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Vulture

For other uses, see Vulture (disambiguation).

A vulture is a bird of prey that scavenges on carrion. There are 23 extant species of vulture (including Condors). Old World vultures include 16 living species native to Europe, Africa, and Asia; New World vultures are restricted to North and South America and consist of seven identified species, all belonging to the Cathartidae family A particular characteristic of many vultures is a bald, unfeathered head. This bare skin is thought to keep the head clean when feeding, and also plays an important role in thermoregulation.

Vulture
Temporal range:Miocene – Recent
Lammergeier at Alpenzoo, Innsbruck, Austria
Black vulture in Panama
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Families

Accipitridae (Aegypiinae)
Cathartidae

Vultures have been observed to hunch their bodies and tuck in their heads in the cold, and open their wings and stretch their necks in the heat. They also urinate on themselves as a means of cooling their bodies.

A group of vultures in flight is called a 'kettle', while the term 'committee' refers to a group of vultures resting on the ground or in trees. A group of vultures that are feeding is termed 'wake'.

Contents

Although New World vultures and Old World vultures share many resemblances, they are not very closely related. Rather, they share resemblance because of convergent evolution.

Early naturalists placed all vultures under one single biological group. Carl Linnaeus had assigned both Old World vultures and New World vultures in a Vultur genus, even including the Harpy eagle. Soon anatomists split Old and New World vultures, with New World vultures being placed in a new suborder, Cathartae, later renamed Cathartidae as per the Rules of Nomenclature (from Greek: carthartes, meaning "purifier") by French ornithologist Frédéric de Lafresnaye. The suborder was later recognised as a family, rather than a suborder.

In the late 20th century some ornithologists argued that New World vultures are more closely related to storks on the basis of karyotype, morphological, and behavioral data. Thus some authorities placed them in the Ciconiiformes family with storks and herons; Sibley and Monroe (1990) even considered them a subfamily of the storks. This was criticized, and an early DNA sequence study was based on erroneous data and subsequently retracted. There was then an attempt to raise the New World vultures to the rank of an independent order, Cathartiformes not closely associated with either the birds of prey or the storks and herons.

Main article: Old World vultures
Some members of both the Old and New World vultures have an unfeathered neck and head, shown as radiating heat in this thermographic image
Griffon vultures scavenging a red deer carcass in Spain
Griffon vulture soaring
Vulture preparing to land in Kenya
African hooded vulture in Kruger National Park
A wake of white-backed vultures eating a wildebeest carcass at Maasai Mara
Nekhbet with staff and shen ring
Flock of white-rumped vultures in India
Head of a vulture chick at Mellat Park, Tehran City, Iran

The Old World vultures found in Africa, Asia, and Europe belong to the family Accipitridae, which also includes eagles, kites, buzzards, and hawks. Old World vultures find carcasses exclusively by sight.

The 16 species in 9 genera are:

Main article: New World vulture
American Black Vulture congregated at roadkill site

The New World vultures and condors found in warm and temperate areas of the Americas are not closely related to the similar Accipitridae, but belong in the family Cathartidae, which was once considered to be related to the storks. However, recent DNA evidence suggests that they should be included among the Accipitriformes, along with other birds of prey. However, they are still not closely related to the other vultures. Several species have a good sense of smell, unusual for raptors, and are able to smell dead animals from great heights, up to a mile away.

The seven species are:

Vultures are scavengers, meaning they eat dead animals. Outside of the oceans, vultures are the only known obligate scavengers. They rarely attack healthy animals, but may kill the wounded or sick. When a carcass has too thick a hide for its beak to open, it waits for a larger scavenger to eat first. Vast numbers have been seen upon battlefields. They gorge themselves when prey is abundant, until their crops bulge, and sit, sleepy or half torpid, to digest their food. These birds do not carry food to their young in their talons but disgorge it from their crops. The mountain-dwelling bearded vulture is the only vertebrate to specialize in eating bones, and does carry bones to the nest for the young, and it hunts some live prey.

Vultures are of great value as scavengers, especially in hot regions. Vulture stomach acid is exceptionally corrosive (pH=1.0), allowing them to safely digest putrid carcasses infected with botulinum toxin, hog cholera bacteria, and anthrax bacteria that would be lethal to other scavengers and remove these bacteria from the environment. New World vultures often vomit when threatened or approached. Contrary to some accounts, they do not "projectile vomit" on their attacker in defence, but to lighten their stomach load to ease take-off. The vomited meal residue may distract a predator, allowing the bird to escape.

