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W. E. B. Du Bois

This article is about the American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist and author. For other people with a similar name, see William DuBois.

William Edward Burghardt Du Bois ( ; February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an American sociologist, socialist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author, writer and editor. Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, Du Bois grew up in a relatively tolerant and integrated community, and after completing graduate work at the University of Berlin and Harvard, where he was the first African American to earn a doctorate, he became a professor of history, sociology and economics at Atlanta University. Du Bois was one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.

W. E. B. Du Bois
W. E. B. Du Bois in 1918
Born
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois

(1868-02-23)February 23, 1868
DiedAugust 27, 1963(1963-08-27) (aged 95)
Alma mater
Known for
Spouse(s)
Children2, including Yolande
AwardsSpingarn Medal
1920
Lenin Peace Prize
1959
Scientific career
FieldsCivil rights, sociology, history
InstitutionsAtlanta University, NAACP
ThesisThe Suppression of the African Slave-trade to the United States of America, 1638–1870(1896)
Doctoral advisorAlbert Bushnell Hart
InfluencesAlexander Crummell
William James
Signature

Earlier, Du Bois had risen to national prominence as a leader of the Niagara Movement, a group of African-American activists who wanted equal rights for blacks. Du Bois and his supporters opposed the Atlanta compromise, an agreement crafted by Booker T. Washington which provided that Southern blacks would work and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic educational and economic opportunities. Instead, Du Bois insisted on full civil rights and increased political representation, which he believed would be brought about by the African-American intellectual elite. He referred to this group as the Talented Tenth, a concept under the umbrella of racial uplift, and believed that African Americans needed the chances for advanced education to develop its leadership.

Racism was the main target of Du Bois's polemics, and he strongly protested against lynching, Jim Crow laws, and discrimination in education and employment. His cause included people of color everywhere, particularly Africans and Asians in colonies. He was a proponent of Pan-Africanism and helped organize several Pan-African Congresses to fight for the independence of African colonies from European powers. Du Bois made several trips to Europe, Africa and Asia. After World War I, he surveyed the experiences of American black soldiers in France and documented widespread prejudice and racism in the United States military.

Du Bois was a prolific author. His collection of essays, The Souls of Black Folk, is a seminal work in African-American literature; and his 1935 magnum opus, Black Reconstruction in America, challenged the prevailing orthodoxy that blacks were responsible for the failures of the Reconstruction Era. Borrowing a phrase from Frederick Douglass, he popularized the use of the term color line to represent the injustice of the separate but equal doctrine prevalent in American social and political life. He opens The Souls of Black Folk with the central thesis of much of his life's work: "The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color-line."

His 1940 autobiography Dusk of Dawn is regarded in part as one of the first scientific treatises in the field of American sociology, and he published two other life stories, all three containing essays on sociology, politics and history. In his role as editor of the NAACP's journal The Crisis, he published many influential pieces. Du Bois believed that capitalism was a primary cause of racism, and he was generally sympathetic to socialist causes throughout his life. He was an ardent peace activist and advocated nuclear disarmament. The United States Civil Rights Act, embodying many of the reforms for which Du Bois had campaigned his entire life, was enacted a year after his death.

Contents

As a child, Du Bois attended the Congregational Church in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. Church members collected donations to pay Du Bois's college tuition.

William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was born on February 23, 1868, in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, to Alfred and Mary Silvina (née Burghardt) Du Bois. Mary Silvina Burghardt's family was part of the very small free black population of Great Barrington and had long owned land in the state. She was descended from Dutch, African and English ancestors. William Du Bois's maternal great-great-grandfather was Tom Burghardt, a slave (born in West Africa around 1730) who was held by the Dutch colonist Conraed Burghardt. Tom briefly served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, which may have been how he gained his freedom during the late 18th century. His son Jack Burghardt was the father of Othello Burghardt, who in turn was the father of Mary Silvina Burghardt.

William Du Bois claimed Elizabeth Freeman as his relative; he wrote that she had married his great-grandfather Jack Burghardt. But Freeman was 20 years older than Burghardt, and no record of such a marriage has been found. It may have been Freeman's daughter, Betsy Humphrey, who married Burghardt after her first husband, Jonah Humphrey, left the area "around 1811", and after Burghardt's first wife died (c. 1810). If so, Freeman would have been William Du Bois's step-great-great-grandmother. Anecdotal evidence supports Humphrey's marrying Burghardt; a close relationship of some form is likely.

William Du Bois's paternal great-grandfather was James Du Bois of Poughkeepsie, New York, an ethnic French-American of Huguenot origin who fathered several children with slave women. One of James' mixed-race sons was Alexander, who was born on Long Cay in the Bahamas in 1803; in 1810, he immigrated to the United States with his father. Alexander Du Bois traveled and worked in Haiti, where he fathered a son, Alfred, with a mistress. Alexander returned to Connecticut, leaving Alfred in Haiti with his mother.

Sometime before 1860, Alfred Du Bois immigrated to the United States, settling in Massachusetts. He married Mary Silvina Burghardt on February 5, 1867, in Housatonic, a village in Great Barrington. Alfred left Mary in 1870, two years after their son William was born. Mary Du Bois moved with her son back to her parents' house in Great Barrington, and they lived there until he was five. She worked to support her family (receiving some assistance from her brother and neighbors), until she suffered a stroke in the early 1880s. She died in 1885.

Great Barrington had a majority European American community, who generally treated Du Bois well. He attended the local integrated public school and played with white schoolmates. As an adult, he wrote about racism that he felt as a fatherless child and being a minority in the town. But teachers recognized his ability and encouraged his intellectual pursuits, and his rewarding experience with academic studies led him to believe that he could use his knowledge to empower African Americans. He graduated from the town's Searles High School. When he decided to attend college, the congregation of his childhood church, the First Congregational Church of Great Barrington, raised the money for his tuition.

University education

The title page of Du Bois's Harvard dissertation, Suppression of the African Slave Trade in the United States of America: 1638–1871

Relying on this money donated by neighbors, Du Bois attended Fisk University, a historically black college in Nashville, Tennessee, from 1885 to 1888. Like other Fisk students who relied on summer and intermittent teaching to support their university studies, Du Bois taught school during the summer of 1886 after his sophomore year. His travel to and residency in the South was Du Bois's first experience with Southern racism, which at the time encompassed Jim Crow laws, bigotry, suppression of black voting, and lynchings; the lattermost reached a peak in the next decade.

After receiving a bachelor's degree from Fisk, he attended Harvard College (which did not accept course credits from Fisk) from 1888 to 1890, where he was strongly influenced by professor William James, prominent in American philosophy. Du Bois paid his way through three years at Harvard with money from summer jobs, an inheritance, scholarships, and loans from friends. In 1890, Harvard awarded Du Bois his second bachelor's degree, cum laude, in history. In 1891, Du Bois received a scholarship to attend the sociology graduate school at Harvard.

In 1892, Du Bois received a fellowship from the John F. Slater Fund for the Education of Freedmen to attend the University of Berlin for graduate work. While a student in Berlin, he traveled extensively throughout Europe. He came of age intellectually in the German capital while studying with some of that nation's most prominent social scientists, including Gustav von Schmoller, Adolph Wagner, and Heinrich von Treitschke. He also met Max Weber who was highly impressed with Du Bois and would later cite Du Bois as a counter-example to racists alleging the inferiority of Blacks. Weber would again meet Du Bois in 1904 on a visit to the US just ahead of the publication of the seminal The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.

He wrote about his time in Germany: "I found myself on the outside of the American world, looking in. With me were white folk – students, acquaintances, teachers – who viewed the scene with me. They did not always pause to regard me as a curiosity, or something sub-human; I was just a man of the somewhat privileged student rank, with whom they were glad to meet and talk over the world; particularly, the part of the world whence I came." After returning from Europe, Du Bois completed his graduate studies; in 1895, he was the first African American to earn a Ph.D. from Harvard University.

Wilberforce and Philadelphia

Between me and the other world there is ever an unasked question: ... How does it feel to be a problem? ... One ever feels his two-ness, – an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder ... He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of white Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face.

—Du Bois, "Strivings of the Negro People", 1897

In the summer of 1894, Du Bois received several job offers, including from the prestigious Tuskegee Institute; he accepted a teaching job at Wilberforce University in Ohio. At Wilberforce, Du Bois was strongly influenced by Alexander Crummell, who believed that ideas and morals are necessary tools to effect social change. While at Wilberforce, Du Bois married Nina Gomer, one of his students, on May 12, 1896.

After two years at Wilberforce, Du Bois accepted a one-year research job from the University of Pennsylvania as an "assistant in sociology" in the summer of 1896. He performed sociological field research in Philadelphia's African-American neighborhoods, which formed the foundation for his landmark study, The Philadelphia Negro, published in 1899 while he was teaching at Atlanta University. It was the first case study of a black community in the United States.

By the 1890s, Philadelphia's black neighborhoods had a negative reputation in terms of crime, poverty, and mortality. Du Bois's book undermined the stereotypes with empirical evidence and shaped his approach to segregation and its negative impact on black lives and reputations. The results led him to realize that racial integration was the key to democratic equality in American cities. The methodology employed in The Philadelphia Negro, namely the description and the mapping of social characteristics onto neighborhood areas was a forerunner to the studies under the Chicago School of Sociology.

While taking part in the American Negro Academy (ANA) in 1897, Du Bois presented a paper in which he rejected Frederick Douglass's plea for black Americans to integrate into white society. He wrote: "we are Negroes, members of a vast historic race that from the very dawn of creation has slept, but half awakening in the dark forests of its African fatherland". In the August 1897 issue of The Atlantic Monthly, Du Bois published "Strivings of the Negro People", his first work aimed at the general public, in which he enlarged upon his thesis that African Americans should embrace their African heritage while contributing to American society.

In July 1897, Du Bois left Philadelphia and took a professorship in history and economics at the historically black Atlanta University in Georgia. His first major academic work was his book The Philadelphia Negro (1899), a detailed and comprehensive sociological study of the African-American people of Philadelphia, based on his fieldwork in 1896–1897. This breakthrough in scholarship was the first scientific study of African Americans and a major contribution to early scientific sociology in the U.S.

Du Bois coined the phrase "the submerged tenth" to describe the black underclass in the study. Later in 1903, he popularized the term, the "Talented Tenth", applied to society's elite class. His terminology reflected his opinion that the elite of a nation, both black and white, were critical to achievements in culture and progress. During this period he wrote dismissively of the underclass, describing them as "lazy" or "unreliable", but – in contrast to other scholars – he attributed many of their societal problems to the ravages of slavery.

Du Bois's output at Atlanta University was prodigious, in spite of a limited budget: he produced numerous social science papers and annually hosted the Atlanta Conference of Negro Problems. He also received grants from the U.S. government to prepare reports about African-American workforce and culture. His students considered him to be a brilliant, but aloof and strict, teacher.

First Pan-African Conference

Du Bois attended the First Pan-African Conference, held in London on 23−25 July 1900, shortly ahead of the Paris Exhibition of 1900 ("to allow tourists of African descent to attend both events".) The Conference had been organized by people from the Caribbean: Haitians Anténor Firmin and Bénito Sylvain and Trinidadian barrister Henry Sylvester Williams. Du Bois played a leading role in drafting a letter ("Address to the Nations of the World"), asking European leaders to struggle against racism, to grant colonies in Africa and the West Indies the right to self-government and to demand political and other rights for African Americans. By this time, southern states were passing new laws and constitutions to disfranchise most African Americans, an exclusion from the political system that lasted into the 1960s.

At the conclusion of the conference, delegates unanimously adopted the "Address to the Nations of the World", and sent it to various heads of state where people of African descent were living and suffering oppression. The address implored the United States and the imperial European nations to "acknowledge and protect the rights of people of African descent" and to respect the integrity and independence of "the free Negro States of Abyssinia, Liberia, Haiti, etc." It was signed by Bishop Alexander Walters (President of the Pan-African Association), the Canadian Rev. Henry B. Brown (vice-president), Williams (General Secretary) and Du Bois (Chairman of the committee on the Address). The address included Du Bois's observation, "The problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of the colour-line." He used this again three years later in the "Forethought" of his book The Souls of Black Folk (1903).

1900 Paris Exposition

Du Bois was the primary organizer of The Exhibit of American Negroes at the Exposition Universelle held in Paris between April and November 1900, for which he put together a series of 363 photographs aiming to commemorate the lives of African Americans at the turn of the century and challenge the racist caricatures and stereotypes of the day. Also included were charts, graphs, and maps. He was awarded a gold medal for his role as compiler of the materials, which are now housed at the Library of Congress.

Booker T. Washington and the Atlanta Compromise

Du Bois in 1904

In the first decade of the new century, Du Bois emerged as a spokesperson for his race, second only to Booker T. Washington. Washington was the director of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, and wielded tremendous influence within the African-American and white communities. Washington was the architect of the Atlanta Compromise, an unwritten deal that he had struck in 1895 with Southern white leaders who dominated state governments after Reconstruction. Essentially the agreement provided that Southern blacks, who overwhelmingly lived in rural communities, would submit to the current discrimination, segregation, disenfranchisement, and non-unionized employment; that Southern whites would permit blacks to receive a basic education, some economic opportunities, and justice within the legal system; and that Northern whites would invest in Southern enterprises and fund black educational charities.

Despite initially sending congratulations to Washington for his Atlanta Exposition Speech, Du Bois later came to oppose Washington's plan, along with many other African Americans, including Archibald H. Grimke, Kelly Miller, James Weldon Johnson and Paul Laurence Dunbar – representatives of the class of educated blacks that Du Bois would later call the "talented tenth". Du Bois felt that African Americans should fight for equal rights and higher opportunities, rather than passively submit to the segregation and discrimination of Washington's Atlanta Compromise.

Du Bois was inspired to greater activism by the lynching of Sam Hose, which occurred near Atlanta in 1899. Hose was tortured, burned and hung by a mob of two thousand whites. When walking through Atlanta to discuss the lynching with newspaper editor Joel Chandler Harris, Du Bois encountered Hose's burned knuckles in a storefront display. The episode stunned Du Bois, and he resolved that "one could not be a calm, cool, and detached scientist while Negroes were lynched, murdered, and starved". Du Bois realized that "the cure wasn't simply telling people the truth, it was inducing them to act on the truth".

In 1901, Du Bois wrote a review critical of Washington's autobiography Up from Slavery, which he later expanded and published to a wider audience as the essay "Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others" in The Souls of Black Folk. Later in life, Du Bois regretted having been critical of Washington in those essays. One of the contrasts between the two leaders was their approach to education: Washington felt that African-American schools should focus primarily on industrial education topics such as agricultural and mechanical skills, to prepare southern blacks for the opportunities in the rural areas where most lived. Du Bois felt that black schools should focus more on liberal arts and academic curriculum (including the classics, arts, and humanities), because liberal arts were required to develop a leadership elite.

However, as sociologist E. Franklin Frazier and economists Gunnar Myrdal and Thomas Sowell have argued, such disagreement over education was a minor point of difference between Washington and Du Bois; both men acknowledged the importance of the form of education that the other emphasized. Sowell has also argued that, despite genuine disagreements between the two leaders, the supposed animosity between Washington and Du Bois actually formed among their followers, not between Washington and Du Bois themselves. Du Bois also made this observation in an interview published in The Atlantic Monthly in November 1965.

Niagara Movement

Founders of the Niagara Movement in 1905. Du Bois is in the middle row, with white hat.

The Negro race in America stolen, ravished and degraded, struggling up through difficulties and oppression, needs sympathy and receives criticism, needs help and is given hindrance, needs protection and is given mob-violence, needs justice and is given charity, needs leadership and is given cowardice and apology, needs bread and is given a stone. This nation will never stand justified before God until these things are changed.

Declaration of Principles, Niagara Movement, 1905

In 1905, Du Bois and several other African-American civil rights activists – including Fredrick L. McGhee, Jesse Max Barber and William Monroe Trotter – met in Canada, near Niagara Falls, where they wrote a declaration of principles opposing the Atlanta Compromise, and which were incorporated as the Niagara Movement in 1906. They wanted to publicize their ideals to other African Americans, but most black periodicals were owned by publishers sympathetic to Washington, so Du Bois bought a printing press and started publishing Moon Illustrated Weekly in December 1905. It was the first African-American illustrated weekly, and Du Bois used it to attack Washington's positions, but the magazine lasted only for about eight months. Du Bois soon founded and edited another vehicle for his polemics, The Horizon: A Journal of the Color Line, which debuted in 1907. Freeman H. M. Murray and Lafayette M. Hershaw served as The Horizon's co-editors.

The Niagarites held a second conference in August 1906, in celebration of the 100th anniversary of abolitionist John Brown's birth, at the West Virginia site of Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry. Reverdy C. Ransom spoke, explaining that Washington's primary goal was to prepare blacks for employment in their current society: "Today, two classes of Negroes, ...are standing at the parting of the ways. The one counsels patient submission to our present humiliations and degradations; ...The other class believe that it should not submit to being humiliated, degraded, and remanded to an inferior place. ...[I]t does not believe in bartering its manhood for the sake of gain."

The Souls of Black Folk

In an effort to portray the genius and humanity of the black race, Du Bois published The Souls of Black Folk (1903), a collection of 14 essays. James Weldon Johnson said the book's effect on African Americans was comparable to that of Uncle Tom's Cabin. The introduction famously proclaimed that "the problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of the color line". Each chapter begins with two epigraphs – one from a white poet, and one from a black spiritual – to demonstrate intellectual and cultural parity between black and white cultures.

A major theme of the work was the double consciousness faced by African Americans: being both American and black. This was a unique identity which, according to Du Bois, had been a handicap in the past, but could be a strength in the future: "Henceforth, the destiny of the race could be conceived as leading neither to assimilation nor separatism but to proud, enduring hyphenation."

Jonathon S. Kahn in Divine Discontent: The Religious Imagination of Du Bois shows how Du Bois, in his The Souls of Black Folk, represents an exemplary text of pragmatic religious naturalism. On page 12, Kahn writes: "Du Bois needs to be understood as an African American pragmatic religious naturalist. By this I mean that, like Du Bois the American traditional pragmatic religious naturalism, which runs through William James, George Santayana and John Dewey, seeks religion without metaphysical foundations." Kahn's interpretation of religious naturalism is very broad but he relates it to specific thinkers. Du Bois's anti-metaphysical viewpoint places him in the sphere of religious naturalism as typified by William James and others.

Racial violence

Two calamities in the autumn of 1906 shocked African Americans, and they contributed to strengthening support for Du Bois's struggle for civil rights to prevail over Booker T. Washington's accommodationism. First, President Teddy Roosevelt dishonorably discharged 167 black soldiers because they were accused of crimes as a result of the Brownsville Affair. Many of the discharged soldiers had served for 20 years and were near retirement. Second, in September, riots broke out in Atlanta, precipitated by unfounded allegations of black men assaulting white women. This was a catalyst for racial tensions based on a job shortage and employers playing black workers against white workers. Ten thousand whites rampaged through Atlanta, beating every black person they could find, resulting in over 25 deaths. In the aftermath of the 1906 violence, Du Bois urged blacks to withdraw their support from the Republican Party, because Republicans Roosevelt and William Howard Taft did not sufficiently support blacks. Most African Americans had been loyal to the Republican Party since the time of Abraham Lincoln.

Du Bois wrote the essay, "A Litany at Atlanta", which asserted that the riot demonstrated that the Atlanta Compromise was a failure. Despite upholding their end of the bargain, blacks had failed to receive legal justice in the South. Historian David Levering Lewis has written that the Compromise no longer held because white patrician planters, who took a paternalistic role, had been replaced by aggressive businessmen who were willing to pit blacks against whites. These two calamities were watershed events for the African-American community, marking the ascendancy of Du Bois's vision of equal rights.

Academic work

Once we were told: Be worthy and fit and the ways are open. Today, the avenues of advancement in the army, navy, civil service, and even business and professional life are continually closed to black applicants of proven fitness, simply on the bald excuse of race and color.

—Du Bois, "Address at Fourth Niagara conference", 1908

In addition to writing editorials, Du Bois continued to produce scholarly work at Atlanta University. In 1909, after five years of effort, he published a biography of abolitionist John Brown. It contained many insights, but also contained some factual errors. The work was strongly criticized by The Nation, which was owned by Oswald Villard, who was writing his own, competing biography of John Brown. Possibly as a result, Du Bois's work was largely ignored by white scholars. After publishing a piece in Collier's magazine warning of the end of "white supremacy", Du Bois had difficulty getting pieces accepted by major periodicals, although he did continue to publish columns regularly in The Horizon magazine.

Du Bois was the first African American invited by the American Historical Association (AHA) to present a paper at their annual conference. He read his paper, Reconstruction and Its Benefits, to an astounded audience at the AHA's December 1909 conference. The paper went against the mainstream historical view, promoted by the Dunning School of scholars at Columbia University, that Reconstruction was a disaster, caused by the ineptitude and sloth of blacks. To the contrary, Du Bois asserted that the brief period of African-American leadership in the South accomplished three important goals: democracy, free public schools, and new social welfare legislation.

Du Bois asserted that it was the federal government's failure to manage the Freedmen's Bureau, to distribute land, and to establish an educational system, that doomed African-American prospects in the South. When Du Bois submitted the paper for publication a few months later in the American Historical Review, he asked that the word Negro be capitalized. The editor, J. Franklin Jameson, refused, and published the paper without the capitalization. The paper was mostly ignored by white historians. Du Bois later developed his paper as his ground-breaking 1935 book, Black Reconstruction, which marshaled extensive facts to support his assertions. The AHA did not invite another African-American speaker until 1940.

In May 1909, Du Bois attended the National Negro Conference in New York. The meeting led to the creation of the National Negro Committee, chaired by Oswald Villard, and dedicated to campaigning for civil rights, equal voting rights, and equal educational opportunities. The following spring, in 1910, at the second National Negro Conference, the attendees created the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). At Du Bois's suggestion, the word "colored", rather than "black", was used to include "dark skinned people everywhere". Dozens of civil rights supporters, black and white, participated in the founding, but most executive officers were white, including Mary Ovington, Charles Edward Russell, William English Walling, and its first president, Moorfield Storey.

Feeling inspired by this, Indian social reformer and civil rights activist Dr. B.R. Ambedkar contacted Du Bois in the 1940s. In a letter to Du Bois in 1946, he introduced himself as a member of the "Untouchables of India" and "a student of the Negro problem" and expressed his interest in the NAACP's petition to the U.N. He noted that his group was "thinking of following suit"; and requested copies of the proposed statement from Du Bois. In a letter dated July 31, 1946, Du Bois responded by telling Ambedkar he was familiar with his name, and that he had "every sympathy with the Untouchables of India."

The Crisis

Du Bois, c. 1911

NAACP leaders offered Du Bois the position of Director of Publicity and Research. He accepted the job in the summer of 1910, and moved to New York after resigning from Atlanta University. His primary duty was editing the NAACP's monthly magazine, which he named The Crisis. The first issue appeared in November 1910, and Du Bois wrote that its aim was to set out "those facts and arguments which show the danger of race prejudice, particularly as manifested today toward colored people". The journal was phenomenally successful, and its circulation would reach 100,000 in 1920. Typical articles in the early editions polemics against the dishonesty and parochialism of black churches, and disussions on the Afrocentric origins of Egyptian civilization.

A 1911 Du Bois editorial helped initiate a nationwide push to induce the Federal government to outlaw lynching. Du Bois, employing the sarcasm he frequently used, commented on a lynching in Pennsylvania: "The point is he was black. Blackness must be punished. Blackness is the crime of crimes ... It is therefore necessary, as every white scoundrel in the nation knows, to let slip no opportunity of punishing this crime of crimes. Of course if possible, the pretext should be great and overwhelming – some awful stunning crime, made even more horrible by the reporters' imagination. Failing this, mere murder, arson, barn burning or impudence may do."

The Crisis carried Du Bois editorials supporting the ideals of unionized labor but denouncing its leaders' racism; blacks were barred from membership. Du Bois also supported the principles of the Socialist Party (he held party membership from 1910 to 1912), but he denounced the racism demonstrated by some socialist leaders. Frustrated by Republican president Taft's failure to address widespread lynching, Du Bois endorsed Democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential race, in exchange for Wilson's promise to support black causes.

