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Vrishni heroes

The Vrishni heroes (IAST: Vṛṣṇi Viras), also referred to as Pancha-viras (IAST: Pañca vīras, "Five heroes"), are a group of five legendary, deified heroes who are found in the literature and archaeological sites of ancient India. Their earliest worship is attestable in the clan of the Vrishnis near Mathura by 4th-century BCE. Legends are associated with these deified heroes, some of which may be based on real, historical heroes of the Vrishni clan. Their early worship has been variously described as cross-sectarian, much like the cult of the Yakshas, related to the early Bhagavata tradition of Hinduism, and with possible links to Jainism as well. They and their legends – particularly of Krishna and Balarama – have been an important part of the Vaishnava tradition of Hinduism.

Vrishni heroes
Vrishni heroes on the coinage of Agathocles of Bactria, circa 190-180 BCE: Samkarshana, with Gada mace and plow, and Vāsudeva, with Shankha (a pear-shaped case or conch) and Chakra wheel. This is "the earliest unambiguous image" of the two deities. Another variation [1].
The five Vrishni heroes Saṃkarṣaṇa, Vāsudeva, Pradyumna, Samba, Aniruddha standing around enthroned Narasimha. Kondamotu Vrishni heroes relief, 4th century CE, Hyderabad State Museum. The Vrishni heroes remained major divinities until the 5th century CE, when they lost preeminence to Vishnu.

The Vrishnis were already known in the late Vedic literature. They are also mentioned by Pāṇini in Astadhyayi verse 6.2.34, while Krishna is referred to as Krishna Varshneya ("the Vrishni") in verse 3.187.51 of the Mahabharata. Beyond texts, their importance in ancient India is attested by the ancient inscriptions found near Mathura and coins discovered in the ruins of Ai-Khanoum (Afghanistan), bearing images of the two main Vrishni heroes, with Greek and Brahmi legends.

The cult of the Vrishni heroes existed as an independent cult in Mathura, as suggested by the Mora Well Inscription, and was then amalgamated very progressively into Vaishnavism. The deification of the Vrhisni heroes centered around the cult of Vasudeva-Krishna, known as Bhagavatism. Epigraphical evidence suggests that their legends and worship swiftly expanded to other parts of India by the start of the common era. The Vrishni heroes are generally identified as Samkarshana (Balarama-Samkarshana, son of Vasudeva Anakadundubhi and Devaki), Vāsudeva (Vāsudeva-Krishna, another son of Vasudeva Anakadundubhi and Devaki), Pradyumna (son of Vāsudeva-Krishna and Rukmini), Samba (son of Vāsudeva-Krishna and Jambavati), and Aniruddha (son of Pradyumna).

Probably as late as the 1st century CE, the cult of the Vrishni heroes (Vīravāda) retained more importance than the Vyuha doctrine (Vyūhavāda), the subsequent cult of emanations that evolved from the Vrishni hero cult. Still later, it evolved into the Avatāravāda system of incarnations of Vishnu. Overall, according to Doris Srinivasan, "the absorption of the Vrishni hero into the Vaishnava worship is very gradual. The amalgamation process was preceded and concurrent with a cult of several Vrishni heroes".

The Vrishni heroes also have distinct individual qualities: Vāsudeva is also associated with gentleness and strength, Samkarsana with knowledge, Pradyumna with female power, Samba with male power and Aniruddha with ferociousness and sovereignty.

Contents

Vrishni triad shown in a rock painting at Tikla, Madhya Pradesh, 3rd-2nd century BCE. These would be Saṃkarṣaṇa (with plough and mace), Vāsudeva (with mace and wheel) and a female deity, probably Ekanamsha.
(Bala)rama and Krishna at Chilas. The Kharoshthi inscription nearby reads Rama [kri]ṣa. 1st century CE.

The historical roots and the identity of the Vrishni heroes is unclear. Several interpretations have been proposed.

Local heroes turned deities

According to Rosenfield, the five heroes of the Vrishnis may have been ancient historical rulers in the region of Mathura, and Vāsudeva and Krishna "may well have been kings of this dynasty as well". According to the Vayu Purana (97.1-2), the five Vrishni heroes were originally human, and their names were Samkarshana, Vāsudeva, Pradyumna, Samba, and Aniruddha.

The heroes would then have evolved into Vaishnavite deities through a step-by-step process: 1) deification of the Vrishni heroes 2) association with the God Narayana-Vishnu 3) incorporation into the Vyuha concept of successive emanations of the God. Epigraphically, the deified status of Vāsudeva in particular is confirmed by his appearance on the coinage of Agathocles of Bactria (190-180 BCE) and by the devotional character of the Heliodorus pillar inscription (circa 110 BCE). Later, the association with Narayana (Vishnu) is suggested by the Hathibada Ghosundi Inscriptions of the 1st century BCE. It is generally thought that "by the beginning of the Christian era, the cult of Vasudeva, Vishnu and Narayana amalgamated". By the 2nd century CE, the "avatara concept was in its infancy", and the depiction of Vishnu with his four emanations (the Chatur-vyūha), consisting in the Vrishni heroes minus Samba, starts to become visible in art at the end of the Kushan period.

Banerjee too considered that they may have been semi-deified legendary kings who came to be considered as Vishnu's avatars. This would lead to an early form of Vaishnavism, currently described as the Pancaratra system. Also according to Gavin Flood – an Indologist and scholar of Hinduism, Vāsudeva may have originated in a real Vrishni hero or king, but the lineage is difficult to establish. This Vasudeva became deified in the Vrishni clan, its worship being traceable to the 4th century text of Pāṇini, which mentions Vāsudevaka or a "devotee of Vāsudeva". Vāsudeva then fused with Krishna of the Yadavas clan. Over time, Vāsudeva was identified with Krishna and Vishnu.

According to Christopher Austin, the Vrishni heroes are characters linked to the end of Mahabharata, reflecting the three generations of Vrishnis of Krishna from the Bhagavad Gita fame, his son, his grandson along with the Balarama (Samkarshana). This view is supported by Srinivasan and Banerjee based on evidence in two Puranic passages and the Mora well inscription. In early Hinduism, the five Vrishni heroes have been identified as Vāsudeva-Krishna, Samkarsana-Balarama, Pradyumna, Aniruddha and Samba as known from the Medieval Vayu Purana.

Early coinage (3rd-2nd century BCE)

The Vrishni heroes appear on the coinage of Agathocles of Bactria, circa 190-180 BCE: Samkarshana, with Gada mace and plow, and Vāsudeva, with Shankha (a pear-shaped case or conch) and Chakra wheel. This is "the earliest unambiguous image" of the two deities.

On some of the Indian punch-marked coins, three individuals appear without attributes, possibly deities Saṃkarṣaṇa, Vāsudeva and Ekanamsha in the late 4th-2nd century BCE. The same type of coins was excavated in Besnagar.

On some post-Mauryan punch-marked coins, possible depictions of Saṃkarṣaṇa-Balarama appear. He is shown wielding a mace and a plough. These punch-marked coin are dated to the 2nd century BCE, and may be associated with Mathura.

  • Coin of Agathocles of Bactria (190-180 BCE)

  • Mauryan Empire. Late 4th-2nd century BC

  • Mauryan punch-marked coin with three deities 4th-2nd century BCE

  • Punch-marked coins excavated in Besnagar

  • Post-Mauryan punch-marked coin with possible Balarama (detail)

Jainism

Another theory has been proposed by Heinrich Luders. Based on analysis of 10th to 12th century Jaina texts, Luders proposed that Vrishnis may have roots in Jainism, noting the co-existence of the Jain and Vrishni-related archaeological findings in Mathura, and the strength of Jainism at that time in Mathura. He names the Vrishni heroes as Baladeva, Akrura, Anadhrsti, Sarana and Viduratha – all Jain heroes and with Akrura as the commander.

Cross-sectarian deities

According to Quintanilla, the cult of the Vrishnis may have been cross-sectarian, much like the cult of the Yakshas, and "may not necessarily represent the roots of Vaiṣṇava theology at Mathura".

The Heliodorus pillar was erected to Vāsudeva by the Greek Heliodorus in 115 BCE. It was crowned by a Garuda capital.
Excavation of the Vrishni Temple, with elliptic plan. The Heliodorus pillar appears in the immediate background.
Main article: Heliodorus pillar

Several pillar capitals with symbolic statuary associated to the Vhrishni heroes have been found in Besnagar around the site of the Heliodorus pillar, dated to about 115 BCE.

The Heliodorus pillar inscription explains that the pillar erected to honour Vāsudeva is a Garuda-vajra, although the Garuda statue has not been found. According to Susan L. Huntington, the Garuda capital on the Heliodorus pillar was probably similar to on one of the nearly contemporary reliefs at Bharhut. In Bharhut, a man riding a horse is seen holding a portable pillar-standard, crowned by a bird-man creature similar to a Kinnara. The same concept of Garuda pillar may have been adopted for the Heliodorus pillar.

Other sculptures and pillar capitals were found near the Heliodorus pillar, and it is thought they were dedicated to Vāsudeva's kinsmen, otherwise known as the Vrishni heroes and objects of the Bhagavata cult. These are a tala (fan-palm capital), a makara (crocodile) capital, a banyan-tree capital, and a possible statue of the goddess Lakshmi, also associated with the Bhagavat cult. Just as Garuda is associated with Vāsudesa, the fan-palm capital is generally associated with Saṃkarṣaṇa, and the makara is associated with Pradyumna. The banyan-tree capital with ashtanidhis is associated with Lakshmi. In effect, the findings surrounding the Heliodorus pillar suggest the cult of a trio of the Vrishni heroes in this time and area, composed of the three deities Vāsudesa, Saṃkarṣaṇa and Pradyumna.

