Fokina Street September 2014 Practicing yoga at Yoga Day in Vladivostok 2016 Parks and squares in Vladivostok include Pokrovskiy Park Minnyy Gorodok Detskiy Razvlekatelnyy Park Park of Sergeya Lazo Admiralskiy Skver Skver im Neveskogo Nagornyy Park Skver im Sukhanova Fantaziya Park Skver Rybatskoy Slavy Skver im A I Shchetininoy Pokrovskiy Park Edit Pokrovskiy Park was once a cemetery Converted into a park in 1934 but was closed in 1990 Since 1990 the land the park sits on belongs to the Russian Orthodox Church During the rebuilding of the Orthodox Church graves were found Minny Gorodok Edit Minny Gorodok is a 91 acre 37 ha public park Minny Gorodok means Mine Borough Park in English The park is a former military base that was founded in 1880 The military base was used for storing mines in underground storage Converted into a park in 1985 Minny Gorodok contains several lakes ponds and an ice skating rink Detsky Razvlekatelny Park Edit Detsky Razvlekatelny Park is a children s amusement park located near the centre of the city The park contains a carousel gaming machines a Ferris wheel cafes an aquarium cinema and a stadium Admiralsky Skver Edit Admiralsky Skver is a landmark located near the city s centre The Square is an open space dominated by the Triumfalnaya Arka South of the square sits a museum of Soviet submarine S 56 Sports Edit Fetisov Arena in Vladivostok in December 2017 Vladivostok is home to the football club FC Luch Energiya Vladivostok who plays in the Russian First Division ice hockey club Admiral Vladivostok from the Kontinental Hockey League s Chernyshev Division and basketball club Spartak Primorye who plays in the Russian Basketball Super League It is also home to the Vostok Vladivostok motorcycle speedway club Pollution EditLocal ecologists from the Ecocenter organization have claimed that much of Vladivostok s suburbs are polluted and that living in them can be classified as a health hazard citation needed The pollution has a number of causes according to Ecocenter geo chemical expert Sergey Shlykov Vladivostok has about eighty industrial sites which may not be many compared to Russia s most industrialized areas but those around the city are particularly environmentally unfriendly such as shipbuilding and repairing power stations printing fur farming and mining In addition Vladivostok has particularly vulnerable geography which compounds the effect of pollution Winds cannot clear pollution from some of the most densely populated areas around the Pervaya and Vtoraya Rechka as they sit in basins which the winds blow over In addition there is little snow in winter and no leaves or grass to catch the dust to make it settle down 94 Twin towns sister cities EditSee also List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia Vladivostok is twinned with 95 Akita Japan Busan South Korea Dalian China Hakodate Japan Harbin China Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam Incheon South Korea Juneau United States Kota Kinabalu Malaysia Manta Ecuador Niigata Japan Pohang South Korea San Diego United States Tacoma United States Tskhinvali South Ossetia 96 Vladikavkaz Russia Wonsan North Korea Yanbian China In 2010 arches with the names of each of Vladivostok s twin towns were placed in a park within the city 97 From Vladivostok ferry port next to the train station a ferry of the DBS Cruise Ferry travels regularly to Donghae South Korea and from there to Sakaiminato on the Japanese main island of Honshu Notable people EditAlexandra Biriukova 1895 1967 architect Alexei Volkonski born 1978 canoeist Anna Shchetinina 1908 1999 captain Elmar Lohk 1901 1963 architect Eugene Kozlovsky born 1946 writer Feliks Gromov 