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Not to be confused with vosotros, the second person plural familiar form for Spanish conjugations.
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In Spanish grammar, voseo (Spanish pronunciation: ) is the use of vos as a second-person singular pronoun, along with its associated verbal forms, in certain regions where the language is spoken. In those regions it replaces tuteo, i.e. the use of the pronoun and its verbal forms. Voseo can also be found in the context of using verb conjugations for vos with as the subject pronoun (verbal voseo), as in the case of Chilean Spanish, where this form coexists with the ordinary form of voseo.[citation needed]

In all regions with voseo, the corresponding unstressed object pronoun is te and the corresponding possessive is tu / tuyo.

Vos is used extensively as the second-person singular in Rioplatense Spanish (Argentina and Uruguay), Eastern Bolivia, Paraguayan Spanish, and Central American Spanish (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, southern parts of Chiapas and some parts of Oaxaca in Mexico). Vos had been traditionally used even in formal writing in Argentina, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Paraguay, the Philippines and Uruguay. In the dialect of Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay (known as 'Rioplatense Spanish'), vos is also the standard form of use, even in mainstream media. In Argentina, particularly since the last years of the 20th century, it is very common to see billboards and other advertising media using voseo.

Vos is present in other countries as a regionalism, for instance in the Maracucho Spanish of Zulia State, Venezuela (see Venezuelan Spanish), in the Azuero peninsula of Panama, in various departments in Colombia, and in parts of Ecuador (Sierra down to Esmeraldas). In Peru, voseo is present in some Andean regions and Cajamarca, but the younger generations have ceased to use it. It is also present in Ladino (spoken by Sephardic Jews throughout Israel, Turkey, the Balkans, Morocco, Latin America and the United States), where it replaces usted. In the United States, Salvadoran Americans are by far the largest voseo users followed by other Central Americans, including Guatemalans, Hondurans, Nicaraguans, and Costa Ricans.[citation needed]

Voseo is seldom taught to students of Spanish as a second language, and its precise usage varies across different regions. Nevertheless, in recent years it has become more accepted across the Spanish-speaking world as a valid part of regional dialects.

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Originally a second-person plural, Vos came to be used as a more polite second-person singular pronoun to be used among one's familiar friends. The following extract from a late-18th century textbook is illustrative of usage at the time:

We seldom make use in Spanish of the second Person Singular or Plural, but when through a great familiarity among friends, or speaking to God, or a wife and husband to themselves, or a father and mother to their children, or to servants.

Examples.

O Dios, sois vos mi Padre verdadéro, O God, thou art my true Father; Tú eres un buen amígo, Thou art a good friend.

Raymundo del Pueyo, A New Spanish Grammar, or the Elements of the Spanish Language

The standard formal way to address a person one was not on familiar terms with was to address such a person as vuestra merced ("your grace", originally abbreviated as v.m.) in the singular and vuestras mercedes in the plural. Because of the literal meaning of these forms, they were accompanied by the corresponding third-person verb forms. Other formal forms of address included vuestra excelencia ("your excellence", contracted phonetically to ussencia) and vuestra señoría ("your lordship/ladyship", contracted to ussía). Today, both vos and are considered to be informal pronouns, with vos being somewhat synonymous with in regions where both are used. This was the situation when the Spanish language was brought to the Río de la Plata area (around Buenos Aires and Montevideo) and to Chile.

In time, vos lost currency in Spain but survived in a number of areas in Spanish-speaking America: Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia (east), Uruguay, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and some smaller areas; it is not found, or found only in internally remote areas (such as Chiapas) in the countries historically best connected with Spain: Mexico, Panama, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Colombia, Perú, and Equatorial Guinea. Vuestra merced evolved into usted (vuestra merced > usarced > usted; in fact, usted is still abbreviated as either Vd or Ud). Note that the term vosotros is a combined form of vos otros (meaning literally "ye/you others"), while the term nosotros comes from nos otros ("we/us others").

In the first half of the 19th century the use of vos was as prevalent in Chile as it was in Argentina. The current limitation of the use of vos in Chile is attributed to a campaign to eradicate it by the Chilean education system. The campaign was initiated by Andrés Bello who considered the use of vos a manifestation of lack of education.

Vos in relation to other forms of

The independent disjunctive pronoun vos also replaces ti, from the tuteo set of forms. That is, vos is both nominative and the form to use after prepositions. Therefore, para vos ("for you") corresponds to the tuteo form para ti, etc.

The preposition-pronoun combination con vos ("with you") is used for the tuteo form contigo.
The direct and indirect object form te is used in both voseo and tuteo.

Nominative Oblique Reflexive
subject direct object indirect object prepositional object fused with con direct/indirect object prepositional object fused with con
vos te te vos con vos te vos con vos
usted lo / la le usted con usted se consigo
te te ti contigo te ti contigo
vosotros os os vosotros con vosotros os vosotros con vosotros

The possessive pronouns of vos also coincide with <tu(s), tuyo(s), tuya(s)> rather than with vosotros <vuestro(s), vuestra(s)>.

Voseo in Chavacano

Chavacano, a Spanish-based creole, employs voseo. The Chavacano language below in comparison of other Chavacano dialects and level of formality with Voseo in both subject and possessive pronouns. Note the mixed and co-existing usages of vos, tú, usted, and vosotros.