Throughout his writings, Du Bois supported women's rights and women's suffrage, but he found it difficult to publicly endorse the women's right-to-vote movement because leaders of the suffragism movement refused to support his fight against racial injustice. A 1913 Crisis editorial broached the taboo subject of interracial marriage: although Du Bois generally expected persons to marry within their race, he viewed the problem as a women's rights issue, because laws prohibited white men from marrying black women. Du Bois wrote "[anti-miscegenation] laws leave the colored girls absolutely helpless for the lust of white men. It reduces colored women in the eyes of the law to the position of dogs. As low as the white girl falls, she can compel her seducer to marry her ... We must kill [anti-miscegenation laws] not because we are anxious to marry the white men's sisters, but because we are determined that white men will leave our sisters alone."

During 1915 − 1916, some leaders of the NAACP – disturbed by financial losses at The Crisis, and worried about the inflammatory rhetoric of some of its essays – attempted to oust Du Bois from his editorial position. Du Bois and his supporters prevailed, and he continued in his role as editor. In a 1919 column titled "The True Brownies", he announced the creation of The Brownies' Book, the first magazine published for African-American children and youth, which he founded with Augustus Granville Dill and Jessie Redmon Fauset.

Historian and author

The 1910s were a productive time for Du Bois. In 1911, he attended the First Universal Races Congress in London and he published his first novel, The Quest of the Silver Fleece. Two years later, Du Bois wrote, produced, and directed a pageant for the stage, The Star of Ethiopia. In 1915, Du Bois published The Negro, a general history of black Africans, and the first of its kind in English. The book rebutted claims of African inferiority, and would come to serve as the basis of much Afrocentric historiography in the 20th century. The Negro predicted unity and solidarity for colored people around the world, and it influenced many who supported the Pan-African movement.

In 1915, The Atlantic Monthly carried a Du Bois essay, "The African Roots of the War", which consolidated his ideas on capitalism and race. He argued that the scramble for Africa was at the root of World War I. He also anticipated later Communist doctrine, by suggesting that wealthy capitalists had pacified white workers by giving them just enough wealth to prevent them from revolting, and by threatening them with competition by the lower-cost labor of colored workers.

Combating racism

Du Bois included photographs of the lynching of Jesse Washington in the June 1916 issue of The Crisis.

Du Bois used his influential NAACP position to oppose a variety of racist incidents. When the silent film The Birth of a Nation premiered in 1915, Du Bois and the NAACP led the fight to ban the movie, because of its racist portrayal of blacks as brutish and lustful. The fight was not successful, and possibly contributed to the film's fame, but the publicity drew many new supporters to the NAACP.

The private sector was not the only source of racism: under President Wilson, the plight of African Americans in government jobs suffered. Many federal agencies adopted whites-only employment practices, the Army excluded blacks from officer ranks, and the immigration service prohibited the immigration of persons of African ancestry. Du Bois wrote an editorial in 1914 deploring the dismissal of blacks from federal posts, and he supported William Monroe Trotter when Trotter brusquely confronted Wilson about the President's failure to fulfill his campaign promise of justice for blacks.

The Crisis continued to wage a campaign against lynching. In 1915, it published an article with a year-by-year tabulation of 2,732 lynchings from 1884 to 1914. The April 1916 edition covered the group lynching of six African Americans in Lee County, Georgia. Later in 1916, the "Waco Horror" article covered the lynching of Jesse Washington, a mentally impaired 17-year-old African American. The article broke new ground by utilizing undercover reporting to expose the conduct of local whites in Waco, Texas.

The early 20th century was the era of the Great Migration of blacks from the Southern United States to the Northeast, Midwest and West. Du Bois wrote an editorial supporting the Great Migration, because he felt it would help blacks escape Southern racism, find economic opportunities, and assimilate into American society.

Also in the 1910s the American eugenics movement was in its infancy, and many leading eugenicists were openly racist, defining Blacks as "a lower race". Du Bois opposed this view as an unscientific aberration, but still maintained the basic principle of eugenics: that different persons have different inborn characteristics that make them more or less suited for specific kinds of employment, and that by encouraging the most talented members of all races to procreate would better the "stocks" of humanity.

World War I

As the United States prepared to enter World War I in 1917, Du Bois's colleague in the NAACP, Joel Spingarn, established a camp to train African Americans to serve as officers in the United States military. The camp was controversial, because some whites felt that blacks were not qualified to be officers, and some blacks felt that African Americans should not participate in what they considered a white man's war. Du Bois supported Spingarn's training camp, but was disappointed when the Army forcibly retired one of its few black officers, Charles Young, on a pretense of ill health. The Army agreed to create 1,000 officer positions for blacks, but insisted that 250 come from enlisted men, conditioned to taking orders from whites, rather than from independent-minded blacks who came from the camp. Over 700,000 blacks enlisted on the first day of the draft, but were subject to discriminatory conditions which prompted vocal protests from Du Bois.

Du Bois organized the 1917 Silent Parade in New York, to protest the East St. Louis riots.

After the East St. Louis riots occurred in the summer of 1917, Du Bois traveled to St. Louis to report on the riots. Between 40 and 250 African Americans were massacred by whites, primarily due to resentment caused by St. Louis industry hiring blacks to replace striking white workers. Du Bois's reporting resulted in an article "The Massacre of East St. Louis", published in the September issue of The Crisis, which contained photographs and interviews detailing the violence. Historian David Levering Lewis concluded that Du Bois distorted some of the facts in order to increase the propaganda value of the article. To publicly demonstrate the black community's outrage over the riots, Du Bois organized the Silent Parade, a march of around 9,000 African Americans down New York City's Fifth Avenue, the first parade of its kind in New York, and the second instance of blacks publicly demonstrating for civil rights.

The Houston riot of 1917 disturbed Du Bois and was a major setback to efforts to permit African Americans to become military officers. The riot began after Houston police arrested and beat two black soldiers; in response, over 100 black soldiers took to the streets of Houston and killed 16 whites. A military court martial was held, and 19 of the soldiers were hung, and 67 others were imprisoned. In spite of the Houston riot, Du Bois and others successfully pressed the Army to accept the officers trained at Spingarn's camp, resulting in over 600 black officers joining the Army in October 1917.

Federal officials, concerned about subversive viewpoints expressed by NAACP leaders, attempted to frighten the NAACP by threatening it with investigations. Du Bois was not intimidated, and in 1918 he predicted that World War I would lead to an overthrow of the European colonial system and to the "liberation" of colored people worldwide – in China, in India, and especially in America. NAACP chairman Joel Spingarn was enthusiastic about the war, and he persuaded Du Bois to consider an officer's commission in the Army, contingent on Du Bois writing an editorial repudiating his anti-war stance. Du Bois accepted this bargain and wrote the pro-war "Close Ranks" editorial in June 1918 and soon thereafter he received a commission in the Army. Many black leaders, who wanted to leverage the war to gain civil rights for African Americans, criticized Du Bois for his sudden reversal. Southern officers in Du Bois's unit objected to his presence, and his commission was withdrawn.

After the war

Du Bois documented the 1919 Red Summer race riots. This family is evacuating their house after it was vandalized in the Chicago race riot.

When the war ended, Du Bois traveled to Europe in 1919 to attend the first Pan-African Congress and to interview African-American soldiers for a planned book on their experiences in World War I. He was trailed by U.S. agents who were searching for evidence of treasonous activities. Du Bois discovered that the vast majority of black American soldiers were relegated to menial labor as stevedores and laborers. Some units were armed, and one in particular, the 92nd Division (the Buffalo soldiers), engaged in combat. Du Bois discovered widespread racism in the Army, and concluded that the Army command discouraged African Americans from joining the Army, discredited the accomplishments of black soldiers, and promoted bigotry.

Du Bois returned from Europe more determined than ever to gain equal rights for African Americans. Black soldiers returning from overseas felt a new sense of power and worth, and were representative of an emerging attitude referred to as the New Negro. In the editorial "Returning Soldiers" he wrote: "But, by the God of Heaven, we are cowards and jackasses if, now that the war is over, we do not marshal every ounce of our brain and brawn to fight a sterner, longer, more unbending battle against the forces of hell in our own land."

Many blacks moved to northern cities in search of work, and some northern white workers resented the competition. This labor strife was one of the causes of the Red Summer of 1919, a horrific series of race riots across America, in which over 300 African Americans were killed in over 30 cities. Du Bois documented the atrocities in the pages of The Crisis, culminating in the December publication of a gruesome photograph of a lynching that occurred during a race riot in Omaha, Nebraska.

The most egregious episode during the Red Summer was a vicious attack on blacks in Elaine, Arkansas, in which nearly 200 blacks were murdered. Reports coming out of the South blamed the blacks, alleging that they were conspiring to take over the government. Infuriated with the distortions, Du Bois published a letter in the New York World, claiming that the only crime the black sharecroppers had committed was daring to challenge their white landlords by hiring an attorney to investigate contractual irregularities.

Over 60 of the surviving blacks were arrested and tried for conspiracy, in the case known as Moore v. Dempsey. Du Bois rallied blacks across America to raise funds for the legal defense, which, six years later, resulted in a Supreme Court victory authored by Oliver Wendell Holmes. Although the victory had little immediate impact on justice for blacks in the South, it marked the first time the Federal government used the 14th amendment guarantee of due process to prevent states from shielding mob violence.

Darkwater: Voices from Within the Veil, first edition cover, 1920

In 1920, Du Bois published Darkwater: Voices From Within the Veil, the first of his three autobiographies. The "veil" was that which covered colored people around the world. In the book, he hoped to lift the veil and show white readers what life was like behind the veil, and how it distorted the viewpoints of those looking through it – in both directions. The book contained Du Bois's feminist essay, "The Damnation of Women", which was a tribute to the dignity and worth of women, particularly black women.

Concerned that textbooks used by African-American children ignored black history and culture, Du Bois created a monthly children's magazine, The Brownies' Book. Initially published in 1920, it was aimed at black children, who Du Bois called "the children of the sun".

Pan-Africanism and Marcus Garvey

Du Bois traveled to Europe in 1921 to attend the second Pan-African Congress. The assembled black leaders from around the world issued the London Resolutions and established a Pan-African Association headquarters in Paris. Under Du Bois's guidance, the resolutions insisted on racial equality, and that Africa be ruled by Africans (not, as in the 1919 congress, with the consent of Africans). Du Bois restated the resolutions of the congress in his Manifesto To the League of Nations, which implored the newly formed League of Nations to address labor issues and to appoint Africans to key posts. The League took little action on the requests.

Another important African-American leader of the 1920s was Marcus Garvey, promoter of the Back-to-Africa movement and founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). Garvey denounced Du Bois's efforts to achieve equality through integration, and instead endorsed racial separatism. Du Bois initially supported the concept of Garvey's Black Star Line, a shipping company that was intended to facilitate commerce within the African diaspora. But Du Bois later became concerned that Garvey was threatening the NAACP's efforts, leading Du Bois to describe him as fraudulent and reckless. Responding to Garvey's slogan "Africa for the Africans", Du Bois said that he supported that concept, but denounced Garvey's intention that Africa be ruled by African Americans.

Du Bois wrote a series of articles in The Crisis between 1922 and 1924 attacking Garvey's movement, calling him the "most dangerous enemy of the Negro race in America and the world." Du Bois and Garvey never made a serious attempt to collaborate, and their dispute was partly rooted in the desire of their respective organizations (NAACP and UNIA) to capture a larger portion of the available philanthropic funding.

Du Bois decried Harvard's decision to ban blacks from its dormitories in 1921 as an instance of a broad effort in the U.S. to renew "the Anglo-Saxon cult; the worship of the Nordic totem, the disfranchisement of Negro, Jew, Irishman, Italian, Hungarian, Asiatic and South Sea Islander – the world rule of Nordic white through brute force." When Du Bois sailed for Europe in 1923 for the third Pan-African Congress, the circulation of The Crisis had declined to 60,000 from its World War I high of 100,000, but it remained the preeminent periodical of the civil rights movement. President Coolidge designated Du Bois an "Envoy Extraordinary" to Liberia and – after the third congress concluded – Du Bois rode a German freighter from the Canary Islands to Africa, visiting Liberia, Sierra Leone and Senegal.

Harlem Renaissance

Du Bois's 1924 work The Gift of Black Folk celebrated the unique contributions of African-Americans in building the United States.

Du Bois frequently promoted African-American artistic creativity in his writings, and when the Harlem Renaissance emerged in the mid-1920s, his article "A Negro Art Renaissance" celebrated the end of the long hiatus of blacks from creative endeavors. His enthusiasm for the Harlem Renaissance waned as he came to believe that many whites visited Harlem for voyeurism, not for genuine appreciation of black art. Du Bois insisted that artists recognize their moral responsibilities, writing that "a black artist is first of all a black artist." He was also concerned that black artists were not using their art to promote black causes, saying "I do not care a damn for any art that is not used for propaganda." By the end of 1926, he stopped employing The Crisis to support the arts.

Debate with Lothrop Stoddard

In 1929, a debate organised by the Chicago Forum Council billed as "One of the greatest debates ever held" was held between Du Bois and Lothrop Stoddard, a member of the Ku Klux Klan, proponent of eugenics and so−called scientific racism. The debate was held in Chicago and Du Bois was arguing the affirmative to the question "Shall the Negro be encouraged to seek cultural equality? Has the Negro the same intellectual possibilities as other races?"

Du Bois knew that the racists would be unintentionally funny onstage; as he wrote to Moore, Senator Heflin "would be a scream" in a debate. Du Bois let the overconfident and bombastic Stoddard walk into a comic moment, which Stoddard then made even funnier by not getting the joke. This moment was captured in headlines "DuBois Shatters Stoddard’s Cultural Theories in Debate; Thousands Jam Hall . . . Cheered As He Proves Race Equality," the Defender’s front-page headline ran. "5,000 Cheer W.E.B. DuBois, Laugh at Lothrop Stoddard." Ian Frazier of the New Yorker writes that the comic potential of Stoddard's bankrupt ideas was left untapped until Stanley Kubrick's Dr. Strangelove.

Socialism

When Du Bois became editor of The Crisis magazine in 1911, he joined the Socialist Party of America on the advice of NAACP founders Mary Ovington, William English Walling and Charles Edward Russell. However, he supported the Democrat Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential campaign, a breach of the rules, and was forced to resign from the Socialist Party. In 1913, his support for Wilson was shaken when racial segregation in government hiring was reported. Du Bois remained "convinced that socialism was an excellent way of life, but I thought it might be reached by various methods."

Nine years after the 1917 Russian Revolution, Du Bois extended a trip to Europe to include a visit to the Soviet Union, where he was struck by the poverty and disorganization he encountered in the Soviet Union, yet was impressed by the intense labors of the officials and by the recognition given to workers. Although Du Bois was not yet familiar with the communist theories of Karl Marx or Vladimir Lenin, he concluded that socialism might be a better path towards racial equality than capitalism.

Although Du Bois generally endorsed socialist principles, his politics were strictly pragmatic: in 1929, he endorsed Democrat Jimmy Walker for mayor of New York, rather than the socialist Norman Thomas, believing that Walker could do more immediate good for blacks, even though Thomas's platform was more consistent with Du Bois's views. Throughout the 1920s, Du Bois and the NAACP shifted support back and forth between the Republican Party and the Democratic Party, induced by promises from the candidates to fight lynchings, improve working conditions, or support voting rights in the South; invariably, the candidates failed to deliver on their promises.

And herein lies the tragedy of the age: not that men are poor – all men know something of poverty; not that men are wicked – who is good? Not that men are ignorant – what is Truth? Nay, but that men know so little of men.

—Du Bois, "Of Alexander Crummell", in The Souls of Black Folk, 1903

A rivalry emerged in 1931 between the NAACP and the Communist Party, when the Communists responded quickly and effectively to support the Scottsboro Boys, nine African-American youth arrested in 1931 in Alabama for rape. Du Bois and the NAACP felt that the case would not be beneficial to their cause, so they chose to let the Communist Party organize the defense efforts. Du Bois was impressed with the vast amount of publicity and funds which the Communists devoted to the partially successful defense effort, and he came to suspect that the Communists were attempting to present their party to African Americans as a better solution than the NAACP.

Responding to criticisms of the NAACP from the Communist Party, Du Bois wrote articles condemning the party, claiming that it unfairly attacked the NAACP, and that it failed to fully appreciate racism in the United States. In their turn, the Communist leaders accused him of being a "class enemy", and claimed that the NAACP leadership was an isolated elite, disconnected from the working-class blacks they ostensibly fought for.

Du Bois did not have a good working relationship with Walter Francis White, president of the NAACP since 1931. That conflict, combined with the financial stresses of the Great Depression, precipitated a power struggle over The Crisis. Du Bois, concerned that his position as editor would be eliminated, resigned his job at The Crisis and accepted an academic position at Atlanta University in early 1933. The rift with the NAACP grew larger in 1934 when Du Bois reversed his stance on segregation, stating that "separate but equal" was an acceptable goal for African Americans. The NAACP leadership was stunned, and asked Du Bois to retract his statement, but he refused, and the dispute led to Du Bois's resignation from the NAACP.

After arriving at his new professorship in Atlanta, Du Bois wrote a series of articles generally supportive of Marxism. He was not a strong proponent of labor unions or the Communist Party, but he felt that Marx's scientific explanation of society and the economy were useful for explaining the situation of African Americans in the United States. Marx's atheism also struck a chord with Du Bois, who routinely criticized black churches for dulling blacks' sensitivity to racism. In his 1933 writings, Du Bois embraced socialism, but asserted that "[c]olored labor has no common ground with white labor", a controversial position that was rooted in Du Bois's dislike of American labor unions, which had systematically excluded blacks for decades. Du Bois did not support the Communist Party in the U.S. and did not vote for their candidate in the 1932 presidential election, in spite of an African American on their ticket.

Black Reconstruction in America

Black Reconstruction in America, first edition cover, 1935

Back in the world of academia, Du Bois was able to resume his study of Reconstruction, the topic of the 1910 paper that he presented to the American Historical Association. In 1935, he published his magnum opus, Black Reconstruction in America. The book presented the thesis, in the words of the historian David Levering Lewis, that "black people, suddenly admitted to citizenship in an environment of feral hostility, displayed admirable volition and intelligence as well as the indolence and ignorance inherent in three centuries of bondage."

Du Bois documented how black people were central figures in the American Civil War and Reconstruction, and also showed how they made alliances with white politicians. He provided evidence that the coalition governments established public education in the South, and many needed social service programs. The book also demonstrated the ways in which black emancipation – the crux of Reconstruction – promoted a radical restructuring of United States society, as well as how and why the country failed to continue support for civil rights for blacks in the aftermath of Reconstruction.

The book's thesis ran counter to the orthodox interpretation of Reconstruction maintained by white historians, and the book was virtually ignored by mainstream historians until the 1960s. Thereafter, however, it ignited a "revisionist" trend in the historiography of Reconstruction, which emphasized black people's search for freedom and the era's radical policy changes. By the 21st century, Black Reconstruction was widely perceived as "the foundational text of revisionist African American historiography."

In the final chapter of the book, "XIV. The Propaganda of History", Du Bois evokes his efforts at writing an article for the Encyclopædia Britannica on the "history of the American Negro". After the editors had cut all reference to Reconstruction, he insisted that the following note appear in the entry: "White historians have ascribed the faults and failures of Reconstruction to Negro ignorance and corruption. But the Negro insists that it was Negro loyalty and the Negro vote alone that restored the South to the Union; established the new democracy, both for white and black, and instituted the public schools." The editors refused and, so, Du Bois withdrew his article.

Projected encyclopedia

In 1932, Du Bois was selected by several philanthropies, including the Phelps-Stokes Fund, the Carnegie Corporation, and the General Education Board, to be the managing editor for a proposed Encyclopedia of the Negro, a work which Du Bois had been contemplating for 30 years. After several years of planning and organizing, the philanthropies canceled the project in 1938 because some board members believed that Du Bois was too biased to produce an objective encyclopedia.

Trip around the world

Du Bois took a trip around the world in 1936, which included visits to Nazi Germany, China and Japan. While in Germany, Du Bois remarked that he was treated with warmth and respect. After his return to the United States, he expressed his ambivalence about the Nazi regime. He admired how the Nazis had improved the German economy, but he was horrified by their treatment of the Jewish people, which he described as "an attack on civilization, comparable only to such horrors as the Spanish Inquisition and the African slave trade."

Following the 1905 Japanese victory in the Russo-Japanese War, Du Bois became impressed by the growing strength of Imperial Japan. He came to view the ascendant Japanese Empire as an antidote to Western imperialism, arguing over for over three decades after the war that its rise represented a chance to break the monopoly that white nations had on international affairs. A representative of Japan's "Negro Propaganda Operations" traveled to the United States during the 1920s and 1930s, meeting with Du Bois and giving him a positive impression of Imperial Japan's racial policies.

In 1936, the Japanese ambassador arranged a trip to Japan for Du Bois and a small group of academics, visiting China, Japan, and Manchukuo (Manchuria). Du Bois viewed Japanese colonialism in Manchuria as benevolent; he wrote that "colonial enterprise by a colored nation need not imply the caste, exploitation and subjection which it has always implied in the case of white Europe." While disturbed by the eventual Japanese alliance with Nazi Germany, Du Bois also argued Japan was only compelled to enter the pact because of the hostility of the United States and United Kingdom, and he viewed American apprehensions over Japanese expansion in Asia as racially motivated both before and after the Attack on Pearl Harbor.

World War II

Dusk of Dawn, first edition cover, 1940

Du Bois opposed the US intervention in World War II, particularly in the Pacific, because he believed that China and Japan were emerging from the clutches of white imperialists. He felt that the European Allies waging war against Japan was an opportunity for whites to reestablish their influence in Asia. He was deeply disappointed by the US government's plan for African Americans in the armed forces: Blacks were limited to 5.8% of the force, and there were to be no African-American combat units – virtually the same restrictions as in World War I. With blacks threatening to shift their support to President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Republican opponent in the 1940 election, Roosevelt appointed a few blacks to leadership posts in the military.

Dusk of Dawn, Du Bois's second autobiography, was published in 1940. The title refers to his hope that African Americans were passing out of the darkness of racism into an era of greater equality. The work is part autobiography, part history, and part sociological treatise. Du Bois described the book as "the autobiography of a concept of race ... elucidated and magnified and doubtless distorted in the thoughts and deeds which were mine ... Thus for all time my life is significant for all lives of men."

In 1943, at age 75, Du Bois was abruptly fired from his position at Atlanta University by college president Rufus Clement. Many scholars expressed outrage, prompting Atlanta University to provide Du Bois with a lifelong pension and the title of professor emeritus. Arthur Spingarn remarked that Du Bois spent his time in Atlanta "battering his life out against ignorance, bigotry, intolerance and slothfulness, projecting ideas nobody but he understands, and raising hopes for change which may be comprehended in a hundred years."

Turning down job offers from Fisk and Howard, Du Bois re-joined the NAACP as director of the Department of Special Research. Surprising many NAACP leaders, Du Bois jumped into the job with vigor and determination. During his 10−years hiatus, the NAACP's income had increased fourfold, and its membership had soared to 325,000 members.

Du Bois in 1946, photo by Carl Van Vechten

United Nations

Du Bois was a member of the three-person delegation from the NAACP that attended the 1945 conference in San Francisco at which the United Nations was established. The NAACP delegation wanted the United Nations to endorse racial equality and to bring an end to the colonial era. To push the United Nations in that direction, Du Bois drafted a proposal that pronounced "[t]he colonial system of government ... is undemocratic, socially dangerous and a main cause of wars". The NAACP proposal received support from China, India, and the Soviet Union, but it was virtually ignored by the other major powers, and the NAACP proposals were not included in the final United Nations charter.

After the United Nations conference, Du Bois published Color and Democracy: Colonies and Peace, a book that attacked colonial empires and, in the words of one reviewer, "contains enough dynamite to blow up the whole vicious system whereby we have comforted our white souls and lined the pockets of generations of free-booting capitalists."

In late 1945, Du Bois attended the fifth, and final, Pan-African Congress, in Manchester, England. The congress was the most productive of the five congresses, and there Du Bois met Kwame Nkrumah, the future first president of Ghana, who would later invite him to Africa.

Du Bois helped to submit petitions to the UN concerning discrimination against African Americans, the most noteworthy of which was the NAACP's "An Appeal to the World: A Statement on the Denial of Human Rights to Minorities in the Case of Citizens of Negro Descent in the United States of America and an Appeal to the United Nations for Redress". This advocacy laid the foundation for the later report and petition called "We Charge Genocide", submitted in 1951 by the Civil Rights Congress. "We Charge Genocide" accuses the U.S. of systematically sanctioning murders and inflicting harm against African Americans and therefore committing genocide.