Vrishni Temple structure

Excavations suggests that these various pillars with their symbolic capitals were standing in line at the site, and that the Heliodorus pillar was just one of them, standing at the end of the line. Although the pillars are aniconic, it is probable that now lost sculptures representing the deities, broadly similar to the depictions on Vāsudeva and Samkarshana on the coins of Agathocles of Bactria (190-180 BCE), were located in adjoining shrines.

The 1963–65 excavations at the site suggest that the site had an elliptical shrine – possibly dating to the 4th to 3rd-century BCE – with a brick foundation and likely a wooden superstructure. This was destroyed by a flood around 200 BCE. New soil was then added and the ground level raised to build a new second temple to Vāsudeva, with a wooden pillar (Garuda dhvaja) in front of the east-facing elliptical shrine. This too was destroyed by floods sometime in the 2nd-century BCE. In late 2nd-century BCE, after some ground preparation, yet another Vāsudeva temple was rebuilt, this time with eight stone pillars aligned in the north-south cardinal axis. Only one of these eight pillars have survived: the Heliodorus pillar.

  • Depiction of Vasudeva circa 190-180 BCE.

  • The Garuda, symbol of Vāsudeva, was probably similar to this design from Bharhut, circa 100 BCE.

  • The fan-palm capital, found next to the Heliodorus pillar, is associated with Saṃkarṣaṇa.

  • The Makara capital, found at the site of the Heliodorus pillar, is associated with Pradyumna. 2nd century BCE. Gwalior Museum

  • A pillar capital shaped as a Kalpadruma tree, also found nearby at Besnagar, probably associated with Lakshmi.

Saṃkarṣaṇa-Balarama with mace and plough, striding forward with billowing scarf, on the coinage of Maues (90-80 BCE).

Saṃkarṣaṇa, the Vrishni elder and the leading divinity until the rise to precedence of Vāsudeva, is known to appear on the coinage of the Indo-Scythian rulers Maues and Azes I during the 1st century BCE. These coins show him holding a mace and a plough.

  • Samkarsana-Balarama on a coin of Maues (90-80 BCE)

  • Samkarsana-Balarama on a coin of Maues (90-80 BCE)

  • Samkarsana-Balarama on a coin of Maues (90-80 BCE)

  • Samkarsana-Balarama on a coin of Azes (58-12 BCE)

The name Vāsudevā (𑀯𑀸𑀲𑀼𑀤𑁂𑀯𑀸) in the Brahmi script, in the Ghosundi inscription, 1st century BCE.

The two major Vrishni heroes Saṃkarṣaṇa and Vāsudeva, still in their proper seniority order, are again mentioned in the Hathibada Ghosundi Inscriptions, dated to the 1st century BCE. For the first time they seem to be associated to a higher divinity, as the inscription mention that their cult is made on a precinct of Narayana.

Torso said to be from one of the five Vrishni Heroes, Mora, circa 15 CE, Mathura Museum.
Main article: Mora Well Inscription

The Vrishni heroes are mentioned in the Mora Well Inscription in Mathura, dated to the time of the Northern Satraps Sodasa, in which they are called Bhagavatam. Statue fragments were found in Mora, which are thought to represent some of the Vrishni heroes. Two uninscribed male torsos were discovered in the mound, both of high craftsmanship and in Indian style and costume. They are similar with minor variations, suggesting they may have been part of a series. They share some sculptural characteristics with the Yaksha statues found in Mathura, such as the sculpting in the round, or the clothing style. Sonya Rhie Quintanilla also supports an attribution of the torso to the five Vrishnis, and dates them to around the time of Sodasa (circa 15 CE), which is confirmed on artistic grounds.

Mention of Vrishni Temples appears in the Mora Well Inscription, which describes a pratima (murti, images), a stone shrine (temple) and calls the five Vrishnis as bhagavatam. The inscription is dated to the early decades of the 1st century CE during the reign of Sodasa, probably circa 15 CE.

A decorated doorjamb, also probably belonging to a Temple, on which is inscribed the Vasu Doorjamb Inscription, is dedicated to deity Vāsudeva, and mentions the rule of the Northern Satrap Sodasa, and has similar carving to the Mora doorjamb. The decoration of these and many similar doorjambs from Mathura consists in scrolls of grapevines. They are all dated to the reign of Sodasa, circa 15 CE and constitute a secure dated artistic reference for the evaluation of datation of other Mathura sculptures. It has been suggested that the grapevine design had been in the northwest, and maybe associated with the northern taste of the Satrap rulers. These designs may also be the result of the work of northern artists in Mathura. The grapevine designs of Gandhara are generally considered as originating from Hellenistic art.

Chamunda Tila pillar capital.

The Chamunda Tila pillar capital, also found in Mathura, may be another example of the Vrishni cult in the area of Mathura, this time using the Vrishni lanchana symbols around a central figure.

This pillar capital uses five symbols on both sides: a lion, a palm leaf, a makara, an adorned woman, and Yaksha in central position, with a probable top symbol missing. The Tāladdhvaja (palm leaf column) is known to symbolize Samkarsana, the Garuḍadhvaja (garuda column) symbolizes Vāsudeva, the Makaradhvaja (makara crocodile column) symbolizes Pradyumna, and the Ṛṣyadhvaja (white antilope column) corresponds to Aniruddha. The lion pillar capital corresponds to Samba. The function of the adorned woman is Shri Rukmani.

The central figure uses the iconography of a Yaksha, pointing to the association of Vrishni iconography with Yasha iconography, as seen in the found with the Mora Well Inscription.

A few triads are known from Mathura, dated to the 1st-2nd century CE, showing Vāsudeva and Saṃkarṣaṇa with their attributes, together with a female standing in the middle, thought to be Ekanamsha. In these triads, the kinship of the warrior heroes is still emphasized, with the depiction focusing on the elder brother, the younger brother and the sister, with a prominence still given to the elder brother Samkarsana. They are still presented as warrior "kshatriya" heroes who are not yet fully deified or considered as royals, and are only the object of Bhakti devotional worship towards ancestral heroes, focusing on their enshrined icons.

Vāsudeva and his Vrishni kinsmen emanating from him.
Main article: Caturvyūha

The famous "Chatur-vyūha" statue in Mathura Museum is an attempt to show in one composition Vāsudeva together with the other members of the Vrishni clan of the Pancharatra system: Samkarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha, with Samba missing, Vāsudeva being the central deity from whom the others emanate. The back of the relief is carved with the branches of a Kadamba tree, symbolically showing the relationship being the different deities.

Vāsudeva is fittingly in the center with ornate crown and flower necklace, making the Abhaya Mudra and holding his decorated heavy mace on the side, his elder brother Balarama to his right under a serpent hood, his son Pradyumna to his left (lost), and his grandson Aniruddha on top.

  • Tree and branches sculpted in the back, showing their genealogical relationship.

  • Samkarsana-Balarama under his snake hood holding a cup

  • Vasudeva's ornate mace held by one of his supplementary hands

Vasudeva-Krishna with his three attributes (a mace, a wheel and a conch) and an Abhaya mudra hand gesture, but without an aureole, terracotta.

Cult images of Vāsudeva continued to be produced until the 4th century CE, the worship of this Mathuran deity being much more important than that of Vishnu during that period. Statues dating to the 2nd and 3rd century show a possibly four-armed Vāsudeva standing with his attributes: the wheel, the mace and the conch, his right hand saluting in Abhaya mudra. Only with the Gupta period, did statues focusing on the worship of Vishnu himself start to appear, using the same iconography as the statues of Vāsudeva, but with the addition of an aureole starting at the shoulders.

From the 4th century CE, independent devotional statues of Vāsudeva-Krishna become very rare, and are replaced by statues of Vishnu with the addition of an aureole. This suggests with a high probability that the human face in the statues of Vishnu, including those known as Vaikuntha Chaturmurti, is actually the face of his human emanation, Vāsudeva-Krishna.

A relief from Kondamotu, Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh, dates to the 4th century CE, and shows the Vrishni heroes standing in genealogical order around Narasimha. From left to right, they are: Saṃkarṣaṇa, holding a mace and a ploughshare topped by the depiction of a lion, Vāsudeva, with a hand in abhaya mudra and the other hand on the hip holding a conch shell. Vāsudeva also has a crown, which distinguishes him from the others. Then follow Pradyumna, holding a bow and an arrow, Samba, holding a wine goblet, and Aniruddha, holding a sword and a shield. The fact that they stand around Narasimha suggests a fusion of the Satvata cult with the Vrishni cult.

The five Vrishni heroes Saṃkarṣaṇa, Vāsudeva, Pradyumna, Samba, and Aniruddha standing around enthroned Narasimha. Kondamotu Vrishni heroes relief, 4th century CE, Hyderabad State Museum.
Saṃkarṣaṇa appears as a lion, while Aniruddha appears as a boar in this Vaikuntha Chaturmurti statue, showing Vishnu in his three main emanations, mid-5th century. Boston Museum.

The Vrishni heroes for the most part became avatars of Vishnu, and where incorporated in the Vaishnavite system from the 4th century CE. The avatars were combined in the Vishnu statuary from this time, in statues known as Vaikuntha Chaturmurti.

Saṃkarṣaṇa came to be associated with the lion, which is his theriomorphic aspect. He can be identified as Narasimha. Saṃkarṣaṇa appears as a lion in some of the Caturvyūha statues (the Bhita statue), where he is an assistant to Vāsudeva, and in the Vaikuntha Chaturmurti when his lion's head protrudes from the side of Vishnu's head.

Aniruddha came to be associated with the boar, which is his theriomorphic aspect, also known as Varaha. Aniruddha appears as a boar in some of the Caturvyūha statues, where he is an assistant to Vāsudeva, and in the Vaikuntha Chaturmurti when his boar's head protrudes from the side of Vishnu's head.

In the Vaikuntha Chaturmurti, especially in the statues from Kasmir, Pradyumna also appears sometimes in the back of the head of the central Vishnu, as a fearsome deity, also known as Kapila.