New World vultures also urinate straight down their legs; the uric acid kills bacteria accumulated from walking through carcasses, and also acts as evaporative cooling.

Vultures in south Asia, mainly in India and Nepal, have declined dramatically since the early 1990s. It has been found that this decline was caused by residues of the veterinary drug Diclofenac in animal carcasses. The government of India has taken very late cognizance of this fact and has banned the drug for animals. However, it may take decades for vultures to come back to their earlier population level, if they ever do: without vultures to pick corpses clean, rabies-carrying dogs have multiplied, feeding on the carrion, and age-old practices like the sky burials of the Parsees are coming to an end, permanently reducing the supply of corpses. The same problem is also seen in Nepal where government has taken some late steps to conserve remaining vultures. Similarly, in Central Africa there has also been efforts to conserve the remaining vultures and bring their population numbers back up. This is largely due to the bushmeat trade, "it is estimated > 1 billion kg [2.2 billion lb] of wild animal meat is traded" and vultures take up a large percentage of this bushmeat due to their demand in the fetish market. The substantial drop in vulture populations in the continent of Africa is also said to be the result of both intentional and unintentional poisoning, with one study finding it to be the cause of 61% of the vulture deaths recorded.

The vulture population is threatened across Africa and Eurasia. There are many anthropogenic activities that threaten vultures such as poisoning and wind energy collision mortality.

A recent study in 2016, reported that "of the 22 vulture species, nine are critically endangered, three are endangered, four are near threatened, and six are least concern".

The conservation status of vultures is of particular concern to humans. For example, the decline of vulture populations can lead to increased disease transmission and resource damage, through increased populations of disease vector and pest animal populations that scavenge carcasses opportunistically. Vultures control these pests and disease vectors indirectly through competition for carcasses.

On 20 June 2019, the corpses of 468 white-backed vultures, 17 white-headed vultures, 28 hooded vultures, 14 lappet-faced vultures and 10 cape vultures, altogether 537 vultures, besides 2 tawny eagles, were found in northern Botswana. It is suspected that they died after eating the corpses of 3 elephants that were poisoned by poachers, possibly to avoid detection by the birds, which help rangers to track poaching activity by circling above where there are dead animals.

In Ancient Egyptian art, Nekhbet, a mythological goddess and patron of both the city of Nekheb and Upper Egypt was depicted as a vulture. Alan Gardiner identified the species that was used in divine iconography as a griffon vulture. Arielle P. Kozloff, however, argues that the vultures in New Kingdom art, with their blue-tipped beaks and loose skin, better resemble the lappet-faced vulture. Many Great Royal Wives wore vulture crowns - a symbol of protection from the goddess Nekhbet.

Ancient Egyptians believed that all vultures were female and were spontaneously born from eggs without the intervention of a male, and therefore linked the birds to purity and motherhood, but also the eternal cycle of death and rebirth for their ability to transform the “death” they feed on – i.e. carrion and waste – into life.

The Aztec vulture vessel at the new Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican Pottery Gallery

In Pre-Columbian times, vultures were appreciated as extraordinary beings and they had high iconographic status. Vultures appear in many Mesoamerican myths, legends, and fables, with many separate civilizations such as the Mayan and Aztec developing a range of stories around vultures. Many Mesoamerican stories depict vultures negatively, while others contain more positive attitudes.

In certain regions of China, India, Mongolia, and Bhutan, where Vajrayana Buddhist cultures are found, vultures play a significant role in sky burials.