Zamboangueño Caviteño Bahra Davaoeño (Castellano Abakay)
2nd person singular vos/vo/evo/evos (common/informal)
tú (familiar)
usted (formal)
vo/bo(common)
tu (familiar)
usté (formal)
vo/bo (common/informal)
usté (formal)
usted (formal)

vos (informal)

2nd person plural kamó (common)
vosotros (familiar)
ustedes (formal)
vusos
busos
buhotro
bujotro
ustedi
tedi
ustedes

vosotros

Zamboangueño Davaoeño (Castellano Abakay)
2nd person singular de vos (common)
de tu (familiar)
tuyo (familiar)
de tuyo/di tuyo (familiar)
de usted (formal)
de tu
2nd person plural de iño/di inyo (common)
de vosotros (familiar)
de ustedes (formal)
(de) vos

Conjugation with vos

All modern voseo conjugations derive from Old Spanish second person plural -ades, -edes, -ides, and -odes (as in sodes, "you are"). The 14th and 15th centuries saw an evolution of these conjugations, with -ades originally giving -áis, -edes giving -és (or -ís), -ides giving -ís, and -odes giving -óis. Soon analogous forms -ás and -éis appeared. Hence the variety of forms the contemporary American voseo adopts, some varieties featuring a generalized monophthong (most of them), some a generalized diphthong (e.g. Venezuela), and some combining monophthongs and diphthongs, depending on the conjugation (e.g. Chile). In the most general, monophthongized, conjugation paradigm, a difference between voseo forms and respective tuteo forms is visible exclusively in the present indicative, imperative and subjunctive, and, most of the time, in the preterite. Below is a comparison table of the conjugation of several verbs for and for vos, and next to them the one for vosotros, the informal second person plural currently used orally only in Spain; in oratory or legal language (highly formal forms of Spanish) it is used outside of Spain. Verb forms that agree with vos are stressed on the last syllable, causing the loss of the stem diphthong in those verbs, such as poder and venir, which are stem-changing.

Verb
2. Sg.
Vos
General
Tú / Vos
Chile1
Vos
Southeastern Cuba,
Northeastern Colombia1, 2,
Venezuela3
and Panama4
Vosotros
2. Pl.
in Spain
Vosotros - בֿוֹזוֹטרוֹז general 2.Pl
And Vos - בֿוֹז formal 2.Sg
Ladino
Ustedes
2. Pl
Meaning
ser eres sos erís/ sois sois sox סוֹש /soʃ/ son you are
comer comes comés comís coméis comex קוֹמֵיש /koˈmeʃ/ comen you eat
poder puedes podés podís podéis podex פּוֹדֵיש /poˈdeʃ/ pueden you can / may
hablar hablas hablás hablái habláis favlax פֿאבֿלאשׁ /faˈvlaʃ/ hablan you speak
recordar recuerdas recordás recordái recordáis recordax רֵיקוֹרדאשׁ /rekorˈdaʃ/ recuerdan you remember
vivir vives vivís vivix בִּיבִֿיש /biˈviʃ/ viven you live
venir vienes venís venix בֵּינִיש /beˈniʃ/ vienen you come
1 Because of the general aspiration of syllable-final [s], the -s of this ending is usually heard as [h] or not pronounced.
2 In Colombia, the rest of the country that uses vos follows the General Conjugation.
3 In the state of Zulia
4 in Azuero

General conjugation is the one that is most widely accepted and used in various countries such as Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, parts of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Colombia, as well as Central American countries.

Some Uruguayan speakers combine the pronoun with the vos conjugation (for example, tú sabés). Conversely, speakers in some other places where both and vos are used combine vos with the conjugation (for example, vos sabes). This is a frequent occurrence in the Argentine province of Santiago del Estero.

The verb forms employed with vos are also different in Chilean Spanish: Chileans use-ái andsoi 'you are' instead of-áis or-ás andsois orsos. Chileans never pronounce these conjugations with a final -s. The formserís for 'you are', andhabís andhai for 'you have' are also found in Chilean Spanish.

In the case of the ending -ís (such as in comís, podís, vivís, erís, venís), the final -s is pronounced like any other final/s/ in Chilean Spanish. It is most often pronounced as an aspiration similar to the 'h' sound in English. It can also be pronounced as a fricative[s], or be dropped completely. Its variable pronunciation is a phonological rather than a morphological phenomenon.

Venezuelan Maracucho Spanish is notable in that they preserve the diphthongized plural verb forms in all tenses, as still used with vosotros in Spain. Chilean Spanish also notably uses the diphthong-ái.

In Ladino, the -áis, -éis, -ís, & -ois endings are pronounced/aʃ/,/eʃ/,/iʃ/, &/oʃ/.

In Chile, it is much more usual to use + vos verb conjugation ( sabís). The use of pronominal vos (vos sabís) is reserved for very informal situations and may even be considered vulgar in some cases.

Present indicative

  1. General conjugation: the final -r of the infinitive is replaced by -s; in writing, an acute accent is added to the last vowel (i.e. the one preceding the final -s) to indicate stress position.
  2. Chilean:
    1. the -ar ending of the infinitive is replaced by -ái
    2. both -er and -ir are replaced by -ís, which sounds more like -íh.
  3. Venezuelan (Zulian): practically the same ending as modern Spanish vosotros, yet with the final -s being aspirated so that: -áis, -éis, -ís sound like -áih, -éih, -íh (phonetically resembling Chilean).
VOSEO
Infinitive Present Indicative
General Venezuelan1 Chilean
oír oís
venir venís
decir decís
dormir dormís
sentir sentís
escribir escribís
concluir concluís
ir vas vais vai(s)
pensar pensás pensáis pensái
contar contás contáis contái
jugar jugás jugáis jugái
errar errás erráis errái
poder podés podéis podí
querer querés queréis querí
mover movés movéis moví
saber sabés sabéis sabí
ser sos sois soi/erís
haber has habéis habís/hai
1 in Zulia; identical ending to modern vosotros

Unlike , which has many irregular forms, the only voseo verbs that are conjugated irregularly in the indicative present are ser, ir and haber. However, haber is seldom used in the indicative present, since there is a strong tendency to use preterite instead of present perfect.

Affirmative imperative

Vos also differs in its affirmative imperative conjugation from both and vosotros. Specifically, the vos imperative is formed by dropping the final -r from the infinitive, but keeping the stress on the last syllable. The only verb that is irregular in this regard is ir; its vos imperative is not usually used, with andá (the vos imperative of andar, which is denoted by *) being generally used instead; except for the Argentine province of Tucumán, where the imperative ite is used. For most regular verbs ending in -ir, the vos imperatives use the same conjugations as the yo form in the preterite; almost all verbs that are irregular in the preterite (which are denoted by ) retain the regular vos imperative forms.