Symbolic system

The caturvyuha, this Gupta period polycephalic aspect of Vishnu formed by the four Vrishni heroes as his emanations (a Saumya benevolent face to the east, a Simha lion face to the south, a Varaha boar face to the north, a Raudra terrible human face to the west) is described in detail in the Vishnudharmottara Purana (compiled between the 4th and the 7th century CE). This is to be understood in conjunction with the description of the four Vyūhas Saṃkarṣaṇa, Vāsudeva, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha, also presented as emanations of Vishnu, as known from the Pancaratra doctrine. This establishes multiple correspondences between the deities and their symbols:

Vyūhas Image Attributes Symbol Direction Face Concept
Narayana
Vishnu
Vāsudeva Chakra Wheel
Gadā Mace
Shanka Conch
Garuda Eagle East Saumya
(Placid/ benevolent)
Bala Strength
Samkarsana Lāṅgala Plough
Musala Pestle
Wine glass
Tala Fan palm South Simha Lion Jṅāna Knowledge
Pradyumna Cāpa Bow
Bāṇa Arrow
Makara Crocodile West Raudra Kapila Aiśvaryā Sovereignty
Aniruddha Carma Shield
Khaḍga Sword
Ṛṣya White antelope North Varaha Boar Śakti Power
A depiction of Vāsudeva at Deogarh. He holds the wheel, the conch and salutes in Abhaya Mudra.

The Dashavatara Temple in Deogarh is closely related to the iconic architectural temple structure described in the Viṣṇudharmottara purāṇa, and can be interpreted as an architectural representation of the Caturvyuha concept and the Pancaratra doctrine, centering on the depictions of the four main emanations of Vishnu: Vāsudeva, Samkarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. According to Lubotsky, it is likely that the entrance is dedicated to the Vāsudeva aspect of Vishnu; the Anantashayana side is his role as the creator (Aniruddha); the sage form of Nara-Narayana side symbolizes his preservation and maintainer role in cosmic existence (Pradyumna); and the Gajendramoksha side represents his role as the destroyer (Samkarsana).

The Vrishni heroes – particularly Krishna and Balarama – are still found in some Vaishnava Hindu temples.