1937 admiral Igor Ansoff 1918 2002 mathematician Igor Kunitsyn born 1981 tennis player Igor Tamm 1895 1971 physicist Ilya Lagutenko born 1968 singer Ivan Vasiliev born 1989 ballet dancer Kristina Rihanoff born 1977 dancer Ksenia Kahnovich born 1987 model Lev Knyazev 1924 2012 writer Liah Greenfeld born 1954 academic Lilia Akhaimova born 1997 gymnast Mary Losseff 1907 1972 singer film actor Mikhail Koklyaev born 1978 strongman Natalia Pogonina born 1985 chess player Nikolay Dubinin 1907 1998 biologist Peter A Boodberg 1903 1972 scholar linguist Stanislav Petrov 1939 2017 soldier averted nuclear war Svoy born 1980 musician Swathi Reddy born 1987 Indian actress Victor Zotov 1908 1977 botanist Vitali Kravtsov born 1999 ice hockey forward Vladimir Arsenyev 1872 1930 explorer Vladimir Ossipoff 1907 1998 architect Wes Hurley born 1981 filmmaker Yi Dong hwi 1873 1935 Korean communist Yul Brynner 1920 1985 film actorSee also Edit32nd Rifle Division Soviet Union List of North Asian portsReferences EditNotes Edit a b c d e Law 161 KZ Enciklopediya Goroda Rossii Moscow Bolshaya Rossijskaya Enciklopediya 2003 p 72 ISBN 5 7107 7399 9 Obvinyaemyj vo vzyatkah mer Vladivostoka podal v otstavku Generalnyj plan Vladivostoka Archived from the original on July 10 2014 Retrieved July 10 2014 26 Chislennost postoyannogo naseleniya Rossijskoj Federacii po municipalnym obrazovaniyam na 1 yanvarya 2018 goda Federal State Statistics Service Retrieved January 23 2019 Pravitelstvo Primorskogo kraya Oficialnyj sajt Pravitelstva Primorskogo kraya a b c Law 179 KZ Ob ischislenii vremeni Oficialnyj internet portal pravovoj informacii in Russian June 3 2011 Retrieved January 19 2019 Pochta Rossii Informacionno vychislitelnyj centr OASU RPO Russian Post Poisk obektov pochtovoj svyazi Postal Objects Search in Russian Rostelekom zavershil perevod Vladivostoka na semiznachnuyu numeraciyu telefonov in Russian July 12 2011 Retrieved November 26 2016 RUSSIA Dal nevostocnyj Federal nyj Okrug City Population de August 8 2020 Retrieved September 1 2020 a b Ekaterina Veka February 7 2018 Vladivostok voshyol v top 5 samyh populyarnyh u turistov gorodov Rossii Administraciya Primorskogo kraya Retrieved October 8 2020 Alexander Jacoby July 5 2005 Eastern Europe in the Far East The Japan Times Retrieved October 11 2020 Alex Nosal Vladivostok Europe in Middle of The Orient The Seoul Times Retrieved October 11 2020 V V Postnikov V V Postinkov K osmysleniyu nazvaniya Vladivostok istoriko politicheskie obrazy Tihookeanskoj Rossii To the comprehension of the name Vladivostok historical and political images of the Pacific Russia Ojkumena Ojkumena Vol 4 July 2010 p 75 in Russian Vladik 海参崴来自满语 意为 海边的小渔村 阳 曹 冰雪黑龙江 圣诞异国游 频道风采 天津广播网 天津人民广播电台交通广播 Archived from the original on September 10 2017 Retrieved February 9 2018 Vladivostok vse zhe stal Hajshenveem Novostivl ru 7 May 2010 Retrieved 20 June 2017 in Russian Kee Kwonho 2001 中共對韓半島外交政策 從辯證法的角度研究 Mainland China s foreign policy in the Korean Peninsula a dialectical analysis PDF in Chinese National Sun Yat sen University Retrieved June 20 2017 公开地图内容表示若干规定 in Chinese Ministry of Land and Resources of the People s Republic of China January 19 2006 Narangoa 2014 p 300 a b c Turmov G P Khisamutdinov A A Vladivostok Historical guide M Veche 2010 304 p ISBN 978 5 9533 4924 6 Old Vladivostok Auth text and comp B Dyachenko Vladivostok Morning of Russia 1992 P 51 36 000 copies ISBN 5 87080 004 8 Staryj Vladivostok Avt teksta i sost B Dyachenko Vladivostok Utro Rossii 1992 S 51 36 000 ekz ISBN 5 87080 004 8 Yurij Ufimcev Osnovanie Vladivostoka oldvladivostok ru Archived from the original on September 15 2020 Retrieved September 15 2020 a b c