Verb Meaning Vos Vosotros (written)
ser to be sed
estar to be está / estate está / estate estad
ir to go ve id / ite *(andá / andate) id
hablar to speak habla hablá hablad
callar to become silent calla callá callad
soltar to release/let go suelta soltá soltad
comer to eat come comé comed
mover to move mueve mové moved
venir to come ven vení venid
poner to put pon poné poned
salir to leave sal salí salid
tener to have ten tené tened
decir to say di decí decid
pedir to ask/order pide pedí pedid

Again, the conjugation of has far more irregularities, whereas vos has only one irregular verb in the affirmative imperative.

In Chile, the general vos conjugation is not used in the affirmative imperative.

Subjunctive

In most places where voseo is used, it is applied also in the subjunctive. In the Río de la Plata region, both the -conjugation and the voseo conjugation are found, the tú-form being more common. In this variety, some studies have shown a pragmatic difference between the -form and the vos-form, such that the vos form carries information about the speaker's belief state, and can be stigmatized. For example, in Central America the subjunctive and negative command form is no mintás, and in Chile it is no mintái; however, in Río de la Plata both no mientas and no mintás are found. Real Academia Española models its voseo conjugation tables on the most frequent, unstigmatized Río de la Plata usage and therefore omits the subjunctive voseo.

Central America1
Bolivia
Río de la Plata region Chile Venezuela (Zulia)
Panama (Azuero)
meaning
No quiero que mintás. No quiero que mientas. No quiero que mintáis. No quiero que mintáis. I don't want you to lie.
No temás. No temas. No temái. No temáis. Do not fear.
Que durmás bien Que duermas bien. Que durmái bien. Que durmáis bien. Sleep well.
No te preocupés. No te preocupes. No te preocupís. No te preocupéis. Don't worry.
1including areas in Colombia with voseo, e.g. the Paisa Region.

Verbal voseo and pronominal voseo

  • "Verbal voseo" refers to the use of the verb conjugation of vos regardless of which pronoun is used.
Verbal voseo with a pronoun other than vos is widespread in Chile, in which case one would use the pronoun and the verb conjugation of vos at the same time. E.g.: tú venís, tú escribís, tú podís, tú sabís, tú vai, tú estái.
There are some partially rare cases of a similar sort of verbal voseo in Uruguay where one would say for example tú podés or tú sabés.
  • 'Pronominal voseo' is the use of the pronoun vos regardless of verb conjugation.
Distribution of voseo:
spoken + written
primarily spoken
spoken, alternating with tuteo
absent

Countries where voseo is predominant

Voseo used on a billboard in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The sign reads ¿Querés cambiar? Vení a Claro ("Do you want to change? Come to Claro."). In tuteo, it would have been ¿Quieres cambiar? Ven a Claro.
Voseo used on a billboard in El Salvador: ¡Pedí aquí tu fría! ("Order your cold one here!"). The tuteo equivalent would have been ¡Pide aquí tu fría!
Voseo used on a signage inside a shopping mall in Tegucigalpa, Honduras: En City sí encontrás de todo para lucir como te gusta ("At City you find everything to look how you like"). The tuteo equivalent would have been En City sí encuentras de todo para lucir como te gusta

In South America:

  1. Argentina — both pronominal and verbal voseo, the pronoun is virtually unused.
  2. Paraguay — both pronominal and verbal voseo, the pronoun is virtually unused in most of the country, except in Concepción.
  3. Uruguay — dual-usage of both pronominal and verbal voseo and a combination of the pronoun + verb conjugated in the vos form, except near the Brazilian border, where only pronominal and verbal tuteo is common.

In Central America:

  1. Nicaragua — both pronominal and verbal voseo; the pronoun is seldom used.
  2. Honduras — both pronominal and verbal voseo; the pronoun is seldom used.
  3. Costa Ricavoseo has historically been used, back in the 2000s it was losing ground to ustedeo and tuteo, especially among younger speakers. Vos is now primarily used orally with friends and family in Cartago, Guanacaste province, the San José metropolitan area and near the Nicaraguan border and in advertising signage. Usted is the primary form in other areas and with strangers. Tuteo is rarely used, but when it is used in speech by a Costa Rican, it is commonly considered fake and effeminate.
  4. El Salvador: a two-tiered system is used, that indicates the degree of respect or trust: usted, vos. Usted expresses distance and respect; vos corresponds to an intermediate level, expressing familiarity, but not deep trust but also the pronoun of maximum familiarity and solidarity, and also lack of respect. But sometimes parents even address their young children as usted.

Countries where it is extensive, but not predominant

In South America:

  1. Bolivia: in the Lowlands of Eastern Bolivia—with mestizo, Criollo and German descendants majority—(Santa Cruz, Beni, Pando, Tarija and the Lowlands of La Paz) voseo is used universally; while in the Highlands of Western Bolivia—with indigenous peoples majority—(highlands of La Paz, Oruro, Potosí, Chuquisaca and Cochabamba) is predominant, but there is still a strong use of voseo, especially in verb forms.
  2. Chile: verbal voseo is spreading north- and southwards from the center, whereas pronominal voseo is reserved only for very intimate situations or to offend someone. In addition, voseo in Chile is only used in informal situations; in every other situation, the normal or usted pronouns are used.

In Central America:

  1. Guatemala — verbal voseo is widespread in the country; it is commonly used throughout the society. The pronoun is still seen in advertising and used in rural areas mixed with vos.

Countries where voseo occurs in some areas

In the following countries, voseo is used in certain areas:

Countries where vos is virtually absent from usage

In the following countries, the use of vos has disappeared completely and is not used at all.

The traditional assumption that Chilean and River Plate voseo verb forms are derived from those corresponding to vosotros has been challenged as synchronically inadequate in a 2014 article, on the grounds that it requires at least six different rules, including three monophthongization processes that completely lack phonological motivation. Alternatively, the article argues that the Chilean and River Plate voseo verb forms are synchronically derived from underlying representations that coincide with those corresponding to the non-honorific second person singular . First, both Chilean and River Platevoseo has an accentuation rule which assigns stress to the syllable following the verb's root, or its infinitive in the case of the future and conditional conjugations. This alone derives all the River Platevoseo verb conjugations, in all tenses. Chilean verb forms also undergo rules of semi-vocalization, vowel raising, and aspiration. In semi-vocalization,/s/ becomes the semivowel/j/ when after/a, o/; thus,-ás becomes-ái, andsos becomessoi 'you are'. The vowel raising rule turns stressed/e/ into/i/, sobebés becomesbebís. Aspiration, a normal part of Chilean, and River Plate, Spanish phonology, means that syllable or word-final/s/ becomes pronounced like an[h].