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  32. Quintanilla, Sonya Rhie (2007). History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE. BRILL. pp. 211–213. ISBN 978-90-04-15537-4.
  33. "We have actually discovered in the excavations at the Mora shrine stone torsos representing the Vrishni Heroes (...) Their style closely follows that of the free-standing Yakshas in that they are carved in the round. They are dressed in a dhoti and uttaraya and some types of ornaments as found on the Yaksha figures, their right hand is held in ahbayamudra..." in "Agrawala, Vasudeva Sharana (1965). Indian Art: A history of Indian art from the earliest times up to the third century A.D. Prithivi Prakashan. p. 253.
  34. Srinivasan, Doris (1979). "Early Vaiṣṇava Imagery: Caturvyūha and Variant Forms". Archives of Asian Art. 32: 50. ISSN 0066-6637. JSTOR 20111096.
  35. Joshi, Nilakanth Purushottam (1979). Iconography of Balarāma. Abhinav Publications. p. 22. ISBN 978-81-7017-107-2.
  36. Srinivasan, Doris (1997). Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes: Origin, Meaning, and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art. BRILL. p. 215. ISBN 978-90-04-10758-8.
  37. Described and illustrated in Paul, Pran Gopal; Paul, Debjani (1989). "Brahmanical Imagery in the Kuṣāṇa Art of Mathurā: Tradition and Innovations". East and West. 39 (1/4): 116–117. ISSN 0012-8376. JSTOR 29756891.
  38. Indian Archaeology 1978-79 A review(PDF). Archaeological Survey of India. p. 90 Plate LI.
  39. "Post-Mauryan punch-marked coin" Srinivasan, Doris (1997). Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes: Origin, Meaning, and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art. BRILL. p. 215. ISBN 978-90-04-10758-8.
  40. Mishra, Susan Verma; Ray, Himanshu Prabha (2016). The Archaeology of Sacred Spaces: The temple in western India, 2nd century BCE–8th century CE. Routledge. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-317-19374-6.
  41. Bopearachchi, Osmund. Emergence of Viṣṇu and Śiva Images in India: Numismatic and Sculptural Evidence.
  42. Srinivasan, Doris (1997). Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes: Origin, Meaning, and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art. BRILL. p. 215. ISBN 978-90-04-10758-8.
  43. Srinivasan, Doris (1997). Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes: Origin, Meaning, and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art. BRILL. p. 215. ISBN 978-90-04-10758-8.
  44. Austin, Christopher R. (2019). Pradyumna: Lover, Magician, and Scion of the Avatara. Oxford University Press. p. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-19-005412-0.
  45. Dass, Meera I (2001). "Helliodorus Pillar from Besnagar: ITS Capital and Worship". Proceedings of the Indian History Congress. 62: 1136–1137. ISSN 2249-1937. JSTOR 44155935.
  46. "Heliodorus Pillar from Besnagar: Its Capital and Worship." Journal of the Asiatic Society of Mumbai 77-78: 32-41, 2002-2003
  47. "The rider of the horse holds a portable pillar-standard (dhvaja stambha) related to the stationary type seen since Maurya and pre-Maurya times, here probably intended as a royal insignia. It is interesting to note resemblance between this standard with its square abacus, lotus capital, and bird-man creature called a kinnara and what was probably the original concept of the Heliodorus Garuda pillar at Vidisa. Since this particular sculpture of the Bharhut vedika was dedicated by an individual from Vidisa, as indicated by an inscription, this resemblance is even more remarkable and may indicate that the Bharhut form was based specifically on the Vedika pillar, or a common prototype." in Huntington, Susan L. (1985). The Art of Ancient India: Buddhist, Hindu, Jain. Weatherhill. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-8348-0183-7.
  48. Indian History. Allied Publishers. 1988. p. A-222. ISBN 978-81-8424-568-4.
  49. Gupta, Vinay K. "Vrishnis in Ancient Literature and Art". Indology's Pulse Arts in Context, Doris Meth Srinivasan Festschrift Volume, Eds. Corinna Wessels Mevissen and Gerd Mevissen with Assistance of Vinay Kumar Gupta: 81.
  50. Austin, Christopher R. (2019). Pradyumna: Lover, Magician, and Scion of the Avatara. Oxford University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-19-005412-0.
  51. Austin, Christopher R. (2019). Pradyumna: Lover, Magician, and Scion of the Avatara. Oxford University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-19-005412-0.
  52. Shaw, Julia (2016). Buddhist Landscapes in Central India: Sanchi Hill and Archaeologies of Religious and Social Change, c. Third Century BC to Fifth Century AD. Routledge. p. 73–74. ISBN 978-1-315-43263-2.
  53. Shaw, Julia (2016). Buddhist Landscapes in Central India: Sanchi Hill and Archaeologies of Religious and Social Change, c. Third Century BC to Fifth Century AD. Routledge. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-315-43263-2.
  54. John Irwin 1974, pp. 166–170.
  55. M D Khare 1967.
  56. Agrawala, Vasudeva S. (1977). Gupta Art Vol.ii.
  57. Ayyar, Sulochana (1987). Costumes and Ornaments as Depicted in the Sculptures of Gwalior Museum. Mittal Publications. p. 13. ISBN 978-81-7099-002-4.
  58. VIENNOT, Odette (1958). "Le Makara dans la Décoration des Monuments de l'Inde Ancienne : Positions et Fonctions". Arts Asiatiques. 5 (3): 184. JSTOR 43484068.
  59. Srinivasan, Doris (1997). Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes: Origin, Meaning, and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art. BRILL. p. 215. ISBN 978-90-04-10758-8.
  60. Srinivasan, Doris (2007). On the Cusp of an Era: Art in the Pre-Kuṣāṇa World. BRILL. p. 22. ISBN 978-90-474-2049-1.
  61. Errington, Elizabeth; Trust, Ancient India and Iran; Museum, Fitzwilliam (1992). The Crossroads of Asia: transformation in image and symbol in the art of ancient Afghanistan and Pakistan. Ancient India and Iran Trust. p. 80 with image and description of the same coin type: "Indian God Balarama walking to left, holding club and plough". ISBN 978-0-9518399-1-1.
  62. This statue appears in Fig.51 as one of the statues excavated in the Mora mound, in Rosenfield, John M. (1967). The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans. University of California Press. p. 151–152 and Fig.51.
  63. Doris Srinivasan (1997). Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes: Origin, Meaning, and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art. BRILL Academic. pp. 211–214, 308-311 with footnotes. ISBN 90-04-10758-4.
  64. Sonya Rhie Quintanilla (2007). History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE. BRILL Academic. p. 260. ISBN 978-90-04-15537-4.
  65. Lavanya Vemsani (2016). Krishna in History, Thought, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. pp. 202–203. ISBN 978-1-61069-211-3.
  66. Lüders, H. (1937). Epigraphia Indica Vol.24. pp. 199-200.
  67. Quintanilla, Sonya Rhie (2007). History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE. BRILL. p. 171. ISBN 9789004155374.
  68. Bracey, Robert (2018). Problems of Chronology in Gandhāran Art: Proceedings of the First International Workshop of the Gandhāra Connections Project, University of Oxford, 23rd-24th March, 2017. The Classical Art Research Centre. Archaeopress. University of Oxford. pp. 142–143.
  69. "Honeysuckle, grapevine, triton and acanthus mouldings are some of the Hellenistic features." in Sharma, Ramesh Chandra; Ghosal, Pranati (2004). Buddhism and Gandhāra Art. Indian Institute of Advanced Study. p. 148. ISBN 978-81-7305-264-4.
  70. Gupta, Vinay K. Vrishnis in Ancient Literature and Art. pp. 80–81.
  71. "A shrine of Aniruddha, the fourth of the 'vyuhas', which had within its precincts a 'rsyadhvaja', i. e. a column bearing on its top the figure of a 'rsya' or a white antelope which was his characteristic 'lanchana'." in Journal of the Indian Society of Oriental Art. Indian Society of Oriental Art. 1937. p. 16.
  72. Couture, André; Schmid, Charlotte (2001). "The Harivaṃśa, the Goddess Ekānaṃśā, and the Iconography of the Vṛṣṇi Triads". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 121 (2): 181, image of the trio in Figure 1. doi:10.2307/606559. ISSN 0003-0279. JSTOR 606559.
  73. Srinivasan, Doris (1981). Kalādarśana: American Studies in the Art of India. BRILL. p. 130. ISBN 978-90-04-06498-0.
  74. Srinivasan, Doris (1981). Kalādarśana: American Studies in the Art of India. BRILL. p. 131. ISBN 978-90-04-06498-0.
  75. Paul, Pran Gopal; Paul, Debjani (1989). "Brahmanical Imagery in the Kuṣāṇa Art of Mathurā: Tradition and Innovations". East and West. 39 (1/4): 132–136, for the photograph p.138. ISSN 0012-8376. JSTOR 29756891.
  76. For English summary, see page 80 Schmid, Charlotte (1997). Les Vaikuṇṭha gupta de Mathura : Viṣṇu ou Kṛṣṇa?. pp. 60–88.
  77. Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3 in Schmid, Charlotte (1997). Les Vaikuṇṭha gupta de Mathura : Viṣṇu ou Kṛṣṇa?. p. 60.
  78. Schmid, Charlotte (1997). "Les Vaikuṇṭha gupta de Mathura : Viṣṇu ou Kṛṣṇa?"(PDF). Arts Asiatiques. 52: 60–88, English summary p.80. doi:10.3406/arasi.1997.1401.
  79. Gupta, Vinay K. "Vrishnis in Ancient Literature and Art". Indology's Pulse Arts in Context, Doris Meth Srinivasan Festschrift Volume, Eds. Corinna Wessels Mevissen and Gerd Mevissen with Assistance of Vinay Kumar Gupta: 74–75.
  80. Srinivasan, Doris (1997). Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes: Origin, Meaning, and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art. BRILL. p. 217. ISBN 978-90-04-10758-8.
  81. Srinivasan, Doris (1979). "Early Vaiṣṇava Imagery: Caturvyūha and Variant Forms". Archives of Asian Art. 32: 39–54. ISSN 0066-6637. JSTOR 20111096.
  82. "The absorption of the Vrishni hero into the Vaishnava worship is very gradual. The amalgamation process was preceded and concurrent with a cult of several Vrishni heroes". Srinivasan, Doris (1981). Kalādarśana: American Studies in the Art of India. BRILL. p. 129. ISBN 978-90-04-06498-0.
  83. "Samkarsana is represented by his theriomorphic form, the lion..." in Srinivasan, Doris (1997). Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes: Origin, Meaning, and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art. BRILL. p. 253–254. ISBN 978-90-04-10758-8.
  84. Srinivasan, Doris (1997). Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes: Origin, Meaning, and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art. BRILL. p. 241 Note 9. ISBN 978-90-04-10758-8.
  85. "The glorious Aniruddha should be Varaha who rescued the Earth" in Rangarajan, Haripriya (1997). Varāha Images in Madhya Pradesh: An Iconographic Study. Somaiya Publications. p. 38. ISBN 978-81-7039-214-9.
  86. "Aniruddha (is represented) by his theriomorphic form, the boar" in Srinivasan, Doris (1997). Many Heads, Arms, and Eyes: Origin, Meaning, and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art. BRILL. p. 254. ISBN 978-90-04-10758-8.