  1. "Fossilworks:Aegypiinae". Fossilworks. RetrievedSeptember 4, 2018.
  2. "Dropping dead: causes and consequences of vulture population declines worldwide"(PDF). 2001.
  3. Amadon, D. (1977). "Notes on the taxonomy of vultures"(PDF). The Condor. 79 (4): 413–416. doi:10.2307/1367720. JSTOR 1367720.
  4. Ward, J.; McCafferty, D.J.; Houston, D.C. & Ruxton, G.D. (2008). "Why do vultures have bald heads? The role of postural adjustment and bare skin areas in thermoregulation". Journal of Thermal Biology. 33 (3): 168–173. doi:10.1016/j.jtherbio.2008.01.002.
  5. Arad, Z. & Bernstein, M. H. (1988). "Temperature Regulation in Turkey Vultures". The Condor. 90 (4): 913–919. doi:10.2307/1368848. JSTOR 1368848.
  6. Hamilton, S.L. (2014). "Sky Burials". In Galván, J. (ed.). They Do What? A Cultural Encyclopedia of Extraordinary and Exotic Customs from around the World. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 289. ISBN 978-1-61069-342-4.
  7. Phillips (2000)
  8. Brookes (2006)
  9. Notes on the Taxonomy of Vultures The Condor Vol. 79, No. 4. 1977. pp. 413–416.
  10. de Boer (1975)
  11. Ligon (1967)
  12. König (1982)
  13. Griffiths (1994)
  14. Fain & Houde (2004)
  15. Avise (1994)
  16. Brown (2009)
  17. Cracraft et al. (2004)
  18. Gibb et al. (2007)
  19. Ericson et al. (2006)
  20. Ruxton, G.D. & D.C. Houston. 2004. Obligate vertebrate scavengers must be large soaring fliers. J. Theor. Biol. 228: 431–436.
  21. "Fast Vulture Facts". WebVulture.com. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. RetrievedFebruary 15, 2013.
  22. Buechley, E. R. & Sekercioglu, C. H. (2016). "Vultures". Current Biology. 26 (13): R560–R561. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.01.052. PMID 27404248.
  23. Caryl, Jim (September 7, 2000). "Re: How come that vultures can resist dangerous toxins when feeding on carcass". MadSci Network. RetrievedFebruary 15, 2013.
  24. "Turkey Vulture Facts". Turkey Vulture Society. Retrieved2012-12-01.
  25. Conger, Cristen (2008-10-13). "Why is it a bad idea to scare a vulture?". HowStuffWorks. RetrievedFebruary 15, 2013.
  26. Prakash, V.; Pain, D.J.; Cunningham, A.A.; Donald, P.F.; Prakash, N.; Verma, A.; Gargi, R.; Sivakumar, S. & Rahmani, A.R. =u74p \ear=2003 (2003). "Catastrophic collapse of Indian white-backedGyps bengalensis and long-billed Gyps indicus vulture populations"(PDF). Biological Conservation. 109 (3): 381–390. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00164-7.
  27. Oaks, J. L.; Gilbert, Martin; Virani, M. Z.; Watson, R. T.; Meteyer, C. U.; Rideout, B. A.; Shivaprasad, H. L.; Ahmed, S.; Chaudhry, M. J. I.; Arshad, M.; Mahmood, S.; Ali, A. & Khan, A. A. (2004). "Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan". Nature. 427 (6975): 630–633. Bibcode:2004Natur.427..630O. doi:10.1038/nature02317. PMID 14745453. S2CID 16146840.
  28. Prakash, V.; Bishwakarma, M. C.; Chaudhary, A.; Cuthbert, R.; Dave, R.; Kulkarni, M.; Kumar, S.; Paudel, K.; Ranade, S.; Shringarpure, R. & Green, R. E. (2012). "The Population Decline of Gyps Vultures in India and Nepal Has Slowed since Veterinary Use of Diclofenac was Banned". PLOS One. 7 (11): e49118. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...749118P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049118. PMC3492300. PMID 23145090.
  29. van Dooren, T. (2011). "Vultures and their People in India: Equity and Entanglement in a Time of Extinctions". Australian Humanities Review (50).
  30. Buij, R.; Nikolaus, G.; Ogada, D.; Whytock, R. & Ingram, D.J. (2015). "Trade of threatened vultures and other raptors for fetish and bushmeat in West and Central Africa". Fauna & Flora International. 50 (4): 606–616. doi:10.1017/S0030605315000514.
  31. Ogada, D.; Shaw, P.; Beyers, R. L.; Buij, R.; Murn, C.; Thiollay, J. M.; Beale, C. M.; Holdo, R. M. & Pomeroy, D. (2016). "Another Continental Vulture Crisis: Africa's Vultures Collapsing toward Extinction". Conservation Letters. 9 (2): 89–97. doi:10.1111/conl.12182. ISSN 1755-263X.
  32. Santangeli, A.; Girardello, M.; Buechley, E.; Botha, A.; Minin, E. D. & Moilanen, A. (2019). "Priority areas for conservation of Old World vultures". Conservation Biology. 33 (5): 1056–1065. doi:10.1111/cobi.13282. PMC6849836. PMID 30645009.
  33. Buechley, E. R. & Şekercioğlu, Ç. H. (2016). "The avian scavenger crisis: Looming extinctions, trophic cascades, and loss of critical ecosystem functions". Biological Conservation. 198: 220–228. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2016.04.001.