The proposed theory requires the use of only one special rule in the case of Chilean voseo. This rule plus other rules that are independently justified in the language make it possible to synchronically derive all the Chilean and River Plate voseo verb forms in a straightforward manner. The article additionally solves the problem posed by the alternate verbal forms of Chilean voseo like the future indicative (e.g. bailaríh orbailarái 'you will dance'), the present indicative forms of haber (habíh and hai 'you have'), and the present indicative of ser (soi, eríh and eréi 'you are'), without resorting to any ad hoc rules. All these different verb forms would come from different underlying representations. The future formsbailarái andbailaríh come from underlying/bailaras/ and/bailares/, the latter related to the historical future form in-és which was documented in Chile in the 17th century.Habíh andhai come from/habes/ and/has/, whilesoi anderíh come from/sos/ and/eres/. The formerei also comes from/eres/, with an extension of semi-vocalization. The theoretical framework of the article is that of classic generative phonology.

In some countries, the pronoun vos is used with family and friends (T-form), like in other varieties of Spanish, and contrasts with the respectful usted (V-form used with third person) which is used with strangers, elderly, and people of higher socioeconomic status; appropriate usage varies by dialect. In Central America, vos can be used among those considered equals, while usted maintains its respectful usage. In Ladino, the pronoun usted is completely absent, so the use of vos with strangers and elders is the standard.

Voseo was long considered a backwards or uneducated usage by prescriptivist grammarians. Many Central American intellectuals, themselves fromvoseante nations, have condemned the usage ofvos in the past. With the changing mentalities in the Hispanic world, and with the development of descriptive as opposed to prescriptive linguistics, it has become simply a local variant of Spanish. In some places it has become symbolically important and is pointed to with pride as a local defining characteristic.

  1. Miranda, Stewart (1999). The Spanish Language Today. Routledge. p. 125. ISBN 0-415-14258-X.
  2. Real Academia Española. "voseo | Diccionario panhispánico de dudas". «Diccionario panhispánico de dudas» (in Spanish). Retrieved2022-04-28.
  3. Borrini, Alberto (24 February 1998). "Publicidad & Marketing. ¿Por qué usan el tuteo los avisos?". La Nación. Retrieved19 July 2020.
  4. Gassó, María José. "El voseo rioplatense en la clase de español"(PDF). Instituto Cervantes Belo Horizonte. pp. 11–12. Retrieved19 July 2020.
  5. degruyter.com; Ana María Díaz Collazos, Desarrollo sociolingüístico del voseo en Colombia.
  6. Bruquetas, Francisco (2015). Advanced Spanish. Bruquetas Publishing. p. 146. ISBN 9780578104355.
  7. Raymundo Del Pueyo A New Spanish Grammar, or the Elements of the Spanish Language (London: F. Wingrave, 1792) 159; The book is online at Google Books at: https://books.google.com/books?id=NekRAAAAIAAJ&printsec=toc&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPP9,M1
  8. Luizete Guimarães Barros. 1990. Lengua y nación en la Gramática de Bello. Anuario brasileño de estudios hispánicos.
  9. (in Spanish) Lapesa Melgar, Rafael. 1970. "Las formas verbales de segunda persona y los orígenes del voseo", in: Carlos H. Magis (ed.), Actas del III Congreso de la Asociación Internacional de Hispanistas (México, D.F., 26-31 Aug 1968). México: Colegio de México, 519-531.
  10. (in Spanish) García de Diego, Vicente. [1951] 1981. Gramática histórica española. (3rd edition; 1st edition 1951, 2nd edition 1961, 3rd edition 1970, 1st reprint 1981.) Madrid: Gredos, 227-229.
  11. -ides did not produce -íes because -iés and íes were already in use as Imperfect forms, cf. García de Diego ([1951] 1981: 228) and Lapesa (1970: 526).
  12. Baquero Velásquez, Julia M.; Westphal Montt, Germán F. (16 July 2014). "Un análisis sincrónico del voseo verbal chileno y rioplatense". Forma y Función (in Spanish). 27 (2): 11–40. doi:10.15446/fyf.v27n2.47558.
  13. Johnson, Mary (2016). "Epistemicity in voseo and tuteo negative commands in Argentinian Spanish". Journal of Pragmatics. 97: 37–54. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2016.02.003.
  14. Moyna, María Irene & Rivera-Mills, Susana (2016). Forms of Address in Spanish across the Americas. John Benjamins. pp. 127–148. ISBN 9789027258090.
  15. See for example in Real Academia Española Dictionary, mentir or preocupar, where mentís and preocupás are present, but mintás and preocupés are missing.
  16. Maria Irene Moyna, Susana Rivera-Mills (2016). Forms of Address in the Spanish of the Americas. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 243–263. ISBN 978-90-272-6700-9.
  17. Solano Rojas, Yamileth (1995). "Las formas pronominales: Vos - tu - usted en Costa Rica, análisis de una muestra". Revista Pensamiento Actual. 1 (1): 42–57.
  18. Martha D. Ortiz. "El voseo en El Salvador". Scholarworks.sjsu.edu.
  19. John M. Lipski. "El español que se habla en El Salvador y su importancia para la dialectología hispanoamericana"(PDF) (in Spanish). The Pennsylvania State University.{{cite journal}}:Cite journal requires |journal= ()
  20. Davis, Jack Emory (1971). "The Spanish of Mexico: An Annotated Bibliography for 1940-69". Hispania. 54: 624–656. doi:10.2307/337708. ISSN 0018-2133.

