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Wikipedia

"Volunteer" redirects here. For other uses, see Volunteer (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with military volunteering, which is usually paid and/or compensated.

Volunteering is a voluntary act of an individual or group freely giving time and labour for community service. Many volunteers are specifically trained in the areas they work, such as medicine, education, or emergency rescue. Others serve on an as-needed basis, such as in response to a natural disaster.

Volunteers sweep the boardwalk in Brooklyn after the 2012 Hurricane Sandy
Volunteers complete a cleanup of litter and trash
Semi-professional volunteering: Trained lifeguards of the German DLRG, the largest voluntary water rescue organization in the world, patrolling a public bathing area of a lake in Munich

Contents

The verb was first recorded in 1755. It was derived from the noun volunteer, in c. 1600, "one who offers himself for military service," from the Middle French voluntaire. In the non-military sense, the word was first recorded during the 1630s. The word volunteering has more recent usage—still predominantly military—coinciding with the phrase community service. In a military context, a volunteer army is a military body whose soldiers chose to enter service, as opposed to having been conscripted. Such volunteers do not work "for free" and are given regular pay.

19th century

During this time, America experienced the Great Awakening. People became aware of the disadvantaged and realized the cause for movement against slavery. In 1851, the first YMCA in the United States was started, followed seven years later by the first YWCA. During the American Civil War, women volunteered their time to sew supplies for the soldiers and the "Angel of the Battlefield" Clara Barton and a team of volunteers began providing aid to servicemen. Barton founded the American Red Cross in 1881 and began mobilizing volunteers for disaster relief operations, including relief for victims of the Johnstown Flood in 1889.

20th and 21st centuries

Volunteers from around the world came to Ithaca, Queensland to address an influenza epidemic through the Women's Emergency Corps (later the Women's Volunteer Reserve) in July 1919.

The Salvation Army is one of the oldest and largest organizations working for disadvantaged people. Though it is a charity organization, it has organized a number of volunteering programs since its inception. Prior to the 19th century, few formal charitable organizations existed to assist people in need.

In the first few decades of the 20th century, several volunteer organizations were founded, including the Rotary International, Kiwanis International, Association of Junior Leagues International, and Lions Clubs International.

The Great Depression saw one of the first large-scale, nationwide efforts to coordinate volunteering for a specific need. During World War II, thousands of volunteer offices supervised the volunteers who helped with the many needs of the military and the home front, including collecting supplies, entertaining soldiers on leave, and caring for the injured.

After World War II, people shifted the focus of their altruistic passions to other areas, including helping the poor and volunteering overseas. A major development was the Peace Corps in the United States in 1960. When President Lyndon B. Johnson declared a War on Poverty in 1964, volunteer opportunities started to expand and continued into the next few decades. The process for finding volunteer work became more formalized, with more volunteer centers forming and new ways to find work appearing on the World Wide Web through organizations like JustServe and AmeriCorps.

John F. Kennedy greets volunteers on 28 August 1961

According to the Corporation for National and Community Service (in 2012), about 64.5 million Americans, or 26.5 percent of the adult population, gave 7.9 billion hours of volunteer service worth $175 billion. This calculates at about 125–150 hours per year or 3 hours per week at a rate of $22 per hour. Volunteer hours in the UK are similar; the data for other countries is unavailable.

Volunteering as utilized by service learning programs

Many schools on all education levels offer service-learning programs, which allow students to serve the community through volunteering while earning educational credit. According to Alexander Astin in the foreword to Where's the Learning in Service-Learning? by Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles, Jr.,"...we promote more wide-spread adoption of service-learning in higher education because we see it as a powerful means of preparing students to become more caring and responsible parents and citizens and of helping colleges and universities to make good on their pledge to 'serve society.'" When describing service learning, the Medical Education at Harvard says, "Service learning unites academic study and volunteer community service in mutually reinforcing ways. ...service learning is characterized by a relationship of partnership: the student learns from the service agency and from the community and, in return, gives energy, intelligence, commitment, time and skills to address human and community needs." Volunteering in service learning seems to have the result of engaging both mind and heart, thus providing a more powerful learning experience; according to Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles, it succeeds by the fact that it "...fosters student development by capturing student interest...": 1–2, 8 More recent scholarship has found shortcomings in the early assumptions of mutual benefit, since early studies were interested in educational benefits rather than community outcomes. An Indiana study found that the nonprofit agencies hosting student service-learners do not report a positive impact on service capacity, although service-learners do help to increase agency visibility. In the end, service-learning must follow other principles of effective volunteer management such as screening, training, and supervising.[editorializing]

Skills-based volunteering

Skills-based volunteering is leveraging the specialized skills and the talents of individuals to strengthen the infrastructure of nonprofits, helping them build and sustain their capacity to successfully achieve their missions. This is in contrast to traditional volunteering, where volunteers do something other than their professional work. The average hour of traditional volunteering is valued by the Independent Sector at between $18–20 an hour. Skills-based volunteering is valued at $40–500 an hour, depending on the market value of the time.[failed verification]

Virtual volunteering

Further information: Virtual volunteering

Also called e-volunteering or online volunteering, virtual volunteering is a volunteer who completes tasks, in whole or in part, offsite from the organization being assisted. They use the Internet and a home, school, telecenter or work computer, or other Internet-connected device, such as a PDA or smartphone. Virtual volunteering is also known as cyber service, telementoring, and teletutoring, as well as various other names. Virtual volunteering is similar to remote work, except that instead of online employees who are paid, these are online volunteers who are not paid. Contributing to free and open source software projects or editing Wikipedia are examples of virtual volunteering.

Micro-volunteering

Further information: Micro-volunteering

Micro-volunteering is a task performed via an internet-connected device. An individual typically does this task in small, un-paid increments of time. Micro-volunteering is distinct from "virtual volunteering" in that it typically does not require the individual volunteer to go through an application process, screening process, or training period.

Environmental volunteering

Further information: Environmental volunteering

Environmental volunteering refers to the volunteers who contribute towards environmental management or conservation. Volunteers conduct a range of activities including environmental monitoring, ecological restoration such as re-vegetation and weed removal, protecting endangered animals, and educating others about the natural environment.

Volunteering in an emergency

Volunteers assist survivors at the Houston Astrodome following Hurricane Katrina in September 2005.