Cold War

When the Cold War commenced in the mid-1940s, the NAACP distanced itself from Communists, lest its funding or reputation suffer. The NAACP redoubled its efforts in 1947 after Life magazine published a piece by Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. claiming that the NAACP was heavily influenced by Communists. Ignoring the NAACP's desires, Du Bois continued to fraternize with communist sympathizers such as Paul Robeson, Howard Fast and Shirley Graham (his future second wife). Du Bois wrote "I am not a communist ... On the other hand, I ... believe ... that Karl Marx ... put his finger squarely upon our difficulties ...".

In 1946, Du Bois wrote articles giving his assessment of the Soviet Union; he did not embrace communism and he criticized its dictatorship. However, he felt that capitalism was responsible for poverty and racism, and felt that socialism was an alternative that might ameliorate those problems. The Soviets explicitly rejected racial distinctions and class distinctions, leading Du Bois to conclude that the USSR was the "most hopeful country on earth".

Du Bois's association with prominent communists made him a liability for the NAACP, especially since the FBI was starting to aggressively investigate communist sympathizers; so – by mutual agreement – he resigned from the NAACP for the second time in late 1948. After departing the NAACP, Du Bois started writing regularly for the leftist weekly newspaper the National Guardian, a relationship that would endure until 1961.

Peace activism

Du Bois was a lifelong anti-war activist, but his efforts became more pronounced after World War II. In 1949, Du Bois spoke at the Scientific and Cultural Conference for World Peace in New York: "I tell you, people of America, the dark world is on the move! It wants and will have Freedom, Autonomy and Equality. It will not be diverted in these fundamental rights by dialectical splitting of political hairs ... Whites may, if they will, arm themselves for suicide. But the vast majority of the world's peoples will march on over them to freedom!"

In the spring of 1949, he spoke at the World Congress of the Partisans of Peace in Paris, saying to the large crowd: "Leading this new colonial imperialism comes my own native land built by my father's toil and blood, the United States. The United States is a great nation; rich by grace of God and prosperous by the hard work of its humblest citizens ... Drunk with power we are leading the world to hell in a new colonialism with the same old human slavery which once ruined us; and to a third World War which will ruin the world." Du Bois affiliated himself with a leftist organization, the National Council of Arts, Sciences and Professions, and he traveled to Moscow as its representative to speak at the All-Soviet Peace Conference in late 1949.

The FBI, McCarthyism, and trial

Du Bois (center) and other defendants from the Peace Information Center prepare for their trial in 1951.

During the 1950s, the U.S. government's anti-communist McCarthyism campaign targeted Du Bois because of his socialist leanings. Historian Manning Marable characterizes the government's treatment of Du Bois as "ruthless repression" and a "political assassination".

The FBI began to compile a file on Du Bois in 1942, investigating him for possible subversive activities. The original investigation appears to have ended in 1943 because the FBI was unable to discover sufficient evidence against Du Bois, but the FBI resumed its investigation in 1949, suspecting he was among a group of "Concealed Communists". The most aggressive government attack against Du Bois occurred in the early 1950s, as a consequence of his opposition to nuclear weapons. In 1950 he became chair of the newly created Peace Information Center (PIC), which worked to publicize the Stockholm Peace Appeal in the United States. The primary purpose of the appeal was to gather signatures on a petition, asking governments around the world to ban all nuclear weapons.

In United States v. Peace Information Center, 97 F. Supp. 255 (D.D.C. 1951), the U.S. Justice Department alleged that the PIC was acting as an agent of a foreign state, and thus required the PIC to register with the federal government. Du Bois and other PIC leaders refused, and they were indicted for failure to register. After the indictment, some of Du Bois's associates distanced themselves from him, and the NAACP refused to issue a statement of support; but many labor figures and leftists – including Langston Hughes – supported Du Bois.

He was finally tried in 1951 and was represented by civil rights attorney Vito Marcantonio. The case was dismissed before the jury rendered a verdict as soon as the defense attorney told the judge that "Dr. Albert Einstein has offered to appear as character witness for Dr. Du Bois". Du Bois's memoir of the trial is In Battle for Peace. Even though Du Bois was not convicted, the government confiscated Du Bois's passport and withheld it for eight years.

Communism

Du Bois was bitterly disappointed that many of his colleagues – particularly the NAACP – did not support him during his 1951 PIC trial, whereas working class whites and blacks supported him enthusiastically. After the trial, Du Bois lived in Manhattan, writing and speaking, and continuing to associate primarily with leftist acquaintances. His primary concern was world peace, and he railed against military actions such as the Korean War, which he viewed as efforts by imperialist whites to maintain colored people in a submissive state.

Du Bois meets with Mao Zedong in China in 1959

In 1950, at the age of 82, Du Bois ran for U.S. Senator from New York on the American Labor Party ticket and received about 200,000 votes, or 4% of the statewide total. He continued to believe that capitalism was the primary culprit responsible for the subjugation of colored people around the world, and although he recognized the faults of the Soviet Union, he continued to uphold Communism as a possible solution to racial problems. In the words of biographer David Lewis, Du Bois did not endorse Communism for its own sake, but did so because "the enemies of his enemies were his friends". The same ambiguity characterized his opinions of Joseph Stalin: in 1940 he wrote disdainfully of the "Tyrant Stalin", but when Stalin died in 1953, Du Bois wrote a eulogy characterizing Stalin as "simple, calm, and courageous", and lauding him for being the "first [to] set Russia on the road to conquer race prejudice and make one nation out of its 140 groups without destroying their individuality".

The U.S. government prevented Du Bois from attending the 1955 Bandung Conference in Indonesia. The conference was the culmination of 40 years of Du Bois's dreams – a meeting of 29 nations from Africa and Asia, many recently independent, representing most of the world's colored peoples. The conference celebrated those nations' independence as they began to assert their power as non-aligned nations during the Cold War.

Du Bois regained his passport in 1958, and with his second wife, Shirley Graham Du Bois, he traveled around the world, visiting Russia and China. In both countries he was celebrated. Du Bois later wrote approvingly of the conditions in both countries.

Du Bois became incensed in 1961 when the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the 1950 McCarran Act, a key piece of McCarthyism legislation which required Communists to register with the government. To demonstrate his outrage, he joined the Communist Party in October 1961, at the age of 93. Around that time, he wrote: "I believe in Communism. I mean by Communism, a planned way of life in the production of wealth and work designed for building a state whose object is the highest welfare of its people and not merely the profit of a part." He asked Herbert Aptheker, a Communist and historian of African-American history, to be his literary executor.

Death in Africa

Du Bois (center) at his 95th birthday party in 1963 in Ghana, with President Kwame Nkrumah (right) and First Lady Fathia Nkrumah

Nkrumah invited Du Bois to Ghana to participate in their independence celebration in 1957, but he was unable to attend because the U.S. government had confiscated his passport in 1951. By 1960 – the "Year of Africa" – Du Bois had recovered his passport, and was able to cross the Atlantic and celebrate the creation of the Republic of Ghana. Du Bois returned to Africa in late 1960 to attend the inauguration of Nnamdi Azikiwe as the first African governor of Nigeria.

While visiting Ghana in 1960, Du Bois spoke with its president about the creation of a new encyclopedia of the African diaspora, the Encyclopedia Africana. In early 1961, Ghana notified Du Bois that they had appropriated funds to support the encyclopedia project, and they invited him to travel to Ghana and manage the project there. In October 1961, at the age of 93, Du Bois and his wife traveled to Ghana to take up residence and commence work on the encyclopedia. In early 1963, the United States refused to renew his passport, so he made the symbolic gesture of becoming a citizen of Ghana.

While it is sometimes stated that Du Bois renounced his U.S. citizenship at that time, and he stated his intention to do so, Du Bois never actually did. His health declined during the two years he was in Ghana, and he died on August 27, 1963, in the capital of Accra at the age of 95. The following day, at the March on Washington, speaker Roy Wilkins asked the hundreds of thousands of marchers to honor Du Bois with a moment of silence. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, embodying many of the reforms Du Bois had campaigned for during his entire life, was enacted almost a year after his death.

Du Bois was given a state funeral on August 29–30, 1963, at Nkrumah's request, and was buried near the western wall of Christiansborg Castle (now Osu Castle), then the seat of government in Accra. In 1985, another state ceremony honored Du Bois. With the ashes of his wife Shirley Graham Du Bois, who had died in 1977, his body was re-interred at their former home in Accra, which was dedicated the W. E. B. Du Bois Memorial Centre for Pan African Culture in his memory. Du Bois's first wife Nina, their son Burghardt, and their daughter Yolande, who died in 1961, were buried in the cemetery of Great Barrington, Massachusetts, his hometown.

Du Bois was organized and disciplined: his lifelong regimen was to rise at 7:15, work until 5:00, eat dinner and read a newspaper until 7:00, then read or socialize until he was in bed, invariably before 10:00. He was a meticulous planner, and frequently mapped out his schedules and goals on large pieces of graph paper. Many acquaintances found him to be distant and aloof, and he insisted on being addressed as "Dr. Du Bois". Although he was not gregarious, he formed several close friendships with associates such as Charles Young, Paul Laurence Dunbar, John Hope and Mary White Ovington.

His closest friend was Joel Spingarn – a white man – but Du Bois never accepted Spingarn's offer to be on a first-name basis. Du Bois was something of a dandy – he dressed formally, carried a walking stick, and walked with an air of confidence and dignity. He was relatively short, standing at 5 feet 5.5 inches (166 cm), and always maintained a well-groomed mustache and goatee. He enjoyed singing and playing tennis.

Du Bois married Nina Gomer (b. about 1870, m. 1896, d. 1950), with whom he had two children. Their son Burghardt died as an infant before their second child, daughter Yolande, was born. Yolande attended Fisk University and became a high school teacher in Baltimore, Maryland. Her father encouraged her marriage to Countee Cullen, a nationally known poet of the Harlem Renaissance. They divorced within two years. She married again and had a daughter, Du Bois's only grandchild. That marriage also ended in divorce.

As a widower, Du Bois married Shirley Graham (m. 1951, d. 1977), an author, playwright, composer, and activist. She brought her son David Graham to the marriage. David grew close to Du Bois and took his stepfather's name; he also worked for African-American causes. The historian David Levering Lewis wrote that Du Bois engaged in several extramarital relationships.

Religion

Although Du Bois attended a New England Congregational church as a child, he abandoned organized religion while at Fisk College. As an adult, Du Bois described himself as agnostic or a freethinker, but at least one biographer concluded that Du Bois was virtually an atheist. However, another analyst of Du Bois's writings concluded that he had a religious voice, albeit radically different from other African-American religious voices of his era. Du Bois was credited with inaugurating a 20th-century spirituality to which Ralph Ellison, Zora Neale Hurston, and James Baldwin also belong.

When asked to lead public prayers, Du Bois would refuse. In his autobiography, Du Bois wrote:

When I became head of a department at Atlanta, the engagement was held up because again I balked at leading in prayer ... I flatly refused again to join any church or sign any church creed. ... I think the greatest gift of the Soviet Union to modern civilization was the dethronement of the clergy and the refusal to let religion be taught in the public schools.

Du Bois accused American churches of being the most discriminatory of all institutions. He also provocatively linked African-American Christianity to indigenous African religions. He did occasionally acknowledge the beneficial role that religion played in African-American life – as the "basic rock" which served as an anchor for African-American communities – but in general disparaged African-American churches and clergy because he felt they did not support the goals of racial equality and hindered activists' efforts.

Although Du Bois was not personally religious, he infused his writings with religious symbology. Many contemporaries viewed him as a prophet. His 1904 prose poem, "Credo", was written in the style of a religious creed and widely read by the African-American community. Moreover, Du Bois, both in his own fiction and in stories published in The Crisis, often drew analogies between the lynchings of African Americans and the crucifixion of Christ. Between 1920 and 1940, Du Bois shifted from overt black messiah symbolism to more subtle messianic language.

Voting

In 1889, Du Bois became eligible to vote at the age of 21. During his life he followed the philosophy of voting for third parties if the Democratic and Republican parties were unsatisfactory; or voting for the lesser of two evils if a third option was not available.

During the 1912 presidential election, Du Bois supported Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic nominee, as he believed Wilson was a "liberal Southerner" although he had wanted to support Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Party, but the Progressives ignored issues facing black people. He later regretted his decision, as he came to the conclusion that Wilson was opposed to racial equality. During the 1916 presidential election he supported Charles Evans Hughes, the Republican nominee, as he believed that Wilson was the greater evil. During the 1920 presidential election he supported Warren G. Harding, the Republican nominee, as Harding promised to end the United States occupation of Haiti. During the 1924 presidential election he supported Robert M. La Follette, the Progressive nominee, although he believed that La Follette couldn't win. During the 1928 presidential election he believed that both Herbert Hoover and Al Smith insulted black voters, and instead Du Bois supported Norman Thomas, the Socialist nominee.

From 1932 to 1944, Du Bois supported Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Democratic nominee, as Roosevelt's attitude towards workers was more realistic. During the 1948 presidential election he supported Henry A. Wallace, the Progressive nominee, and supported the Progressives’ nominee, Vincent Hallinan, again in 1952.

During the 1956 presidential election Du Bois stated that he would not vote. He criticized the foreign, taxation, and crime policies of the Eisenhower administration and Adlai Stevenson II for promising to maintain those policies. However, he could not vote third party due to the lack of ballot access for the Socialist Party.

W. E. B. Du Bois, with Mary White Ovington, was honored with a medallion in The Extra Mile.
Bust of W. E. B. Du Bois at Clark Atlanta University

Non-fiction books

  • The Study of the Negro Problems (1898)
  • The Philadelphia Negro (1899)
  • The Negro in Business (1899)
  • The Souls of Black Folk (1903)
  • "The Talented Tenth", second chapter of The Negro Problem, a collection of articles by African Americans (September 1903)
  • Voice of the Negro II (September 1905)
  • John Brown: A Biography (1909)
  • Efforts for Social Betterment among Negro Americans (1909)
  • Atlanta University's Studies of the Negro Problem (1897–1910)
  • The Negro (1915)
  • The Gift of Black Folk: The Negroes in the Making of America (1924)
  • Africa, Its Geography, People and Products (1930)
  • Africa: Its Place in Modern History (1930)
  • Black Reconstruction in America (1935)
  • What the Negro Has Done for the United States and Texas (1936)
  • Black Folk, Then and Now (1939)
  • Color and Democracy: Colonies and Peace (1945)
  • The Encyclopedia of the Negro (1946)
  • The World and Africa (1946)
  • The World and Africa, an Inquiry into the Part Which Africa Has Played in World History (1947)
  • Peace Is Dangerous (1951)
  • I Take My Stand for Peace (1951)
  • In Battle for Peace (1952)
  • Africa in Battle Against Colonialism, Racialism, Imperialism (1960)

Articles

Autobiographies

Novels

Archives of The Crisis

Du Bois edited The Crisis from 1910 to 1933, and it contains many of his important polemics.

Recordings

Dissertations

Speeches

The W. E. B. Du Bois Library at the University of Massachusetts Amherst contains Du Bois's archive, consisting of 294 boxes and 89 microfilm reels; 99,625 items have been digitized.