  87. "The Vishnudharmmottara (78.1.1) sometimes directly identifies Pradyumna with Kapila" Ohri, Vishwa Chander; Khanna, Amar Nath; Culture, Himachal Pradesh (India) Dept of Languages & (1989). History and culture of the Chamba State, a western Himalayan kingdom: collected papers of the seminar held at Chamba in 1983. Books & Books. p. 117. ISBN 9788585016258.
  88. Lubotsky, Alexander (1996). "The Iconography of the Viṣṇu Temple at Deogarh and the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa". Ars Orientalis. 26: 67. ISSN 0571-1371. JSTOR 4629500.
  89. Kramrisch, Stella. The Vishnudharmottara Part III: A Treatise On Indian Painting And Image-Making. Second Revised and Enlarged Edition, Calcutta: Calcutta University Press, 1928, p.5.
  90. Vishnudharmottara Purana Book III, Chapter 47 (p.69-70) and Book III, Chapter 85 (p.113-114)
  91. Parlier-Renault, Edith (2007). Temples de l'Inde méridionale: VIe-VIIIe siècles. La mise en scène des mythes. Presses Paris Sorbonne. pp. 38–42. ISBN 978-2-84050-464-1.
  92. Atherton, Cynthia Packert (1997). The Sculpture of Early Medieval Rajasthan. BRILL. p. 78. ISBN 978-90-04-10789-2.
  93. A Comprehensive History of India: pt. 1-2. A.D. 300-985. Orient Longmans. 1982. p. 866.
  94. Atherton, Cynthia Packert (1997). The Sculpture of Early Medieval Rajasthan. BRILL. p. 78. ISBN 978-90-04-10789-2.
  95. A Comprehensive History of India: pt. 1-2. A.D. 300-985. Orient Longmans. 1982. p. 866.
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  97. "A shrine of Aniruddha, the fourth of the 'vyuhas', which had within its precincts a 'rsyadhvaja', i. e. a column bearing on its top the figure of a 'rsya' or a white antelope which was his characteristic 'lanchana'." in Journal of the Indian Society of Oriental Art. Indian Society of Oriental Art. 1937. p. 16.
  98. Gupta, Vinay K. "Vrishnis in Ancient Literature and Art". Indology's Pulse Arts in Context, Doris Meth Srinivasan Festschrift Volume, Eds. Corinna Wessels Mevissen and Gerd Mevissen with Assistance of Vinay Kumar Gupta: 80–81.
  99. Lubotsky, Alexander (1996). "The Iconography of the Viṣṇu Temple at Deogarh and the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa". Ars Orientalis. 26: 65–80. ISSN 0571-1371. JSTOR 4629500.
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Vrishni heroes
Vrishni heroes Article Talk Language Watch Edit The Vrishni heroes IAST Vṛṣṇi Viras also referred to as Pancha viras IAST Panca viras Five heroes are a group of five legendary deified heroes who are found in the literature and archaeological sites of ancient India 8 9 Their earliest worship is attestable in the clan of the Vrishnis near Mathura by 4th century BCE 8 10 11 Legends are associated with these deified heroes some of which may be based on real historical heroes of the Vrishni clan 1 12 Their early worship has been variously described as cross sectarian much like the cult of the Yakshas related to the early Bhagavata tradition of Hinduism and with possible links to Jainism as well 13 They and their legends particularly of Krishna and Balarama have been an important part of the Vaishnava tradition of Hinduism 8 14 9 Vrishni heroesVrishni heroes on the coinage of Agathocles of Bactria circa 190 180 BCE Samkarshana with Gada mace and plow and Vasudeva with Shankha a pear shaped case or conch and Chakra wheel 1 2 3 This is the earliest unambiguous image of the two deities 4 Another variation 1 5 The five Vrishni heroes Saṃkarṣaṇa Vasudeva Pradyumna Samba Aniruddha standing around enthroned Narasimha Kondamotu Vrishni heroes relief 4th century CE Hyderabad State Museum The Vrishni heroes remained major divinities until the 5th century CE when they lost preeminence to Vishnu 6 7 The Vrishnis were already known in the late Vedic literature They are also mentioned by Paṇini in Astadhyayi verse 6 2 34 while Krishna is referred to as Krishna Varshneya the Vrishni in verse 3 187 51 of the Mahabharata 15 Beyond texts their importance in ancient India is attested by the ancient inscriptions found near Mathura and coins discovered in the ruins of Ai Khanoum Afghanistan bearing images of the two main Vrishni heroes with Greek and Brahmi legends 8 The cult of the Vrishni heroes existed as an independent cult in Mathura as suggested by the Mora Well Inscription and was then amalgamated very progressively into Vaishnavism 16 The deification of the Vrhisni heroes centered around the cult of Vasudeva Krishna known as Bhagavatism 17 Epigraphical evidence suggests that their legends and worship swiftly expanded to other parts of India by the start of the common era 11 18 19 The Vrishni heroes are generally identified as Samkarshana Balarama Samkarshana son of Vasudeva Anakadundubhi and Devaki 1 15 Vasudeva Vasudeva Krishna another son of Vasudeva Anakadundubhi and Devaki 1 15 Pradyumna son of Vasudeva Krishna and Rukmini 1 Samba son of Vasudeva Krishna and Jambavati 1 and Aniruddha son of Pradyumna 18 Probably as late as the 1st century CE the cult of the Vrishni heroes Viravada retained more importance than the Vyuha doctrine Vyuhavada the subsequent cult of emanations that evolved from the Vrishni hero cult 20 Still later it evolved into the Avataravada system of incarnations of Vishnu 21 Overall according to Doris Srinivasan the absorption of the Vrishni hero into the Vaishnava worship is very gradual The amalgamation process was preceded and concurrent with a cult of several Vrishni heroes 22 The Vrishni heroes also have distinct individual qualities Vasudeva is also associated with gentleness and strength Samkarsana with knowledge Pradyumna with female power Samba with male power and Aniruddha with ferociousness and sovereignty 23 Contents 1 Identity 1 1 Local heroes turned deities 1 2 Early coinage 3rd 2nd century BCE 1 3 Jainism 1 4 Cross sectarian deities 2 Devotional structures and symbolism circa 115 BCE 2 1 Vrishni Temple structure 3 Saṃkarṣaṇa in Indo Scythian coinage 1st century BCE 4 Ghosundi Inscriptions 1st century BCE 5 Mora Vrishni heroes circa 15 CE 6 Vrishni Temples circa 15 CE 7 Chamunda Tila Vrishni symbols 1st century CE 8 Triads 1st 2nd century CE 9 Caturvyuha 2nd century CE 10 Cult images of Vasudeva 2nd 3rd century CE 11 Kondamotu Vrishni heroes 4th century CE 12 Evolution as avatars of Vishnu 4th century CE 12 1 Symbolic system 13 Dashavatara Temple Deogarh 6th century CE 14 Later depictions of the Vrishni heroes 15 See also 16 References 17 SourcesIdentity Edit Vrishni triad shown in a rock painting at Tikla Madhya Pradesh 3rd 2nd century BCE These would be Saṃkarṣaṇa with plough and mace Vasudeva with mace and wheel and a female deity probably Ekanamsha 24 Bala rama and Krishna at Chilas The Kharoshthi inscription nearby reads Rama kri ṣa 1st century CE 25 The historical roots and the identity of the Vrishni heroes is unclear Several interpretations have been proposed Local heroes turned deities Edit According to Rosenfield the five heroes of the Vrishnis may have been ancient historical rulers in the region of Mathura and Vasudeva and Krishna may well have been kings of this dynasty as well 26 According to the Vayu Purana 97 1 2 the five Vrishni heroes were originally human and their names were Samkarshana Vasudeva Pradyumna Samba and Aniruddha 27 The heroes would then have evolved into Vaishnavite deities through a step by step process 1 deification of the Vrishni heroes 2 association with the God Narayana Vishnu 3 incorporation into the Vyuha concept of successive emanations of the God 28 Epigraphically the deified status of Vasudeva in particular is confirmed by his appearance on the coinage of Agathocles of Bactria 190 180 BCE and by the devotional character of the Heliodorus pillar inscription circa 110 BCE 29 Later the association with Narayana Vishnu is suggested by the Hathibada Ghosundi Inscriptions of the 1st century BCE 29 It is generally thought that by the beginning of the Christian era the cult of Vasudeva Vishnu and Narayana amalgamated 30 By the 2nd century CE the avatara concept was in its infancy and the depiction of Vishnu with his four emanations the Chatur vyuha consisting in the Vrishni heroes minus Samba starts to become visible in art at the end of the Kushan period 31 Banerjee too considered that they may have been semi deified legendary kings who came to be considered as Vishnu s avatars 26 This would lead to an early form of Vaishnavism currently described as the Pancaratra system 26 Also according to Gavin Flood an Indologist and scholar of Hinduism Vasudeva may have originated in a real Vrishni hero or king but the lineage is difficult to establish 10 This Vasudeva became deified in the Vrishni clan its worship being traceable to the 4th century text of Paṇini which mentions Vasudevaka or a devotee of Vasudeva 10 Vasudeva then fused with Krishna of the Yadavas clan 10 Over time Vasudeva was identified with Krishna and Vishnu 10 According to Christopher Austin the Vrishni heroes are characters linked to the end of Mahabharata reflecting the three generations of Vrishnis of Krishna from the Bhagavad Gita fame his son his grandson along with the Balarama Samkarshana This view is supported by Srinivasan and Banerjee based on evidence in two Puranic passages and the Mora well inscription 11 In early Hinduism the five Vrishni heroes have been identified as Vasudeva Krishna Samkarsana Balarama Pradyumna Aniruddha and Samba as known from the Medieval Vayu Purana 32 33 Early coinage 3rd 2nd century BCE Edit The Vrishni heroes appear on the coinage of Agathocles of Bactria circa 190 180 BCE Samkarshana with Gada mace and plow and Vasudeva with Shankha a pear shaped case or conch and Chakra wheel 1 34 35 This is the earliest unambiguous image of the two deities 36 On some of the Indian punch marked coins three individuals appear without attributes possibly deities Saṃkarṣaṇa Vasudeva and Ekanamsha in the late 4th 2nd century BCE 37 The same type of coins was excavated in Besnagar 38 On some post Mauryan punch marked coins possible depictions of Saṃkarṣaṇa Balarama appear 39 40 He is shown wielding a mace and a plough 41 39 These punch marked coin are dated to the 2nd century BCE and may be associated with Mathura 42 Coin of Agathocles of Bactria 190 180 BCE 1 Mauryan Empire Late 4th 2nd century BC Mauryan punch marked coin with three deities 4th 2nd century BCE Punch marked coins excavated in Besnagar Post Mauryan punch marked coin with possible Balarama detail 43 Jainism Edit Another theory has been proposed by Heinrich Luders Based on analysis of 10th to 12th century Jaina texts Luders proposed that Vrishnis may have roots in Jainism noting the co existence of the Jain and Vrishni related archaeological findings in Mathura and the strength of Jainism at that time in Mathura 13 He names the Vrishni heroes as Baladeva Akrura Anadhrsti Sarana and Viduratha all Jain heroes and with Akrura as the commander 13 Cross sectarian deities Edit According to Quintanilla the cult of the Vrishnis may have been cross sectarian much like the cult of the Yakshas and may not necessarily represent the roots of Vaiṣṇava theology at Mathura 13 Devotional