Volunteering often plays a pivotal role in the recovery effort following natural disasters, such as tsunamis, floods, droughts, hurricanes, and earthquakes. For example, the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake in Japan was a watershed moment, bringing in many first-time volunteers for earthquake response. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami attracted a large number of volunteers worldwide, deployed by non-governmental organizations, government agencies, and the United Nations.

During the 2012 hurricane Sandy emergency, Occupy Sandy volunteers formed a laterally organized rapid-response team that provided much needed help during and after the storm, from food to shelter to reconstruction. It is an example of mutualism at work, pooling resources and assistance and leveraging social media.

Volunteering in schools

Resource poor schools around the world rely on government support or on efforts from volunteers and private donations, in order to run effectively. In some countries, whenever the economy is down, the need for volunteers and resources increases greatly. There are many opportunities available in school systems for volunteers. Yet, there are not many requirements in order to volunteer in a school system. Whether one is a high school or TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) graduate or college student, most schools require just voluntary and selfless effort.

Much like the benefits of any type of volunteering there are great rewards for the volunteer, student, and school. In addition to intangible rewards, volunteers can add relevant experience to their resumes. Volunteers who travel to assist may learn foreign culture and language.

Volunteering in schools can be an additional teaching guide for the students and help to fill the gap of local teachers. Cultural and language exchange during teaching and other school activities can be the most essential learning experience for both students and volunteers.

Corporate volunteering

Further information: Volunteer grant

Benefacto, a volunteering brokerage, describe corporate volunteering as "Companies giving their employees an allowance of paid time off annually, which they use to volunteer at a charity of their choice."

A majority of the companies at the Fortune 500 allow their employees to volunteer during work hours. These formalized Employee Volunteering Programs (EVPs), also called Employer Supported Volunteering (ESV), are regarded as a part of the companies' sustainability efforts and their social responsibility activities. About 40% of Fortune 500 companies provide monetary donations, also known as volunteer grants, to nonprofits as a way to recognize employees who dedicate significant amounts of time to volunteering in the community.

According to the information from VolunteerMatch, a service that provides Employee Volunteering Program solutions, the key drivers for companies that produce and manage EVPs are building brand awareness and affinity, strengthening trust and loyalty among consumers, enhancing corporate image and reputation, improving employee retention, increasing employee productivity and loyalty, and providing an effective vehicle to reach strategic goals.

In April 2015, David Cameron pledged to give all UK workers employed by companies with more 250 staff mandatory three days' paid volunteering leave, which if implemented will generate an extra 360 million volunteering hours a year.

Community volunteer work

Volunteers fit new windows at the Sumac Centre in Nottingham, England, UK.

Community volunteering, in the US called "community service", refers globally to those who work to improve their local community. This activity commonly occurs through not for profit organizations, local governments and churches; but also encompasses ad-hoc or informal groups such as recreational sports teams.

Social volunteering or welfare volunteering

In some European countries government organisations and non-government organisations provide auxiliary positions for a certain period in institutions like hospitals, schools, memorial sites and welfare institutions. The difference to other types of volunteering is that there are strict legal regulations, what organisation is allowed to engage volunteers and about the period a volunteer is allowed to work in a voluntary position. Due to that fact, the volunteer is getting a limited amount as a pocket money from the government. Organizations having the biggest manpower in Europe are the Voluntary social year (German: Freiwilliges Soziales Jahr), with more than 50.000 volunteers per year, and the Federal volunteers service (German: Bundesfreiwilligendienst), with about 30.000 to 40.000 volunteers per year.

Volunteering at major sporting events

25,000 volunteers worked at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics. They supported the organisers in more than 20 functional areas: meeting guests, assisting navigation, organising the opening and closing ceremonies, organising food outlets, etc. Volunteer applications were open to any nationals of Russia and other countries. The Sochi 2014 Organising Committee received about 200,000 applications, 8 applicants per place. Volunteers received training over the course of more than a year at 26 volunteer centres in 17 cities across Russia. The majority of participants were between 17 and 22 years old. At the same time, 3000 applications were submitted from people over 55 years old. Some of them worked as volunteers during the 1980 Olympics in Moscow. It was the first experience with such a large-scale volunteer program in the contemporary Russia.

The FIFA World Cup in 2018 was supported by 17,040 volunteers of the Russia 2018 Local Organising Committee.

Designated days, weeks and years observed by a country or as designated by the United Nations to encourage volunteering / community service

Further information: Gift economy

Modern societies share a common value of people helping each other; not only do volunteer acts assist others, but they also benefit the volunteering individual on a personal level. Despite having similar objectives, tension can arise between volunteers and state-provided services. In order to curtail this tension, most countries develop policies and enact legislation to clarify the roles and relationships among governmental stakeholders and their voluntary counterparts; this regulation identifies and allocates the necessary legal, social, administrative, and financial support of each party. This is particularly necessary when some voluntary activities are seen as a challenge to the authority of the state (e.g., on 29 January 2001, President Bush cautioned that volunteer groups should supplement—not replace—government agencies' work).

Volunteering that benefits the state but challenges paid counterparts angers labor unions that represent those who are paid for their volunteer work; this is particularly seen in combination departments, such as volunteer fire departments.

Difficulties in cross-national aid

Difficulties in the cross-national aid model of volunteering can arise when it is applied across national borders. The presence of volunteers who are sent from one state to another can be viewed as a breach of sovereignty and showing a lack of respect towards the national government of the proposed recipients. Thus, motivations are important when states negotiate offers to send aid and when these proposals are accepted, particularly if donors may postpone assistance or stop it altogether. Three types of conditionality have evolved:

  1. Financial accountability: Transparency in funding management to ensure that what is done by the volunteers is properly targeted
  2. Policy reform: Governmental request that developing countries adopt certain social, economic, or environmental policies; often, the most controversial relate to the privatization of services traditionally offered by the state
  3. Development objectives: Asking developing countries to adjust specific time-bound economic objectives

Some international volunteer organizations define their primary mission as being altruistic: to fight poverty and improve the living standards of people in the developing world, (e.g. Voluntary Services Overseas has almost 2,000 skilled professionals working as volunteers to pass on their expertise to local people so that the volunteers' skills remain long after they return home). When these organizations work in partnership with governments, the results can be impressive. However, when other organizations or individual First World governments support the work of volunteer groups, there can be questions as to whether the organizations' or governments' real motives are poverty alleviation. Instead, a focus on creating wealth for some of the poor or developing policies intended to benefit the donor states is sometimes reported. Many low-income countries' economies suffer from industrialization without prosperity and investment without growth. One reason for this is that development assistance guides many Third World governments to pursue development policies that have been wasteful, ill-conceived, or unproductive; some of these policies have been so destructive that the economies could not have been sustained without outside support.