  1. Lewis, David Levering (1993). W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race 1868–1919. New York City: Henry Holt and Co. p. 11. ISBN 9781466841512. [Du Bois] would unfailingly insist upon the 'correct' pronunciation of his surname. 'The pronunciation of my name is Due Boyss, with the accent on the last syllable,' he would patiently explain to the uninformed.
  2. W. E. B. Du Bois Center @duboisumass (2018-11-12). "Image of letter to W. E. B. Du Bois with his handwritten annotations on how to pronounce his name". Twitter.com. Retrieved2019-05-12.
  3. Horne, p. 7.
  4. Lewis, p. 11.
  5. Lewis, pp. 14–15.
  6. Lewis, p. 13
  7. Du Bois, W. E. B. (1984) [1940]. Dusk of Dawn. Piscataway NJ: Transaction Publishers. p. 11.
  8. Lewis, David Levering (1993). W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race 1868–1919. New York City: Henry Holt and Co. p. 14.
  9. Piper, Emilie; Levinson, David (2010). One Minute a Free Woman: Elizabeth Freeman and the Struggle for Freedom. Salisbury CT: Upper Housatonic Valley National Heritage Area. ISBN 978-0-9845492-0-7.
  10. Lewis, p. 17.
  11. Chandler, Nahum Dimitri (2014). X: The Problem of the Negro as a Problem for Thought. New York: Fordham University Press. pp. 100–103. ISBN 978-0-8232-5407-1.
  12. Lewis, p. 18.
  13. Lewis, p. 21. Du Bois suggested that Mary's family drove Alfred away.
  14. Rabaka, Reiland (2007), W. E. B. Du Bois and the Problems of the Twenty-first Century: An Essay on Africana Critical Theory, Lexington Books, p. 165.
  15. Lewis, pp. 29–30.
  16. Lewis, pp. 27–44.
  17. Cebula, Tim, "Great Barrington", in Young, p. 91.
  18. Lewis, pp. 39–40.
  19. Lewis, Catharine, "Fisk University", in Young, p. 81.
  20. Fultz, Michael (February 2021). "Determination and Persistence: Building the African American Teacher Corps through Summer and Intermittent Teaching, 1860s-1890s". History of Education Quarterly. 61 (1): 4–34. doi:10.1017/heq.2020.65.
  21. Lewis, pp. 56–57.
  22. Lewis, pp. 72–78.
  23. Lewis, pp. 69–80 (degree); p. 69 (funding); p. 82 (inheritance). Du Bois was the sixth African American to be admitted to Harvard.
  24. Lewis, p. 82.
  25. Lewis, p. 90.
  26. Lewis, pp. 98–103.
  27. Morris, Aldon (2015). The Scholar Denied: W. E. B. Du Bois and the Birth of Modern Sociology. Oakland CA: University of California Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-520-96048-0.
  28. Williams, Yvonne, "Harvard", in Young, p. 99.
    His dissertation was The Suppression of the African Slave-trade to the United States of America, 1638–1871.
  29. Quoted by Lewis, pp. 143–145.
  30. Gibson, Todd, "University of Pennsylvania", in Young, p. 210.
  31. Lewis, p. 111.
  32. Lewis, pp. 118, 120.
  33. Lewis, p. 126. Nina Gomer Du Bois did not play a significant role in Du Bois's activism or career (see Lewis, pp. 135, 152–154, 232, 287–290, 296–301, 404–406, 522–525, 628–630).
  34. Lewis, pp. 128–129. Du Bois resented never receiving an offer for a teaching position at Penn.
  35. Horne, pp. 23–24.
  36. Bulmer, Martin, "W. E. B. Du Bois as a Social Investigator: The Philadelphia Negro, 1899", in Martin Bulmer, Kevin Bales, and Kathryn Kish Sklar, eds. The Social Survey in Historical Perspective, 1880–1940 (1991), pp. 170–188.
  37. Caves, R. W. (2004). Encyclopedia of the City. Routledge. pp. 199–200.
  38. Lewis, p. 123. His paper was titled The Conservation of Races.
  39. Lewis, pp. 143–144.
  40. Horne, p. 26.
  41. Lewis, pp. 143, 155.
  42. Lange, Werner J. (1983). "W. E. B. Du Bois and the First Scientific Study of Afro-America". Phylon. 44 (2): 135–146. doi:10.2307/275025. JSTOR 275025. [T]he pioneering studies of African cultures and Afro-American realities and history initiated by W. E. B. Du Bois from 1894 until 1915 stand not only as the first studies of black people on a firm scientific basis altogether – whether classified among the social or historical sciences – but they also represent the earliest ethnographies of Afro-America as well as a major contribution to the earliest corpus of social scientific literature from the United States.
  43. Donaldson, Shawn, "The Philadelphia Negro", in Young, p. 165. "The Philadelphia Negro stands as a classic in both (urban) sociology and African American studies because it was the first scientific study of the Negro and the first scientific sociological study in the United States".
  44. Lewis, p. 148.
  45. Lewis, pp. 140, 148 (underclass), 141 (slavery).
  46. Lewis, pp. 158–160.
  47. Lewis, pp. 161, 235 (Department of Labor); p. 141 (Bureau of Labor Statistics).
  48. Lewis, p. 157.
  49. Ramla Bandele, "Pan-African Conference in 1900" Archived 22 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Article #461, Origins of the movement for global black unity, Global Mappings.
  50. "A history of Pan-Africanism", New Internationalist, 326, August 2000.
  51. "(1900) W. E. B. Du Bois, 'To the Nations of the World'", BlackPast.org.
  52. Sivagurunathan, Shivani, "Pan-Africanism", in David Dabydeen. John Gilmore, Cecily Jones (eds), The Oxford Companion to Black British History, Oxford University Press, 2007, pp. 259–260.
  53. The Pan-African Congresses, 1900–1945, BlackPast.org.
  54. 1900 Pan-African Conference Resolution. (PDF) Source: Ayodele Langley, Ideologies of Liberation in Black Africa, London: Rex Collings, 1979, pp. 738–739.
  55. Edwards, Brent Hayes (2009), "The Practice of Diaspora", in Janice A. Radway, Kevin Gaines, Barry Shank, Penny Von Eschen (eds), American Studies: An Anthology, Wiley-Blackwell, p. 33.
  56. Lewis, David Levering, "A Small Nation of People: W.E.B. Du Bois and Black Americans at the Turn of the Twentieth Century", A Small Nation of People: W. E. B. Du Bois and African American Portraits of Progress. New York: Amistad, 2003. pp. 24–49.
  57. "African American Photographs Assembled for 1900 Paris Exposition", Library of Congress.
  58. The W.E.B. Du Bois Center at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and Battle-Baptiste, Whitney (eds), W. E. B. Du Bois's Data Portraits: Visualizing Black America, Princeton Architectural Press, 2018. ISBN 978-1616897062.
  59. Mansky, Jackie. "W.E.B. Du Bois' Visionary Infographics Come Together for the First Time in Full Color". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved25 August 2020.
  60. Lewis, p. 161.
  61. Lewis, pp. 179–180, 189.
  62. Harlan, Louis R. (2006), "A Black Leader in the Age of Jim Crow", in The Racial Politics of Booker T. Washington, Donald Cunnigen, Rutledge M. Dennis, Myrtle Gonza Glascoe (eds), Emerald Group Publishing, p. 26.
  63. Lewis, pp. 180–181.
  64. Logan, Rayford Whittingham (1997), The Betrayal of the Negro, from Rutherford B. Hayes to Woodrow Wilson, Da Capo Press, pp. 275–313.
  65. Harlan, Louis R. (1972), Booker T. Washington: The Making of a Black Leader, 1856–1901, New York: Oxford University Press, p. 225, Let me heartily congratulate you upon your phenomenal success at Atlanta – it was a word fitly spoken.
  66. "Letter from W.E.B. Du Bois to Booker T. Washington, September 24, 1895", The Core Curriculum, Columbia College, Columbia University, retrievedFebruary 28, 2016
  67. Harlan, Louis R. (1986), Booker T. Washington: the wizard of Tuskegee, 1901–1915, Oxford University Press, pp. 71–120.
  68. Croce, Paul, "Accommodation versus Struggle", in Young, pp. 1–3. Du Bois popularized the term "talented tenth" in a 1903 essay, but he was not the first to use it.
  69. Croce, Paul, "Accommodation versus Struggle", in Young, pp. 1–3.
  70. Lewis, p. 162.
  71. Lewis, pp. 162-3, Du Bois quoted by Lewis.
  72. Lewis, p. 184.
  73. Lewis, pp. 199–200.
  74. Lewis, p. 711.
  75. Lomotey, pp. 354–355.
  76. Lomotey, pp. 355–356.
  77. Frazier, Edward Franklin (1957), The Negro in the United States, New York: Macmillan Company, p. 459
  78. Myrdal, Gunnar; Rose, Arnold M. (1964), An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and American Democracy, 2, New York: McGraw-Hill, p. 889
  79. Sowell, Thomas (1 January 2005), "Black Education: Achievements, Myths and Tragedies", Black Rednecks and White Liberals, New York: Encounter Books, pp. 231–235, ISBN 978-1-59403-086-4
  80. Sowell, Thomas (1981), Ethnic America: A History, New York: Basic Books, p. 208
  81. Du Bois, W. E. B. (November 1965). "W.E.B. Du Bois". The Atlantic Monthly (Interview). 216 (5). Interviewed by Ralph McGill. pp. 78–81. Archived from the original on December 10, 2020. 'The controversy,' [Du Bois] said, 'developed more between our followers than between us ... '
  82. Quoted by Lewis, p. 218.
  83. Lewis, pp. 215–216.
  84. DuBois, W.E.B. (September 1905). "The Niagara Movement". Voice of the Negro: 619–622.
  85. Lewis, pp. 218–219.
  86. Lewis, p. 220.
  87. Lewis, pp. 227–228. The Horizon lasted until 1910 when he developed The Crisis for publication as an instrument of the NAACP.
  88. Ransom, quoted by Lewis, p. 222.
  89. Gibson, Todd, "The Souls of Black Folk", in Young, p. 198.
  90. Lewis, p. 191.
  91. Lewis, p. 192. Du Bois quoted by Lewis.
  92. Lewis, pp. 194–195.
  93. Kahn, Jonathon S., Divine Discontent: The Religious Imagination of W. E. B. Du Bois, Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530789-4.
  94. Lewis, p. 223.
  95. Lewis, p. 224.
  96. Lewis, pp. 224–225.
  97. Lewis, p. 229.
  98. Lewis, p. 2226.
  99. Lewis, pp. 223–224, 230.
  100. Quoted by Lewis, p. 230. Conference was in Oberlin, Ohio.
  101. Lewis, p. 238.
  102. VendeCreek, Drew, "John Brown", in Young, pp. 32–33.
  103. Lewis, p. 240.
  104. Lewis, p. 244 (Colliers); p. 249 (Horizon).
  105. Lewis, p. 250.
  106. Lewis, p. 251.
  107. Lewis, p. 252.
  108. Lewis, David Levering, "Beyond Exclusivity: Writing Race, Class, Gender into U.S. History", date unknown, New York University, Silver Dialogues series.
  109. Lewis, pp. 256–258.
  110. Lewis, p. 258.
  111. Lewis, pp. 263–264.
  112. Lewis, p. 264.
  113. Lewis, p. 253 (whites), 264 (president).
  114. "What BR Ambedker wrote to WEB Du Bois". South Asian American Digital Archive. 22 April 2014. Retrieved14 September 2020.
  115. "Letter from BR Ambedker to WEB Du Bois". UMass Amherst. July 1946. Retrieved14 September 2020.
  116. Lewis, pp. 252, 265.
  117. Bowles, Amy, "NAACP", in Young, pp. 141–144.
  118. Lewis, pp. 268–269.
  119. Lewis, pp. 270 (success), 384 (circulation).
  120. Lewis, p. 271.
  121. Lewis, pp. 279–280.
  122. Quote from "Triumph", The Crisis, 2 (September 1911), p. 195.
  123. Lewis, p. 274.
  124. Hancock, Ange-Marie, "Socialism/Communism", in Young, p. 196 (member).
    Lewis, p. 275 (denounced).
  125. Lewis, p. 278. Wilson promised "to see justice done in every matter".
  126. Lewis pp. 43, 259, 522, 608.
  127. Donaldson, Shawn, "Women's Rights", in Young, pp. 219–221.
  128. Duong, Kevin (2021). "Universal Suffrage as Decolonization". American Political Science Review. 115 (2): 412–428. doi:10.1017/S0003055420000994. ISSN 0003-0554. S2CID 232422414.
  129. Lewis, pp. 272–273.
  130. Lewis, p. 275.
  131. Du Bois quoted in Lubin, Alex (2005), Romance and Rights: The Politics of Interracial Intimacy, 1945–1954, University Press of Mississippi, pp. 71–72.
  132. Lewis, pp. 312–324.
  133. Kory, Fern (2001). "Once upon a time in Aframerica: The "peculiar" significance of fairies in the Brownies' Book". In Lennox Keyser, Elizabeth; Pfeiffer, Julie (eds.). Children's Literature. Twayne's United States authors series. 29. Yale University Press. pp. 91–112. ISBN 978-0-300-08891-5. ISSN 0092-8208.
  134. Kommers Czarniecki, Kristin (2004). "Brownies' Book, The". In Wintz, Cary D.; Finkelman, Paul (eds.). Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance. 1 (A–J). Routledge. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-57958-389-7. LCCN 2004016353.
  135. Lewis, pp. 290–291.
  136. Lewis, pp. 293–296.
  137. Lewis, p. 301.
  138. Lewis, p. 303.
  139. Brown, Nikki, "World War I", in Young, pp. 224–226.
  140. Lewis, pp. 327–328.
  141. Lewis, p. 335.
  142. Watts, Trent, "The Birth of a Nation", in Young, p. 28.
  143. Lewis, p. 331.
  144. Lewis, p. 332.
  145. Lewis, p. 335 (editorial), p. 334 (Trotter).
  146. Lewis, p. 335 ("The Lynching Industry" was in the Feb 1915 issue).
    See also the July 1916 article: "The Waco Horror" at Brown University library Archived 27 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine or at Google Books
  147. Lewis, p. 336.
  148. Lewis, pp. 357–358. See, for example, Du Bois's editorial in the October 1916 edition of The Crisis.
  149. Lombardo, Paul A. (2011), A Century of Eugenics in America: From the Indiana Experiment to the Human Genome Era. pp. 74–75.
  150. Lewis, David Levering (2001), W. E. B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century 1919–1963, Owl Books. ISBN 978-0-8050-6813-9. p. 223.
  151. Lewis, p. 346.
  152. Lewis, pp. 346–347.
  153. Lewis, p. 348.
  154. Lewis, p. 349.
  155. Lewis, p. 348 (draft), 349 (racism).
  156. Lewis, p. 350.
  157. Lewis, p. 352.
  158. Lewis, p. 353.
  159. King, William, "Silent Protest Against Lynching", in Young, p. 191.
    Lewis, p. 352.
    The first was picketing against The Birth of a Nation.
  160. Lewis, p. 354.
  161. Lewis, p. 355; p. 384: about 1,000 black officers served during World War I.
  162. Lewis, p. 359.
  163. Lewis, p. 362.
  164. The column was published in July, but written in June.
  165. Lewis, p. 363. The offer was for a role in Military Intelligence.
  166. Lewis, pp. 363–364.
  167. Lewis, p. 366. The commission was withdrawn before Du Bois could begin actual military service.
  168. Lewis, pp. 367–368. The book, The Black Man and the Wounded World, was never published. Other authors covered the topic, such as Emmett Scott's Official History of the American Negro in the World War (1920).
  169. Lewis, pp. 371, 373.
  170. Lewis, p. 368.
  171. Lewis, p. 369.
  172. Lewis, p. 376.
  173. Lewis, p. 381.
  174. Du Bois quoted in Williams, Chad (2010), Torchbearers of Democracy: African American Soldiers in the World War I Era, UNC Press Books, p. 207.
  175. Lewis, p. 383.
  176. Lewis, p. 389.
  177. Lewis, p. 389. The sharecroppers were working with the Progressive Farmers and Household Union of America.
  178. Lewis, pp. 389–390.
  179. Lewis, p. 391.
  180. Lewis, p. 391. The other two would be Dusk of Dawn and The Autobiography of W. E. Burghardt Du Bois.
  181. Lewis, p. 394.
  182. Lewis, p. 392 (characterizes as "feminist").
  183. Lewis, pp. 405–406.
    The publication lasted two years, from January 1920 to December 1921.
    Online at Library of Congress (retrieved November 20, 2011).
  184. Lewis, p. 409.
  185. Lewis, p. 414.
  186. Lewis, p. 415.
  187. Lewis, pp. 416–424.
  188. Lewis, pp. 426–427.
  189. Du Bois, "The Black Star Line", Crisis, September 1922, pp. 210–214. Retrieved November 2, 2007.
  190. Lewis, p. 428.
  191. Lewis, p. 429.
  192. Lewis, p. 465.
  193. Lewis, pp. 467–468.
  194. Lewis, pp. 435–437. Quoted (from The Crisis, August 1911) by Lewis.
  195. Lewis, p. 442.
  196. Lewis, pp. 448–449.
  197. Lewis, pp. 450–463.
  198. Lewis, p. 471 (frequent).
    Horne, Malika, "Art and Artists", in Young, pp. 13–15.
    Lewis, p. 475 (article).
  199. Hamilton, Neil (2002), American Social Leaders and Activists, Infobase Publishing, p. 121. ISBN 9780816045358.
    Lewis, p. 480.
  200. Du Bois, January 1946, quoted by Horne, Malika, "Art and Artists", in Young, pp. 13–15. Emphasis is in Du Bois's original.
  201. Lewis, p. 481.
  202. Lewis, pp. 485, 487.
  203. "One of the greatest debates ever held, 1929". credo.library.umass.edu. Retrieved24 August 2019.
  204. Frazier, Ian (19 August 2019). "When W. E. B. Du Bois Made a Laughingstock of a White Supremacist". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved24 August 2019.
  205. Taylor, Carol M. (1981). "W.E.B. DuBois's Challenge to Scientific Racism". Journal of Black Studies. 11 (4): 449–460. doi:10.1177/002193478101100405. ISSN 0021-9347. JSTOR 2784074. PMID 11635221. S2CID 45779708.
  206. Du Bois, W. E. B.; Wilson, Woodrow (1973). "My Impressions of Woodrow Wilson". The Journal of Negro History. 58 (4): 453–459. doi:10.2307/2716751. ISSN 0022-2992. JSTOR 2716751.
  207. Yellin, Eric S. (2013). Racism in the Nation's Service: Government Workers and the Color Line in Woodrow Wilson's America. University of North Carolina Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-4696-0721-4.
  208. "Application to join the CPUSA by W.E.B. Du Bois, 1961". Communist Party USA. 2009-02-28. Retrieved2021-02-16.
  209. Stewart, Andrew (25 January 2016). "Why the Oscars Don't Deserve People of Color". www.counterpunch.org. CounterPunch. RetrievedMarch 17, 2016.
  210. Lewis, p. 486.
  211. Lewis, p. 487.
  212. Lewis, pp. 498–499.
  213. Lewis, pp. 498–507.
  214. Quoted by Lewis, p. 119.
  215. Balaji, Murali (2007), The Professor and the Pupil: The Politics and Friendship of W. E. B. Du Bois and Paul Robeson, Nation Books, pp. 70–71.
  216. Lewis, p. 513.
  217. Lewis, p. 514.
  218. Lewis, p. 517.
  219. Horne, pp. 143–144.
  220. Lewis, pp. 535, 547.
  221. Lewis, p. 544.
  222. Lewis, p. 545.
  223. Lewis, pp. 569–570.
  224. Lewis, p. 573.
  225. Lewis, p. 549.
  226. Lewis, pp. 549–550. Lewis states that Du Bois sometimes praised African-American spirituality, but not clergy or churches.
  227. King, Richard H. (2004), Race, Culture, and the Intellectuals, 1940–1970, Woodrow Wilson Center Press, pp. 43–44.
  228. Lewis, p. 551.
  229. Lewis, p. 553. The person on the ticket was James W. Ford, running for vice president.
  230. Lemert, Charles C. (2002), Dark thoughts: race and the eclipse of society, Psychology Press, pp. 227–229.
  231. Lewis, pp. 576–583.
  232. Aptheker, Herbert (1989), The literary legacy of W. E. B. Du Bois, Kraus International Publications, p. 211 (Du Bois called the work his "magnum opus").
  233. Lewis, p. 586.
  234. Lewis, pp. 583–586.
  235. Lewis, pp. 585–590 (thorough), pp. 583, 593 (ignored).
  236. Foner, Eric (1 December 1982). "Reconstruction Revisited". Reviews in American History. 10 (4): 82–100 [83]. doi:10.2307/2701820. ISSN 0048-7511. JSTOR 2701820.
  237. "During the civil rights era, however, it became apparent that Du Bois's scholarship, despite some limitations, had been ahead of its time." Campbell, James M.; Rebecca J. Fraser; Peter C. Mancall (2008). Reconstruction: People and Perspectives. ABC-CLIO. p. xx. ISBN 978-1-59884-021-6.
  238. "W. E. B. Du Bois's (1935/1998) Black Reconstruction in America, 1860–1880 is commonly regarded as the foundational text of revisionist African American historiography." Bilbija, Marina (1 September 2011). "Democracy's New Song". The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 637 (1): 64–77. doi:10.1177/0002716211407153. ISSN 0002-7162. S2CID 143636000.
  239. Du Bois, W. E. B. (1935).Black Reconstruction. Harcourt Brace. p. 713.
  240. Lewis, pp. 611, 618.
  241. Braley, Mark, "Encyclopedia Projects", in Young, pp. 73–78. Braley summarizes Du Bois's lifelong quest to create an encyclopedia.
  242. Lewis, p. 600.
  243. Zacharasiewicz, Waldemar (2007), Images of Germany in American literature, University of Iowa Press, p. 120.
  244. Fikes, Robert, "Germany", in Young, pp. 87–89.
  245. Broderick, Francis (1959), W. E. B. Du Bois: Negro Leader in a Time of Crisis, Stanford University Press, p. 192.
  246. Jefferson, Alphine, "Antisemitism", in Young, p. 10.
  247. Du Bois quoted by Lewis, David (1995), W. E. B. Du Bois: A Reader, p. 81.
  248. Original Du Bois source: Pittsburgh Courier, December 19, 1936.
  249. Kearney, Reginald (1995). "The Pro-Japanese Utterances of W.E.B. Du Bois". Contributions in Black Studies. 13 (7): 201–217. Retrieved8 August 2020.
  250. Gallicchio, Marc S. (2000), The African American Encounter with Japan and China: Black Internationalism in Asia, 1895–1945, University of North Carolina Press, p. 104, ISBN 978-0-8078-2559-4, OCLC 43334134
  251. Kearney 1995, p. 204.
  252. W. E. B. Du Bois, Newspaper Columns, Vol. 1, ed. Herbert Aptheker (White Plains, NY: Kraus-Thomson, 1986), pp. 167–68. (Column from the Pittsburg Courier in February 1937.) Quoted in Kearney 1995, p. 205.
  253. Kearney 1995, pp. 213–215.
  254. Lewis, pp. 631–632.
  255. Lewis, p. 633. The military later changed its policy, and units such as the Tuskegee Airmen saw combat.
  256. Lewis, p. 634.
  257. Horne, p. 144.
  258. Lewis, p. 637.
  259. Mostern, Kenneth, "Dusk of Dawn", in Young, pp. 65–66.
  260. Du Bois quoted by Lewis, p. 637.
  261. Lewis, pp. 643–644.
  262. Lewis, p. 644.
  263. Spingarn, quoted by Lewis, p. 645.
  264. Lewis, p. 648.
  265. Lewis, p. 647.
  266. Lewis, p. 654.
  267. Lewis, p. 656.
  268. Lewis, pp. 655, 657.
  269. Overstreet, H. A., Saturday Review, quoted in Lewis, p. 657.
  270. Lewis, p. 661.
  271. "A Statement on the Denial of Human Rights to Minorities in the Case of citizens of Negro Descent in the United States of America and an Appeal to the United Nations for Redress", National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 1947; "(1947) W.E.B. DuBois, “An Appeal to the World : A Statement of Denial of Human Rights to Minorities...". Via BlackPast, May 3, 2011.
  272. Plummer, Brenda Gayle (19 June 2020)."Civil Rights Has Always Been a Global Movement: How Allies Abroad Help the Fight Against Racism at Home". Foreign Affairs. Vol. 99 no. 5. ISSN 0015-7120. The United Nations formed at last in 1945, and the U.S. government gave the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the National Council of Negro Women ceremonial roles as observers at the founding conference, in the hope of encouraging domestic support for the new institution. Washington was displeased, however, when, in 1947, the NAACP submitted a 96-page petition to the UN Commission on Human Rights, asking it to investigate human rights violations against African Americans in the United States. Edited by W. E. B. Du Bois and titled "An Appeal to the World," the document began with a pointed denunciation of American hypocrisy.
  273. Civil Rights Congress (August 28, 1970). We Charge Genocide: The Crime of Government Against the Negro People. RetrievedAugust 28, 2017 – via Internet Archive.
  274. Charles H. Martin, "Internationalizing "The American Dilemma": The Civil Rights Congress and the 1951 Genocide", Journal of American Ethnic History 16(4), Summer 1997, accessed via JStor.
  275. Lewis, p. 663.
  276. Lewis, p. 669.
  277. Lewis, p. 670.
  278. Du Bois, Dusk of Dawn, quoted by Hancock, "Socialism/Communism", in Young, p. 196. Quote is from 1940.
  279. Lewis, p. 669. Du Bois quoted by Lewis.
  280. Lewis, pp. 681–682.
  281. Lewis, p. 683.
  282. Schneider, Paul, "Peace Movement", in Young, p. 163. In his college days, Du Bois vowed to never take up arms.
  283. Lewis, p. 685.
  284. Lewis, pp. 685–687.
  285. Lewis, p. 687.
  286. Lewis, p. 691.
  287. Marable, p. xx.
  288. Marable, p xx . ("ruthless repression").
    Marable, Manning (1991), Race, Reform, and Rebellion: The Second Reconstruction in Black America, 1945–1990, University Press of Mississippi, p. 104 ("political assassination"). Marable quoted by Gabbidon, p. 55.
  289. Gabbidon, p. 54.
  290. Federal Bureau of Incestigation (1942). William E. B. DuBois File#: 100–99729.
  291. Keen, Mike Forrest (2004). Stalking sociologists : J. Edgar Hoover's FBI surveillance of American sociology. Keen, Mike Forrest. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-7658-0563-8. OCLC 52739297.
  292. Lewis, p. 688.
  293. Lewis, p. 689.
  294. Horne, pp. 168–169.
  295. Lieberman, Robbie (2000), The Strangest Dream: Communism, Anticommunism, and the U.S. Peace Movement, 1945–1963, Syracuse University Press, pp. 92–93.
  296. Gabbidon, p. 54: The government felt that the PIC was an agent of the USSR, although that country was never specifically identified.
  297. Johnson, Robert C., Jr. (1998). Race, Law and Public Policy: Cases and Materials on Law and Public Policy of Race. Black Classic Press. p. 472. ISBN 978-1-58073-019-8. OCLC 54617416. Archived from the original on 3 May 2014.
  298. Michel, Casey; Freeman, Ben (2020-09-03)."The Danger of Banning Foreign Lobbying: It's a Real Problem, But Biden's Proposal Isn't the Right Fix". Foreign Affairs. Vol. 99 no. 5. ISSN 0015-7120.
  299. Lewis, p. 692 (associates); p. 693 (NAACP); pp. 693–694 (support).
  300. Lewis, p. 690
  301. Jerome, Fred; Taylor, Rodger (July 1, 2006). "Einstein on Race and Racism". Souls. 9 (4): 121. doi:10.1080/10999940701703851. S2CID 141762653.
  302. Lewis, pp. 696, 707. Du Bois refused to sign a non-Communist affidavit that would enable him to regain his passport.
  303. Hancock, Ange-Marie, "Socialism/Communism", in Young, p. 197. The NAACP had a Legal Defense Fund for cases like Du Bois's, but they chose not to support Du Bois.
  304. Lewis, p. 696.
  305. Lewis, p. 697.
  306. Lewis, pp. 690, 694, 695.
  307. Lewis, p. 698.
  308. Porter, Eric (2012), The Problem of the Future World: W. E. B. Du Bois and the Race Concept at Midcentury. Duke University Press, pp. 10, 71.
  309. Du Bois, W. E. B. "On Stalin", National Guardian, March 16, 1953.
  310. Mostern, Kenneth (2001), "Bandung Conference", in Young, pp. 23–24.
  311. Lewis, pp. 701-06
  312. Lewis, p. 709.
  313. Du Bois (1968), Autobiography, p. 57; quoted by Hancock, Ange-Marie, "Socialism/Communism", in Young, p. 197.
  314. Lewis, pp. 696, 707, 708.
  315. Lewis, pp. 709–711.
  316. Lewis, p. 712.
  317. "Renouncing citizenship is usually all about the Benjamins, say experts". Fox News. May 11, 2012. RetrievedMay 18, 2015.
  318. "Celebrities Who Renounced Their Citizenship". Huffington Post. February 1, 2012. RetrievedMay 18, 2015.
  319. Aberjhani, Sandra L. West (2003). Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance. Infobase Publishing. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-4381-3017-0. RetrievedMay 18, 2015.
  320. Lewis, p. 841, footnote 39.
  321. Blum, Edward J. (2007), W. E. B. Du Bois, American Prophet, University of Pennsylvania Press, p. 211.
  322. Horne, p. xii.
  323. Bass, Amy (2009), Those About Him Remained Silent: The Battle over W. E. B. Du Bois, University of Minnesota Press, p. xiii.
  324. Shipley, Jesse Weaver; Pierre, Jemima (2007). "The Intellectual and Pragmatic Legacy of Du Bois's Pan-Africanism in Contemporary Ghana". In Keller, Mary; Fontenot Jr., Chester J. (eds.). Re-Cognizing W. E. B. Du Bois in the Twenty-First Century: Essays on W. E. B. Du Bois. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press. pp. 61–87. ISBN 978-0-88146-077-3.
  325. Horne, p. 11.
  326. Lewis, pp. 74, 231–232, 613.
  327. Lewis, p. 231.
  328. Lewis, pp. 54, 156 (aloof), p. 3 (address).
  329. Lewis, p. 54 (gregarious), p. 124 (Young and Dunbar), p. 177 (Hope), pp. 213, 234 (Ovington).
  330. Lewis, pp. 316–324, 360–368 (Spingarn), p. 316 (best friend), p. 557 (first name basis).
  331. Lewis, pp. 54, 156, 638.
  332. Lewis, p. 54 (height).
  333. Du Bois, W. E. B. (2001) [first pub. 1968]. "Harvard in the Last Decades of the 19th Century". In Bloom, Harold (ed.).W. E. B. Du Bois. Modern Critical Views. New York: Chelsea House. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-4381-1356-2. Only one organization did I try to enter, and I ought to have known better than to make this attempt. But I did have a good singing voice and loved music, so I entered the competition for the Glee Club. I ought to have known that Harvard could not afford to have a Negro on its Glee Club traveling about the country. Quite naturally I was rejected.
  334. Bolden, Tonya (2008). Up Close, W. E. B. Du Bois: A Twentieth-century Life. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-670-06302-4.
  335. Jones, Jacqueline C. (2004). "Cullen–Du Bois Wedding". In Wintz, Cary D.; Finkelman, Paul (eds.). Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance: A–J. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-57958-457-3.
  336. De Luca, Laura, "David Graham Du Bois", in Young, pp. 55–56.
  337. Lingeman, Richard, "Soul on Fire", The New York Times, November 5, 2000. Retrieved December 2, 2011. A review of The Fight for Equality and the American Century, 1919–1963.
  338. Lewis, p. 55.
  339. Rabaka, p. 127 (freethinker); Lewis, p. 550 (agnostic, atheist); Johnson, passim (agnostic).
  340. Lewis, p. 157; Johnson, p. 55.
  341. Autobiography, p. 181. Quoted in Rabaka, p. 127.
  342. Horne, Malika, "Religion", in Young, p. 181.
  343. Chidester, David, "Religious Animals, Refuge of the Gods and the Spirit of Revolt: W. E. B. Du Bois's representations of Indigenous African Religions", in Mary Keller & Chester J. Fontenot Jr. (eds), Re-cognizing W. E. B. Du Bois in the Twenty-first century: Essays on W. E. B. Du Bois (Mercer University Press, 2007), p. 35. ISBN 978-0-88146-059-9
  344. Malika Horne, "Religion", in Young, pp. 181–182 ("basic rock"); Lewis, p. 550.
  345. Blum, Edward J. (2009), The Souls of W. E. B. Du Bois: New Essays and Reflections, Mercer University Press, pp. iii–xxi.
  346. For additional analysis of Du Bois and religion, see Blum, Edward J. (2007), W. E. B. Du Bois, American Prophet, University of Pennsylvania Press; and Kahn, Jonathon S. (2011), Divine Discontent: The Religious Imagination of W. E. B. Du Bois, Oxford University Press.
  347. Lewis, pp. 212–213. "Credo" was reprinted in Du Bois's first autobiography Darkwater (1920) (text available here).
  348. Kuhl, Michelle, "Resurrecting Black Manhood: W. E. B. Du Bois' Martyr Tales", in Blum & Young (eds), The Souls of W. E. B. Du Bois: New Essays and Reflections (Mercer University Press, 2009), p. 161. ISBN 978-0-88146-136-7
  349. Brunner, Marta, "The Most Hopeless of Deaths ... Is the Death of Faith: Messianic Faith in the Racial Politics of W. E. B. Du Bois", in Keller & Fontenot (2007), p. 189.
  350. "I Won't Vote". The Nation. February 7, 2002. Archived from the original on July 21, 2020.
  351. Lewis, p. 398.
  352. "W. E. B. Du Bois and members of Phi Beta Kappa, Fisk University, 1958, 1958". credo.library.umass.edu. Retrieved9 April 2019.
  353. Lewis, p. 3.
  354. Savage, Beth, (1994), African American Historic Places, John Wiley and Sons, p. 277.
  355. Sama, Dominic, "New U.S. Issue Honors W. E. B. Du Bois", Chicago Tribune, February 2, 1992. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  356. Han, John J. (2007), "W. E. B. Du Bois", in Encyclopedia of American Race Riots, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 181.
  357. "W. E. B. Du Bois Medal Recipients. The Hutchins Center for African & African American Research". hutchinscenter.fas.harvard.edu. Retrieved28 October 2018.
  358. "The History of W. E. B. Du Bois College House" Archived 19 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine, University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  359. Bloom, Harold (2001), W. E. B. Du Bois, Infobase Publishing, p. 244.
  360. "W. E. B. Du Bois Lectures", Humboldt University. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  361. Asante, Molefi Kete (2002), 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia, Prometheus Books, pp. 114–116.
  362. "Noteworthy", The Crisis, November/December 2005, p. 64.
  363. "Holy Women, Holy Men: Celebrating the Saints" (PDF), Church Publishing, 2010. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
  364. "William Edward Burghardt DuBois: Sociologist, 1963". Episcopal Church. 17 August 2011. Retrieved1 August 2019.
  365. "Dr. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois: Honorary Emeritus Professorship of Sociology and Africana Studies", The University of Pennsylvania Almanac, February 7, 2012
  366. "W. E. B. Du Bois receives honorary emeritus professorship", The Daily Pennsylvanian, February 19, 2012.
  367. "Du Bois Art Projects". CAUDuBoisLegacy.net. Clark Atlanta University. Archived from the original on 20 October 2017. RetrievedMay 12, 2017.
  368. "Education Outreach Through Music". Harvard Graduate School of Education. Retrieved3 March 2021.
  369. WEB Du Bois awarded Grand Prix de la Mémoire: Lebledparle.com
  370. Bois, W. E. B. (2020). The Gift of Black Folk The Negroes in the Making of America. Newburyport: Open Road Media. ISBN 9781504064200. OCLC 1178648633. Retrieved15 October 2020.
  371. "W. E. B. Du Bois Papers". UMass Amherst Libraries. Special Collections and University Archives. RetrievedOctober 8, 2020.