structures and symbolism circa 115 BCE Edit The Heliodorus pillar was erected to Vasudeva by the Greek Heliodorus in 115 BCE It was crowned by a Garuda capital Excavation of the Vrishni Temple with elliptic plan The Heliodorus pillar appears in the immediate background Main article Heliodorus pillar Several pillar capitals with symbolic statuary associated to the Vhrishni heroes have been found in Besnagar around the site of the Heliodorus pillar dated to about 115 BCE 44 The Heliodorus pillar inscription explains that the pillar erected to honour Vasudeva is a Garuda vajra although the Garuda statue has not been found 45 46 According to Susan L Huntington the Garuda capital on the Heliodorus pillar was probably similar to a portable Garuda standard illustrated on one of the nearly contemporary reliefs at Bharhut 47 In Bharhut a man riding a horse is seen holding a portable pillar standard crowned by a bird man creature similar to a Kinnara 47 The same concept of Garuda pillar may have been adopted for the Heliodorus pillar 47 Other sculptures and pillar capitals were found near the Heliodorus pillar and it is thought they were dedicated to Vasudeva s kinsmen otherwise known as the Vrishni heroes and objects of the Bhagavata cult 48 These are a tala fan palm capital a makara crocodile capital a banyan tree capital and a possible statue of the goddess Lakshmi also associated with the Bhagavat cult 6 Just as Garuda is associated with Vasudesa the fan palm capital is generally associated with Saṃkarṣaṇa and the makara is associated with Pradyumna 49 50 The banyan tree capital with ashtanidhis is associated with Lakshmi 6 In effect the findings surrounding the Heliodorus pillar suggest the cult of a trio of the Vrishni heroes in this time and area composed of the three deities Vasudesa Saṃkarṣaṇa and Pradyumna 51 Vrishni Temple structure Edit Excavations suggests that these various pillars with their symbolic capitals were standing in line at the site and that the Heliodorus pillar was just one of them standing at the end of the line 52 Although the pillars are aniconic it is probable that now lost sculptures representing the deities broadly similar to the depictions on Vasudeva and Samkarshana on the coins of Agathocles of Bactria 190 180 BCE were located in adjoining shrines 53 The 1963 65 excavations at the site suggest that the site had an elliptical shrine possibly dating to the 4th to 3rd century BCE with a brick foundation and likely a wooden superstructure 54 55 56 This was destroyed by a flood around 200 BCE New soil was then added and the ground level raised to build a new second temple to Vasudeva with a wooden pillar Garuda dhvaja in front of the east facing elliptical shrine 54 55 This too was destroyed by floods sometime in the 2nd century BCE 54 In late 2nd century BCE after some ground preparation yet another Vasudeva temple was rebuilt this time with eight stone pillars aligned in the north south cardinal axis Only one of these eight pillars have survived the Heliodorus pillar 54 55 Depiction of Vasudeva circa 190 180 BCE The Garuda symbol of Vasudeva was probably similar to this design from Bharhut circa 100 BCE 47 The fan palm capital found next to the Heliodorus pillar is associated with Saṃkarṣaṇa 49 50 The Makara capital found at the site of the Heliodorus pillar is associated with Pradyumna 48 57 49 50 2nd century BCE 58 Gwalior Museum A pillar capital shaped as a Kalpadruma tree also found nearby at Besnagar probably associated with Lakshmi 48 49 Saṃkarṣaṇa in Indo Scythian coinage 1st century BCE Edit Saṃkarṣaṇa Balarama with mace and plough striding forward with billowing scarf on the coinage of Maues 90 80 BCE Saṃkarṣaṇa the Vrishni elder and the leading divinity until the rise to precedence of Vasudeva is known to appear on the coinage of the Indo Scythian rulers Maues and Azes I during the 1st century BCE 59 60 These coins show him holding a mace and a plough 59 60 61 Samkarsana Balarama on a coin of Maues 90 80 BCE 61 Samkarsana Balarama on a coin of Maues 90 80 BCE 61 Samkarsana Balarama on a coin of Maues 90 80 BCE 61 Samkarsana Balarama on a coin of Azes 58 12 BCE Ghosundi Inscriptions 1st century BCE Edit The name Vasudeva 𑀯 𑀲 𑀤 𑀯 in the Brahmi script in the Ghosundi inscription 1st century BCE Main article Hathibada Ghosundi Inscriptions The two major Vrishni heroes Saṃkarṣaṇa and Vasudeva still in their proper seniority order are again mentioned in the Hathibada Ghosundi Inscriptions dated to the 1st century BCE For the first time they seem to be associated to a higher divinity as the inscription mention that their cult is made on a precinct of Narayana Mora Vrishni heroes circa 15 CE Edit Torso said to be from one of the five Vrishni Heroes Mora circa 15 CE Mathura Museum 33 62 32 Main article Mora Well Inscription The Vrishni heroes are mentioned in the Mora Well Inscription in Mathura dated to the time of the Northern Satraps Sodasa in which they are called Bhagavatam 63 64 65 Statue fragments were found in Mora which are thought to represent some of the Vrishni heroes 33 26 Two uninscribed male torsos were discovered in the mound both of high craftsmanship and in Indian style and costume 26 They are similar with minor variations suggesting they may have been part of a series 66 They share some sculptural characteristics with the Yaksha statues found in Mathura such as the sculpting in the round or the clothing style 33 Sonya Rhie Quintanilla also supports an attribution of the torso to the five Vrishnis and dates them to around the time of Sodasa circa 15 CE which is confirmed on artistic grounds 32 Vrishni Temples circa 15 CE EditMention of Vrishni Temples appears in the Mora Well Inscription which describes a pratima murti images a stone shrine temple and calls the five Vrishnis as bhagavatam 63 64 65 The inscription is dated to the early decades of the 1st century CE during the reign of Sodasa probably circa 15 CE 63 A decorated doorjamb also probably belonging to a Temple on which is inscribed the Vasu Doorjamb Inscription is dedicated to deity Vasudeva and mentions the rule of the Northern Satrap Sodasa and has similar carving to the Mora doorjamb The decoration of these and many similar doorjambs from Mathura consists in scrolls of grapevines They are all dated to the reign of Sodasa circa 15 CE and constitute a secure dated artistic reference for the evaluation of datation of other Mathura sculptures 67 It has been suggested that the grapevine design had been introduced from the Gandhara area in the northwest and maybe associated with the northern taste of the Satrap rulers 68 These designs may also be the result of the work of northern artists in Mathura 68 The grapevine designs of Gandhara are generally considered as originating from Hellenistic art 69 The Vasu doorjamb dedicated to Vasudeva in the reign of Sodasa Mathura circa 15 CE Mathura Museum GMM 13 367 67 Mora doorjamb with grapevine design probably belonging to a Vrishni Temple at Mora near Mathura circa 15 CE State Museum Lucknow SML J 526 67 Chamunda Tila Vrishni symbols 1st century CE Edit Chamunda Tila pillar capital The Chamunda Tila pillar capital also found in Mathura may be another example of the Vrishni cult in the area of Mathura this time using the Vrishni lanchana symbols around a central figure 70 This pillar capital uses five symbols on both sides a lion a palm leaf a makara an adorned woman and Yaksha in central position with a probable top symbol missing 70 The Taladdhvaja palm leaf column is known to symbolize Samkarsana the Garuḍadhvaja garuda column symbolizes Vasudeva the Makaradhvaja makara crocodile column symbolizes Pradyumna and the Ṛṣyadhvaja white antilope column corresponds to Aniruddha 71 70 The lion pillar capital corresponds to Samba 70 The function of the adorned woman is Shri Rukmani 70 The central figure uses the iconography of a Yaksha pointing to the association of Vrishni iconography with Yasha iconography as seen in the Mora statue found with the Mora Well Inscription 70 Triads 1st 2nd century CE EditA few triads are known from Mathura dated to the 1st 2nd century CE showing Vasudeva and Saṃkarṣaṇa with their attributes together with a female standing in the middle thought to be Ekanamsha 72 73 In these triads the kinship of the warrior heroes is still emphasized with the depiction focusing on the elder brother the younger brother and the sister with a prominence still given to the elder brother Samkarsana 74 They are still presented as warrior kshatriya heroes who are not yet fully deified or considered as royals and are only the object of Bhakti devotional worship towards ancestral heroes focusing on their enshrined icons 74 Caturvyuha 2nd century CE Edit Vasudeva and his Vrishni kinsmen emanating from him Main article Caturvyuha The famous Chatur vyuha statue in Mathura Museum is an attempt to show in one composition Vasudeva together with the other members of the Vrishni clan of the Pancharatra system Samkarsana Pradyumna and Aniruddha with Samba missing Vasudeva being the central deity from whom the others emanate 75 The back of the relief is carved with the branches of a Kadamba tree symbolically showing the relationship being the different deities 75 Vasudeva is fittingly in the center with ornate crown and flower necklace making the Abhaya Mudra and holding his decorated heavy mace on the side his elder brother Balarama to his right under a serpent hood his son Pradyumna to his left lost and his grandson Aniruddha on top 75 Tree and branches sculpted in the back showing their genealogical relationship Samkarsana Balarama under his snake hood holding a cup Vasudeva s ornate mace held by one of his supplementary handsCult images of Vasudeva 2nd 3rd century CE Edit Vasudeva Krishna with his three attributes a mace a wheel and a conch and an Abhaya mudra hand gesture but without an aureole terracotta 76 Cult images of Vasudeva continued to be produced until the 4th century CE the worship of this Mathuran deity being much more important than that of Vishnu during that period 76 Statues dating to the 2nd and 3rd century show a possibly four armed Vasudeva standing with his attributes the wheel the mace and the conch his right hand saluting in Abhaya mudra 77 Only with the Gupta period did statues focusing on the worship of Vishnu himself start to appear using the same iconography as the statues of Vasudeva but with the addition of an aureole starting at the shoulders 76 From the 4th century CE independent devotional statues of Vasudeva Krishna become very rare and are replaced by statues of Vishnu with the addition of an aureole 78 This suggests with a high probability that the human face in the statues of Vishnu including those known as Vaikuntha Chaturmurti is actually the face of his human emanation Vasudeva Krishna 78 Kondamotu Vrishni heroes 4th century CE EditA relief from Kondamotu Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh dates to the 4th century CE and shows the Vrishni heroes standing in genealogical order around