Indeed, some offers of aid have distorted the general spirit of volunteering, treating local voluntary action as contributions in kind, i.e., existing conditions requiring the modification of local people's behavior in order for them to earn the right to donors' charity. This can be seen as patronizing and offensive to the recipients because the aid expressly serves the policy aims of the donors rather than the needs of the recipients.

Some files for helping people in a volunteers station in Shenzhen, People's Republic of China

Based on a case study in China, Xu and Ngai (2011) revealed that the developing grassroots volunteerism can be an enclave among various organizations and may be able to work toward the development of civil society in the developing countries. The researchers developed a "Moral Resources and Political Capital" approach to examine the contributions of volunteerism in promoting the civil society. Moral resource means the available morals could be chosen by NGOs. Political capital means the capital that will improve or enhance the NGOs' status, possession or access in the existing political system.

Moreover, Xu and Ngai (2011) distinguished two types of Moral Resources: Moral Resource-I and Moral Resource-II (ibid).

  1. Moral Resource I: Inspired by Immanuel Kant's (1998 [1787]) argument of "What ought I to do," Moral Resource-I will encourage the NGOs' confidence and then have the courage to act and conquer difficulties by way of answering and confirming the question of "What ought I to do."
  2. Moral Resource II: given that Adorno (2000) recognizes that moral or immoral tropes are socially determined, Moral Resource-II refers to the morals that are well accepted by the given society.

Thanks to the intellectual heritage of Blau and Duncan (1967), two types of political capital were identified:

  1. Political Capital-I refers to the political capital mainly ascribed to the status that the NGO inherited throughout history (e.g., the CYL).
  2. Political Capital-II refers to the Political Capital that the NGOs earned through their hard efforts.

Obviously, "Moral resource-I itself contains the self-determination that gives participants confidence in the ethical beliefs they have chosen", almost any organizations may have Moral Resource-I, while not all of them have the societal recognized Moral Resource-II. However, the voluntary service organizations predominantly occupy Moral Resource-II because a sense of moral superiority makes it possible that for parties with different values, goals and cultures to work together in promoting the promotion of volunteering. Thus the voluntary service organizations are likely to win the trust and support of the masses as well as the government more easily than will the organizations whose morals are not accepted by mainstream society. In other words, Moral Resource II helps the grassroots organizations with little Political Capital I to win Political Capital-II, which is a crucial factor for their survival and growth in developing countries such as China. Therefore, the voluntary service realm could be an enclave of the development of civil society in the developing nations.

Academic

Further information: Service-learning § Effects

Volunteering for community service as part of a college curriculum (service-learning) provides opportunities for students to surround themselves with new people which helps them learn how to work together as a group, improve teamwork and relational skills, reduce stereotypes, and increases appreciation of other cultures. Students participating in service-learning programs are shown to have more positive attitudes toward self, attitudes toward school and learning, civic engagement, social skills, and academic performance. They are also more likely to complete their degree.

Longevity

Volunteers are observed to have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-volunteers. Therefore, it is worth noting that the various types of work as a volunteer and psychological effects of such altruistic work may produce enough side-effects to contribute to a longer and more fulfilling life. A systematic review shows that adults over age of 65 years who volunteer may experience improved physical and mental health and potentially reduced mortality.

Mental health

A worldwide survey was conducted in a study, suggesting that people who experience the highest levels of happiness are the most successful in terms of close relationships and volunteer work. In comparison, charity in the form of monetary donations, which is another form of altruism (volunteering being one of them) is also known to have a similar effect. Another study finds that helping others is associated with higher levels of mental health, above and beyond the benefits of receiving help. On the subject of service-learning, undergraduate students who volunteered 1 to 9 hours per week were less likely to feel depressed than students who did not volunteer. Among people aged 65 years old or above, volunteering may reduce the risk of depression.

In the United States, statistics on volunteering have historically been limited, according to volunteerism expert Susan J. Ellis. In 2013, the U.S. Current Population Survey included a volunteering supplement which produced statistics on volunteering.

In the 1960s, Ivan Illich offered an analysis of the role of American volunteers in Mexico in his speech entitled "To Hell With Good Intentions". His concerns, along with those of critics such as Paulo Freire and Edward Said, revolve around the notion of altruism as an extension of Christian missionary ideology. In addition, he mentions the sense of responsibility/obligation as a factor, which drives the concept of noblesse oblige—first developed by the French aristocracy as a moral duty derived from their wealth. Simply stated, these apprehensions propose the extension of power and authority over indigenous cultures around the world. Recent critiques of volunteering come from Westmier and Kahn (1996) and bell hooks (née Gloria Watkins) (2004). Also, Georgeou (2012) has critiqued the impact of neoliberalism on international aid volunteering.

The field of the medical tourism (referring to volunteers who travel overseas to deliver medical care) has recently attracted negative criticism when compared to the alternative notion of sustainable capacities, i.e., work done in the context of long-term, locally-run, and foreign-supported infrastructures. A preponderance of this criticism appears largely in scientific and peer-reviewed literature. Recently, media outlets with more general readerships have published such criticisms as well. This type of volunteering is pejoratively referred to as "medical voluntourism".

Another problem noted with volunteering is that it can be used to replace low paid entry positions. This can act to decrease social mobility, with only those capable of affording to work without payment able to gain the experience. Trade unions in the United Kingdom have warned that long term volunteering is a form of exploitation, used by charities to avoid minimum wage legislation. Some sectors now expect candidates for paid roles to have undergone significant periods of volunteer experience whether relevant to the role or not, setting up 'Volunteer Credentialism'.

Volunteers can be exposed to stressful situations and attitudes, which can cause them to suffer from burnout which in turn reduces their activism and overall well-being. There is also evidence that volunteering can become a moral obligation that prompts feelings of guilt when not performed.