d e Vladivostok istoriya goroda RIA Novosti February 7 2010 Retrieved September 15 2020 a b Osobennosti promyshlenno ekonomicheskogo razvitiya Vladivostoka v nachale XX veka CyberLeninka 2008 Retrieved September 15 2020 Volnaya gavan obshestvennaya zhizn dorevolyucionnogo Vladivostoka CyberLeninka 2015 Retrieved September 15 2020 a b c d Yasko T N Sibirskaya voennaya flotiliya v 1917 1922 gg fegi ru Retrieved September 15 2020 Dezhurnyj po Redakcii November 29 2015 Arhangelskij i Vladivostokskij porty v gody Pervoj mirovoj vojny Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation Archived from the original on September 15 2020 Retrieved September 15 2020 PRECLIK Vratislav Masaryk a legie Masaryk and legions vaz kniha 219 str vydalo nakladatelstvi Paris Karvina Zizkova 2379 734 01 Karvina ve spolupraci s Masarykovym demokratickym hnutim Masaryk Democratic Movement Prague 2019 ISBN 978 80 87173 47 3 pages 38 50 52 102 124 128 140 148 184 190 Joana Breidenbach 2005 Pal Nyiri Joana Breidenbach ed China inside out contemporary Chinese nationalism and transnationalism illustrated ed Central European University Press p 90 ISBN 963 7326 14 6 Retrieved September 15 2020 Then there occurred another story which has become traumatic this one for the Russian nationalist psyche At the end of the year 1918 after the Russian Revolution the Chinese merchants in the Russian Far East demanded the Chinese government to send troops for their protection and Chinese troops were sent to Vladivostok to protect the Chinese community about 1 600 soldiers and 700 support personnel Vladimir Gelaev April 6 2015 Novorossiya Dalnego Vostoka Gazeta Ru Retrieved September 15 2020 a b Planirovka i zastrojka 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2016 Sudba razvitiya Dalnego Vostoka v rukah kazino Vladivostok privlekaet aziatskih klientov inoSMI Retrieved October 8 2020 a b Olga Cybulskaya Vo Vladivostoke horoshie delovye perspektivy RBK Retrieved October 8 2020 Analiz struktury regionalnogo turisticheskogo kompleksa Primorskogo kraya Rossii CyberLeninka 2011 Retrieved October 8 2020 Tri shkoly Vladivostoka voshli v perechen Top 500 shkol RF RIA Novosti September 18 2013 Retrieved October 26 2020 Anna Bondarenko September 1 2016 V Primore otkrylsya filial Vaganovskoj Akademii baleta Rossiyskaya Gazeta Retrieved October 26 2020 Vystuplenie na vstreche s vospitannikami filiala Nahimovskogo voenno morskogo uchilisha vo Vladivostoke Prezident Rossii August 31 2016 Retrieved October 26 2020 a b Novye vozmozhnosti vysshego obrazovaniya na Dalnem Vostoke Rossii ot Vostochnogo instituta k Dalnevostochnomu Federalnomu Universitetu CyberLeninka 2014 Retrieved October 26 2020 Zakulise teatra imeni Maksima Gorkogo shvejnyj ceh bolshie sklady i malenkie grimerki PrimaMedia ru Retrieved October 13 2020 Falaleeva A V March 25 2014 Teatr teatr teatr o teatrah goroda Vladivostoka cbs fokino25 ru Archived from the original on October 13 2020 Retrieved October 13 2020 V Primorskom teatre kukol pobyvalo bolee 50 tysyach zritelej na 500 spektaklyah v 2015 godu PrimaMedia ru June 29 2016 Retrieved October 13 2020 Ryzik Melena August 28 2013 East by Far East Vladivostok Rocks The New York Times Sem festivalej 14 opernyh i baletnyh spektaklej dva goda Primorskogo opernogo teatra PrimaMedia ru October 19 2015 Retrieved October 13 2020 Primorskij filial Mariinskogo teatra Archived from the original on October 13 2020 Retrieved October 13 2020 Starrs Russian Opera house Muzej istorii Dalnego Vostoka imeni V K Arseneva Primorskij muzej imeni Arseneva July 6 2018 Archived from the original on January 21 2012 a b Razvitie seti hudozhestvennyh muzeev v Primorskom krae 2008 