Voseo Article Talk Language Watch Edit Not to be confused with vosotros the second person plural familiar form for Spanish conjugations This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Voseo news newspapers books scholar JSTOR June 2015 Learn how and when to remove this template message In Spanish grammar voseo Spanish pronunciation boˈse o is the use of vos as a second person singular pronoun along with its associated verbal forms in certain regions where the language is spoken In those regions it replaces tuteo i e the use of the pronoun tu and its verbal forms Voseo can also be found in the context of using verb conjugations for vos with tu as the subject pronoun verbal voseo 1 as in the case of Chilean Spanish where this form coexists with the ordinary form of voseo citation needed In all regions with voseo the corresponding unstressed object pronoun is te and the corresponding possessive is tu tuyo 2 Vos is used extensively as the second person singular in Rioplatense Spanish Argentina and Uruguay Eastern Bolivia Paraguayan Spanish and Central American Spanish El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica southern parts of Chiapas and some parts of Oaxaca in Mexico Vos had been traditionally used even in formal writing in Argentina El Salvador Costa Rica Nicaragua Paraguay the Philippines and Uruguay In the dialect of Argentina Paraguay and Uruguay known as Rioplatense Spanish vos is also the standard form of use even in mainstream media In Argentina particularly since the last years of the 20th century it is very common to see billboards and other advertising media using voseo 3 4 Vos is present in other countries as a regionalism for instance in the Maracucho Spanish of Zulia State Venezuela see Venezuelan Spanish in the Azuero peninsula of Panama in various departments in Colombia 5 and in parts of Ecuador Sierra down to Esmeraldas In Peru voseo is present in some Andean regions and Cajamarca but the younger generations have ceased to use it It is also present in Ladino spoken by Sephardic Jews throughout Israel Turkey the Balkans Morocco Latin America and the United States where it replaces usted In the United States Salvadoran Americans are by far the largest voseo users followed by other Central Americans including Guatemalans Hondurans Nicaraguans and Costa Ricans citation needed Voseo is seldom taught to students of Spanish as a second language and its precise usage varies across different regions 6 Nevertheless in recent years it has become more accepted across the Spanish speaking world as a valid part of regional dialects Contents 1 History 2 Usage 2 1 Vos in relation to other forms of tu 2 2 Voseo in Chavacano 2 3 Conjugation with vos 2 3 1 Present indicative 2 3 2 Affirmative imperative 2 3 3 Subjunctive 2 4 Verbal voseo and pronominal voseo 3 Geographical distribution 3 1 Countries where voseo is predominant 3 2 Countries where it is extensive but not predominant 3 3 Countries where voseo occurs in some areas 3 4 Countries where vos is virtually absent from usage 4 Synchronic analysis of Chilean and River Plate verbal voseo 5 Attitudes 6 See also 7 References 8 SourcesHistory EditThis article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Voseo news newspapers books scholar JSTOR February 2019 Learn how and when to remove this template message Originally a second person plural Vos came to be used as a more polite second person singular pronoun to be used among one s familiar friends The following extract from a late 18th century textbook is illustrative of usage at the time We seldom make use in Spanish of the second Person Singular or Plural but when through a great familiarity among friends or speaking to God or a wife and husband to themselves or a father and mother to their children or to servants Examples O Dios sois vos mi Padre verdadero O God thou art my true Father Tu eres un buen amigo Thou art a good friend Raymundo del Pueyo A New Spanish Grammar or the Elements of the Spanish Language 7 The standard formal way to address a person one was not on familiar terms with was to address such a person as vuestra merced your grace originally abbreviated as v m in the singular and vuestras mercedes in the plural Because of the literal meaning of these forms they were accompanied by the corresponding third person verb forms Other formal forms of address included vuestra excelencia your excellence contracted phonetically to ussencia and vuestra senoria your lordship ladyship contracted to ussia Today both vos and tu are considered to be informal pronouns with vos being somewhat synonymous with tu in regions where both are used This was the situation when the Spanish language was brought to the Rio de la Plata area around Buenos Aires and Montevideo and to Chile In time vos lost currency in Spain but survived in a number of areas in Spanish speaking America Argentina Paraguay Bolivia east Uruguay El Salvador Honduras Costa Rica Guatemala Nicaragua and some smaller areas it is not found or found only in internally remote areas such as Chiapas in the countries historically best connected with Spain Mexico Panama Cuba the Dominican Republic Venezuela Colombia Peru and Equatorial Guinea Vuestra merced evolved into usted vuestra merced gt usarced gt usted in fact usted is still abbreviated as either Vd or Ud Note that the term vosotros is a combined form of vos otros meaning literally ye you others while the term nosotros comes from nos otros we us others In the first half of the 19th century the use of vos was as prevalent in Chile as it was in Argentina The current limitation of the use of vos in Chile is attributed to a campaign to eradicate it by the Chilean education system The campaign was initiated by Andres Bello who considered the use of vos a manifestation of lack of education 8 Usage EditVos in relation to other forms of tu Edit The independent disjunctive pronoun vos also replaces ti from the tuteo set of forms That is vos is both nominative and the form to use after prepositions Therefore para vos for you corresponds to the tuteo form para ti etc The preposition pronoun combination con vos with you is used for the tuteo form contigo The direct and indirect object form te is used in both voseo and tuteo 2 Nominative Oblique Reflexivesubject direct object indirect object prepositional object fused with con direct indirect object prepositional object fused with convos te te vos con vos te vos con vosusted lo la le usted con usted se si consigotu te te ti contigo te ti contigovosotros os os vosotros con vosotros os vosotros con vosotros The possessive pronouns of vos also coincide with tu lt tu s tuyo s tuya s gt rather than with vosotros lt vuestro s vuestra s gt 2 Voseo in Chavacano Edit Chavacano a Spanish based creole employs voseo The Chavacano language below in comparison of other Chavacano dialects and level of formality with Voseo in both subject