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  65. Konieczny, Piotr (1 January 2018), "Volunteer Retention, Burnout and Dropout in Online Voluntary Organizations: Stress, Conflict and Retirement of Wikipedians", Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change, Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change, vol. 42, Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 199–219, doi:10.1108/s0163-786x20180000042008, ISBN 978-1-78756-895-2, S2CID 155122668, retrieved29 April 2021
  66. Gill MJ. (2021) Understanding the Spread of Sustained Employee Volunteering: How Volunteers Influence Their Coworkers’ Moral Identity Work. Journal of Management.
  • Georgeou, Nichole, Neoliberalism, Development, and Aid Volunteering, New York: Routledge, 2012. ISBN 9780415809153
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Volunteering Article Talk Language Watch Edit Volunteer redirects here For other uses see Volunteer disambiguation Not to be confused with military volunteering which is usually paid and or compensated Volunteering is a voluntary act of an individual or group freely giving time and labour for community service 1 2 Many volunteers are specifically trained in the areas they work such as medicine education or emergency rescue Others serve on an as needed basis such as in response to a natural disaster Volunteers sweep the boardwalk in Brooklyn after the 2012 Hurricane Sandy Volunteers complete a cleanup of litter and trash Semi professional volunteering Trained lifeguards of the German DLRG the largest voluntary water rescue organization in the world patrolling a public bathing area of a lake in Munich Contents 1 Etymology and history 1 1 19th century 1 2 20th and 21st centuries 2 Types 2 1 Volunteering as utilized by service learning programs 2 2 Skills based volunteering 2 3 Virtual volunteering 2 4 Micro volunteering 2 5 Environmental volunteering 2 6 Volunteering in an emergency 2 7 Volunteering in schools 2 8 Corporate volunteering 2 9 Community volunteer work 2 10 Social volunteering or welfare volunteering 2 11 Volunteering at major sporting events 3 Volunteer days weeks and years 4 Political view 4 1 Difficulties in cross national aid 5 Moral resources political capital and civil society 6 Potential benefits of volunteering 6 1 Academic 6 2 Longevity 6 3 Mental health 7 Statistics 8 Criticisms 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksEtymology and history EditThe verb was first recorded in 1755 It was derived from the noun volunteer in c 1600 one who offers himself for military service from the Middle French voluntaire 3 In the non military sense the word was first recorded during the 1630s The word volunteering has more recent usage still predominantly military coinciding with the phrase community service 3 4 In a military context a volunteer army is a military body whose soldiers chose to enter service as opposed to having been conscripted Such volunteers do not work for free and are given regular pay 19th century Edit During this time America experienced the Great Awakening People became aware of the disadvantaged and realized the cause for movement against slavery 5 In 1851 the first YMCA in the United States was started followed seven years later by the first YWCA During the American Civil War women volunteered their time to sew supplies for the soldiers and the Angel of the Battlefield Clara Barton and a team of volunteers began providing aid to servicemen Barton founded the American Red Cross in 1881 and began mobilizing volunteers for disaster relief operations including relief for victims of the Johnstown Flood in 1889 20th and 21st centuries Edit Volunteers from around the world came to Ithaca Queensland to address an influenza epidemic through the Women s Emergency Corps later the Women s Volunteer Reserve in July 1919 The Salvation Army is one of the oldest and largest organizations working for disadvantaged people Though it is a charity organization it has organized a number of volunteering programs since its inception 6 Prior to the 19th century few formal charitable organizations existed to assist people in need In the first few decades of the 20th century several volunteer organizations were founded including the Rotary International Kiwanis International Association of Junior Leagues International and Lions Clubs International The Great Depression saw one of the first large scale nationwide efforts to coordinate volunteering for a specific need During World War II thousands of volunteer offices supervised the volunteers who helped with the many needs of the military and the home front including collecting supplies entertaining soldiers on leave and caring for the injured 6 After World War II people shifted the focus of their altruistic passions to other areas including helping the poor and volunteering overseas A major development was the Peace Corps in the United States in 1960 When President Lyndon B Johnson declared a War on Poverty in 1964 volunteer opportunities started to expand and continued into the next few decades The process for finding volunteer work became more formalized with more volunteer centers forming and new ways to find work appearing on the World Wide Web through organizations like JustServe and AmeriCorps 6 7 John F Kennedy greets volunteers on 28 August 1961 According to the Corporation for National and Community Service in 2012 about 64 5 million Americans or 26 5 percent of the adult population gave 7 9 billion hours of volunteer service worth 175 billion This calculates at about 125 150 hours per year or 3 hours per week at a rate of 22 per hour Volunteer hours in the UK are similar the data for other countries is unavailable Types EditVolunteering as utilized by service learning programs Edit Many schools on all education levels offer service learning programs which allow students to serve the community through volunteering while earning educational credit 8 According to Alexander Astin in the foreword to Where s the Learning in Service Learning by Janet Eyler and Dwight E Giles Jr we promote more wide spread adoption of service learning in higher education because we see it as a powerful means of preparing students to become more caring and responsible parents and citizens and of helping colleges and universities to make good on their pledge to serve society 9 When describing service learning the Medical Education at Harvard says Service learning unites academic study and volunteer community service in mutually reinforcing ways service learning is characterized by a relationship of partnership the student learns from the service agency and from the community and in return gives energy intelligence commitment time and skills to address human and community needs 8 Volunteering in service learning seems to have the result of engaging both mind and heart thus providing a more powerful learning experience according to Janet Eyler and Dwight E Giles it succeeds by the fact that it fosters student development by capturing student interest 9 1 2 8 More recent scholarship has found shortcomings in the early assumptions of mutual benefit since early studies were interested in educational benefits rather than community outcomes An Indiana study found that the nonprofit agencies hosting student service learners do not report a positive impact on service capacity although service learners do help to increase agency visibility 10 In the end service learning must follow other principles of effective volunteer management such as screening training and supervising editorializing Skills based volunteering Edit Skills based