Documentaries

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W. E. B. Du Bois
W E B Du Bois Language Watch Edit This article is about the American sociologist historian civil rights activist and author For other people with a similar name see William DuBois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois dj uː ˈ b ɔɪ s dew BOYSS 1 2 February 23 1868 August 27 1963 was an American sociologist socialist historian civil rights activist Pan Africanist author writer and editor Born in Great Barrington Massachusetts Du Bois grew up in a relatively tolerant and integrated community and after completing graduate work at the University of Berlin and Harvard where he was the first African American to earn a doctorate he became a professor of history sociology and economics at Atlanta University Du Bois was one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP in 1909 W E B Du BoisW E B Du Bois in 1918BornWilliam Edward Burghardt Du Bois 1868 02 23 February 23 1868 Great Barrington Massachusetts U S DiedAugust 27 1963 1963 08 27 aged 95 Accra GhanaAlma materFisk UniversityHarvard UniversityUniversity of BerlinKnown forThe Souls of Black FolkBlack Reconstruction in AmericaThe CrisisSpouse s Nina Gomer m 1896 died 1950 wbr Lola Shirley Graham Jr m 1951 wbr Children2 including YolandeAwardsSpingarn Medal 1920 Lenin Peace Prize 1959Scientific careerFieldsCivil rights sociology historyInstitutionsAtlanta University NAACPThesisThe Suppression of the African Slave trade to the United States of America 1638 1870 1896 Doctoral advisorAlbert Bushnell HartInfluencesAlexander Crummell William JamesSignature Earlier Du Bois had risen to national prominence as a leader of the Niagara Movement a group of African American activists who wanted equal rights for blacks Du Bois and his supporters opposed the Atlanta compromise an agreement crafted by Booker T Washington which provided that Southern blacks would work and submit to white political rule while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic educational and economic opportunities Instead Du Bois insisted on full civil rights and increased political representation which he believed would be brought about by the African American intellectual elite He referred to this group as the Talented Tenth a concept under the umbrella of racial uplift and believed that African Americans needed the chances for advanced education to develop its leadership Racism was the main target of Du Bois s polemics and he strongly protested against lynching Jim Crow laws and discrimination in education and employment His cause included people of color everywhere particularly Africans and Asians in colonies He was a proponent of Pan Africanism and helped organize several Pan African Congresses to fight for the independence of African colonies from European powers Du Bois made several trips to Europe Africa and Asia After World War I he surveyed the experiences of American black soldiers in France and documented widespread prejudice and racism in the United States military Du Bois was a prolific author His collection of essays The Souls of Black Folk is a seminal work in African American literature and his 1935 magnum opus Black Reconstruction in America challenged the prevailing orthodoxy that blacks were responsible for the failures of the Reconstruction Era Borrowing a phrase from Frederick Douglass he popularized the use of the term color line to represent the injustice of the separate but equal doctrine prevalent in American social and political life He opens The Souls of Black Folk with the central thesis of much of his life s work The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line His 1940 autobiography Dusk of Dawn is regarded in part as one of the first scientific treatises in the field of American sociology and he published two other life stories all three containing essays on sociology politics and history In his role as editor of the NAACP s journal The Crisis he published many influential pieces Du Bois believed that capitalism was a primary cause of racism and he was generally sympathetic to socialist causes throughout his life He was an ardent peace activist and advocated nuclear disarmament The United States Civil Rights Act embodying many of the reforms for which Du Bois had campaigned his entire life was enacted a year after his death Contents 1 Early life 1 1 University education 1 2 Wilberforce and Philadelphia 2 Atlanta University 2 1 First Pan African Conference 2 2 1900 Paris Exposition 2 3 Booker T Washington and the Atlanta Compromise 2 4 Niagara Movement 2 5 The Souls of Black Folk 2 6 Racial violence 2 7 Academic work 3 NAACP era 3 1 The Crisis 3 2 Historian and author 3 3 Combating racism 3 4 World War I 3 5 After the war 3 6 Pan Africanism and Marcus Garvey 3 7 Harlem Renaissance 3 8 Debate with Lothrop Stoddard 3 9 Socialism 4 Return to Atlanta 4 1 Black Reconstruction in America 4 2 Projected encyclopedia 4 3 Trip around the world 4 4 World War II 5 Later life 5 1 United Nations 5 2 Cold War 5 3 Peace activism 5 4 The FBI McCarthyism and trial 5 5 Communism 5 6 Death in Africa 6 Personal life 6 1 Religion 6 2 Voting 7 Honors and legacy 8 Selected works 8 1 Non fiction books 8 2 Articles 8 3 Autobiographies 8 4 Novels 8 5 Archives of The Crisis 8 6 Recordings 8 7 Dissertations 8 8 Speeches 9 Archival material 10 See also 11 Footnotes 12 References 13 Further reading 13 1 Documentaries 14 External linksEarly life As a child Du Bois attended the Congregational Church in Great Barrington Massachusetts Church members collected donations to pay Du Bois s college tuition 3 William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was born on February 23 1868 in Great Barrington Massachusetts to Alfred and Mary Silvina nee Burghardt Du Bois 4 Mary Silvina Burghardt s family was part of the very small free black population of Great Barrington and had long owned land in the state She was descended from Dutch African and English ancestors 5 William Du Bois s maternal great great grandfather was Tom Burghardt a slave born in West Africa around 1730 who was held by the Dutch colonist Conraed Burghardt Tom briefly served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War which may have been how he gained his freedom during the late 18th century His son Jack Burghardt was the father of Othello Burghardt who in turn was the father of Mary Silvina Burghardt 6 William Du Bois claimed Elizabeth Freeman as his relative he wrote that she had married his great grandfather Jack Burghardt 7 8 But Freeman was 20 years older than Burghardt and no record of such a marriage has been found It may have been Freeman s daughter Betsy Humphrey who married Burghardt after her first husband Jonah Humphrey left the area around 1811 and after Burghardt s first wife died c 1810 If so Freeman would have been William Du Bois s step great great grandmother Anecdotal evidence supports Humphrey s marrying Burghardt a close relationship of some form is likely 9 William Du Bois s paternal great grandfather was James Du Bois of Poughkeepsie New York an ethnic French American of Huguenot origin who fathered several children with slave women 10 One of James mixed race sons was Alexander who was born on Long Cay in the Bahamas in 1803 in 1810 he immigrated to the United States with his father 11 Alexander Du Bois traveled and worked in Haiti where he fathered a son Alfred with a mistress Alexander returned to Connecticut leaving Alfred in Haiti with his mother 12 Sometime before 1860 Alfred Du Bois immigrated to the United States settling in Massachusetts He married Mary Silvina Burghardt on February 5 1867 in Housatonic a village in Great Barrington 12 Alfred left Mary in 1870 two years after their son William was born 13 Mary Du Bois moved with her son back to her parents house in Great Barrington and they lived there until he was five She worked to support her family receiving some assistance from her brother and neighbors until she suffered a stroke in the early 1880s She died in 1885 14 15 Great Barrington had a majority European American community who generally treated Du Bois well He attended the local integrated public school and played with white schoolmates As an adult he wrote about racism that he felt as a fatherless child and being a minority in the town But teachers recognized his ability and encouraged his intellectual pursuits and his rewarding experience with academic studies led him to believe that he could use his knowledge to empower African Americans 16 He graduated from the town s Searles High School When he decided to attend college the congregation of his childhood church the First Congregational Church of Great Barrington raised the money for his tuition 17 3 18 University education The title page of Du Bois s Harvard dissertation Suppression of the African Slave Trade in the United States of America 1638 1871 Relying on this money donated by neighbors Du Bois attended Fisk University a historically black college in Nashville Tennessee from 1885 to 1888 19 Like other Fisk students who relied on summer and intermittent teaching to support their university studies Du Bois taught school during the summer of 1886 after his sophomore year 20 His travel to and residency in the South was Du Bois s first experience with Southern racism which at the time encompassed Jim Crow laws bigotry suppression of black voting and lynchings the lattermost reached a peak in the next decade 21 After receiving a bachelor s degree from Fisk he attended Harvard College which did not accept course credits from Fisk from 1888 to 1890 where he was strongly influenced by professor William James prominent in American philosophy 22 Du Bois paid his way through three years at Harvard with money from summer jobs an inheritance scholarships and loans from friends In 1890 Harvard awarded Du Bois his second bachelor s degree cum laude in history 23 In 1891 Du Bois received a scholarship to attend the sociology graduate school at Harvard 24 In 1892 Du Bois received a fellowship from the John F Slater Fund for the Education of Freedmen to attend the University of Berlin for graduate work 25 While a student in Berlin he traveled extensively throughout Europe He came of age intellectually in the German capital while studying with some of that nation s most prominent social scientists including Gustav von Schmoller Adolph Wagner and Heinrich von Treitschke 26 He also met Max Weber who was highly impressed with Du Bois and would later cite Du Bois as a counter example to racists alleging the inferiority of Blacks Weber would again meet Du Bois in 1904 on a visit to the US just ahead of the publication of the seminal The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism He wrote about his time in Germany I found myself on the outside of the American world looking in With me were white folk students acquaintances teachers who viewed the scene with me They did not always pause to regard me as a curiosity or something sub human I was just a man of the somewhat privileged student rank with whom they were glad to meet and talk over the world particularly the part of the world whence I came 27 After returning from Europe Du Bois completed his graduate studies in 1895 he was the first African American to earn a Ph D from Harvard University 28 Wilberforce and Philadelphia Between me and the other world there is ever an unasked question How does it feel to be a problem One ever feels his two ness an American a Negro two souls two thoughts two unreconciled strivings two warring ideals in one dark body whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder He would not Africanize America for America has too much to teach the world and Africa He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of white Americanism for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face Du Bois Strivings of the Negro People 1897 29 In the summer of 1894 Du Bois received several job offers including from the prestigious Tuskegee Institute he accepted a teaching job at Wilberforce University in Ohio 30 31 At Wilberforce Du Bois was strongly influenced by Alexander Crummell who believed that ideas and morals are necessary tools to effect social change 32 While at Wilberforce Du Bois married Nina Gomer one of his students on May 12 1896 33 After two years at Wilberforce Du Bois accepted a one year research job from the University of Pennsylvania as an assistant in sociology in the summer of 1896 34 He performed sociological field research in Philadelphia s African American neighborhoods which formed the foundation for his landmark study The Philadelphia Negro published in 1899 while he was teaching at Atlanta University It was the first case study of a black community in the United States 35 By the 1890s Philadelphia s black neighborhoods had a negative reputation in terms of crime poverty and mortality Du Bois s book undermined the stereotypes with empirical evidence and shaped his approach to segregation and its negative impact on black lives and reputations The results led him to realize that racial integration was the key to democratic equality in American cities 36 The methodology employed in The Philadelphia Negro namely the description and the mapping of social characteristics onto neighborhood areas was a forerunner to the studies under the Chicago School of Sociology 37 While taking part in the American Negro Academy ANA in 1897 Du Bois presented a paper in which he rejected Frederick Douglass s plea for black Americans to integrate into white society He wrote we are Negroes members of a vast historic race that from the very dawn of creation has slept but half awakening in the dark forests of its African fatherland 38 In the August 1897 issue of The Atlantic Monthly Du Bois published Strivings of the Negro People his first work aimed at the general public in which he enlarged upon his thesis that African Americans should embrace their African heritage while contributing to American society 39 Atlanta UniversityIn July 1897 Du Bois left Philadelphia and took a professorship in history and economics at the historically black Atlanta University in Georgia 40 41 His first major academic work was his book The Philadelphia Negro 1899 a detailed and comprehensive sociological study of the African American people of Philadelphia based on his fieldwork in 1896 1897 This breakthrough in scholarship was the first scientific study of African Americans and a major contribution to early scientific sociology in the U S 42 43 Du Bois coined the phrase the submerged tenth to describe the black underclass in the study Later in 1903 he popularized the term the Talented Tenth applied to society s elite class His terminology reflected his opinion that the elite of a nation both black and white were critical to achievements in culture and progress 44 During this period he wrote dismissively of the underclass describing them as lazy or unreliable but in contrast to other scholars he attributed many of their societal problems to the ravages of slavery 45 Du Bois s output at Atlanta University was prodigious in spite of a limited budget he produced numerous social science papers and annually hosted the Atlanta Conference of Negro Problems 46 He also received grants from the U S government to prepare reports about African American workforce and culture 47 His students considered him to be a brilliant but aloof and strict teacher 48 First Pan African Conference Du Bois attended the First Pan African Conference held in London on 23 25 July 1900 shortly ahead of the Paris Exhibition of 1900 to allow tourists of African descent to attend both events 49 The Conference had been organized by people from the Caribbean Haitians Antenor Firmin and Benito Sylvain and Trinidadian barrister Henry Sylvester Williams 50 Du Bois played a leading role in drafting a letter Address to the Nations of the World asking European leaders to struggle against racism to grant colonies in Africa and the West Indies the right to self government and to demand political and other rights for African Americans 51 By this time southern states were passing new laws and constitutions to disfranchise most African Americans an exclusion from the political system that lasted into the 1960s At the conclusion of the conference delegates unanimously adopted the Address to the Nations of the World and sent it to various heads of state where people of African descent were living and suffering oppression 52 The address implored the United States and the imperial European nations to acknowledge and protect the rights of people of African descent and to respect the integrity and independence of the free Negro States of Abyssinia Liberia Haiti etc 53 It was signed by Bishop Alexander Walters President of the Pan African Association the Canadian Rev Henry B Brown vice president Williams General Secretary and Du Bois Chairman of the committee on the Address 54 The address included Du Bois s observation The problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of the colour line He used this again three years later in the Forethought of his book The Souls of Black Folk 1903 55 1900 Paris Exposition Du Bois was the primary organizer of The Exhibit of American Negroes at the Exposition Universelle held in Paris between April and November 1900 for which he put together a series of 363 photographs aiming to commemorate the lives of African Americans at the turn of the century and challenge the racist caricatures and stereotypes of the day 56 57 Also included were charts graphs and maps 58 59 He was awarded a gold medal for his role as compiler of the materials which are now housed at the Library of Congress 57 Booker T Washington and the Atlanta Compromise Du Bois in 1904 In the first decade of the new century Du Bois emerged as a spokesperson for his race second only to Booker T Washington 60 Washington was the director of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama and wielded tremendous influence within the African American and white communities 61 Washington was the architect of the Atlanta Compromise an unwritten deal that he had struck in 1895 with Southern white leaders who dominated state governments after Reconstruction Essentially the agreement provided that Southern blacks who overwhelmingly lived in rural communities would submit to the current discrimination segregation disenfranchisement and non unionized employment that Southern whites would permit blacks to receive a basic education some economic opportunities and justice within the legal system and that Northern whites would invest in Southern enterprises and fund black educational charities 62 63 64 Despite initially sending congratulations to Washington for his Atlanta Exposition Speech 65 66 Du Bois later came to oppose Washington s plan along with many other African Americans including Archibald H Grimke Kelly Miller James Weldon Johnson and Paul Laurence Dunbar representatives of the class of educated blacks that Du Bois would later call the talented tenth 67 68 Du Bois felt that African Americans should fight for equal rights and higher opportunities rather than passively submit to the segregation and discrimination of Washington s Atlanta Compromise 69 Du Bois was inspired to greater activism by the lynching of Sam Hose which occurred near Atlanta in 1899 70 Hose was tortured burned and hung by a mob of two thousand whites When walking through Atlanta to discuss the lynching with newspaper editor Joel Chandler Harris Du Bois encountered Hose s burned knuckles in a storefront display The episode stunned Du Bois and he resolved that one could not be a calm cool and detached scientist while Negroes were lynched murdered and starved Du Bois realized that the cure wasn t simply telling people the truth it was inducing them to act on the truth 71 In 1901 Du Bois wrote a review critical of Washington s autobiography Up from Slavery 72 which he later expanded and published to a wider audience as the essay Of Mr Booker T Washington and Others in The Souls of Black Folk 73 Later in life Du Bois regretted having been critical of Washington in those essays 74 One of the contrasts between the two leaders was their approach to education Washington felt that African American schools should focus primarily on industrial education topics such as agricultural and mechanical skills to prepare southern blacks for the opportunities in the rural areas where most lived 75 Du Bois felt that black schools should focus more on liberal arts and academic curriculum including the classics arts and humanities because liberal arts were required to develop a leadership elite 76 However as sociologist E Franklin Frazier and economists Gunnar Myrdal and Thomas Sowell have argued such disagreement over education was a minor point of difference between Washington and Du Bois both men acknowledged the importance of the form of education that the other emphasized 77 78 79 Sowell has also argued that despite genuine disagreements between the two leaders the supposed animosity between Washington and Du Bois actually formed among their followers not between Washington and Du Bois themselves 80 Du Bois also made this observation in an interview published in The Atlantic Monthly in November 1965 81 Niagara Movement Founders of the Niagara Movement in 1905 Du Bois is in the middle row with white hat The Negro race in America stolen ravished and degraded struggling up through difficulties and oppression needs sympathy and receives criticism needs help and is given hindrance needs protection and is given mob violence needs justice and is given charity needs leadership and is given cowardice and apology needs bread and is given a stone This nation will never stand justified before God until these things are changed Declaration of Principles Niagara Movement 1905 82 In 1905 Du Bois and several other African American civil rights activists including Fredrick L McGhee Jesse Max Barber and William Monroe Trotter met in Canada near Niagara Falls 83 where they wrote a declaration of principles opposing the Atlanta Compromise and which were incorporated as the Niagara Movement in 1906 84 They wanted to publicize their ideals to other African Americans but most black periodicals were owned by publishers sympathetic to Washington so Du Bois bought a printing press and started publishing Moon Illustrated Weekly in December 1905 85 It was the first African American illustrated weekly and Du Bois used it to attack Washington s positions but the magazine lasted only for about eight months 86 Du Bois soon founded and edited another vehicle for his polemics The Horizon A Journal of the Color Line which debuted in 1907 Freeman H M Murray and Lafayette M Hershaw served as The Horizon s co editors 87 The Niagarites held a second conference in August 1906 in celebration of the 100th anniversary of abolitionist John Brown s birth at the West Virginia site of Brown s raid on Harper s Ferry 86 Reverdy C Ransom spoke explaining that Washington s primary goal was to prepare blacks for employment in their current society Today two classes of Negroes are standing at the parting of the ways The one counsels patient submission to our present humiliations and degradations The other class believe that it should not submit to being humiliated degraded and remanded to an inferior place I t does not believe in bartering its manhood for the sake of gain 88 The Souls of Black Folk Main article The Souls of Black Folk In an effort to portray the genius and humanity of the black race Du Bois published The Souls of Black Folk 1903 a collection of 14 essays 89 90 James Weldon Johnson said the book s effect on African Americans was comparable to that of Uncle Tom s Cabin 90 The introduction famously proclaimed that the problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of the color line 91 Each chapter begins with two epigraphs one from a white poet and one from a black spiritual to demonstrate intellectual and cultural parity between black and white cultures 89 A major theme of the work was the double consciousness faced by African Americans being both American and black This was a unique identity which according to Du Bois had been a handicap in the past but could be a strength in the future Henceforth the destiny of the race could be conceived as leading neither to assimilation nor separatism but to proud enduring hyphenation 92 Jonathon S Kahn in Divine Discontent The Religious Imagination of Du Bois shows how Du Bois in his The Souls of Black Folk represents an exemplary text of pragmatic religious naturalism On page 12 Kahn writes Du Bois needs to be understood as an African American pragmatic religious naturalist By this I mean that like Du Bois the American traditional pragmatic religious naturalism which runs through William James George Santayana and John Dewey seeks religion without metaphysical foundations Kahn s interpretation of religious naturalism is very broad but he relates it to specific thinkers Du Bois s anti metaphysical viewpoint places him in the sphere of religious naturalism as typified by William James and others 93 Racial violence Two calamities in the autumn of 1906 shocked African Americans and they contributed to strengthening support for Du Bois s struggle for civil rights to prevail over Booker T Washington s accommodationism First President Teddy Roosevelt dishonorably discharged 167 black soldiers because they were accused of crimes as a result of the Brownsville Affair Many of the discharged soldiers had served for 20 years and were near retirement 94 Second in September riots broke out in Atlanta precipitated by unfounded allegations of black men assaulting white women This was a catalyst for racial tensions based on a job shortage and employers playing black workers against white workers 95 Ten thousand whites rampaged through Atlanta beating every black person they could find resulting in over 25 deaths 96 In the aftermath of the 1906 violence Du Bois urged blacks to withdraw their support from the Republican Party because Republicans Roosevelt and William Howard Taft did not sufficiently support blacks Most African Americans had been loyal to the Republican Party since the time of Abraham Lincoln 97 Du Bois wrote the essay A Litany at Atlanta which asserted that the riot demonstrated that the Atlanta Compromise was a failure Despite upholding their end of the bargain blacks had failed to receive legal justice in the South Historian David Levering Lewis has written that the Compromise no longer held because white patrician planters who took a paternalistic role had been replaced by aggressive businessmen who were willing to pit blacks against whites 98 These two calamities were watershed events for the African American community marking the ascendancy of Du Bois s vision of equal rights 99 Academic work Once we were told Be worthy and fit and the ways are open Today the avenues of advancement in the army navy civil service and even business and professional life are continually closed to black applicants of proven fitness simply on the bald excuse of race and color Du Bois Address at Fourth Niagara conference 1908 100 In addition to writing editorials Du Bois continued to produce scholarly work at Atlanta University In 1909 after five years of effort he published a biography of abolitionist John Brown It contained many insights but also contained some factual errors 101 102 The work was strongly criticized by The Nation which was owned by Oswald Villard who was writing his own competing biography of John Brown Possibly as a result Du Bois s work was largely ignored by white scholars 103 After publishing a piece in