Retrieved October 13 2020 Sobytiya v mire v 1995 godu history xsp ru Retrieved October 13 2020 Vasilij Allenov March 3 2016 Sol sovremennogo iskusstva Novaya Gazeta Retrieved October 13 2020 Centr sovremennogo iskusstva otkrylsya na fabrike Zarya vo Vladivostoke PrimaMedia ru Retrieved October 13 2020 Kinoteatry Vladivostoka gde Dolby Digital i 3D gde hramy i ruiny RIA Novosti December 29 2013 Retrieved October 13 2020 8 sentyabrya vo Vladivostoke nachinaetsya mezhdunarodnyj kinofestival Meridiany Tihogo kbanda ru September 12 2011 Archived from the original on October 13 2020 Retrieved October 13 2020 IMAX prihodit na Dalnij Vostok kinobusiness com December 11 2014 Retrieved October 13 2020 Preobrazhensky B V Burago A I Shlykov S A Primorye Ecology Contamination of sea and water area fegi ru Far East Geological Institute Archived from the original on August 19 2007 Goroda pobratimy vlc ru in Russian Vladivostok Retrieved May 7 2021 Soobshenie press sluzhby Ministerstva inostrannyh del Respubliki Yuzhnaya Osetiya Press release of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of South Ossetia South Ossetian Ministry of Foreign Affairs 12 May 2021 Vo Vladivostoke otkryt skver gorodov pobratimov In Russian Retrieved July 19 2016 Sources Edit See also Bibliography of the history of Vladivostok Zakonodatelnoe Sobranie Primorskogo kraya Zakon 161 KZ ot 14 noyabrya 2001 g Ob administrativno territorialnom ustrojstve Primorskogo kraya v red Zakona 673 KZ ot 6 oktyabrya 2015 g O vnesenii izmenenij v Zakon Primorskogo kraya Ob administrativno territorialnom ustrojstve Primorskogo kraya Vstupil v silu so dnya oficialnogo opublikovaniya Opublikovan Krasnoe znamya Primorya 69 119 29 noyabrya 2001 g Legislative Assembly of Primorsky Krai Law 161 KZ of November 14 2001 On the Administrative Territorial Structure of Primorsky Krai as amended by the Law 673 KZ of October 6 2015 On Amending the Law of Primorsky Krai On the Administrative Territorial Structure of Primorsky Krai Effective as of the official publication date Zakonodatelnoe Sobranie Primorskogo kraya Zakon 179 KZ ot 6 dekabrya 2004 g O Vladivostokskom gorodskom okruge v red Zakona 48 KZ ot 7 iyunya 2012 g O vnesenii izmenenij v Zakon Primorskogo kraya O Vladivostokskom gorodskom okruge Vstupil v silu 1 yanvarya 2005 g Opublikovan Vedomosti Zakonodatelnogo Sobraniya Primorskogo kraya 76 7 dekabrya 2004 g Legislative Assembly of Primorsky Krai Law 179 KZ of December 6 2004 On Vladivostoksky Urban Okrug as amended by the Law 48 KZ of June 7 2012 On Amending the Law of Primorsky Krai On Vladivostoksky Urban Okrug Effective as of January 1 2005 Faulstich Edith M The Siberian Sojourn Yonkers N Y 1972 1977 Narangoa Li 2014 Historical Atlas of Northeast Asia 1590 2010 Korea Manchuria Mongolia Eastern Siberia New York Columbia University Press ISBN 9780231160704 Poznyak Tatyana Z 2004 Foreign Citizens in the Cities of the Russian Far East the second half of the 19th and 20th centuries Vladivostok Dalnauka 2004 316 p ISBN 5 8044 0461 X Stephan John 1994 The Far East a History Stanford Stanford University Press 1994 481 p Trofimov Vladimir et al 1992 Old Vladivostok Utro Rossii Vladivostok ISBN 5 87080 004 8External links EditWikinews has news related to VladivostokWikivoyage has a travel guide for Vladivostok Official website of Vladivostok in Russian Historical Map of Vladivostok 1912 Perry Castaneda Library Map Collection University of Texas Austin Timelapse video of Vladivostok on YouTube in Russian Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vladivostok amp oldid 1052450529, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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