  34. O'Bryan, C. J.; Holden, M. H. & Watson, J. E. M. (2019). "The mesoscavenger release hypothesis and implications for ecosystem and human well-being". Ecology Letters. 22 (9): 1340–1348. doi:10.1111/ele.13288. PMID 31131976.
  35. "Over 500 Rare Vultures Die After Eating Poisoned Elephants In Botswana". Agence France-Press. NDTV. 2019-06-21. Retrieved2019-06-28.
  36. Hurworth, Ella (2019). "More than 500 endangered vultures die after eating poisoned elephant carcasses". CNN. Retrieved2019-06-28.
  37. Solly, M. (2019). "Poachers' Poison Kills 530 Endangered Vultures in Botswana". Smithsonian. Retrieved2019-06-28.
  38. Ngounou, B. (2019). "Botswana: Over 500 vultures found dead after massive poisoning". Afrik21. Retrieved2019-06-28.
  39. Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003). The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. pp. 213–214.
  40. "The Ancient Egyptian Goddess of Pregnancy".
  41. "Life Egyptian Vulture". 17 September 2018.
  42. Benson, Elizabeth P. The Vulture: The Sky and the Earth.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Vulture
Look up vulture in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Vulture
Vulture Language Watch Edit For other uses see Vulture disambiguation A vulture is a bird of prey that scavenges on carrion There are 23 extant species of vulture including Condors 2 Old World vultures include 16 living species native to Europe Africa and Asia New World vultures are restricted to North and South America and consist of seven identified species all belonging to the Cathartidae family 2 3 A particular characteristic of many vultures is a bald unfeathered head This bare skin is thought to keep the head clean when feeding and also plays an important role in thermoregulation 4 Vulture Temporal range Miocene Recent PreꞒ Ꞓ O S D C P T J K Pg N 1 Lammergeier at Alpenzoo Innsbruck AustriaBlack vulture in PanamaScientific classificationKingdom AnimaliaPhylum ChordataClass AvesFamiliesAccipitridae Aegypiinae Cathartidae Vultures have been observed to hunch their bodies and tuck in their heads in the cold and open their wings and stretch their necks in the heat They also urinate on themselves as a means of cooling their bodies 5 A group of vultures in flight is called a kettle while the term committee refers to a group of vultures resting on the ground or in trees A group of vultures that are feeding is termed wake 6 Contents 1 Taxonomy 2 Old World vultures 3 New World vultures 4 Feeding 5 Conservation status 6 In myth and culture 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksTaxonomy EditAlthough New World vultures and Old World vultures share many resemblances they are not very closely related Rather they share resemblance because of convergent evolution 7 Early naturalists placed all vultures under one single biological group Carl Linnaeus had assigned both Old World vultures and New World vultures in a Vultur genus even including the Harpy eagle Soon anatomists split Old and New World vultures with New World vultures being placed in a new suborder Cathartae later renamed Cathartidae as per the Rules of Nomenclature from Greek carthartes meaning purifier 8 by French ornithologist Frederic de Lafresnaye 9 The suborder was later recognised as a family rather than a suborder In the late 20th century some ornithologists argued that New World vultures are more closely related to storks on the basis of karyotype 10 morphological 11 and behavioral 12 data Thus some authorities placed them in the Ciconiiformes family with storks and herons Sibley and Monroe 1990 even considered them a subfamily of the storks This was criticized 13 14 and an early DNA sequence study 15 was based on erroneous data and subsequently retracted 16 17 18 There was then an attempt to raise the New World vultures to the rank of an independent order Cathartiformes not closely associated with either the birds of prey or the storks and herons 19 Old World vultures EditMain article Old World vultures Some members of both the Old and New World vultures have an unfeathered neck and head shown as radiating heat in this thermographic image Griffon vultures scavenging a red deer carcass in Spain Griffon vulture soaring Vulture preparing to land in Kenya African hooded vulture in Kruger National