Collier s magazine warning of the end of white supremacy Du Bois had difficulty getting pieces accepted by major periodicals although he did continue to publish columns regularly in The Horizon magazine 104 Du Bois was the first African American invited by the American Historical Association AHA to present a paper at their annual conference He read his paper Reconstruction and Its Benefits to an astounded audience at the AHA s December 1909 conference 105 The paper went against the mainstream historical view promoted by the Dunning School of scholars at Columbia University that Reconstruction was a disaster caused by the ineptitude and sloth of blacks To the contrary Du Bois asserted that the brief period of African American leadership in the South accomplished three important goals democracy free public schools and new social welfare legislation 106 Du Bois asserted that it was the federal government s failure to manage the Freedmen s Bureau to distribute land and to establish an educational system that doomed African American prospects in the South 106 When Du Bois submitted the paper for publication a few months later in the American Historical Review he asked that the word Negro be capitalized The editor J Franklin Jameson refused and published the paper without the capitalization 107 The paper was mostly ignored by white historians 106 Du Bois later developed his paper as his ground breaking 1935 book Black Reconstruction which marshaled extensive facts to support his assertions 105 The AHA did not invite another African American speaker until 1940 108 NAACP eraIn May 1909 Du Bois attended the National Negro Conference in New York 109 The meeting led to the creation of the National Negro Committee chaired by Oswald Villard and dedicated to campaigning for civil rights equal voting rights and equal educational opportunities 110 The following spring in 1910 at the second National Negro Conference the attendees created the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP 111 At Du Bois s suggestion the word colored rather than black was used to include dark skinned people everywhere 112 Dozens of civil rights supporters black and white participated in the founding but most executive officers were white including Mary Ovington Charles Edward Russell William English Walling and its first president Moorfield Storey 113 Feeling inspired by this Indian social reformer and civil rights activist Dr B R Ambedkar contacted Du Bois in the 1940s In a letter to Du Bois in 1946 he introduced himself as a member of the Untouchables of India and a student of the Negro problem and expressed his interest in the NAACP s petition to the U N He noted that his group was thinking of following suit and requested copies of the proposed statement from Du Bois In a letter dated July 31 1946 Du Bois responded by telling Ambedkar he was familiar with his name and that he had every sympathy with the Untouchables of India 114 115 The Crisis Du Bois c 1911 NAACP leaders offered Du Bois the position of Director of Publicity and Research 116 He accepted the job in the summer of 1910 and moved to New York after resigning from Atlanta University His primary duty was editing the NAACP s monthly magazine which he named The Crisis 117 The first issue appeared in November 1910 and Du Bois wrote that its aim was to set out those facts and arguments which show the danger of race prejudice particularly as manifested today toward colored people 118 The journal was phenomenally successful and its circulation would reach 100 000 in 1920 119 Typical articles in the early editions polemics against the dishonesty and parochialism of black churches and disussions on the Afrocentric origins of Egyptian civilization 120 A 1911 Du Bois editorial helped initiate a nationwide push to induce the Federal government to outlaw lynching Du Bois employing the sarcasm he frequently used commented on a lynching in Pennsylvania The point is he was black Blackness must be punished Blackness is the crime of crimes It is therefore necessary as every white scoundrel in the nation knows to let slip no opportunity of punishing this crime of crimes Of course if possible the pretext should be great and overwhelming some awful stunning crime made even more horrible by the reporters imagination Failing this mere murder arson barn burning or impudence may do 121 122 The Crisis carried Du Bois editorials supporting the ideals of unionized labor but denouncing its leaders racism blacks were barred from membership 123 Du Bois also supported the principles of the Socialist Party he held party membership from 1910 to 1912 but he denounced the racism demonstrated by some socialist leaders 124 Frustrated by Republican president Taft s failure to address widespread lynching Du Bois endorsed Democratic candidate Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential race in exchange for Wilson s promise to support black causes 125 Throughout his writings Du Bois supported women s rights 126 127 and women s suffrage 128 but he found it difficult to publicly endorse the women s right to vote movement because leaders of the suffragism movement refused to support his fight against racial injustice 129 A 1913 Crisis editorial broached the taboo subject of interracial marriage although Du Bois generally expected persons to marry within their race he viewed the problem as a women s rights issue because laws prohibited white men from marrying black women Du Bois wrote anti miscegenation laws leave the colored girls absolutely helpless for the lust of white men It reduces colored women in the eyes of the law to the position of dogs As low as the white girl falls she can compel her seducer to marry her We must kill anti miscegenation laws not because we are anxious to marry the white men s sisters but because we are determined that white men will leave our sisters alone 130 131 During 1915 1916 some leaders of the NAACP disturbed by financial losses at The Crisis and worried about the inflammatory rhetoric of some of its essays attempted to oust Du Bois from his editorial position Du Bois and his supporters prevailed and he continued in his role as editor 132 In a 1919 column titled The True Brownies he announced the creation of The Brownies Book the first magazine published for African American children and youth which he founded with Augustus Granville Dill and Jessie Redmon Fauset 133 134 Historian and author The 1910s were a productive time for Du Bois In 1911 he attended the First Universal Races Congress in London 135 and he published his first novel The Quest of the Silver Fleece 136 Two years later Du Bois wrote produced and directed a pageant for the stage The Star of Ethiopia 137 In 1915 Du Bois published The Negro a general history of black Africans and the first of its kind in English The book rebutted claims of African inferiority and would come to serve as the basis of much Afrocentric historiography in the 20th century The Negro predicted unity and solidarity for colored people around the world and it influenced many who supported the Pan African movement 138 In 1915 The Atlantic Monthly carried a Du Bois essay The African Roots of the War which consolidated his ideas on capitalism and race 139 He argued that the scramble for Africa was at the root of World War I He also anticipated later Communist doctrine by suggesting that wealthy capitalists had pacified white workers by giving them just enough wealth to prevent them from revolting and by threatening them with competition by the lower cost labor of colored workers 140 Combating racism Du Bois included photographs of the lynching of Jesse Washington in the June 1916 issue of The Crisis 141 Du Bois used his influential NAACP position to oppose a variety of racist incidents When the silent film The Birth of a Nation premiered in 1915 Du Bois and the NAACP led the fight to ban the movie because of its racist portrayal of blacks as brutish and lustful 142 The fight was not successful and possibly contributed to the film s fame but the publicity drew many new supporters to the NAACP 143 The private sector was not the only source of racism under President Wilson the plight of African Americans in government jobs suffered Many federal agencies adopted whites only employment practices the Army excluded blacks from officer ranks and the immigration service prohibited the immigration of persons of African ancestry 144 Du Bois wrote an editorial in 1914 deploring the dismissal of blacks from federal posts and he supported William Monroe Trotter when Trotter brusquely confronted Wilson about the President s failure to fulfill his campaign promise of justice for blacks 145 The Crisis continued to wage a campaign against lynching In 1915 it published an article with a year by year tabulation of 2 732 lynchings from 1884 to 1914 146 The April 1916 edition covered the group lynching of six African Americans in Lee County Georgia 141 Later in 1916 the Waco Horror article covered the lynching of Jesse Washington a mentally impaired 17 year old African American 141 The article broke new ground by utilizing undercover reporting to expose the conduct of local whites in Waco Texas 147 The early 20th century was the era of the Great Migration of blacks from the Southern United States to the Northeast Midwest and West Du Bois wrote an editorial supporting the Great Migration because he felt it would help blacks escape Southern racism find economic opportunities and assimilate into American society 148 Also in the 1910s the American eugenics movement was in its infancy and many leading eugenicists were openly racist defining Blacks as a lower race Du Bois opposed this view as an unscientific aberration but still maintained the basic principle of eugenics that different persons have different inborn characteristics that make them more or less suited for specific kinds of employment and that by encouraging the most talented members of all races to procreate would better the stocks of humanity 149 150 World War I As the United States prepared to enter World War I in 1917 Du Bois s colleague in the NAACP Joel Spingarn established a camp to train African Americans to serve as officers in the United States military 151 The camp was controversial because some whites felt that blacks were not qualified to be officers and some blacks felt that African Americans should not participate in what they considered a white man s war 152 Du Bois supported Spingarn s training camp but was disappointed when the Army forcibly retired one of its few black officers Charles Young on a pretense of ill health 153 The Army agreed to create 1 000 officer positions for blacks but insisted that 250 come from enlisted men conditioned to taking orders from whites rather than from independent minded blacks who came from the camp 154 Over 700 000 blacks enlisted on the first day of the draft but were subject to discriminatory conditions which prompted vocal protests from Du Bois 155 Du Bois organized the 1917 Silent Parade in New York to protest the East St Louis riots After the East St Louis riots occurred in the summer of 1917 Du Bois traveled to St Louis to report on the riots Between 40 and 250 African Americans were massacred by whites primarily due to resentment caused by St Louis industry hiring blacks to replace striking white workers 156 Du Bois s reporting resulted in an article The Massacre of East St Louis published in the September issue of The Crisis which contained photographs and interviews detailing the violence 157 Historian David Levering Lewis concluded that Du Bois distorted some of the facts in order to increase the propaganda value of the article 158 To publicly demonstrate the black community s outrage over the riots Du Bois organized the Silent Parade a march of around 9 000 African Americans down New York City s Fifth Avenue the first parade of its kind in New York and the second instance of blacks publicly demonstrating for civil rights 159 The Houston riot of 1917 disturbed Du Bois and was a major setback to efforts to permit African Americans to become military officers The riot began after Houston police arrested and beat two black soldiers in response over 100 black soldiers took to the streets of Houston and killed 16 whites A military court martial was held and 19 of the soldiers were hung and 67 others were imprisoned 160 In spite of the Houston riot Du Bois and others successfully pressed the Army to accept the officers trained at Spingarn s camp resulting in over 600 black officers joining the Army in October 1917 161 Federal officials concerned about subversive viewpoints expressed by NAACP leaders attempted to frighten the NAACP by threatening it with investigations Du Bois was not intimidated and in 1918 he predicted that World War I would lead to an overthrow of the European colonial system and to the liberation of colored people worldwide in China in India and especially in America 162 NAACP chairman Joel Spingarn was enthusiastic about the war and he persuaded Du Bois to consider an officer s commission in the Army contingent on Du Bois writing an editorial repudiating his anti war stance 163 Du Bois accepted this bargain and wrote the pro war Close Ranks editorial in June 1918 164 and soon thereafter he received a commission in the Army 165 Many black leaders who wanted to leverage the war to gain civil rights for African Americans criticized Du Bois for his sudden reversal 166 Southern officers in Du Bois s unit objected to his presence and his commission was withdrawn 167 After the war Du Bois documented the 1919 Red Summer race riots This family is evacuating their house after it was vandalized in the Chicago race riot When the war ended Du Bois traveled to Europe in 1919 to attend the first Pan African Congress and to interview African American soldiers for a planned book on their experiences in World War I 168 He was trailed by U S agents who were searching for evidence of treasonous activities 169 Du Bois discovered that the vast majority of black American soldiers were relegated to menial labor as stevedores and laborers 170 Some units were armed and one in particular the 92nd Division the Buffalo soldiers engaged in combat 171 Du Bois discovered widespread racism in the Army and concluded that the Army command discouraged African Americans from joining the Army discredited the accomplishments of black soldiers and promoted bigotry 172 Du Bois returned from Europe more determined than ever to gain equal rights for African Americans Black soldiers returning from overseas felt a new sense of power and worth and were representative of an emerging attitude referred to as the New Negro 173 In the editorial Returning Soldiers he wrote But by the God of Heaven we are cowards and jackasses if now that the war is over we do not marshal every ounce of our brain and brawn to fight a sterner longer more unbending battle against the forces of hell in our own land 174 Many blacks moved to northern cities in search of work and some northern white workers resented the competition This labor strife was one of the causes of the Red Summer of 1919 a horrific series of race riots across America in which over 300 African Americans were killed in over 30 cities 175 Du Bois documented the atrocities in the pages of The Crisis culminating in the December publication of a gruesome photograph of a lynching that occurred during a race riot in Omaha Nebraska 175 The most egregious episode during the Red Summer was a vicious attack on blacks in Elaine Arkansas in which nearly 200 blacks were murdered 176 Reports coming out of the South blamed the blacks alleging that they were conspiring to take over the government Infuriated with the distortions Du Bois published a letter in the New York World claiming that the only crime the black sharecroppers had committed was daring to challenge their white landlords by hiring an attorney to investigate contractual irregularities 177 Over 60 of the surviving blacks were arrested and tried for conspiracy in the case known as Moore v Dempsey 178 Du Bois rallied blacks across America to raise funds for the legal defense which six years later resulted in a Supreme Court victory authored by Oliver Wendell Holmes 137 Although the victory had little immediate impact on justice for blacks in the South it marked the first time the Federal government used the 14th amendment guarantee of due process to prevent states from shielding mob violence 179 Darkwater Voices from Within the Veil first edition cover 1920 In 1920 Du Bois published Darkwater Voices From Within the Veil the first of his three autobiographies 180 The veil was that which covered colored people around the world In the book he hoped to lift the veil and show white readers what life was like behind the veil and how it distorted the viewpoints of those looking through it in both directions 181 The book contained Du Bois s feminist essay The Damnation of Women which was a tribute to the dignity and worth of women particularly black women 182 Concerned that textbooks used by African American children ignored black history and culture Du Bois created a monthly children s magazine The Brownies Book Initially published in 1920 it was aimed at black children who Du Bois called the children of the sun 183 Pan Africanism and Marcus Garvey Du Bois traveled to Europe in 1921 to attend the second Pan African Congress 184 The assembled black leaders from around the world issued the London Resolutions and established a Pan African Association headquarters in Paris Under Du Bois s guidance the resolutions insisted on racial equality and that Africa be ruled by Africans not as in the 1919 congress with the consent of Africans 185 Du Bois restated the resolutions of the congress in his Manifesto To the League of Nations which implored the newly formed League of Nations to address labor issues and to appoint Africans to key posts The League took little action on the requests 186 Another important African American leader of the 1920s was Marcus Garvey promoter of the Back to Africa movement and founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association UNIA 187 Garvey denounced Du Bois s efforts to achieve equality through integration and instead endorsed racial separatism 188 Du Bois initially supported the concept of Garvey s Black Star Line a shipping company that was intended to facilitate commerce within the African diaspora 189 But Du Bois later became concerned that Garvey was threatening the NAACP s efforts leading Du Bois to describe him as fraudulent and reckless 190 Responding to Garvey s slogan Africa for the Africans Du Bois said that he supported that concept but denounced Garvey s intention that Africa be ruled by African Americans 191 Du Bois wrote a series of articles in The Crisis between 1922 and 1924 attacking Garvey s movement calling him the most dangerous enemy of the Negro race in America and the world 192 Du Bois and Garvey never made a serious attempt to collaborate and their dispute was partly rooted in the desire of their respective organizations NAACP and UNIA to capture a larger portion of the available philanthropic funding 193 Du Bois decried Harvard s decision to ban blacks from its dormitories in 1921 as an instance of a broad effort in the U S to renew the Anglo Saxon cult the worship of the Nordic totem the disfranchisement of Negro Jew Irishman Italian Hungarian Asiatic and South Sea Islander the world rule of Nordic white through brute force 194 When Du Bois sailed for Europe in 1923 for the third Pan African Congress the circulation of The Crisis had declined to 60 000 from its World War I high of 100 000 but it remained the preeminent periodical of the civil rights movement 195 President Coolidge designated Du Bois an Envoy Extraordinary to Liberia 196 and after the third congress concluded Du Bois rode a German freighter from the Canary Islands to Africa visiting Liberia Sierra Leone and Senegal 197 Harlem Renaissance Du Bois s 1924 work The Gift of Black Folk celebrated the unique contributions of African Americans in building the United States Du Bois frequently promoted African American artistic creativity in his writings and when the Harlem Renaissance emerged in the mid 1920s his article A Negro Art Renaissance celebrated the end of the long hiatus of blacks from creative endeavors 198 His enthusiasm for the Harlem Renaissance waned as he came to believe that many whites visited Harlem for voyeurism not for genuine appreciation of black art 199 Du Bois insisted that artists recognize their moral responsibilities writing that a black artist is first of all a black artist 200 He was also concerned that black artists were not using their art to promote black causes saying I do not care a damn for any art that is not used for propaganda 201 By the end of 1926 he stopped employing The Crisis to support the arts 202 Debate with Lothrop Stoddard In 1929 a debate organised by the Chicago Forum Council billed as One of the greatest debates ever held was held between Du Bois and Lothrop Stoddard a member of the Ku Klux Klan proponent of eugenics and so called scientific racism 203 204 The debate was held in Chicago and Du Bois was arguing the affirmative to the question Shall the Negro be encouraged to seek cultural equality Has the Negro the same intellectual possibilities as other races 205 Du Bois knew that the racists would be unintentionally funny onstage as he wrote to Moore Senator Heflin would be a scream in a debate Du Bois let the overconfident and bombastic Stoddard walk into a comic moment which Stoddard then made even funnier by not getting the joke This moment was captured in headlines DuBois Shatters Stoddard s Cultural Theories in Debate Thousands Jam Hall Cheered As He Proves Race Equality the Defender s front page headline ran 5 000 Cheer W E B DuBois Laugh at Lothrop Stoddard 204 Ian Frazier of the New Yorker writes that the comic potential of Stoddard s bankrupt ideas was left untapped until Stanley Kubrick s Dr Strangelove 204 Socialism When Du Bois became editor of The Crisis magazine in 1911 he joined the Socialist Party of America on the advice of NAACP founders Mary Ovington William English Walling and Charles Edward Russell However he supported the Democrat Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential campaign a breach of the rules and was forced to resign from the Socialist Party In 1913 his support for Wilson was shaken when racial segregation in government hiring was reported 206 207 Du Bois remained convinced that socialism was an excellent way of life but I thought it might be reached by various methods 208 209 Nine years after the 1917 Russian Revolution Du Bois extended a trip to Europe to include a visit to the Soviet Union where he was struck by the poverty and disorganization he encountered in the Soviet Union yet was impressed by the intense labors of the officials and by the recognition given to workers 210 Although Du Bois was not yet familiar with the communist theories of Karl Marx or Vladimir Lenin he concluded that socialism might be a better path towards racial equality than capitalism 211 Although Du Bois generally endorsed socialist principles his politics were strictly pragmatic in 1929 he endorsed Democrat Jimmy Walker for mayor of New York rather than the socialist Norman Thomas believing that Walker could do more immediate good for blacks even though Thomas s platform was more consistent with Du Bois s views 212 Throughout the 1920s Du Bois and the NAACP shifted support back and forth between the Republican Party and the Democratic Party induced by promises from the candidates to fight lynchings improve working conditions or support voting rights in the South invariably the candidates failed to deliver on their promises 213 And herein lies the tragedy of the age not that men are poor all men know something of poverty not that men are wicked who is good Not that men are ignorant what is Truth Nay but that men know so little of men Du Bois Of Alexander Crummell in The Souls of Black Folk 1903 214 A rivalry emerged in 1931 between the NAACP and the Communist Party when the Communists responded quickly and effectively to support the Scottsboro Boys nine African American youth arrested in 1931 in Alabama for rape 215 Du Bois and the NAACP felt that the case would not be beneficial to their cause so they chose to let the Communist Party organize the defense efforts 216 Du Bois was impressed with the vast amount of publicity and funds which the Communists devoted to the partially successful defense effort and he came to suspect that the Communists were attempting to present their party to African Americans as a better solution than the NAACP 217 Responding to criticisms of the NAACP from the Communist Party Du Bois wrote articles condemning the party claiming that it unfairly attacked the NAACP and that it failed to fully appreciate racism in the United States In their turn the Communist leaders accused him of being a class enemy and claimed that the NAACP leadership was an isolated elite disconnected from the working class blacks they ostensibly fought for 218 Return to AtlantaDu Bois did not have a good working relationship with Walter Francis White president of the NAACP since 1931 219 220 That conflict combined with the financial stresses of the Great Depression precipitated a power struggle over The Crisis 221 Du Bois concerned that his position as editor would be eliminated resigned his job at The Crisis and accepted an academic position at Atlanta University in early 1933 222 The rift with the NAACP grew larger in 1934 when Du Bois reversed his stance on segregation stating that separate but equal was an acceptable goal for African Americans 223 The NAACP leadership was stunned and asked Du Bois to retract his statement but he refused and the dispute led to Du Bois s resignation from the NAACP 224 After arriving at his new professorship in Atlanta Du Bois wrote a series of articles generally supportive of Marxism He was not a strong proponent of labor unions or the Communist Party but he felt that Marx s scientific explanation of society and the economy were useful for explaining the situation of African Americans in the United States 225 Marx s atheism also struck a chord with Du Bois who routinely criticized black churches for dulling blacks sensitivity to racism 226 In his 1933 writings Du Bois embraced socialism but asserted that c olored labor has no common ground with white labor a controversial position that was rooted in Du Bois s dislike of American labor unions which had systematically excluded blacks for decades 227 228 Du Bois did not support the Communist Party in the U S and did not vote for their candidate in the 1932 presidential election in spite of an African American on their ticket 229 Black Reconstruction in America Main article Black Reconstruction in America Black Reconstruction in America first edition cover 1935 Back in the world of academia Du Bois was able to resume his study of Reconstruction the topic of the 1910 paper that he presented to the American Historical Association 230 In 1935 he published his magnum opus Black Reconstruction in America 231 232 The book presented the thesis in the words of the historian David Levering Lewis that black people suddenly admitted to citizenship in an environment of feral hostility displayed admirable volition and intelligence as well as the indolence and ignorance inherent in three centuries of bondage 233 Du Bois documented how black people were central figures in the American Civil War and Reconstruction and also showed how they made alliances with white politicians He provided