Narasimha 7 79 From left to right they are Saṃkarṣaṇa holding a mace and a ploughshare topped by the depiction of a lion Vasudeva with a hand in abhaya mudra and the other hand on the hip holding a conch shell 79 Vasudeva also has a crown which distinguishes him from the others 80 Then follow Pradyumna holding a bow and an arrow Samba holding a wine goblet and Aniruddha holding a sword and a shield 79 The fact that they stand around Narasimha suggests a fusion of the Satvata cult with the Vrishni cult 79 The five Vrishni heroes Saṃkarṣaṇa Vasudeva Pradyumna Samba and Aniruddha standing around enthroned Narasimha Kondamotu Vrishni heroes relief 4th century CE Hyderabad State Museum 7 Evolution as avatars of Vishnu 4th century CE Edit Saṃkarṣaṇa appears as a lion while Aniruddha appears as a boar in this Vaikuntha Chaturmurti statue showing Vishnu in his three main emanations mid 5th century Boston Museum 81 76 The Vrishni heroes for the most part became avatars of Vishnu and where incorporated in the Vaishnavite system from the 4th century CE 78 82 The avatars were combined in the Vishnu statuary from this time in statues known as Vaikuntha Chaturmurti 78 Saṃkarṣaṇa came to be associated with the lion which is his theriomorphic aspect 83 81 He can be identified as Narasimha 84 23 Saṃkarṣaṇa appears as a lion in some of the Caturvyuha statues the Bhita statue where he is an assistant to Vasudeva and in the Vaikuntha Chaturmurti when his lion s head protrudes from the side of Vishnu s head 81 Aniruddha came to be associated with the boar which is his theriomorphic aspect also known as Varaha 85 86 81 Aniruddha appears as a boar in some of the Caturvyuha statues where he is an assistant to Vasudeva and in the Vaikuntha Chaturmurti when his boar s head protrudes from the side of Vishnu s head 81 In the Vaikuntha Chaturmurti especially in the statues from Kasmir Pradyumna also appears sometimes in the back of the head of the central Vishnu as a fearsome deity also known as Kapila 87 Symbolic system Edit The caturvyuha this Gupta period polycephalic aspect of Vishnu formed by the four Vrishni heroes as his emanations a Saumya benevolent face to the east a Simha lion face to the south a Varaha boar face to the north a Raudra terrible human face to the west is described in detail in the Vishnudharmottara Purana compiled between the 4th and the 7th century CE 88 89 This is to be understood in conjunction with the description of the four Vyuhas Saṃkarṣaṇa Vasudeva Pradyumna and Aniruddha also presented as emanations of Vishnu as known from the Pancaratra doctrine 90 91 This establishes multiple correspondences between the deities and their symbols 92 93 91 vtePancaratra system 94 95 96 Vyuhas Image Attributes Symbol 97 98 Direction Face ConceptNarayana Vishnu Vasudeva Chakra Wheel Gada Mace Shanka Conch Garuda Eagle East Saumya Placid benevolent Bala StrengthSamkarsana Laṅgala Plough Musala Pestle Wine glass Tala Fan palm South Simha Lion Jṅana KnowledgePradyumna Capa Bow Baṇa Arrow Makara Crocodile West Raudra Kapila Aisvarya SovereigntyAniruddha Carma Shield Khaḍga Sword Ṛṣya White antelope North Varaha Boar Sakti PowerDashavatara Temple Deogarh 6th century CE Edit A depiction of Vasudeva at Deogarh He holds the wheel the conch and salutes in Abhaya Mudra 99 Main article Dashavatara Temple Deogarh The Dashavatara Temple in Deogarh is closely related to the iconic architectural temple structure described in the Viṣṇudharmottara puraṇa and can be interpreted as an architectural representation of the Caturvyuha concept and the Pancaratra doctrine centering on the depictions of the four main emanations of Vishnu Vasudeva Samkarshana Pradyumna and Aniruddha 99 According to Lubotsky it is likely that the entrance is dedicated to the Vasudeva aspect of Vishnu the Anantashayana side is his role as the creator Aniruddha the sage form of Nara Narayana side symbolizes his preservation and maintainer role in cosmic existence Pradyumna and the Gajendramoksha side represents his role as the destroyer Samkarsana 99 Later depictions of the Vrishni heroes EditThe Vrishni heroes particularly Krishna and Balarama are still found in some Vaishnava Hindu temples 11th century Balarama Lakshmi or perhaps Subhadra Vasudeva Krishna Jagannath The five Vrishni heroes standing in the Parthasarathy Temple Eastern Torana Entrance From left to right Balarama Rukmini Vasudeva Krishna center Pradyumna Aniruddha and SatyakiSee also EditBalarama Vaishnavism Vasudeva VrishniReferences Edit a b c d e f g h Singh Upinder 2008 A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India From the Stone Age to the 12th Century Pearson Education India p 436 438 ISBN 978 81 317 1120 0 Srinivasan Doris 1979 Early Vaiṣṇava Imagery Caturvyuha and Variant Forms Archives of Asian Art 32 50 ISSN 0066 6637 JSTOR 20111096 Joshi Nilakanth Purushottam 1979 Iconography of Balarama Abhinav Publications p 22 ISBN 978 81 7017 107 2 Srinivasan Doris 1997 Many Heads Arms and Eyes Origin Meaning and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art BRILL p 215 ISBN 978 90 04 10758 8 Art and History Texts Contexts and Visual Representations in Ancient and Early Medieval India Bloomsbury Publishing 2019 p 44 ISBN 978 93 88414 31 9 a b c Indian History Allied Publishers 1988 p A 224 ISBN 978 81 8424 568 4 a b c Austin Christopher R 2019 Pradyumna Lover Magician and Son of the Avatara Oxford University Press p 27 ISBN 978 0 19 005411 3 a b c d Doris Srinivasan 1997 Many Heads Arms and Eyes Origin Meaning and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art BRILL Academic pp 211 220 236 ISBN 90 04 10758 4 a b R Champakalakshmi 1990 H V Sreenivasa Murthy ed Essays on Indian History and Culture Mittal Publications pp 52 60 ISBN 978 81 7099 211 0 a b c d e Gavin D Flood 1996 An Introduction to Hinduism Cambridge University Press pp 119 120 ISBN 978 0 521 43878 0 a b c Christopher Austin 2018 Diana Dimitrova and Tatiana Oranskaia ed Divinizing in South Asian Traditions Taylor amp Francis pp 30 35 ISBN 978 1 351 12360 0 Srinivasan Doris 1979 Early Vaiṣṇava Imagery Caturvyuha and Variant Forms Archives of Asian Art 32 49 50 ISSN 0066 6637 JSTOR 20111096 a b c d Quintanilla Sonya Rhie 2007 History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura Ca 150 BCE 100 CE BRILL pp 211 213 ISBN 978 90 04 15537 4 Lavanya Vemsani 2016 Krishna in History Thought and Culture An Encyclopedia of the Hindu Lord of Many Names ABC CLIO pp 23 25 239 ISBN 978 1 61069 211 3 For their regional significance in contemporary Hinduism see a Couture Andre Schmid Charlotte Couture Andre 2001 The Harivaṃsa the Goddess Ekanaṃsa and the Iconography of the Vṛṣṇi Triads Journal of the American Oriental Society 121 2 173 192 doi 10 2307 606559 JSTOR 606559 b Doris Srinivasan 1979 Early Vaiṣṇava Imagery Caturvyuha and Variant Forms Archives of Asian Art 32 39 54 JSTOR 20111096 a b c Joanna Gottfried Williams 1981 Kaladarsana American Studies in the Art of India BRILL pp 127 131 ISBN 90 04 06498 2 The absorption of the Vrishni heroes into the Vaishnava mainstream is very gradual The amalgamation process was preceded and concurrent with a cult of the several Vrishni heroes Inscriptional evidence indicates the existence of such cult in Mathura in Srinivasan Doris 1981 Kaladarsana American Studies in the Art of India BRILL ISBN 978 90 04 06498 0 Srinivasan Doris 1981 Kaladarsana American Studies in the Art of India BRILL ISBN 978 90 04 06498 0 a b Singh Upinder 2008 A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India From the Stone Age to the 12th Century Pearson Education India pp 436 440 ISBN 978 81 317 1120 0 Williams Joanna Gottfried 1981 Kaladarsana American Studies in the Art of India BRILL p 129 ISBN 978 90 04 06498 0 Indian History Allied Publishers 1988 p A222 ISBN 978 81 8424 568 4 Shaw Julia 2016 Buddhist Landscapes in Central India Sanchi Hill and Archaeologies of Religious and Social Change c Third Century BC to Fifth Century AD Routledge pp 73 74 ISBN 978 1 315 43263 2 Srinivasan Doris 1981 Kaladarsana American Studies in the Art of India BRILL p 129 ISBN 978 90 04 06498 0 a b Gentleness and strength are associated with Vasudeva knowledge with Samkarsana Narasimha female power with Pradyumna Varaha and ferociousness and sovereignty with Aniruddha Kapila Kamalakar G Veerender M 1993 Vishnu in Art Thought amp Literature Birla Archeological amp Cultural Research Institute p 92 Gupta Vinay K Vrishnis in Ancient Literature and Art Indology s Pulse Arts in Context Doris Meth Srinivasan Festschrift Volume Eds Corinna Wessels Mevissen and Gerd Mevissen with Assistance of Vinay Kumar Gupta 71 Srinivasan Doris 1997 Many Heads Arms and Eyes Origin Meaning and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art BRILL p 215 ISBN 978 90 04 10758 8 a b c d e Rosenfield John M 1967 The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans University of California Press p 151 152 and Fig 51 Srinivasan Doris 1979 Early Vaiṣṇava Imagery Caturvyuha and Variant Forms Archives of Asian Art 32 49 50 ISSN 0066 6637 JSTOR 20111096 Srinivasan Doris 1979 Early Vaiṣṇava Imagery Caturvyuha and Variant Forms Archives of Asian Art 32 50 JSTOR 20111096 a b Srinivasan Doris 1979 Early Vaiṣṇava Imagery Caturvyuha and Variant Forms Archives of Asian Art 32 51 ISSN 0066 6637 JSTOR 20111096 Subburaj V V K 2004 Basic Facts of General Knowledge Sura Books p 68 ISBN 978 81 7254 234 4 Singh Upinder 2008 A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India From the Stone Age to the 12th Century Pearson Education India p 439 ISBN 978 81 317 1677 9 a b c Quintanilla Sonya Rhie 2007 History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura Ca 150 BCE 100 CE BRILL pp 211 213 ISBN 978 90 04 15537 4 a b c d We have actually discovered in the excavations at the Mora shrine stone torsos representing the Vrishni Heroes Their style closely follows that of the free standing Yakshas in that they are carved in the round They are dressed in a dhoti and uttaraya and some types of ornaments as found on the Yaksha figures their right hand is held in ahbayamudra in Agrawala Vasudeva Sharana 1965 Indian Art A history of Indian art from the earliest times up to the third century A D Prithivi Prakashan p 253 Srinivasan Doris 1979 Early Vaiṣṇava Imagery Caturvyuha and Variant Forms Archives of Asian Art 32 50 ISSN 0066 6637 JSTOR 20111096 Joshi Nilakanth Purushottam 1979 Iconography of Balarama Abhinav Publications p 22 ISBN 978 81 7017 107 2 Srinivasan Doris 1997 Many Heads Arms and Eyes Origin Meaning and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art BRILL p 215 ISBN 978 90 04 10758 8 Described and illustrated in Paul Pran Gopal Paul Debjani 1989 Brahmanical Imagery in the Kuṣaṇa Art of Mathura Tradition and Innovations East and West 39 1 4 116 117 ISSN 0012 8376 JSTOR 29756891 Indian Archaeology 1978 79 A review PDF Archaeological Survey of India p 90 Plate LI a b Post Mauryan punch marked coin Srinivasan Doris 1997 Many Heads Arms and Eyes Origin Meaning