Park A wake of white backed vultures eating a wildebeest carcass at Maasai Mara Nekhbet with staff and shen ring Flock of white rumped vultures in India Head of a vulture chick at Mellat Park Tehran City Iran The Old World vultures found in Africa Asia and Europe belong to the family Accipitridae which also includes eagles kites buzzards and hawks Old World vultures find carcasses exclusively by sight The 16 species in 9 genera are Cinereous vulture Aegypius monachus Griffon vulture Gyps fulvus White rumped vulture Gyps bengalensis Ruppell s vulture Gyps rueppelli Indian vulture Gyps indicus Slender billed vulture Gyps tenuirostris Himalayan vulture Gyps himalayensis White backed vulture Gyps africanus Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres Hooded vulture Necrosyrtes monachus Red headed vulture Sarcogyps calvus Lappet faced vulture Torgos tracheliotos White headed vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis Bearded vulture Lammergeier Gypaetus barbatus Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus Palm nut vulture Gypohierax angolensisNew World vultures EditMain article New World vulture American Black Vulture congregated at roadkill site The New World vultures and condors found in warm and temperate areas of the Americas are not closely related to the similar Accipitridae but belong in the family Cathartidae which was once considered to be related to the storks However recent DNA evidence suggests that they should be included among the Accipitriformes along with other birds of prey However they are still not closely related to the other vultures Several species have a good sense of smell unusual for raptors and are able to smell dead animals from great heights up to a mile away The seven species are Black vulture Coragyps atratus in South America and north to the US Turkey vulture Cathartes aura throughout the Americas to southern Canada Lesser yellow headed vulture Cathartes burrovianus in South America and north to Mexico Greater yellow headed vulture Cathartes melambrotus in the Amazon Basin of tropical South America California condor Gymnogyps californianus in California formerly widespread in the mountains of western North America Andean condor Vultur gryphus in the Andes King vulture Sarcoramphus papa from southern Mexico to northern ArgentinaFeeding EditVultures are scavengers meaning they eat dead animals Outside of the oceans vultures are the only known obligate scavengers 20 They rarely attack healthy animals but may kill the wounded or sick When a carcass has too thick a hide for its beak to open it waits for a larger scavenger to eat first 21 Vast numbers have been seen upon battlefields They gorge themselves when prey is abundant until their crops bulge and sit sleepy or half torpid to digest their food These birds do not carry food to their young in their talons but disgorge it from their crops The mountain dwelling bearded vulture is the only vertebrate to specialize in eating bones 22 and does carry bones to the nest for the young and it hunts some live prey Vultures are of great value as scavengers especially in hot regions Vulture stomach acid is exceptionally corrosive pH 1 0 22 allowing them to safely digest putrid carcasses infected with botulinum toxin hog cholera bacteria and anthrax bacteria that would be lethal to other scavengers 23 and remove these bacteria from the environment New World vultures often vomit when threatened or approached Contrary to some accounts they do not projectile vomit on their attacker in defence but to lighten their stomach load to ease take off The vomited meal residue may distract a predator allowing the bird to escape 24 New World vultures also urinate straight down their legs the uric acid kills bacteria accumulated from walking through carcasses and also acts as evaporative cooling 25 Conservation status EditSee also Indian vulture crisis Vultures in south Asia mainly in India and Nepal have declined dramatically since the early 1990s 26 It has been found that this decline was caused by residues of the veterinary drug Diclofenac in animal carcasses 27 The government of India has taken very late cognizance of this fact and has banned the drug for animals 28 However it may take decades for vultures to come back to their earlier population level if they ever do without vultures to pick corpses clean rabies carrying dogs have multiplied feeding