evidence that the coalition governments established public education in the South and many needed social service programs The book also demonstrated the ways in which black emancipation the crux of Reconstruction promoted a radical restructuring of United States society as well as how and why the country failed to continue support for civil rights for blacks in the aftermath of Reconstruction 234 The book s thesis ran counter to the orthodox interpretation of Reconstruction maintained by white historians and the book was virtually ignored by mainstream historians until the 1960s 235 Thereafter however it ignited a revisionist trend in the historiography of Reconstruction which emphasized black people s search for freedom and the era s radical policy changes 236 237 By the 21st century Black Reconstruction was widely perceived as the foundational text of revisionist African American historiography 238 In the final chapter of the book XIV The Propaganda of History Du Bois evokes his efforts at writing an article for the Encyclopaedia Britannica on the history of the American Negro After the editors had cut all reference to Reconstruction he insisted that the following note appear in the entry White historians have ascribed the faults and failures of Reconstruction to Negro ignorance and corruption But the Negro insists that it was Negro loyalty and the Negro vote alone that restored the South to the Union established the new democracy both for white and black and instituted the public schools The editors refused and so Du Bois withdrew his article 239 Projected encyclopedia In 1932 Du Bois was selected by several philanthropies including the Phelps Stokes Fund the Carnegie Corporation and the General Education Board to be the managing editor for a proposed Encyclopedia of the Negro a work which Du Bois had been contemplating for 30 years 240 After several years of planning and organizing the philanthropies canceled the project in 1938 because some board members believed that Du Bois was too biased to produce an objective encyclopedia 241 Trip around the world Du Bois took a trip around the world in 1936 which included visits to Nazi Germany China and Japan 242 While in Germany Du Bois remarked that he was treated with warmth and respect 242 243 After his return to the United States he expressed his ambivalence about the Nazi regime 244 245 He admired how the Nazis had improved the German economy but he was horrified by their treatment of the Jewish people which he described as an attack on civilization comparable only to such horrors as the Spanish Inquisition and the African slave trade 246 247 248 Following the 1905 Japanese victory in the Russo Japanese War Du Bois became impressed by the growing strength of Imperial Japan He came to view the ascendant Japanese Empire as an antidote to Western imperialism arguing over for over three decades after the war that its rise represented a chance to break the monopoly that white nations had on international affairs 249 A representative of Japan s Negro Propaganda Operations traveled to the United States during the 1920s and 1930s meeting with Du Bois and giving him a positive impression of Imperial Japan s racial policies In 1936 the Japanese ambassador arranged a trip to Japan for Du Bois and a small group of academics visiting China Japan and Manchukuo Manchuria 250 251 Du Bois viewed Japanese colonialism in Manchuria as benevolent he wrote that colonial enterprise by a colored nation need not imply the caste exploitation and subjection which it has always implied in the case of white Europe 252 While disturbed by the eventual Japanese alliance with Nazi Germany Du Bois also argued Japan was only compelled to enter the pact because of the hostility of the United States and United Kingdom and he viewed American apprehensions over Japanese expansion in Asia as racially motivated both before and after the Attack on Pearl Harbor 253 World War II Dusk of Dawn first edition cover 1940 Du Bois opposed the US intervention in World War II particularly in the Pacific because he believed that China and Japan were emerging from the clutches of white imperialists He felt that the European Allies waging war against Japan was an opportunity for whites to reestablish their influence in Asia 254 He was deeply disappointed by the US government s plan for African Americans in the armed forces Blacks were limited to 5 8 of the force and there were to be no African American combat units virtually the same restrictions as in World War I 255 With blacks threatening to shift their support to President Franklin D Roosevelt s Republican opponent in the 1940 election Roosevelt appointed a few blacks to leadership posts in the military 256 Dusk of Dawn Du Bois s second autobiography was published in 1940 257 The title refers to his hope that African Americans were passing out of the darkness of racism into an era of greater equality 258 The work is part autobiography part history and part sociological treatise 259 Du Bois described the book as the autobiography of a concept of race elucidated and magnified and doubtless distorted in the thoughts and deeds which were mine Thus for all time my life is significant for all lives of men 260 In 1943 at age 75 Du Bois was abruptly fired from his position at Atlanta University by college president Rufus Clement 261 Many scholars expressed outrage prompting Atlanta University to provide Du Bois with a lifelong pension and the title of professor emeritus 262 Arthur Spingarn remarked that Du Bois spent his time in Atlanta battering his life out against ignorance bigotry intolerance and slothfulness projecting ideas nobody but he understands and raising hopes for change which may be comprehended in a hundred years 263 Turning down job offers from Fisk and Howard Du Bois re joined the NAACP as director of the Department of Special Research Surprising many NAACP leaders Du Bois jumped into the job with vigor and determination 264 During his 10 years hiatus the NAACP s income had increased fourfold and its membership had soared to 325 000 members 265 Later life Du Bois in 1946 photo by Carl Van Vechten United Nations Du Bois was a member of the three person delegation from the NAACP that attended the 1945 conference in San Francisco at which the United Nations was established 266 The NAACP delegation wanted the United Nations to endorse racial equality and to bring an end to the colonial era To push the United Nations in that direction Du Bois drafted a proposal that pronounced t he colonial system of government is undemocratic socially dangerous and a main cause of wars 267 The NAACP proposal received support from China India and the Soviet Union but it was virtually ignored by the other major powers and the NAACP proposals were not included in the final United Nations charter 268 After the United Nations conference Du Bois published Color and Democracy Colonies and Peace a book that attacked colonial empires and in the words of one reviewer contains enough dynamite to blow up the whole vicious system whereby we have comforted our white souls and lined the pockets of generations of free booting capitalists 269 In late 1945 Du Bois attended the fifth and final Pan African Congress in Manchester England The congress was the most productive of the five congresses and there Du Bois met Kwame Nkrumah the future first president of Ghana who would later invite him to Africa 270 Du Bois helped to submit petitions to the UN concerning discrimination against African Americans the most noteworthy of which was the NAACP s An Appeal to the World A Statement on the Denial of Human Rights to Minorities in the Case of Citizens of Negro Descent in the United States of America and an Appeal to the United Nations for Redress 271 272 This advocacy laid the foundation for the later report and petition called We Charge Genocide submitted in 1951 by the Civil Rights Congress 273 We Charge Genocide accuses the U S of systematically sanctioning murders and inflicting harm against African Americans and therefore committing genocide 274 Cold War When the Cold War commenced in the mid 1940s the NAACP distanced itself from Communists lest its funding or reputation suffer 275 The NAACP redoubled its efforts in 1947 after Life magazine published a piece by Arthur M Schlesinger Jr claiming that the NAACP was heavily influenced by Communists 276 Ignoring the NAACP s desires Du Bois continued to fraternize with communist sympathizers such as Paul Robeson Howard Fast and Shirley Graham his future second wife 277 Du Bois wrote I am not a communist On the other hand I believe that Karl Marx put his finger squarely upon our difficulties 278 In 1946 Du Bois wrote articles giving his assessment of the Soviet Union he did not embrace communism and he criticized its dictatorship 276 However he felt that capitalism was responsible for poverty and racism and felt that socialism was an alternative that might ameliorate those problems 276 The Soviets explicitly rejected racial distinctions and class distinctions leading Du Bois to conclude that the USSR was the most hopeful country on earth 279 Du Bois s association with prominent communists made him a liability for the NAACP especially since the FBI was starting to aggressively investigate communist sympathizers so by mutual agreement he resigned from the NAACP for the second time in late 1948 280 After departing the NAACP Du Bois started writing regularly for the leftist weekly newspaper the National Guardian a relationship that would endure until 1961 281 Peace activism Du Bois was a lifelong anti war activist but his efforts became more pronounced after World War II 282 In 1949 Du Bois spoke at the Scientific and Cultural Conference for World Peace in New York I tell you people of America the dark world is on the move It wants and will have Freedom Autonomy and Equality It will not be diverted in these fundamental rights by dialectical splitting of political hairs Whites may if they will arm themselves for suicide But the vast majority of the world s peoples will march on over them to freedom 283 In the spring of 1949 he spoke at the World Congress of the Partisans of Peace in Paris saying to the large crowd Leading this new colonial imperialism comes my own native land built by my father s toil and blood the United States The United States is a great nation rich by grace of God and prosperous by the hard work of its humblest citizens Drunk with power we are leading the world to hell in a new colonialism with the same old human slavery which once ruined us and to a third World War which will ruin the world 284 Du Bois affiliated himself with a leftist organization the National Council of Arts Sciences and Professions and he traveled to Moscow as its representative to speak at the All Soviet Peace Conference in late 1949 285 The FBI McCarthyism and trial Du Bois center and other defendants from the Peace Information Center prepare for their trial in 1951 286 During the 1950s the U S government s anti communist McCarthyism campaign targeted Du Bois because of his socialist leanings 287 Historian Manning Marable characterizes the government s treatment of Du Bois as ruthless repression and a political assassination 288 The FBI began to compile a file on Du Bois in 1942 289 290 investigating him for possible subversive activities The original investigation appears to have ended in 1943 because the FBI was unable to discover sufficient evidence against Du Bois but the FBI resumed its investigation in 1949 suspecting he was among a group of Concealed Communists 291 The most aggressive government attack against Du Bois occurred in the early 1950s as a consequence of his opposition to nuclear weapons In 1950 he became chair of the newly created Peace Information Center PIC which worked to publicize the Stockholm Peace Appeal in the United States 292 The primary purpose of the appeal was to gather signatures on a petition asking governments around the world to ban all nuclear weapons 293 In United States v Peace Information Center 97 F Supp 255 D D C 1951 the U S Justice Department alleged that the PIC was acting as an agent of a foreign state and thus required the PIC to register with the federal government 282 Du Bois and other PIC leaders refused and they were indicted for failure to register 294 295 296 297 298 After the indictment some of Du Bois s associates distanced themselves from him and the NAACP refused to issue a statement of support but many labor figures and leftists including Langston Hughes supported Du Bois 299 He was finally tried in 1951 and was represented by civil rights attorney Vito Marcantonio 300 The case was dismissed before the jury rendered a verdict as soon as the defense attorney told the judge that Dr Albert Einstein has offered to appear as character witness for Dr Du Bois 301 Du Bois s memoir of the trial is In Battle for Peace Even though Du Bois was not convicted the government confiscated Du Bois s passport and withheld it for eight years 302 Communism Du Bois was bitterly disappointed that many of his colleagues particularly the NAACP did not support him during his 1951 PIC trial whereas working class whites and blacks supported him enthusiastically 303 After the trial Du Bois lived in Manhattan writing and speaking and continuing to associate primarily with leftist acquaintances 304 His primary concern was world peace and he railed against military actions such as the Korean War which he viewed as efforts by imperialist whites to maintain colored people in a submissive state 305 Du Bois meets with Mao Zedong in China in 1959 In 1950 at the age of 82 Du Bois ran for U S Senator from New York on the American Labor Party ticket and received about 200 000 votes or 4 of the statewide total 306 He continued to believe that capitalism was the primary culprit responsible for the subjugation of colored people around the world and although he recognized the faults of the Soviet Union he continued to uphold Communism as a possible solution to racial problems In the words of biographer David Lewis Du Bois did not endorse Communism for its own sake but did so because the enemies of his enemies were his friends 307 The same ambiguity characterized his opinions of Joseph Stalin in 1940 he wrote disdainfully of the Tyrant Stalin 308 but when Stalin died in 1953 Du Bois wrote a eulogy characterizing Stalin as simple calm and courageous and lauding him for being the first to set Russia on the road to conquer race prejudice and make one nation out of its 140 groups without destroying their individuality 309 The U S government prevented Du Bois from attending the 1955 Bandung Conference in Indonesia The conference was the culmination of 40 years of Du Bois s dreams a meeting of 29 nations from Africa and Asia many recently independent representing most of the world s colored peoples The conference celebrated those nations independence as they began to assert their power as non aligned nations during the Cold War 310 Du Bois regained his passport in 1958 and with his second wife Shirley Graham Du Bois he traveled around the world visiting Russia and China In both countries he was celebrated Du Bois later wrote approvingly of the conditions in both countries 311 Du Bois became incensed in 1961 when the U S Supreme Court upheld the 1950 McCarran Act a key piece of McCarthyism legislation which required Communists to register with the government To demonstrate his outrage he joined the Communist Party in October 1961 at the age of 93 312 Around that time he wrote I believe in Communism I mean by Communism a planned way of life in the production of wealth and work designed for building a state whose object is the highest welfare of its people and not merely the profit of a part 313 He asked Herbert Aptheker a Communist and historian of African American history to be his literary executor Death in Africa Du Bois center at his 95th birthday party in 1963 in Ghana with President Kwame Nkrumah right and First Lady Fathia Nkrumah Nkrumah invited Du Bois to Ghana to participate in their independence celebration in 1957 but he was unable to attend because the U S government had confiscated his passport in 1951 By 1960 the Year of Africa Du Bois had recovered his passport and was able to cross the Atlantic and celebrate the creation of the Republic of Ghana Du Bois returned to Africa in late 1960 to attend the inauguration of Nnamdi Azikiwe as the first African governor of Nigeria 314 While visiting Ghana in 1960 Du Bois spoke with its president about the creation of a new encyclopedia of the African diaspora the Encyclopedia Africana 314 In early 1961 Ghana notified Du Bois that they had appropriated funds to support the encyclopedia project and they invited him to travel to Ghana and manage the project there In October 1961 at the age of 93 Du Bois and his wife traveled to Ghana to take up residence and commence work on the encyclopedia 315 In early 1963 the United States refused to renew his passport so he made the symbolic gesture of becoming a citizen of Ghana 316 While it is sometimes stated that Du Bois renounced his U S citizenship at that time 317 318 319 and he stated his intention to do so Du Bois never actually did 320 His health declined during the two years he was in Ghana and he died on August 27 1963 in the capital of Accra at the age of 95 316 The following day at the March on Washington speaker Roy Wilkins asked the hundreds of thousands of marchers to honor Du Bois with a moment of silence 321 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 embodying many of the reforms Du Bois had campaigned for during his entire life was enacted almost a year after his death 322 Du Bois was given a state funeral on August 29 30 1963 at Nkrumah s request and was buried near the western wall of Christiansborg Castle now Osu Castle then the seat of government in Accra In 1985 another state ceremony honored Du Bois With the ashes of his wife Shirley Graham Du Bois who had died in 1977 his body was re interred at their former home in Accra which was dedicated the W E B Du Bois Memorial Centre for Pan African Culture in his memory 323 324 Du Bois s first wife Nina their son Burghardt and their daughter Yolande who died in 1961 were buried in the cemetery of Great Barrington Massachusetts his hometown Personal lifeDu Bois was organized and disciplined his lifelong regimen was to rise at 7 15 work until 5 00 eat dinner and read a newspaper until 7 00 then read or socialize until he was in bed invariably before 10 00 325 326 He was a meticulous planner and frequently mapped out his schedules and goals on large pieces of graph paper 327 Many acquaintances found him to be distant and aloof and he insisted on being addressed as Dr Du Bois 328 Although he was not gregarious he formed several close friendships with associates such as Charles Young Paul Laurence Dunbar John Hope and Mary White Ovington 329 His closest friend was Joel Spingarn a white man but Du Bois never accepted Spingarn s offer to be on a first name basis 330 Du Bois was something of a dandy he dressed formally carried a walking stick and walked with an air of confidence and dignity 331 He was relatively short standing at 5 feet 5 5 inches 166 cm and always maintained a well groomed mustache and goatee 332 He enjoyed singing 333 and playing tennis 48 Du Bois married Nina Gomer b about 1870 m 1896 d 1950 with whom he had two children Their son Burghardt died as an infant before their second child daughter Yolande was born Yolande attended Fisk University and became a high school teacher in Baltimore Maryland 334 Her father encouraged her marriage to Countee Cullen a nationally known poet of the Harlem Renaissance 335 They divorced within two years She married again and had a daughter Du Bois s only grandchild That marriage also ended in divorce As a widower Du Bois married Shirley Graham m 1951 d 1977 an author playwright composer and activist She brought her son David Graham to the marriage David grew close to Du Bois and took his stepfather s name he also worked for African American causes 336 The historian David Levering Lewis wrote that Du Bois engaged in several extramarital relationships 337 Religion Although Du Bois attended a New England Congregational church as a child he abandoned organized religion while at Fisk College 338 As an adult Du Bois described himself as agnostic or a freethinker but at least one biographer concluded that Du Bois was virtually an atheist 339 However another analyst of Du Bois s writings concluded that he had a religious voice albeit radically different from other African American religious voices of his era Du Bois was credited with inaugurating a 20th century spirituality to which Ralph Ellison Zora Neale Hurston and James Baldwin also belong 93 When asked to lead public prayers Du Bois would refuse 340 In his autobiography Du Bois wrote When I became head of a department at Atlanta the engagement was held up because again I balked at leading in prayer I flatly refused again to join any church or sign any church creed I think the greatest gift of the Soviet Union to modern civilization was the dethronement of the clergy and the refusal to let religion be taught in the public schools 341 Du Bois accused American churches of being the most discriminatory of all institutions 342 He also provocatively linked African American Christianity to indigenous African religions 343 He did occasionally acknowledge the beneficial role that religion played in African American life as the basic rock which served as an anchor for African American communities but in general disparaged African American churches and clergy because he felt they did not support the goals of racial equality and hindered activists efforts 344 Although Du Bois was not personally religious he infused his writings with religious symbology Many contemporaries viewed him as a prophet 345 346 His 1904 prose poem Credo was written in the style of a religious creed and widely read by the African American community 347 Moreover Du Bois both in his own fiction and in stories published in The Crisis often drew analogies between the lynchings of African Americans and the crucifixion of Christ 348 Between 1920 and 1940 Du Bois shifted from overt black messiah symbolism to more subtle messianic language 349 Voting In 1889 Du Bois became eligible to vote at the age of 21 During his life he followed the philosophy of voting for third parties if the Democratic and Republican parties were unsatisfactory or voting for the lesser of two evils if a third option was not available 350 During the 1912 presidential election Du Bois supported Woodrow Wilson the Democratic nominee as he believed Wilson was a liberal Southerner although he had wanted to support Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Party but the Progressives ignored issues facing black people He later regretted his decision as he came to the conclusion that Wilson was opposed to racial equality 206 350 During the 1916 presidential election he supported Charles Evans Hughes the Republican nominee as he believed that Wilson was the greater evil During the 1920 presidential election he supported Warren G Harding the Republican nominee as Harding promised to end the United States occupation of Haiti During the 1924 presidential election he supported Robert M La Follette the Progressive nominee although he believed that La Follette couldn t win During the 1928 presidential election he believed that both Herbert Hoover and Al Smith insulted black voters and instead Du Bois supported Norman Thomas the Socialist nominee 350 From 1932 to 1944 Du Bois supported Franklin D Roosevelt the Democratic nominee as Roosevelt s attitude towards workers was more realistic During the 1948 presidential election he supported Henry A Wallace the Progressive nominee and supported the Progressives nominee Vincent Hallinan again in 1952 350 During the 1956 presidential election Du Bois stated that he would not vote He criticized the foreign taxation and crime policies of the Eisenhower administration and Adlai Stevenson II for promising to maintain those policies However he could not vote third party due to the lack of ballot access for the Socialist Party 350 Honors and legacy W E B Du Bois with Mary White Ovington was honored with a medallion in The Extra Mile Bust of W E B Du Bois at Clark Atlanta University The NAACP awarded the Spingarn Medal to Du Bois in 1920 351 In 1958 Du Bois was inducted into the Fisk University chapter of Phi Beta Kappa when he returned to campus to receive an honorary degree 352 In 1959 Du Bois was awarded the International Lenin Peace Prize by the USSR 353 In 1969 the W E B Du Bois Institute for African and African American Research now part of the Hutchins Center for African amp African American Research was established at Harvard University The site of the house where Du Bois grew up in Great Barrington Massachusetts was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976 354 In 1992 the United States Postal Service honored Du Bois with his portrait on a postage stamp 355 A second stamp of face value 32 was issued on February 3 1998 as part of the Celebrate the Century stamp sheet series In 1994 the main library at the University of Massachusetts Amherst was named for Du Bois He transferred his papers to the university via his literary executor historian Herbert Aptheker 356 In 2000 Harvard s Hutchins Center for African amp African American Research began awarding the W E B Du Bois Medal which is considered Harvard s highest honor in the field of African and African American studies 357 A dormitory was named for Du Bois at the University of Pennsylvania where he conducted field research for his sociological study The Philadelphia Negro 358 A dormitory is named for Du Bois at Hampton University Africana The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience was inspired by and dedicated to Du Bois by its editors Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates Jr 359 Humboldt University in Berlin hosts a series of lectures named in his honor 360 Scholar Molefi Kete Asante listed Du Bois in his 2002 list of the 100 Greatest African Americans 361 In 2005 Du Bois was honored with a medallion in The Extra Mile Washington DC s memorial to important American volunteers 362 The highest career award given by the American Sociological Association the W E B Du Bois Career of Distinguished Scholarship Award was renamed for Du Bois in 2006 The Episcopal Church at its 2009 General Convention approved an annual commemoration of Du Bois on August 3 363 364 Du Bois was appointed Honorary Emeritus Professor at the University of Pennsylvania in 2012 365 366 A bust was commissioned from Ayokunle Odeleye to honor Du Bois and dedicated on the Clark Atlanta University on the anniversary of his birth February 23 2013 pictured right 367 In 2015 the Du Bois Orchestra at Harvard was founded 368 In March 2018 W E B Du Bois was awarded Grand Prix de la Memoire for the Grand Prix of Literary Associations 2017 369 Du Bois was featured as a character in the 2020 Netflix miniseries Self Made portrayed by Cornelius Smith Jr Selected worksNon fiction books The Study of the Negro Problems 1898 The Philadelphia Negro 1899 The Negro in Business 1899 The Souls of Black Folk 1903 The Talented Tenth second chapter of The Negro Problem a collection of articles by African Americans September 1903 Voice of the Negro II September 1905 John Brown A Biography 1909 Efforts for Social Betterment among Negro Americans 1909 Atlanta University s Studies of the Negro Problem 1897 1910 The Negro 1915 The Gift of Black Folk The Negroes in the