and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art BRILL p 215 ISBN 978 90 04 10758 8 Mishra Susan Verma Ray Himanshu Prabha 2016 The Archaeology of Sacred Spaces The temple in western India 2nd century BCE 8th century CE Routledge p 6 ISBN 978 1 317 19374 6 Bopearachchi Osmund Emergence of Viṣṇu and Siva Images in India Numismatic and Sculptural Evidence Srinivasan Doris 1997 Many Heads Arms and Eyes Origin Meaning and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art BRILL p 215 ISBN 978 90 04 10758 8 Srinivasan Doris 1997 Many Heads Arms and Eyes Origin Meaning and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art BRILL p 215 ISBN 978 90 04 10758 8 Austin Christopher R 2019 Pradyumna Lover Magician and Scion of the Avatara Oxford University Press p 23 24 ISBN 978 0 19 005412 0 Dass Meera I 2001 Helliodorus Pillar from Besnagar ITS Capital and Worship Proceedings of the Indian History Congress 62 1136 1137 ISSN 2249 1937 JSTOR 44155935 Heliodorus Pillar from Besnagar Its Capital and Worship Journal of the Asiatic Society of Mumbai 77 78 32 41 2002 2003 a b c d The rider of the horse holds a portable pillar standard dhvaja stambha related to the stationary type seen since Maurya and pre Maurya times here probably intended as a royal insignia It is interesting to note resemblance between this standard with its square abacus lotus capital and bird man creature called a kinnara and what was probably the original concept of the Heliodorus Garuda pillar at Vidisa Since this particular sculpture of the Bharhut vedika was dedicated by an individual from Vidisa as indicated by an inscription this resemblance is even more remarkable and may indicate that the Bharhut form was based specifically on the Vedika pillar or a common prototype in Huntington Susan L 1985 The Art of Ancient India Buddhist Hindu Jain Weatherhill p 66 ISBN 978 0 8348 0183 7 a b c Indian History Allied Publishers 1988 p A 222 ISBN 978 81 8424 568 4 a b c d Gupta Vinay K Vrishnis in Ancient Literature and Art Indology s Pulse Arts in Context Doris Meth Srinivasan Festschrift Volume Eds Corinna Wessels Mevissen and Gerd Mevissen with Assistance of Vinay Kumar Gupta 81 a b c Austin Christopher R 2019 Pradyumna Lover Magician and Scion of the Avatara Oxford University Press p 24 ISBN 978 0 19 005412 0 Austin Christopher R 2019 Pradyumna Lover Magician and Scion of the Avatara Oxford University Press p 28 ISBN 978 0 19 005412 0 Shaw Julia 2016 Buddhist Landscapes in Central India Sanchi Hill and Archaeologies of Religious and Social Change c Third Century BC to Fifth Century AD Routledge p 73 74 ISBN 978 1 315 43263 2 Shaw Julia 2016 Buddhist Landscapes in Central India Sanchi Hill and Archaeologies of Religious and Social Change c Third Century BC to Fifth Century AD Routledge p 75 ISBN 978 1 315 43263 2 a b c d John Irwin 1974 pp 166 170 a b c M D Khare 1967 Agrawala Vasudeva S 1977 Gupta Art Vol ii Ayyar Sulochana 1987 Costumes and Ornaments as Depicted in the Sculptures of Gwalior Museum Mittal Publications p 13 ISBN 978 81 7099 002 4 VIENNOT Odette 1958 Le Makara dans la Decoration des Monuments de l Inde Ancienne Positions et Fonctions Arts Asiatiques 5 3 184 JSTOR 43484068 a b Srinivasan Doris 1997 Many Heads Arms and Eyes Origin Meaning and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art BRILL p 215 ISBN 978 90 04 10758 8 a b Srinivasan Doris 2007 On the Cusp of an Era Art in the Pre Kuṣaṇa World BRILL p 22 ISBN 978 90 474 2049 1 a b c d Errington Elizabeth Trust Ancient India and Iran Museum Fitzwilliam 1992 The Crossroads of Asia transformation in image and symbol in the art of ancient Afghanistan and Pakistan Ancient India and Iran Trust p 80 with image and description of the same coin type Indian God Balarama walking to left holding club and plough ISBN 978 0 9518399 1 1 This statue appears in Fig 51 as one of the statues excavated in the Mora mound in Rosenfield John M 1967 The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans University of California Press p 151 152 and Fig 51 a b c Doris Srinivasan 1997 Many Heads Arms and Eyes Origin Meaning and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art BRILL Academic pp 211 214 308 311 with footnotes ISBN 90 04 10758 4 a b Sonya Rhie Quintanilla 2007 History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura Ca 150 BCE 100 CE BRILL Academic p 260 ISBN 978 90 04 15537 4 a b Lavanya Vemsani 2016 Krishna in History Thought and Culture ABC CLIO pp 202 203 ISBN 978 1 61069 211 3 Luders H 1937 Epigraphia Indica Vol 24 pp 199 200 a b c Quintanilla Sonya Rhie 2007 History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura Ca 150 BCE 100 CE BRILL p 171 ISBN 9789004155374 a b Bracey Robert 2018 Problems of Chronology in Gandharan Art Proceedings of the First International Workshop of the Gandhara Connections Project University of Oxford 23rd 24th March 2017 The Classical Art Research Centre Archaeopress University of Oxford pp 142 143 Honeysuckle grapevine triton and acanthus mouldings are some of the Hellenistic features in Sharma Ramesh Chandra Ghosal Pranati 2004 Buddhism and Gandhara Art Indian Institute of Advanced Study p 148 ISBN 978 81 7305 264 4 a b c d e f Gupta Vinay K Vrishnis in Ancient Literature and Art pp 80 81 A shrine of Aniruddha the fourth of the vyuhas which had within its precincts a rsyadhvaja i e a column bearing on its top the figure of a rsya or a white antelope which was his characteristic lanchana in Journal of the Indian Society of Oriental Art Indian Society of Oriental Art 1937 p 16 Couture Andre Schmid Charlotte 2001 The Harivaṃsa the Goddess Ekanaṃsa and the Iconography of the Vṛṣṇi Triads Journal of the American Oriental Society 121 2 181 image of the trio in Figure 1 doi 10 2307 606559 ISSN 0003 0279 JSTOR 606559 Srinivasan Doris 1981 Kaladarsana American Studies in the Art of India BRILL p 130 ISBN 978 90 04 06498 0 a b Srinivasan Doris 1981 Kaladarsana American Studies in the Art of India BRILL p 131 ISBN 978 90 04 06498 0 a b c Paul Pran Gopal Paul Debjani 1989 Brahmanical Imagery in the Kuṣaṇa Art of Mathura Tradition and Innovations East and West 39 1 4 132 136 for the photograph p 138 ISSN 0012 8376 JSTOR 29756891 a b c d For English summary see page 80 Schmid Charlotte 1997 Les Vaikuṇṭha gupta de Mathura Viṣṇu ou Kṛṣṇa pp 60 88 Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 in Schmid Charlotte 1997 Les Vaikuṇṭha gupta de Mathura Viṣṇu ou Kṛṣṇa p 60 a b c d Schmid Charlotte 1997 Les Vaikuṇṭha gupta de Mathura Viṣṇu ou Kṛṣṇa PDF Arts Asiatiques 52 60 88 English summary p 80 doi 10 3406 arasi 1997 1401 a b c d Gupta Vinay K Vrishnis in Ancient Literature and Art Indology s Pulse Arts in Context Doris Meth Srinivasan Festschrift Volume Eds Corinna Wessels Mevissen and Gerd Mevissen with Assistance of Vinay Kumar Gupta 74 75 Srinivasan Doris 1997 Many Heads Arms and Eyes Origin Meaning and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art BRILL p 217 ISBN 978 90 04 10758 8 a b c d e Srinivasan Doris 1979 Early Vaiṣṇava Imagery Caturvyuha and Variant Forms Archives of Asian Art 32 39 54 ISSN 0066 6637 JSTOR 20111096 The absorption of the Vrishni hero into the Vaishnava worship is very gradual The amalgamation process was preceded and concurrent with a cult of several Vrishni heroes Srinivasan Doris 1981 Kaladarsana American Studies in the Art of India BRILL p 129 ISBN 978 90 04 06498 0 Samkarsana is represented by his theriomorphic form the lion in Srinivasan Doris 1997 Many Heads Arms and Eyes Origin Meaning and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art BRILL p 253 254 ISBN 978 90 04 10758 8 Srinivasan Doris 1997 Many Heads Arms and Eyes Origin Meaning and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art BRILL p 241 Note 9 ISBN 978 90 04 10758 8 The glorious Aniruddha should be Varaha who rescued the Earth in Rangarajan Haripriya 1997 Varaha Images in Madhya Pradesh An Iconographic Study Somaiya Publications p 38 ISBN 978 81 7039 214 9 Aniruddha is represented by his theriomorphic form the boar in Srinivasan Doris 1997 Many Heads Arms and Eyes Origin Meaning and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art BRILL p 254 ISBN 978 90 04 10758 8 The Vishnudharmmottara 78 1 1 sometimes directly identifies Pradyumna with Kapila Ohri Vishwa Chander Khanna Amar Nath Culture Himachal Pradesh India Dept of Languages amp 1989 History and culture of the Chamba State a western Himalayan kingdom collected papers of the seminar held at Chamba in 1983 Books amp Books p 117 ISBN 9788585016258 Lubotsky Alexander 1996 The Iconography of the Viṣṇu Temple at Deogarh and the Viṣṇudharmottarapuraṇa Ars Orientalis 26 67 ISSN 0571 1371 JSTOR 4629500 Kramrisch Stella The Vishnudharmottara Part III A Treatise On Indian Painting And Image Making Second Revised and Enlarged Edition Calcutta Calcutta University Press 1928 p 5 Vishnudharmottara Purana Book III Chapter 47 p 69 70 and Book III Chapter 85 p 113 114 a b Parlier Renault Edith 2007 Temples de l Inde meridionale VIe VIIIe siecles La mise en scene des mythes Presses Paris Sorbonne pp 38 42 ISBN 978 2 84050 464 1 Atherton Cynthia Packert 1997 The Sculpture of Early Medieval Rajasthan BRILL p 78 ISBN 978 90 04 10789 2 A Comprehensive History of India pt 1 2 A D 300 985 Orient Longmans 1982 p 866 Atherton Cynthia Packert 1997 The Sculpture of Early Medieval Rajasthan BRILL p 78 ISBN 978 90 04 10789 2 A Comprehensive History of India pt 1 2 A D 300 985 Orient Longmans 1982 p 866 Parlier Renault Edith 2007 Temples de l Inde meridionale VIe VIIIe siecles La mise en scene des mythes Presses Paris Sorbonne pp 38 42 ISBN 978 2 84050 464 1 A shrine of Aniruddha the fourth of the vyuhas which had within its precincts a rsyadhvaja i e a column bearing on its top the figure of a rsya or a white antelope which was his characteristic lanchana in Journal of the Indian Society of Oriental Art Indian Society of Oriental Art 1937 p 16 Gupta Vinay K Vrishnis in Ancient Literature and Art Indology s Pulse Arts in Context Doris Meth Srinivasan Festschrift Volume Eds Corinna Wessels Mevissen and Gerd Mevissen with Assistance of Vinay Kumar Gupta 80 81 a b c Lubotsky Alexander 1996 The Iconography of the Viṣṇu Temple at Deogarh and the Viṣṇudharmottarapuraṇa Ars Orientalis 26 65 80 ISSN 0571 1371 JSTOR 4629500 Sources EditSrinivasan Doris 1979 Early Vaiṣṇava Imagery Caturvyuha and Variant Forms Archives of Asian Art 32 39 54 ISSN 0066 6637 JSTOR 20111096 John Irwin 1974 The Heliodorus Pillar at Besanagar Puratattva Archaeological Society of India co published Art and Archaeology Research Papers USA 8 166 176 M D Khare 1967 Discovery of a Vishnu temple near the Heliodorus pillar Besnagar Dist Vidisha MP Lalit Kala 13 21 27 JSTOR 44138838 M D Khare 1975 The Heliodorus Pillar A Fresh Appraisal A Rejoinder Proceedings of the Indian History Congress 36 92 97 JSTOR 44138838 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vrishni heroes amp oldid 1053565743, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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