volunteering is leveraging the specialized skills and the talents of individuals to strengthen the infrastructure of nonprofits helping them build and sustain their capacity to successfully achieve their missions 11 This is in contrast to traditional volunteering where volunteers do something other than their professional work 12 The average hour of traditional volunteering is valued by the Independent Sector at between 18 20 an hour 13 Skills based volunteering is valued at 40 500 an hour depending on the market value of the time 14 failed verification Virtual volunteering Edit Further information Virtual volunteering Also called e volunteering or online volunteering virtual volunteering is a volunteer who completes tasks in whole or in part offsite from the organization being assisted They use the Internet and a home school telecenter or work computer or other Internet connected device such as a PDA or smartphone Virtual volunteering is also known as cyber service telementoring and teletutoring as well as various other names Virtual volunteering is similar to remote work except that instead of online employees who are paid these are online volunteers who are not paid 15 16 Contributing to free and open source software projects or editing Wikipedia are examples of virtual volunteering 17 Micro volunteering Edit Further information Micro volunteering Micro volunteering is a task performed via an internet connected device An individual typically does this task in small un paid increments of time Micro volunteering is distinct from virtual volunteering in that it typically does not require the individual volunteer to go through an application process screening process or training period 18 19 Environmental volunteering Edit Further information Environmental volunteering Environmental volunteering refers to the volunteers who contribute towards environmental management or conservation Volunteers conduct a range of activities including environmental monitoring ecological restoration such as re vegetation and weed removal protecting endangered animals and educating others about the natural environment 20 Volunteering in an emergency Edit Volunteers assist survivors at the Houston Astrodome following Hurricane Katrina in September 2005 Volunteering often plays a pivotal role in the recovery effort following natural disasters such as tsunamis floods droughts hurricanes and earthquakes For example the 1995 Great Hanshin Awaji earthquake in Japan was a watershed moment bringing in many first time volunteers for earthquake response The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami attracted a large number of volunteers worldwide deployed by non governmental organizations government agencies and the United Nations 21 22 During the 2012 hurricane Sandy emergency Occupy Sandy volunteers formed a laterally organized rapid response team that provided much needed help during and after the storm from food to shelter to reconstruction It is an example of mutualism at work pooling resources and assistance and leveraging social media Volunteering in schools Edit Resource poor schools around the world rely on government support or on efforts from volunteers and private donations in order to run effectively In some countries whenever the economy is down the need for volunteers and resources increases greatly 23 There are many opportunities available in school systems for volunteers Yet there are not many requirements in order to volunteer in a school system Whether one is a high school or TEFL Teaching English as a Foreign Language graduate or college student most schools require just voluntary and selfless effort 24 Much like the benefits of any type of volunteering there are great rewards for the volunteer student and school In addition to intangible rewards volunteers can add relevant experience to their resumes Volunteers who travel to assist may learn foreign culture and language Volunteering in schools can be an additional teaching guide for the students and help to fill the gap of local teachers Cultural and language exchange during teaching and other school activities can be the most essential learning experience for both students and volunteers 24 Corporate volunteering Edit Further information Volunteer grant Benefacto a volunteering brokerage describe corporate volunteering as Companies giving their employees an allowance of paid time off annually which they use to volunteer at a charity of their choice 25 A majority of the companies at the Fortune 500 allow their employees to volunteer during work hours These formalized Employee Volunteering Programs EVPs also called Employer Supported Volunteering ESV are regarded as a part of the companies sustainability efforts and their social responsibility activities 26 About 40 of Fortune 500 companies provide monetary donations also known as volunteer grants to nonprofits as a way to recognize employees who dedicate significant amounts of time to volunteering in the community 27 According to the information from VolunteerMatch a service that provides Employee Volunteering Program solutions the key drivers for companies that produce and manage EVPs are building brand awareness and affinity strengthening trust and loyalty among consumers enhancing corporate image and reputation improving employee retention increasing employee productivity and loyalty and providing an effective vehicle to reach strategic goals 28 In April 2015 David Cameron pledged to give all UK workers employed by companies with more 250 staff mandatory three days paid volunteering leave which if implemented will generate an extra 360 million volunteering hours a year 29 Community volunteer work Edit Volunteers fit new windows at the Sumac Centre in Nottingham England UK Community volunteering in the US called community service refers globally to those who work to improve their local community This activity commonly occurs through not for profit organizations local governments and churches but also encompasses ad hoc or informal groups such as recreational sports teams 30 Social volunteering or welfare volunteering Edit In some European countries government organisations and non government organisations provide auxiliary positions for a certain period in institutions like hospitals schools memorial sites and welfare institutions The difference to other types of volunteering is that there are strict legal regulations what organisation is allowed to engage volunteers and about the period a volunteer is allowed to work in a voluntary position Due to that fact the volunteer is getting a limited amount as a pocket money from the government Organizations having the biggest manpower in Europe are the Voluntary social year German Freiwilliges Soziales Jahr with more than 50 000 volunteers per year and the Federal volunteers service German Bundesfreiwilligendienst with about 30 000 to 40 000 volunteers per year 31 32 33 Volunteering at major sporting events Edit 25 000 volunteers worked at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics They supported the organisers in more than 20 functional areas meeting guests assisting navigation organising the opening and closing ceremonies organising food outlets etc Volunteer applications were open to any nationals of Russia and other countries The Sochi 2014 Organising Committee received about 200 000 applications 8 applicants per place Volunteers received training over the course of more than a year at 26 volunteer centres in 17 cities across Russia The majority of participants were between 17 and 22 years old At the same time 3000 applications were submitted from people