and possessive pronouns Note the mixed and co existing usages of vos tu usted and vosotros Zamboangueno Caviteno Bahra Davaoeno Castellano Abakay 2nd person singular vos vo evo evos common informal tu familiar usted formal vo bo common tu familiar uste formal vo bo common informal uste formal usted formal vos informal 2nd person plural kamo common vosotros familiar ustedes formal vusos busos buhotro bujotro ustedi tedi ustedes vosotros Zamboangueno Davaoeno Castellano Abakay 2nd person singular de vos common de tu familiar tuyo familiar de tuyo di tuyo familiar de usted formal de tu2nd person plural de ino di inyo common de vosotros familiar de ustedes formal de vosConjugation with vos Edit All modern voseo conjugations derive from Old Spanish second person plural ades edes ides and odes as in sodes you are 9 The 14th and 15th centuries saw an evolution of these conjugations with ades originally giving ais edes giving es or is 9 10 ides giving is 11 and odes giving ois 9 Soon analogous forms as and eis appeared 9 Hence the variety of forms the contemporary American voseo adopts some varieties featuring a generalized monophthong most of them some a generalized diphthong e g Venezuela and some combining monophthongs and diphthongs depending on the conjugation e g Chile In the most general monophthongized conjugation paradigm a difference between voseo forms and respective tuteo forms is visible exclusively in the present indicative imperative and subjunctive and most of the time in the preterite 10 Below is a comparison table of the conjugation of several verbs for tu and for vos and next to them the one for vosotros the informal second person plural currently used orally only in Spain in oratory or legal language highly formal forms of Spanish it is used outside of Spain Verb forms that agree with vos are stressed on the last syllable causing the loss of the stem diphthong in those verbs such as poder and venir which are stem changing Verb Tu 2 Sg Vos General Tu Vos Chile1 Vos Southeastern Cuba Northeastern Colombia1 2 Venezuela3 and Panama4 Vosotros 2 Pl in Spain Vosotros ב ו זו טרו ז general 2 Pl And Vos ב ו ז formal 2 Sg Ladino Ustedes 2 Pl Meaningser eres sos eris sois sois sox סו ש soʃ son you arecomer comes comes comis comeis comex קו מ יש koˈmeʃ comen you eatpoder puedes podes podis podeis podex פ ו ד יש poˈdeʃ pueden you can mayhablar hablas hablas hablai hablais favlax פ אב לאש faˈvlaʃ hablan you speakrecordar recuerdas recordas recordai recordais recordax ר יקו רדאש rekorˈdaʃ recuerdan you remembervivir vives vivis vivix ב יב יש biˈviʃ viven you livevenir vienes venis venix ב ינ יש beˈniʃ vienen you come1 Because of the general aspiration of syllable final s the s of this ending is usually heard as h or not pronounced 2 In Colombia the rest of the country that uses vos follows the General Conjugation 3 In the state of Zulia 4 in Azuero General conjugation is the one that is most widely accepted and used in various countries such as Argentina Uruguay Paraguay parts of Bolivia Ecuador and Colombia as well as Central American countries 2 Some Uruguayan speakers combine the pronoun tu with the vos conjugation for example tu sabes 2 Conversely speakers in some other places where both tu and vos are used combine vos with the tu conjugation for example vos sabes 2 This is a frequent occurrence in the Argentine province of Santiago del Estero The verb forms employed with vos are also different in Chilean Spanish Chileans use ai and soi you are instead of ais or as and sois or sos Chileans never pronounce these conjugations with a final s The forms eris for you are and habis and hai for you have are also found in Chilean Spanish 12 In the case of the ending is such as in comis podis vivis eris venis the final s is pronounced like any other final s in Chilean Spanish It is most often pronounced as an aspiration similar to the h sound in English It can also be pronounced as a fricative s or be dropped completely Its variable pronunciation is a phonological rather than a morphological phenomenon 12 Venezuelan Maracucho Spanish is notable in that they preserve the diphthongized plural verb forms in all tenses as still used with vosotros in Spain 2 Chilean Spanish also notably uses the diphthong ai In Ladino the ais eis is amp ois endings are pronounced aʃ eʃ iʃ amp oʃ In Chile it is much more usual to use tu vos verb conjugation tu sabis The use of pronominal vos vos sabis is reserved for very informal situations and may even be considered vulgar in some cases 2 Present indicative Edit General conjugation the final r of the infinitive is replaced by s in writing an acute accent is added to the last vowel i e the one preceding the final s to indicate stress position Chilean the ar ending of the infinitive is replaced by ai both er and ir are replaced by is which sounds more like ih Venezuelan Zulian practically the same ending as modern Spanish vosotros yet with the final s being aspirated so that ais eis is sound like aih eih ih phonetically resembling Chilean VOSEO Infinitive Present IndicativeGeneral Venezuelan1 Chileanoir oisvenir venisdecir decisdormir dormissentir sentisescribir escribisconcluir concluisir vas vais vai s pensar pensas pensais pensaicontar contas contais contaijugar jugas jugais jugaierrar erras errais erraipoder podes podeis podiquerer queres quereis querimover moves moveis movisaber sabes sabeis sabiser sos sois soi erishaber has habeis habis hai1 in Zulia identical ending to modern vosotros Unlike tu which has many irregular forms the only voseo verbs that are conjugated irregularly in the indicative present are ser ir and haber However haber is seldom used in the indicative present since there is a strong tendency to use preterite instead of present perfect Affirmative imperative Edit Vos also differs in its affirmative imperative conjugation from both tu and vosotros Specifically the vos imperative is formed by dropping the final r from the infinitive but keeping the stress on the last syllable 9 The only verb that is irregular in this regard is ir its vos imperative is not usually used with anda the vos imperative of andar which is denoted by being generally used instead except for the Argentine province of Tucuman where the imperative ite is used For most regular verbs ending in ir the vos imperatives use the same conjugations as the yo form in the preterite almost all verbs that are irregular in the preterite which are denoted by retain the regular vos imperative forms Verb Meaning Tu Vos Vosotros written ser to be se se sedestar to be esta estate esta estate estadir to go ve id ite anda andate idhablar to speak habla habla habladcallar to become silent calla calla calladsoltar to release let go suelta solta soltadcomer to eat come come comedmover to move mueve move movedvenir to come ven veni venidponer to put pon pone ponedsalir to leave sal sali salidtener to have ten tene