on the carrion and age old practices like the sky burials of the Parsees are coming to an end permanently reducing the supply of corpses 29 The same problem is also seen in Nepal where government has taken some late steps to conserve remaining vultures Similarly in Central Africa there has also been efforts to conserve the remaining vultures and bring their population numbers back up This is largely due to the bushmeat trade it is estimated gt 1 billion kg 2 2 billion lb of wild animal meat is traded and vultures take up a large percentage of this bushmeat due to their demand in the fetish market 30 The substantial drop in vulture populations in the continent of Africa is also said to be the result of both intentional and unintentional poisoning with one study finding it to be the cause of 61 of the vulture deaths recorded 31 The vulture population is threatened across Africa and Eurasia There are many anthropogenic activities that threaten vultures such as poisoning and wind energy collision mortality 32 A recent study in 2016 reported that of the 22 vulture species nine are critically endangered three are endangered four are near threatened and six are least concern 33 The conservation status of vultures is of particular concern to humans For example the decline of vulture populations can lead to increased disease transmission and resource damage through increased populations of disease vector and pest animal populations that scavenge carcasses opportunistically Vultures control these pests and disease vectors indirectly through competition for carcasses 34 On 20 June 2019 the corpses of 468 white backed vultures 17 white headed vultures 28 hooded vultures 14 lappet faced vultures and 10 cape vultures altogether 537 vultures besides 2 tawny eagles were found in northern Botswana It is suspected that they died after eating the corpses of 3 elephants that were poisoned by poachers possibly to avoid detection by the birds which help rangers to track poaching activity by circling above where there are dead animals 35 36 37 38 In myth and culture EditIn Ancient Egyptian art Nekhbet a mythological goddess and patron of both the city of Nekheb and Upper Egypt 39 was depicted as a vulture Alan Gardiner identified the species that was used in divine iconography as a griffon vulture Arielle P Kozloff however argues that the vultures in New Kingdom art with their blue tipped beaks and loose skin better resemble the lappet faced vulture Many Great Royal Wives wore vulture crowns a symbol of protection from the goddess Nekhbet 40 Ancient Egyptians believed that all vultures were female and were spontaneously born from eggs without the intervention of a male and therefore linked the birds to purity and motherhood but also the eternal cycle of death and rebirth for their ability to transform the death they feed on i e carrion and waste into life 41 The Aztec vulture vessel at the new Pre Columbian Mesoamerican Pottery Gallery In Pre Columbian times vultures were appreciated as extraordinary beings and they had high iconographic status Vultures appear in many Mesoamerican myths legends and fables with many separate civilizations such as the Mayan and Aztec developing a range of stories around vultures Many Mesoamerican stories depict vultures negatively while others contain more positive attitudes 42 In certain regions of China India Mongolia and Bhutan where Vajrayana Buddhist cultures are found vultures play a significant role in sky burials See also EditJatayu Stele of the VulturesReferences Edit Fossilworks Aegypiinae Fossilworks Retrieved September 4 2018 a b Dropping dead causes and consequences of vulture population declines worldwide PDF 2001 Amadon D 1977 Notes on the taxonomy of vultures PDF The Condor 79 4 413 416 doi 10 2307 1367720 JSTOR 1367720 Ward J McCafferty D J Houston D C amp Ruxton G D 2008 Why do vultures have bald heads The role of postural adjustment and bare skin areas in thermoregulation Journal of Thermal Biology 33 3 168 173 doi 10 1016 j jtherbio 2008 01 002 Arad Z amp Bernstein M H 1988 Temperature Regulation in Turkey Vultures The Condor 90 4 913 919 doi 10 2307 1368848 JSTOR 1368848 Hamilton S L 2014 Sky Burials In Galvan J ed They Do What A Cultural Encyclopedia of Extraordinary and Exotic Customs from around the World Santa Barbara California ABC CLIO p 289 ISBN 978 1 61069 342 4 Phillips 2000 Brookes 2006 Notes on the