over 55 years old Some of them worked as volunteers during the 1980 Olympics in Moscow It was the first experience with such a large scale volunteer program in the contemporary Russia The FIFA World Cup in 2018 was supported by 17 040 volunteers of the Russia 2018 Local Organising Committee 34 Volunteer days weeks and years EditDesignated days weeks and years observed by a country or as designated by the United Nations to encourage volunteering community service Global Youth Service Day International Volunteer Day International Year of Volunteers Join Hands Day Mandela Day MLK Day of service Mitzvah Day Random Acts of Kindness Day Sewa Day Make A Difference Day World Kindness DayPolitical view EditFurther information Gift economy Modern societies share a common value of people helping each other not only do volunteer acts assist others but they also benefit the volunteering individual on a personal level 35 Despite having similar objectives tension can arise between volunteers and state provided services In order to curtail this tension most countries develop policies and enact legislation to clarify the roles and relationships among governmental stakeholders and their voluntary counterparts this regulation identifies and allocates the necessary legal social administrative and financial support of each party This is particularly necessary when some voluntary activities are seen as a challenge to the authority of the state e g on 29 January 2001 President Bush cautioned that volunteer groups should supplement not replace government agencies work 36 Volunteering that benefits the state but challenges paid counterparts angers labor unions that represent those who are paid for their volunteer work this is particularly seen in combination departments such as volunteer fire departments Difficulties in cross national aid Edit See also International volunteering Difficulties in the cross national aid model of volunteering can arise when it is applied across national borders The presence of volunteers who are sent from one state to another can be viewed as a breach of sovereignty and showing a lack of respect towards the national government of the proposed recipients Thus motivations are important when states negotiate offers to send aid and when these proposals are accepted particularly if donors may postpone assistance or stop it altogether Three types of conditionality have evolved Financial accountability Transparency in funding management to ensure that what is done by the volunteers is properly targeted Policy reform Governmental request that developing countries adopt certain social economic or environmental policies often the most controversial relate to the privatization of services traditionally offered by the state Development objectives Asking developing countries to adjust specific time bound economic objectives Some international volunteer organizations define their primary mission as being altruistic to fight poverty and improve the living standards of people in the developing world e g Voluntary Services Overseas has almost 2 000 skilled professionals working as volunteers to pass on their expertise to local people so that the volunteers skills remain long after they return home When these organizations work in partnership with governments the results can be impressive However when other organizations or individual First World governments support the work of volunteer groups there can be questions as to whether the organizations or governments real motives are poverty alleviation Instead a focus on creating wealth for some of the poor or developing policies intended to benefit the donor states is sometimes reported 37 Many low income countries economies suffer from industrialization without prosperity and investment without growth One reason for this is that development assistance guides many Third World governments to pursue development policies that have been wasteful ill conceived or unproductive some of these policies have been so destructive that the economies could not have been sustained without outside support 38 Indeed some offers of aid have distorted the general spirit of volunteering treating local voluntary action as contributions in kind i e existing conditions requiring the modification of local people s behavior in order for them to earn the right to donors charity This can be seen as patronizing and offensive to the recipients because the aid expressly serves the policy aims of the donors rather than the needs of the recipients Moral resources political capital and civil society Edit Some files for helping people in a volunteers station in Shenzhen People s Republic of China Based on a case study in China Xu and Ngai 2011 revealed that the developing grassroots volunteerism can be an enclave among various organizations and may be able to work toward the development of civil society in the developing countries The researchers developed a Moral Resources and Political Capital approach to examine the contributions of volunteerism in promoting the civil society Moral resource means the available morals could be chosen by NGOs Political capital means the capital that will improve or enhance the NGOs status possession or access in the existing political system 39 Moreover Xu and Ngai 2011 distinguished two types of Moral Resources Moral Resource I and Moral Resource II ibid Moral Resource I Inspired by Immanuel Kant s 1998 1787 argument of What ought I to do Moral Resource I will encourage the NGOs confidence and then have the courage to act and conquer difficulties by way of answering and confirming the question of What ought I to do 40 Moral Resource II given that Adorno 2000 recognizes that moral or immoral tropes are socially determined Moral Resource II refers to the morals that are well accepted by the given society 41 Thanks to the intellectual heritage of Blau and Duncan 1967 two types of political capital were identified Political Capital I refers to the political capital mainly ascribed to the status that the NGO inherited throughout history e g the CYL Political Capital II refers to the Political Capital that the NGOs earned through their hard efforts 42 Obviously Moral resource I itself contains the self determination that gives participants confidence in the ethical beliefs they have chosen 43 almost any organizations may have Moral Resource I while not all of them have the societal recognized Moral Resource II However the voluntary service organizations predominantly occupy Moral Resource II because a sense of moral superiority makes it possible that for parties with different values goals and cultures to work together in promoting the promotion of volunteering Thus the voluntary service organizations are likely to win the trust and support of the masses as well as the government more easily than will the organizations whose morals are not accepted by mainstream society In other words Moral Resource II helps the grassroots organizations with little Political Capital I to win Political Capital II which is a crucial factor for their survival and growth in developing countries such as China Therefore the voluntary service realm could be an enclave of the development of civil society in the developing nations 39 Potential benefits of volunteering EditAcademic Edit Further information Service learning Effects Volunteering for community service as part of a college curriculum service learning provides opportunities for students to surround themselves with new people which helps them learn how to work together as a group improve teamwork and relational skills reduce stereotypes and