teneddecir to say di deci decidpedir to ask order pide pedi pedid Again the conjugation of tu has far more irregularities whereas vos has only one irregular verb in the affirmative imperative In Chile the general vos conjugation is not used in the affirmative imperative Subjunctive Edit In most places where voseo is used it is applied also in the subjunctive In the Rio de la Plata region both the tu conjugation and the voseo conjugation are found the tu form being more common In this variety some studies have shown a pragmatic difference between the tu form and the vos form such that the vos form carries information about the speaker s belief state and can be stigmatized 13 14 For example in Central America the subjunctive and negative command form is no mintas and in Chile it is no mintai however in Rio de la Plata both no mientas and no mintas are found Real Academia Espanola models its voseo conjugation tables on the most frequent unstigmatized Rio de la Plata usage and therefore omits the subjunctive voseo 15 Central America1 Bolivia Rio de la Plata region Chile Venezuela Zulia Panama Azuero meaningNo quiero que mintas No quiero que mientas No quiero que mintais No quiero que mintais I don t want you to lie No temas No temas No temai No temais Do not fear Que durmas bien Que duermas bien Que durmai bien Que durmais bien Sleep well No te preocupes No te preocupes No te preocupis No te preocupeis Don t worry 1including areas in Colombia with voseo e g the Paisa Region Verbal voseo and pronominal voseo Edit Verbal voseo refers to the use of the verb conjugation of vos regardless of which pronoun is used 2 Verbal voseo with a pronoun other than vos is widespread in Chile in which case one would use the pronoun tu and the verb conjugation of vos at the same time E g tu venis tu escribis tu podis tu sabis tu vai tu estai There are some partially rare cases of a similar sort of verbal voseo in Uruguay where one would say for example tu podes or tu sabes Pronominal voseo is the use of the pronoun vos regardless of verb conjugation 2 Geographical distribution Edit Distribution of voseo spoken written primarily spoken spoken alternating with tuteo absent Countries where voseo is predominant Edit Voseo used on a billboard in Buenos Aires Argentina The sign reads Queres cambiar Veni a Claro Do you want to change Come to Claro In tuteo it would have been Quieres cambiar Ven a Claro Voseo used on a billboard in El Salvador Pedi aqui tu fria Order your cold one here The tuteo equivalent would have been Pide aqui tu fria Voseo used on a signage inside a shopping mall in Tegucigalpa Honduras En City si encontras de todo para lucir como te gusta At City you find everything to look how you like The tuteo equivalent would have been En City si encuentras de todo para lucir como te gusta In South America Argentina both pronominal and verbal voseo the pronoun tu is virtually unused 2 Paraguay both pronominal and verbal voseo 2 the pronoun tu is virtually unused in most of the country except in Concepcion Uruguay dual usage of both pronominal and verbal voseo and a combination of the pronoun tu verb conjugated in the vos form 2 except near the Brazilian border where only pronominal and verbal tuteo is common In Central America Nicaragua both pronominal and verbal voseo the pronoun tu is seldom used Honduras both pronominal and verbal voseo the pronoun tu is seldom used Costa Rica voseo has historically been used back in the 2000s it was losing ground to ustedeo and tuteo especially among younger speakers 16 Vos is now primarily used orally with friends and family in Cartago Guanacaste province the San Jose metropolitan area and near the Nicaraguan border and in advertising signage Usted is the primary form in other areas and with strangers Tuteo is rarely used but when it is used in speech by a Costa Rican it is commonly considered fake and effeminate 17 El Salvador a two tiered system is used that indicates the degree of respect or trust usted vos Usted expresses distance and respect vos corresponds to an intermediate level expressing familiarity but not deep trust but also the pronoun of maximum familiarity and solidarity and also lack of respect 18 19 But sometimes parents even address their young children as usted Countries where it is extensive but not predominant Edit In South America Bolivia in the Lowlands of Eastern Bolivia with mestizo Criollo and German descendants majority Santa Cruz Beni Pando Tarija and the Lowlands of La Paz voseo is used universally while in the Highlands of Western Bolivia with indigenous peoples majority highlands of La Paz Oruro Potosi Chuquisaca and Cochabamba tu is predominant but there is still a strong use of voseo especially in verb forms Chile verbal voseo is spreading north and southwards from the center whereas pronominal voseo is reserved only for very intimate situations or to offend someone In addition voseo in Chile is only used in informal situations in every other situation the normal tu or usted pronouns are used In Central America Guatemala verbal voseo is widespread in the country it is commonly used throughout the society The pronoun tu is still seen in advertising and used in rural areas mixed with vos Countries where voseo occurs in some areas Edit In the following countries voseo is used in certain areas Colombia in the departments in the west Pacific Coast Choco Valle del Cauca Cauca Narino in the center primarily Paisa Region Departments of Antioquia Risaralda Quindio and Caldas in the North East Norte de Santander Ocana Region La Guajira Cesar Cuba in the eastern side of the country Ecuador in the Sierra the center and Esmeraldas Panama in the west along the border to Costa Rica Venezuela in the northwest primarily in Zulia State Philippines in Mindanao and Luzon Mexico widely used in the countryside of the state of Chiapas 20 it is becoming rare in Yucatan Tabasco and Quintana Roo Mainly used by not enrolled indigenous people Peru in some areas in both the Northern and Southern ends of the country Countries where vos is virtually absent from usage Edit In the following countries the use of vos has disappeared completely and is not used at all Spain Dominican Republic Puerto Rico Equatorial GuineaSynchronic analysis of Chilean and River Plate verbal voseo EditThe traditional assumption that Chilean and River Plate voseo verb forms are derived from those corresponding to vosotros has been challenged as synchronically inadequate in a 2014 article 12 on the grounds that it requires at least six different rules including three monophthongization processes that completely lack phonological motivation Alternatively the article argues that the Chilean and River Plate voseo verb forms are synchronically derived from underlying representations that coincide with those corresponding to the non honorific second person singular tu First both Chilean and River Plate voseo has an