Taxonomy of Vultures The Condor Vol 79 No 4 1977 pp 413 416 de Boer 1975 Ligon 1967 Konig 1982 Griffiths 1994 Fain amp Houde 2004 Avise 1994 Brown 2009 Cracraft et al 2004 Gibb et al 2007 Ericson et al 2006 Ruxton G D amp D C Houston 2004 Obligate vertebrate scavengers must be large soaring fliers J Theor Biol 228 431 436 Fast Vulture Facts WebVulture com Archived from the original on July 18 2011 Retrieved February 15 2013 a b Buechley E R amp Sekercioglu C H 2016 Vultures Current Biology 26 13 R560 R561 doi 10 1016 j cub 2016 01 052 PMID 27404248 Caryl Jim September 7 2000 Re How come that vultures can resist dangerous toxins when feeding on carcass MadSci Network Retrieved February 15 2013 Turkey Vulture Facts Turkey Vulture Society Retrieved 2012 12 01 Conger Cristen 2008 10 13 Why is it a bad idea to scare a vulture HowStuffWorks Retrieved February 15 2013 Prakash V Pain D J Cunningham A A Donald P F Prakash N Verma A Gargi R Sivakumar S amp Rahmani A R u74p ear 2003 2003 Catastrophic collapse of Indian white backedGyps bengalensis and long billed Gyps indicus vulture populations PDF Biological Conservation 109 3 381 390 doi 10 1016 S0006 3207 02 00164 7 Oaks J L Gilbert Martin Virani M Z Watson R T Meteyer C U Rideout B A Shivaprasad H L Ahmed S Chaudhry M J I Arshad M Mahmood S Ali A amp Khan A A 2004 Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan Nature 427 6975 630 633 Bibcode 2004Natur 427 630O doi 10 1038 nature02317 PMID 14745453 S2CID 16146840 Prakash V Bishwakarma M C Chaudhary A Cuthbert R Dave R Kulkarni M Kumar S Paudel K Ranade S Shringarpure R amp Green R E 2012 The Population Decline of Gyps Vultures in India and Nepal Has Slowed since Veterinary Use of Diclofenac was Banned PLOS One 7 11 e49118 Bibcode 2012PLoSO 749118P doi 10 1371 journal pone 0049118 PMC 3492300 PMID 23145090 van Dooren T 2011 Vultures and their People in India Equity and Entanglement in a Time of Extinctions Australian Humanities Review 50 Buij R Nikolaus G Ogada D Whytock R amp Ingram D J 2015 Trade of threatened vultures and other raptors for fetish and bushmeat in West and Central Africa Fauna amp Flora International 50 4 606 616 doi 10 1017 S0030605315000514 Ogada D Shaw P Beyers R L Buij R Murn C Thiollay J M Beale C M Holdo R M amp Pomeroy D 2016 Another Continental Vulture Crisis Africa s Vultures Collapsing toward Extinction Conservation Letters 9 2 89 97 doi 10 1111 conl 12182 ISSN 1755 263X Santangeli A Girardello M Buechley E Botha A Minin E D amp Moilanen A 2019 Priority areas for conservation of Old World vultures Conservation Biology 33 5 1056 1065 doi 10 1111 cobi 13282 PMC 6849836 PMID 30645009 Buechley E R amp Sekercioglu C H 2016 The avian scavenger crisis Looming extinctions trophic cascades and loss of critical ecosystem functions Biological Conservation 198 220 228 doi 10 1016 j biocon 2016 04 001 O Bryan C J Holden M H amp Watson J E M 2019 The mesoscavenger release hypothesis and implications for ecosystem and human well being Ecology Letters 22 9 1340 1348 doi 10 1111 ele 13288 PMID 31131976 Over 500 Rare Vultures Die After Eating Poisoned Elephants In Botswana Agence France Press NDTV 2019 06 21 Retrieved 2019 06 28 Hurworth Ella 2019 More than 500 endangered vultures die after eating poisoned elephant carcasses CNN Retrieved 2019 06 28 Solly M 2019 Poachers Poison Kills 530 Endangered Vultures in Botswana Smithsonian Retrieved 2019 06 28 Ngounou B 2019 Botswana Over 500 vultures found dead after massive poisoning Afrik21 Retrieved 2019 06 28 Wilkinson Richard H 2003 The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt Thames amp Hudson pp 213 214 The Ancient Egyptian Goddess of Pregnancy Life Egyptian Vulture 17 September 2018 Benson Elizabeth P The Vulture The Sky and the Earth Hilty S L 2003 Birds of Venezuela London Christopher Helm Publishers ISBN 978 0 7136 6418 8 OCLC 51031554 External links EditWikiquote has quotations related to VultureLook up vulture in Wiktionary the free dictionary Vulture videos on the Internet Bird Collection Ventana Wildlife Society Vulture observatory in Spain A Vulture Restaurant Declining Vulture Count in India Vulture Conservation in Western Coast of India Website for journal Vulture News Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Vulture amp oldid 1050664876, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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