increases appreciation of other cultures 9 Students participating in service learning programs are shown to have more positive attitudes toward self attitudes toward school and learning civic engagement social skills and academic performance 44 45 They are also more likely to complete their degree 46 47 Longevity Edit Volunteers are observed to have a reduced mortality risk compared to non volunteers 48 Therefore it is worth noting that the various types of work as a volunteer and psychological effects of such altruistic work may produce enough side effects to contribute to a longer and more fulfilling life A systematic review shows that adults over age of 65 years who volunteer may experience improved physical and mental health and potentially reduced mortality 49 Mental health Edit A worldwide survey was conducted in a study suggesting that people who experience the highest levels of happiness are the most successful in terms of close relationships and volunteer work 50 In comparison charity in the form of monetary donations which is another form of altruism volunteering being one of them is also known to have a similar effect 51 52 Another study finds that helping others is associated with higher levels of mental health above and beyond the benefits of receiving help 53 On the subject of service learning undergraduate students who volunteered 1 to 9 hours per week were less likely to feel depressed than students who did not volunteer 54 Among people aged 65 years old or above volunteering may reduce the risk of depression 49 Statistics EditIn the United States statistics on volunteering have historically been limited according to volunteerism expert Susan J Ellis 55 In 2013 the U S Current Population Survey included a volunteering supplement which produced statistics on volunteering 56 Criticisms EditIn the 1960s Ivan Illich offered an analysis of the role of American volunteers in Mexico in his speech entitled To Hell With Good Intentions His concerns along with those of critics such as Paulo Freire and Edward Said revolve around the notion of altruism as an extension of Christian missionary ideology In addition he mentions the sense of responsibility obligation as a factor which drives the concept of noblesse oblige first developed by the French aristocracy as a moral duty derived from their wealth Simply stated these apprehensions propose the extension of power and authority over indigenous cultures around the world Recent critiques of volunteering come from Westmier and Kahn 1996 and bell hooks nee Gloria Watkins 2004 Also Georgeou 2012 has critiqued the impact of neoliberalism on international aid volunteering The field of the medical tourism referring to volunteers who travel overseas to deliver medical care has recently attracted negative criticism when compared to the alternative notion of sustainable capacities i e work done in the context of long term locally run and foreign supported infrastructures A preponderance of this criticism appears largely in scientific and peer reviewed literature 57 58 59 Recently media outlets with more general readerships have published such criticisms as well 60 This type of volunteering is pejoratively referred to as medical voluntourism 61 Another problem noted with volunteering is that it can be used to replace low paid entry positions This can act to decrease social mobility with only those capable of affording to work without payment able to gain the experience 62 Trade unions in the United Kingdom have warned that long term volunteering is a form of exploitation used by charities to avoid minimum wage legislation 63 Some sectors now expect candidates for paid roles to have undergone significant periods of volunteer experience whether relevant to the role or not setting up Volunteer Credentialism 64 Volunteers can be exposed to stressful situations and attitudes which can cause them to suffer from burnout which in turn reduces their activism and overall well being 65 There is also evidence that volunteering can become a moral obligation that prompts feelings of guilt when not performed 66 See also EditAssociation for Leaders in Volunteer Engagement AL VE Association for Volunteer Administration AVA Avocation Community service Crossing guard European Solidarity Corps Federal volunteers service International volunteering List of volunteer awards Micro volunteering PeaceCorps Pro bono Subbotnik Scout leader Technisches Hilfswerk THW Voluntarism Voluntary social yearReferences Edit Wilson John 2000 Volunteering Annual Review of Sociology 26 26 215 doi 10 1146 annurev soc 26 1 215 Benefits of Volunteering Corporation for National and Community Service Retrieved 12 April 2017 a b Harper Douglas volunteer Online Etymology Dictionary Volunteer what s in a word Jocote org 23 December 2010 Archived from the original on 27 December 2010 Early Antislavery www nps gov Retrieved 12 February 2020 a b c Warburton Jeni Oppenheimer Melanie 2000 Volunteers and Volunteering The Federation Press ISBN 1 86287 376 3 Mormons JustServe helps helpers find places to well help The Salt Lake Tribune Retrieved 30 May 2022 a b Service Learning Medical Education at Harvard Harvard College 2010 a b c Janet Eyler 1999 Where s the learning in service learning San Francisco Jossey Bass ISBN 0787944831 0787944831 Gazley B L Littlepage T Bennett 2012 What about the host agency Nonprofit perspectives on community based student learning and volunteering Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 41 6 1029 1050 Need of skills based volunteering for Non Profit activities National Service Resources Steimel Sarah 1 February 2018 Skills Based Volunteering as Both Work and Not Work A Tension Centered Examination of Constructions of Volunteer VOLUNTAS International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 29 1 133 143 doi 10 1007 s11266 017 9859 8 ISSN 1573 7888 S2CID 151874029 Archived copy Archived from the original on 11 June 2015 Retrieved 9 June 2015 a href wiki Template Cite web title Template Cite web cite web a CS1 maint archived copy as title link Skills based volunteering Independent Sector Online Volunteering UN Volunteers Archived from the original on 2 May 2012 Retrieved 30 April 2012 Virtual Volunteering Resources Service Leader Archived from the original on 6 May 2012 Retrieved 30 April 2012 Feng Vincent Xuan Leong Tuck Wah 28 November 2017 Digital meaning exploring and understanding the motivations and experiences of virtual volunteers Proceedings of the 29th Australian Conference on Computer Human Interaction OZCHI 17 New York NY USA Association for Computing Machinery 366 370 doi 10 1145 3152771 3156138 ISBN 978 1 4503 5379 3 S2CID 9250571 Fritz Joanne Micro Volunteering via Mobile Phones Using Spare Time to Micro Volunteer About com Archived from the original on 21 April 2009 Micro Volunteering Changing The World In Just Your Pyjamas I volunteer org uk Retrieved 17 September 2013 Environmental Volunteer Work PeaceCorps Archived from the original on 3 May 2012 Retrieved 30 April 2012 USGS Tsunami 2004 Summary United States Geological Survey Archived from the original on 19 January 2011 Retrieved 11 September 2017 Power Matthew April 2005 The Tsunami Volunteers National Geographic Adventure Magazine Archived from the original on 18 February 2011 The Economy s Impact on Back to School Great Schools 6 August 2009 Retrieved 20 November 2009 a b Volunteer teaching effort can help students to learn better in schools PDF School Mental Health Project Retrieved 14 December 2011 Darlington Ben 9 February 2016 What is Corporate Volunteering Benefacto Mapping Success in Employee Volunteering