accentuation rule which assigns stress to the syllable following the verb s root or its infinitive in the case of the future and conditional conjugations This alone derives all the River Plate voseo verb conjugations in all tenses Chilean verb forms also undergo rules of semi vocalization vowel raising and aspiration In semi vocalization s becomes the semivowel j when after a o thus as becomes ai and sos becomes soi you are The vowel raising rule turns stressed e into i so bebes becomes bebis Aspiration a normal part of Chilean and River Plate Spanish phonology means that syllable or word final s becomes pronounced like an h 12 The proposed theory requires the use of only one special rule in the case of Chilean voseo This rule plus other rules that are independently justified in the language make it possible to synchronically derive all the Chilean and River Plate voseo verb forms in a straightforward manner The article additionally solves the problem posed by the alternate verbal forms of Chilean voseo like the future indicative e g bailarih or bailarai you will dance the present indicative forms of haber habih and hai you have and the present indicative of ser soi erih and erei you are without resorting to any ad hoc rules All these different verb forms would come from different underlying representations The future forms bailarai and bailarih come from underlying bailaras and bailares the latter related to the historical future form in es which was documented in Chile in the 17th century Habih and hai come from habes and has while soi and erih come from sos and eres The form erei also comes from eres with an extension of semi vocalization The theoretical framework of the article is that of classic generative phonology 12 Attitudes EditIn some countries the pronoun vos is used with family and friends T form like tu in other varieties of Spanish and contrasts with the respectful usted V form used with third person which is used with strangers elderly and people of higher socioeconomic status appropriate usage varies by dialect In Central America vos can be used among those considered equals while usted maintains its respectful usage In Ladino the pronoun usted is completely absent so the use of vos with strangers and elders is the standard Voseo was long considered a backwards or uneducated usage by prescriptivist grammarians Many Central American intellectuals themselves from voseante nations have condemned the usage of vos in the past 19 With the changing mentalities in the Hispanic world and with the development of descriptive as opposed to prescriptive linguistics it has become simply a local variant of Spanish In some places it has become symbolically important and is pointed to with pride as a local defining characteristic See also Edit Latin America portal Language portal Similar trends of personal pronouns in Portuguese Spanish dialects and varieties Spanish verbs T V distinction Romance languagesReferences Edit Miranda Stewart 1999 The Spanish Language Today Routledge p 125 ISBN 0 415 14258 X a b c d e f g h i j k l m Real Academia Espanola voseo Diccionario panhispanico de dudas Diccionario panhispanico de dudas in Spanish Retrieved 2022 04 28 Borrini Alberto 24 February 1998 Publicidad amp Marketing Por que usan el tuteo los avisos La Nacion Retrieved 19 July 2020 Gasso Maria Jose El voseo rioplatense en la clase de espanol PDF Instituto Cervantes Belo Horizonte pp 11 12 Retrieved 19 July 2020 degruyter com Ana Maria Diaz Collazos Desarrollo sociolinguistico del voseo en Colombia Bruquetas Francisco 2015 Advanced Spanish Bruquetas Publishing p 146 ISBN 9780578104355 Raymundo Del Pueyo A New Spanish Grammar or the Elements of the Spanish Language London F Wingrave 1792 159 The book is online at Google Books at https books google com books id NekRAAAAIAAJ amp printsec toc amp source gbs summary r amp cad 0 PPP9 M1 Luizete Guimaraes Barros 1990 Lengua y nacion en la Gramatica de Bello Anuario brasileno de estudios hispanicos a b c d e in Spanish Lapesa Melgar Rafael 1970 Las formas verbales de segunda persona y los origenes del voseo in Carlos H Magis ed Actas del III Congreso de la Asociacion Internacional de Hispanistas Mexico D F 26 31 Aug 1968 Mexico Colegio de Mexico 519 531 a b in Spanish Garcia de Diego Vicente 1951 1981 Gramatica historica espanola 3rd edition 1st edition 1951 2nd edition 1961 3rd edition 1970 1st reprint 1981 Madrid Gredos 227 229 ides did not produce ies because ies and ies were already in use as Imperfect forms cf Garcia de Diego 1951 1981 228 and Lapesa 1970 526 a b c d e Baquero Velasquez Julia M Westphal Montt German F 16 July 2014 Un analisis sincronico del voseo verbal chileno y rioplatense Forma y Funcion in Spanish 27 2 11 40 doi 10 15446 fyf v27n2 47558 Johnson Mary 2016 Epistemicity in voseo and tuteo negative commands in Argentinian Spanish Journal of Pragmatics 97 37 54 doi 10 1016 j pragma 2016 02 003 Moyna Maria Irene amp Rivera Mills Susana 2016 Forms of Address in Spanish across the Americas John Benjamins pp 127 148 ISBN 9789027258090 See for example in Real Academia Espanola Dictionary mentir or preocupar where mentis and preocupas are present but mintas and preocupes are missing Maria Irene Moyna Susana Rivera Mills 2016 Forms of Address in the Spanish of the Americas Amsterdam Philadelphia John Benjamins Publishing Company pp 243 263 ISBN 978 90 272 6700 9 Solano Rojas Yamileth 1995 Las formas pronominales Vos tu usted en Costa Rica analisis de una muestra Revista Pensamiento Actual 1 1 42 57 Martha D Ortiz El voseo en El Salvador Scholarworks sjsu edu a b John M Lipski El espanol que se habla en El Salvador y su importancia para la dialectologia hispanoamericana PDF in Spanish The Pennsylvania State University a href wiki Template Cite journal title Template Cite journal cite journal a Cite journal requires journal help Davis Jack Emory 1971 The Spanish of Mexico An Annotated Bibliography for 1940 69 Hispania 54 624 656 doi 10 2307 337708 ISSN 0018 2133 Sources Edit in Spanish Diaz Collazos Ana Maria Desarrollo sociolinguistico del voseo en la region andina de Colombia in Spanish El voseo at Spanish Wikibooks in French Le Voseo in Spanish Voseo Spanish Site dedicated to teaching Argentine Voseo usage in Spanish Carricaburo Norma Beatriz 2003 El voseo en la historia y en la lengua de hoy Las formulas de tratamiento en el espanol actual in Spanish Hotta Hideo 2000 La estandarizacion y el regionalismo en el voseo del espanol argentino in Spanish Roca Luis Alberto 2007 Breve historia del habla crucena y su mestizaje in Spanish Rosenblat Angel 2000 El castellano en Venezuela in Spanish Toursinov Anton 2005 Formas pronominales de tratamiento en el espanol actual de Guatemala Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Voseo amp oldid 1089497843, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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