The Drivers of Effectiveness for Employee Volunteering and Giving Programs and Fortune 500 Performance 2009 Boston College Center for Corporate Citizenship 2009 Retrieved 21 April 2010 Fortune 500 s monetary donation programs for voluntary service Qgiv com Retrieved 7 March 2012 Does Employee Volunteerism Work VolunteerMatch org Archived from the original on 28 May 2010 Three days Paid Volunteering Leave Conservative Manifesto Pledge Updates Benefacto 12 April 2016 Retrieved 16 July 2019 Winfield Mark 21 May 2013 The Essential Volunteer Handbook FriesenPress ISBN 978 1 4602 1583 8 Archived copy PDF Archived from the original PDF on 28 April 2018 Retrieved 27 April 2018 a href wiki Template Cite web title Template Cite web cite web a CS1 maint archived copy as title link Freiwilliges Soziales Jahr FSJ Freiwilliges Soziales Jahr in German Retrieved 16 July 2019 PRO FSJ www pro fsj de Retrieved 16 July 2019 FIFA com Chempionat mira po futbolu FIFA 2018 v Rossii Novosti Pobediteli konkursa Nasledie volonterskoj programmy ChM 2018 nagrazhdeny v Skolkovo FIFA com www fifa com in Russian Archived from the original on 29 May 2018 Retrieved 14 June 2018 http www picketnews com archiveDetail asp cID 3 amp id 8327 7Cpublisher Picket News Bush Announces Faith Based Initiative permanent dead link ISBN reference for Volunteering Visions Publisher The Federation Press Edited by Joy Noble and Fiona Johnston ISBN 1 86287 404 2 ISBN 978 1862874046 Aid taxation and development analytical perspectives on aid effectiveness in Sub Saharan Africa World Bank 28 February 1998 Retrieved 12 July 2007 a b Xu Y Ngai N P 2011 Moral Resources and Political Capital Theorizing the Relationship Between Voluntary Service Organizations and the Development of Civil Society in China Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 40 2 247 269 doi 10 1177 0899764009340229 S2CID 154058761 Retrieved 17 April 2011 Kant I 1998 Critique of pure reason J M D Meiklejohn Trans Raleigh NC Alex Catalogue Adorno T 2000 Problems of moral philosophy T Schroder Ed amp R Livingstone Trans Stanford CA Stanford University Press Blau P M amp Duncan O D 1967 The American occupational structure New York Wiley Xu Y Ngai N P 2011 Moral Resources and Political Capital Theorizing the Relationship Between Voluntary Service Organizations and the Development of Civil Society in China Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 40 2 260 doi 10 1177 0899764009340229 S2CID 154058761 Retrieved 17 April 2011 Celio Christine I Durlak Joseph Dymnicki Allison 1 September 2011 A Meta Analysis of the Impact of Service Learning on Students Journal of Experiential Education 34 2 164 181 doi 10 1177 105382591103400205 S2CID 11537949 Boru Nese June 2017 The Effects of Service Learning and Volunteerism Activities on University Students in Turkey PDF Journal of Education and Training Studies 5 6 146 166 doi 10 11114 jets v5i6 2405 Astin A W 1992 What Matters in College Four Critical Years Revisited San Francisco Jossey Bass Pascarella and Terenzini E T and P T 1991 How College Affects Students Findings and Insights from Twenty Years of Research San Francisco Jossey Bass Ayalon Liat 2008 Volunteering as a predictor of all cause mortality what aspects of volunteering really matter International Psychogeriatrics 20 5 1000 1013 doi 10 1017 S1041610208007096 PMID 18397546 S2CID 19529297 a b Filges Trine Siren Anu Fridberg Torben Nielsen Bjorn C V 2020 Voluntary work for the physical and mental health of older volunteers a systematic review Campbell Systematic Reviews 16 4 e1124 doi 10 1002 cl2 1124 ISSN 1891 1803 Oishi Shigehiro Diener Ed Lucas Richard E 1 December 2007 The Optimum Level of Well Being Can People Be Too Happy Perspectives on Psychological Science 2 4 346 360 doi 10 1111 j 1745 6916 2007 00048 x PMID 26151972 S2CID 17932140 Aknin LB Barrington Leigh CP Dunn EW Helliwell JF Burns J Biswas Diener R Kemeza I Nyende P Ashton James CE Norton MI 2013 Prosocial spending and well being Cross cultural evidence for a psychological universal PDF Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 104 4 635 652 doi 10 1037 a0031578 PMID 23421360 S2CID 5403883 Dunn E W Aknin L B Norton M I 21 March 2008 Spending Money on Others Promotes Happiness Science 319 5870 1687 1688 Bibcode 2008Sci 319 1687D doi 10 1126 science 1150952 PMID 18356530 S2CID 29589887 Schwartz Carolyn Meisenhelder Janice Bell Ma Yunsheng Reed George 2003 Altruistic Social Interest Behaviors Are Associated With Better Mental Health Psychosomatic Medicine 65 5 778 785 doi 10 1097 01 PSY 0000079378 39062 D4 PMID 14508020 S2CID 20644442 Lederer Alyssa M Autry Dana M Day Carol R T Oswalt Sara B 18 August 2015 The Impact of Work and Volunteer Hours on the Health of Undergraduate Students Journal of American College Health 63 6 403 408 doi 10 1080 07448481 2015 1015028 PMID 25692931 S2CID 205583711 Wouldn t It Be Nice to Really Know Energize Volunteer Management Resources for Directors of Volunteers www energizeinc com Retrieved 12 October 2016 National Veteran Corps www volunteeringinamerica gov Retrieved 12 October 2016 Bezruchka S 2000 Medical Tourism as Medical Harm to the Third World Why For Whom Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 11 77 78 Roberts M 2006 Duffle Bag Medicine Journal of the American Medical Association 295 1491 1492 Pinto A D amp Upshur R E G 2009 Global Health Ethics for Students Developing World Bioethics 9 1 10 Think looking after turtles in Costa Rica for three weeks is good for your CV Think again The Conversation 4 November 2016 Retrieved 11 November 2016 McLennan Sharon 1 April 2014 Medical voluntourism in Honduras Helping the poor Progress in Development Studies 14 2 163 179 doi 10 1177 1464993413517789 ISSN 1464 9934 S2CID 144772758 McGuinness F Ward M 2017 State of the Nation Report by the Social Mobility Commission PDF Report Trade Union Congress TUV 2018 Guide to Internships Accessed online at https www tuc org uk workplace guidance internships Walker Mark 2018 Own Transport Preferred Potential problems with long term volunteering and internships ECOS Konieczny Piotr 1 January 2018 Volunteer Retention Burnout and Dropout in Online Voluntary Organizations Stress Conflict and Retirement of Wikipedians Research in Social Movements Conflicts and Change Research in Social Movements Conflicts and Change vol 42 Emerald Publishing Limited pp 199 219 doi 10 1108 s0163 786x20180000042008 ISBN 978 1 78756 895 2 S2CID 155122668 retrieved 29 April 2021 Gill MJ 2021 Understanding the Spread of Sustained Employee Volunteering How Volunteers Influence Their Coworkers Moral Identity Work Journal of Management Geiser Ch Okun M A Grano C 2014 Who is motivated to volunteer A latent profile analysis linking volunteer motivation to frequency of volunteering Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling 56 1 pp 3 24 Further reading EditGeorgeou Nichole Neoliberalism Development and Aid Volunteering New York Routledge 2012 ISBN 9780415809153External links EditLook up volunteering in Wiktionary the free dictionary Wikisource has original text related to this article Category National Volunteer WeekWikimedia Commons has media related to Volunteering Wikiquote has quotations related to Volunteering Volunteering at Curlie Volunteerism and legislation a Guidance Note Inter Parliamentary Union United Nations Volunteers International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies 2004 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Volunteering amp oldid 1093565952, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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