Making of America 1924 370 Africa Its Geography People and Products 1930 Africa Its Place in Modern History 1930 Black Reconstruction in America 1935 What the Negro Has Done for the United States and Texas 1936 Black Folk Then and Now 1939 Color and Democracy Colonies and Peace 1945 The Encyclopedia of the Negro 1946 The World and Africa 1946 The World and Africa an Inquiry into the Part Which Africa Has Played in World History 1947 Peace Is Dangerous 1951 I Take My Stand for Peace 1951 In Battle for Peace 1952 Africa in Battle Against Colonialism Racialism Imperialism 1960 Articles The Study of the Negro Problems The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science vol 11 1898 pp 1 23 An Essay Toward a History of the Black Man in the Great War The Crisis vol 18 no 2 June 1919 pp 63 87 Liberia the League and the United States Foreign Affairs Vol 11 No 4 July 1933 pp 682 695 doi 10 2307 20030546 Inter Racial Implications of the Ethiopian Crisis A Negro View Foreign Affairs Vol 14 No 1 October 1935 pp 82 92 doi 10 2307 20030704 Black Africa Tomorrow Foreign Affairs Vol 17 No 1 October 1938 pp 100 110 doi 10 2307 20028906 Autobiographies Darkwater Voices From Within the Veil 1920 Dusk of Dawn An Essay Toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept 1940 The Autobiography of W E Burghardt Du Bois 1968 Novels The Quest of the Silver Fleece 1911 Dark Princess A Romance 1928 The Black Flame Trilogy The Ordeal of Mansart 1957 Mansart Builds a School 1959 Worlds of Color 1961 Archives of The Crisis Du Bois edited The Crisis from 1910 to 1933 and it contains many of his important polemics Archives of The Crisis at the University of Tulsa Modernist Journals Collection Archives of The Crisis at Brown University Issues of The Crisis at Google BooksRecordings Socialism and the American Negro 1960 W E B Du Bois A Recorded Autobiography Interview with Moses Asch 1961 Dissertations The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America 1638 1870 Ph D dissertation Harvard Historical Studies Longmans Green and Co 1896 Speeches Foner Philip S ed 1970 W E B Du Bois Speaks Speeches and Addresses 1890 1919 New York Pathfinder Press ISBN 978 0 87348 181 6 Foner Philip S ed 1970 W E B Du Bois Speaks Speeches and Addresses 1920 1963 New York Pathfinder Press ISBN 978 0 87348 182 3 Archival materialThe W E B Du Bois Library at the University of Massachusetts Amherst contains Du Bois s archive consisting of 294 boxes and 89 microfilm reels 99 625 items have been digitized 371 See also United States portal Biography portal Society portal Fisk University protest Grand Prix of Literary Associations List of civil rights leadersFootnotes Lewis David Levering 1993 W E B Du Bois Biography of a Race 1868 1919 New York City Henry Holt and Co p 11 ISBN 9781466841512 Du Bois would unfailingly insist upon the correct pronunciation of his surname The pronunciation of my name is Due Boyss with the accent on the last syllable he would patiently explain to the uninformed W E B Du Bois Center duboisumass 2018 11 12 Image of letter to W E B Du Bois with his handwritten annotations on how to pronounce his name Twitter com Retrieved 2019 05 12 a b Horne p 7 Lewis p 11 Lewis pp 14 15 Lewis p 13 Du Bois W E B 1984 1940 Dusk of Dawn Piscataway NJ Transaction Publishers p 11 Lewis David Levering 1993 W E B Du Bois Biography of a Race 1868 1919 New York City Henry Holt and Co p 14 Piper Emilie Levinson David 2010 One Minute a Free Woman Elizabeth Freeman and the Struggle for Freedom Salisbury CT Upper Housatonic Valley National Heritage Area ISBN 978 0 9845492 0 7 Lewis p 17 Chandler Nahum Dimitri 2014 X The Problem of the Negro as a Problem for Thought New York Fordham University Press pp 100 103 ISBN 978 0 8232 5407 1 a b Lewis p 18 Lewis p 21 Du Bois suggested that Mary s family drove Alfred away Rabaka Reiland 2007 W E B Du Bois and the Problems of the Twenty first Century An Essay on Africana Critical Theory Lexington Books p 165 Lewis pp 29 30 Lewis pp 27 44 Cebula Tim Great Barrington in Young p 91 Lewis pp 39 40 Lewis Catharine Fisk University in Young p 81 Fultz Michael February 2021 Determination and Persistence Building the African American Teacher Corps through Summer and Intermittent Teaching 1860s 1890s History of Education Quarterly 61 1 4 34 doi 10 1017 heq 2020 65 Lewis pp 56 57 Lewis pp 72 78 Lewis pp 69 80 degree p 69 funding p 82 inheritance Du Bois was the sixth African American to be admitted to Harvard Lewis p 82 Lewis p 90 Lewis pp 98 103 Morris Aldon 2015 The Scholar Denied W E B Du Bois and the Birth of Modern Sociology Oakland CA University of California Press p 17 ISBN 978 0 520 96048 0 Williams Yvonne Harvard in Young p 99 His dissertation was The Suppression of the African Slave trade to the United States of America 1638 1871 Quoted by Lewis pp 143 145 Gibson Todd University of Pennsylvania in Young p 210 Lewis p 111 Lewis pp 118 120 Lewis p 126 Nina Gomer Du Bois did not play a significant role in Du Bois s activism or career see Lewis pp 135 152 154 232 287 290 296 301 404 406 522 525 628 630 Lewis pp 128 129 Du Bois resented never receiving an offer for a teaching position at Penn Horne pp 23 24 Bulmer Martin W E B Du Bois as a Social Investigator The Philadelphia Negro 1899 in Martin Bulmer Kevin Bales and Kathryn Kish Sklar eds The Social Survey in Historical Perspective 1880 1940 1991 pp 170 188 Caves R W 2004 Encyclopedia of the City Routledge pp 199 200 Lewis p 123 His paper was titled The Conservation of Races Lewis pp 143 144 Horne p 26 Lewis pp 143 155 Lange Werner J 1983 W E B Du Bois and the First Scientific Study of Afro America Phylon 44 2 135 146 doi 10 2307 275025 JSTOR 275025 T he pioneering studies of African cultures and Afro American realities and history initiated by W E B Du Bois from 1894 until 1915 stand not only as the first studies of black people on a firm scientific basis altogether whether classified among the social or historical sciences but they also represent the earliest ethnographies of Afro America as well as a major contribution to the earliest corpus of social scientific literature from the United States Donaldson Shawn The Philadelphia Negro in Young p 165 The Philadelphia Negro stands as a classic in both urban sociology and African American studies because it was the first scientific study of the Negro and the first scientific sociological study in the United States Lewis p 148 Lewis pp 140 148 underclass 141 slavery Lewis pp 158 160 Lewis pp 161 235 Department of Labor p 141 Bureau of Labor Statistics a b Lewis p 157 Ramla Bandele Pan African Conference in 1900 Archived 22 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine Article 461 Origins of the movement for global black unity Global Mappings A history of Pan Africanism New Internationalist 326 August 2000 1900 W E B Du Bois To the Nations of the World BlackPast org Sivagurunathan Shivani Pan Africanism in David Dabydeen John Gilmore Cecily Jones eds The Oxford Companion to Black British History Oxford University Press 2007 pp 259 260 The Pan African Congresses 1900 1945 BlackPast org 1900 Pan African Conference Resolution PDF Source Ayodele Langley Ideologies of Liberation in Black Africa London Rex Collings 1979 pp 738 739 Edwards Brent Hayes 2009 The Practice of Diaspora in Janice A Radway Kevin Gaines Barry Shank Penny Von Eschen eds American Studies An Anthology Wiley Blackwell p 33 Lewis David Levering A Small Nation of People W E B Du Bois and Black Americans at the Turn of the Twentieth Century A Small Nation of People W E B Du Bois and African American Portraits of Progress New York Amistad 2003 pp 24 49 a b African American Photographs Assembled for 1900 Paris Exposition Library of Congress The W E B Du Bois Center at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and Battle Baptiste Whitney eds W E B Du Bois s Data Portraits Visualizing Black America Princeton Architectural Press 2018 ISBN 978 1616897062 Mansky Jackie W E B Du Bois Visionary Infographics Come Together for the First Time in Full Color Smithsonian Magazine Retrieved 25 August 2020 Lewis p 161 Lewis pp 179 180 189 Harlan Louis R 2006 A Black Leader in the Age of Jim Crow in The Racial Politics of Booker T Washington Donald Cunnigen Rutledge M Dennis Myrtle Gonza Glascoe eds Emerald Group Publishing p 26 Lewis pp 180 181 Logan Rayford Whittingham 1997 The Betrayal of the Negro from Rutherford B Hayes to Woodrow Wilson Da Capo Press pp 275 313 Harlan Louis R 1972 Booker T Washington The Making of a Black Leader 1856 1901 New York Oxford University Press p 225 Let me heartily congratulate you upon your phenomenal success at Atlanta it was a word fitly spoken Letter from W E B Du Bois to Booker T Washington September 24 1895 The Core Curriculum Columbia College Columbia University retrieved February 28 2016 Harlan Louis R 1986 Booker T Washington the wizard of Tuskegee 1901 1915 Oxford University Press pp 71 120 Croce Paul Accommodation versus Struggle in Young pp 1 3 Du Bois popularized the term talented tenth in a 1903 essay but he was not the first to use it Croce Paul Accommodation versus Struggle in Young pp 1 3 Lewis p 162 Lewis pp 162 3 Du Bois quoted by Lewis Lewis p 184 Lewis pp 199 200 Lewis p 711 Lomotey pp 354 355 Lomotey pp 355 356 Frazier Edward Franklin 1957 The Negro in the United States New York Macmillan Company p 459 Myrdal Gunnar Rose Arnold M 1964 An American Dilemma The Negro Problem and American Democracy 2 New York McGraw Hill p 889 Sowell Thomas 1 January 2005 Black Education Achievements Myths and Tragedies Black Rednecks and White Liberals New York Encounter Books pp 231 235 ISBN 978 1 59403 086 4 Sowell Thomas 1981 Ethnic America A History New York Basic Books p 208 Du Bois W E B November 1965 W E B Du Bois The Atlantic Monthly Interview 216 5 Interviewed by Ralph McGill pp 78 81 Archived from the original on December 10 2020 The controversy Du Bois said developed more between our followers than between us Quoted by Lewis p 218 Lewis pp 215 216 DuBois W E B September 1905 The Niagara Movement Voice of the Negro 619 622 Lewis pp 218 219 a b Lewis p 220 Lewis pp 227 228 The Horizon lasted until 1910 when he developed The Crisis for publication as an instrument of the NAACP Ransom quoted by Lewis p 222 a b Gibson Todd The Souls of Black Folk in Young p 198 a b Lewis p 191 Lewis p 192 Du Bois quoted by Lewis Lewis pp 194 195 a b Kahn Jonathon S Divine Discontent The Religious Imagination of W E B Du Bois Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 530789 4 Lewis p 223 Lewis p 224 Lewis pp 224 225 Lewis p 229 Lewis p 2226 Lewis pp 223 224 230 Quoted by Lewis p 230 Conference was in Oberlin Ohio Lewis p 238 VendeCreek Drew John Brown in Young pp 32 33 Lewis p 240 Lewis p 244 Colliers p 249 Horizon a b Lewis p 250 a b c Lewis p 251 Lewis p 252 Lewis David Levering Beyond Exclusivity Writing Race Class Gender into U S History date unknown New York University Silver Dialogues series Lewis pp 256 258 Lewis p 258 Lewis pp 263 264 Lewis p 264 Lewis p 253 whites 264 president What BR Ambedker wrote to WEB Du Bois South Asian American Digital Archive 22 April 2014 Retrieved 14 September 2020 Letter from BR Ambedker to WEB Du Bois UMass Amherst July 1946 Retrieved 14 September 2020 Lewis pp 252 265 Bowles Amy NAACP in Young pp 141 144 Lewis pp 268 269 Lewis pp 270 success 384 circulation Lewis p 271 Lewis pp 279 280 Quote from Triumph The Crisis 2 September 1911 p 195 Lewis p 274 Hancock Ange Marie Socialism Communism in Young p 196 member Lewis p 275 denounced Lewis p 278 Wilson promised to see justice done in every matter Lewis pp 43 259 522 608 Donaldson Shawn Women s Rights in Young pp 219 221 Duong Kevin 2021 Universal Suffrage as Decolonization American Political Science Review 115 2 412 428 doi 10 1017 S0003055420000994 ISSN 0003 0554 S2CID 232422414 Lewis pp 272 273 Lewis p 275 Du Bois quoted in Lubin Alex 2005 Romance and Rights The Politics of Interracial Intimacy 1945 1954 University Press of Mississippi pp 71 72 Lewis pp 312 324 Kory Fern 2001 Once upon a time in Aframerica The peculiar significance of fairies in the Brownies Book In Lennox Keyser Elizabeth Pfeiffer Julie eds Children s Literature Twayne s United States authors series 29 Yale University Press pp 91 112 ISBN 978 0 300 08891 5 ISSN 0092 8208 Kommers Czarniecki Kristin 2004 Brownies Book The In Wintz Cary D Finkelman Paul eds Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance 1 A J Routledge p 196 ISBN 978 1 57958 389 7 LCCN 2004016353 Lewis pp 290 291 Lewis pp 293 296 a b Lewis p 301 Lewis p 303 Brown Nikki World War I in Young pp 224 226 Lewis pp 327 328 a b c Lewis p 335 Watts Trent The Birth of a Nation in Young p 28 Lewis p 331 Lewis p 332 Lewis p 335 editorial p 334 Trotter Lewis p 335 The Lynching Industry was in the Feb 1915 issue See also the July 1916 article The Waco Horror at Brown University library Archived 27 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine or at Google Books Lewis p 336 Lewis pp 357 358 See for example Du Bois s editorial in the October 1916 edition of The Crisis Lombardo Paul A 2011 ACentury of Eugenics in America From the Indiana Experiment to the Human Genome Era pp 74 75 Lewis David Levering 2001 W E B Du Bois The Fight for Equality and the American Century 1919 1963 Owl Books ISBN 978 0 8050 6813 9 p 223 Lewis p 346 Lewis pp 346 347 Lewis p 348 Lewis p 349 Lewis p 348 draft 349 racism Lewis p 350 Lewis p 352 Lewis p 353 King William Silent Protest Against Lynching in Young p 191 Lewis p 352 The first was picketing against The Birth of a Nation Lewis p 354 Lewis p 355 p 384 about 1 000 black officers served during World War I Lewis p 359 Lewis p 362 The column was published in July but written in June Lewis p 363 The offer was for a role in Military Intelligence Lewis pp 363 364 Lewis p 366 The commission was withdrawn before Du Bois could begin actual military service Lewis pp 367 368 The book The Black Man and the Wounded World was never published Other authors covered the topic such as Emmett Scott s Official History of the American Negro in the World War 1920 Lewis pp 371 373 Lewis p 368 Lewis p 369 Lewis p 376 Lewis p 381 Du Bois quoted in Williams Chad 2010 Torchbearers of Democracy African American Soldiers in the World War I Era UNC Press Books p 207 a b Lewis p 383 Lewis p 389 Lewis p 389 The sharecroppers were working with the Progressive Farmers and Household Union of America Lewis pp 389 390 Lewis p 391 Lewis p 391 The other two would be Dusk of Dawn and The Autobiography of W E Burghardt Du Bois Lewis p 394 Lewis p 392 characterizes as feminist Lewis pp 405 406 The publication lasted two years from January 1920 to December 1921 Online at Library of Congress retrieved November 20 2011 Lewis p 409 Lewis p 414 Lewis p 415 Lewis pp 416 424 Lewis pp 426 427 Du Bois The Black Star Line Crisis September 1922 pp 210 214 Retrieved November 2 2007 Lewis p 428 Lewis p 429 Lewis p 465 Lewis pp 467 468 Lewis pp 435 437 Quoted from The Crisis August 1911 by Lewis Lewis p 442 Lewis pp 448 449 Lewis pp 450 463 Lewis p 471 frequent Horne Malika Art and Artists in Young pp 13 15 Lewis p 475 article Hamilton Neil 2002 American Social Leaders and Activists Infobase Publishing p 121 ISBN 9780816045358 Lewis p 480 Du Bois January 1946 quoted by Horne Malika Art and Artists in Young pp 13 15 Emphasis is in Du Bois s original Lewis p 481 Lewis pp 485 487 One of the greatest debates ever held 1929 credo library umass edu Retrieved 24 August 2019 a b c Frazier Ian 19 August 2019 When W E B Du Bois Made a Laughingstock of a White Supremacist The New Yorker ISSN 0028 792X Retrieved 24 August 2019 Taylor Carol M 1981 W E B DuBois s Challenge to Scientific Racism Journal of Black Studies 11 4 449 460 doi 10 1177 002193478101100405 ISSN 0021 9347 JSTOR 2784074 PMID 11635221 S2CID 45779708 a b Du Bois W E B Wilson Woodrow 1973 My Impressions of Woodrow Wilson The Journal of Negro History 58 4 453 459 doi 10 2307 2716751 ISSN 0022 2992 JSTOR 2716751 Yellin Eric S 2013 Racism in the Nation s Service Government Workers and the Color Line in Woodrow Wilson s America University of North Carolina Press p 147 ISBN 978 1 4696 0721 4 Application to join the CPUSA by W E B Du Bois 1961 Communist Party USA 2009 02 28 Retrieved 2021 02 16 Stewart Andrew 25 January 2016 Why the Oscars Don t Deserve People of Color www counterpunch org CounterPunch Retrieved March 17 2016 Lewis p 486 Lewis p 487 Lewis pp 498 499 Lewis pp 498 507 Quoted by Lewis p 119 Balaji Murali 2007 The Professor and the Pupil The Politics and Friendship of W E B Du Bois and Paul Robeson Nation Books pp 70 71 Lewis p 513 Lewis p 514 Lewis p 517 Horne pp 143 144 Lewis pp 535 547 Lewis p 544 Lewis p 545 Lewis pp 569 570 Lewis p 573 Lewis p 549 Lewis pp 549 550 Lewis states that Du Bois sometimes praised African American spirituality but not clergy or churches King Richard H 2004 Race Culture and the Intellectuals 1940 1970 Woodrow Wilson Center Press pp 43 44 Lewis p 551 Lewis p 553 The person on the ticket was James W Ford running for vice president Lemert Charles C 2002 Dark thoughts race and the eclipse of society Psychology Press pp 227 229 Lewis pp 576 583 Aptheker Herbert 1989 The literary legacy of W E B Du Bois Kraus International Publications p 211 Du Bois called the work his magnum opus Lewis p 586 Lewis pp 583 586 Lewis pp 585 590 thorough pp 583 593 ignored Foner Eric 1 December 1982 Reconstruction Revisited Reviews in American History 10 4 82 100 83 doi 10 2307 2701820 ISSN 0048 7511 JSTOR 2701820 During the civil rights era however it became apparent that Du Bois s scholarship despite some limitations had been ahead of its time Campbell James M Rebecca J Fraser Peter C Mancall 2008 Reconstruction People and Perspectives ABC CLIO p xx ISBN 978 1 59884 021 6 W E B Du Bois s 1935 1998 Black Reconstruction in America 1860 1880 is commonly regarded as the foundational text of revisionist African American historiography Bilbija Marina 1 September 2011 Democracy s New Song The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 637 1 64 77 doi 10 1177 0002716211407153 ISSN 0002 7162 S2CID 143636000 Du Bois W E B 1935 Black Reconstruction Harcourt Brace p 713 Lewis pp 611 618 Braley Mark Encyclopedia Projects in Young pp 73 78 Braley summarizes Du Bois s lifelong quest to create an encyclopedia a b Lewis p 600 Zacharasiewicz Waldemar 2007 Images of Germany in American literature University of Iowa Press p 120 Fikes Robert Germany in Young pp 87 89 Broderick Francis 1959 W E B Du Bois Negro Leader in a Time of Crisis Stanford University Press p 192 Jefferson Alphine Antisemitism in Young p 10 Du Bois quoted by Lewis David 1995 W E B Du Bois A Reader p 81 Original Du Bois source Pittsburgh Courier December 19 1936 Kearney Reginald 1995 The Pro Japanese Utterances of W E B Du Bois Contributions in Black Studies 13 7 201 217 Retrieved 8 August 2020 Gallicchio Marc S 2000 The African American Encounter with Japan and China Black Internationalism in Asia 1895 1945 University of North Carolina Press p 104 ISBN 978 0 8078 2559 4 OCLC 43334134 Kearney 1995 p 204 W E B Du Bois Newspaper Columns Vol 1 ed Herbert Aptheker White Plains NY Kraus Thomson 1986 pp 167 68 Column from the Pittsburg Courier in February 1937 Quoted in Kearney 1995 p 205 Kearney 1995 pp 213 215 Lewis pp 631 632 Lewis p 633 The military later changed its policy and units such as the Tuskegee Airmen saw combat Lewis p 634 Horne p 144 Lewis p 637 Mostern Kenneth Dusk of Dawn in Young pp 65 66 Du Bois quoted by Lewis p 637 Lewis pp 643 644 Lewis p 644 Spingarn quoted by Lewis p 645 Lewis p 648 Lewis p 647 Lewis p 654 Lewis p 656 Lewis pp 655 657 Overstreet H A Saturday Review quoted in Lewis p 657 Lewis p 661 A Statement on the Denial of Human Rights to Minorities in the Case of citizens of Negro Descent in the United States of America and an Appeal to the United Nations for Redress National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP 1947 1947 W E B DuBois An Appeal to the World A Statement of Denial of Human Rights to Minorities Via BlackPast May 3 2011 Plummer Brenda Gayle 19 June 2020 Civil Rights Has Always Been a Global Movement How Allies Abroad Help the Fight Against Racism at Home Foreign Affairs Vol 99 no 5 ISSN 0015 7120 The United Nations formed at last in 1945 and the U S government gave the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the National Council of Negro Women ceremonial roles as observers at the founding conference in the hope of encouraging domestic support for the new institution Washington was displeased however when in 1947 the NAACP submitted a 96 page petition to the UN Commission on Human Rights asking it to investigate human rights violations against African Americans in the United States Edited by W E B Du Bois and titled An Appeal to the World the document began with a pointed denunciation of American hypocrisy Civil Rights Congress August 28 1970 We Charge Genocide The Crime of Government Against the Negro People Retrieved August 28 2017 via Internet Archive Charles H Martin Internationalizing The American Dilemma The Civil Rights Congress and the 1951 Genocide Journal of American Ethnic History 16 4 Summer 1997 accessed via JStor Lewis p 663 a b c Lewis p 669 Lewis p 670 Du Bois Dusk of Dawn quoted by Hancock Socialism Communism in Young p 196 Quote is from 1940 Lewis p 669 Du Bois quoted by Lewis Lewis pp 681 682 Lewis p 683 a b Schneider Paul Peace Movement in Young p 163 In his college days Du Bois vowed to never take up arms Lewis p 685 Lewis pp 685 687 Lewis p 687 Lewis p 691 Marable p xx Marable p xx ruthless repression Marable Manning 1991 Race Reform and Rebellion The Second Reconstruction in Black America 1945 1990 University Press of Mississippi p 104 political assassination Marable quoted by Gabbidon p 55 Gabbidon p 54 Federal Bureau of Incestigation 1942 William E B DuBois File 100 99729 Keen Mike Forrest 2004 Stalking sociologists J Edgar Hoover s FBI surveillance of American sociology Keen Mike Forrest New Brunswick Transaction Publishers p 15 ISBN 978 0 7658 0563 8 OCLC 52739297 Lewis p 688 Lewis p 689 Horne pp 168 169 Lieberman Robbie 2000 The Strangest Dream Communism Anticommunism and the U S Peace Movement 1945 1963 Syracuse University Press pp 92 93 Gabbidon p 54 The government felt that the PIC was an agent of the USSR although that country was never specifically identified Johnson Robert C Jr 1998 Race Law and Public Policy Cases and Materials on Law and Public Policy of Race Black Classic Press p 472 ISBN 978 1 58073 019 8 OCLC 54617416 Archived from the original on 3 May 2014 Michel Casey Freeman Ben 2020 09 03 The Danger of Banning Foreign Lobbying It s a Real Problem But Biden s Proposal Isn t the Right Fix Foreign Affairs Vol 99 no 5 ISSN 0015 7120 Lewis p 692 associates p 693 NAACP pp 693 694 support Lewis p 690 Jerome Fred Taylor Rodger July 1 2006 Einstein on Race and Racism Souls 9 4 121 doi 10 1080 10999940701703851 S2CID 141762653 Lewis pp 696 707 Du Bois refused to sign a non Communist affidavit that would enable him to regain his passport Hancock Ange Marie Socialism Communism in Young p 197 The NAACP had a Legal Defense Fund for cases like Du Bois s but they chose not to support Du Bois Lewis p 696 Lewis p 697 Lewis pp 690 694 695 Lewis p 698 Porter Eric 2012 The Problem of the Future World W E B Du Bois and the Race Concept at Midcentury Duke University Press pp 10 71 Du Bois W E B On Stalin National Guardian March 16 1953 Mostern Kenneth 2001 Bandung Conference in Young pp 23 24 Lewis pp 701 06 Lewis p 709 Du Bois 1968 Autobiography p 57 quoted by Hancock Ange Marie Socialism Communism in Young p 197 a b Lewis pp 696 707 708 Lewis pp 709 711 a b Lewis p 712 Renouncing citizenship is usually all about the Benjamins say experts Fox News May 11 2012 Retrieved May 18 2015 Celebrities Who Renounced Their Citizenship Huffington Post February 1 2012 Retrieved May 18 2015 Aberjhani Sandra L West 2003 Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance Infobase Publishing p 89 ISBN 978 1 4381 3017 0 Retrieved May 18 2015 Lewis p 841 footnote 39 Blum Edward J 2007 W E B Du Bois American Prophet University of Pennsylvania Press p 211 Horne p xii Bass Amy 2009 Those About Him Remained Silent The Battle over W E B Du Bois University of Minnesota Press p xiii Shipley Jesse Weaver Pierre Jemima 2007 The Intellectual and Pragmatic Legacy of Du Bois s Pan Africanism in Contemporary Ghana In Keller Mary Fontenot Jr Chester J eds Re Cognizing W E B Du Bois in the Twenty First Century Essays on W E B Du Bois Macon GA Mercer University Press pp 61 87 ISBN 978 0 88146 077 3 Horne p 11 Lewis pp 74 231 232 613 Lewis p 231 Lewis pp 54 156 aloof p 3 address Lewis p 54 gregarious p 124 Young and Dunbar p 177 Hope pp 213 234 Ovington Lewis pp 316 324 360 368 Spingarn p 316 best friend p 557 first name basis Lewis pp 54 156 638 Lewis p 54 height Du Bois W E B 2001 first pub 1968 Harvard in the Last Decades of the 19th Century In Bloom Harold ed W E B Du Bois Modern Critical Views New York Chelsea House p 7 ISBN 978 1 4381 1356 2 Only one organization did I try to enter and I ought to have known better than to make this attempt But I did have a good singing voice and loved music so I entered the competition for the Glee Club I ought to have known that Harvard could not afford to have a Negro on its Glee Club traveling about the country Quite naturally I was rejected Bolden Tonya 2008 Up Close W E B Du Bois A Twentieth century Life Penguin ISBN 978 0 670 06302 4 Jones Jacqueline C 2004 Cullen Du Bois Wedding In Wintz Cary D Finkelman Paul eds Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance A J Taylor amp Francis ISBN 978 1 57958 457 3 De Luca Laura David Graham Du Bois in Young pp 55 56 Lingeman Richard Soul on Fire The New York Times November 5 2000 Retrieved December 2 2011 A review of The Fight for Equality and the American Century 1919 1963 Lewis p 55 Rabaka p 127 freethinker Lewis p 550 agnostic atheist Johnson passim agnostic Lewis p 157 Johnson p 55 Autobiography p 181 Quoted in Rabaka p 127 Horne Malika Religion in Young p 181 Chidester David Religious Animals Refuge of the Gods and the Spirit of Revolt W E B Du Bois s representations of Indigenous African Religions in Mary Keller amp Chester J Fontenot Jr eds Re cognizing W E B Du Bois in the Twenty first century Essays on W E B Du Bois Mercer University Press 2007 p 35 ISBN 978 0 88146 059 9 Malika Horne Religion in Young pp 181 182 basic rock Lewis p 550 Blum Edward J 2009 The Souls of W E B Du Bois New Essays and Reflections Mercer University Press pp iii xxi For additional analysis of Du Bois and religion see Blum Edward J 2007 W E B Du Bois American Prophet University of Pennsylvania Press and Kahn Jonathon S 2011 Divine Discontent The Religious Imagination of W E B Du Bois Oxford University Press Lewis pp 212 213 Credo was reprinted in Du Bois s first autobiography Darkwater 1920 text available here Kuhl Michelle Resurrecting Black Manhood W E B Du Bois Martyr Tales in Blum amp Young eds The Souls of W E B Du Bois New Essays and Reflections Mercer University Press 2009 p 161 ISBN 978 0 88146 136 7 Brunner Marta The Most Hopeless of Deaths Is the Death of Faith Messianic Faith in the Racial Politics of W E B Du Bois in Keller amp Fontenot 2007 p 189 a b c d e I Won t Vote The Nation February 7 2002 Archived from the original on July 21 2020 Lewis p 398 W E B Du Bois and members of Phi Beta Kappa Fisk University 1958 1958 credo library umass edu Retrieved 9 April 2019 Lewis p 3 Savage Beth 1994 African American Historic Places John Wiley and Sons p 277 Sama Dominic New U S Issue Honors W E B Du Bois Chicago Tribune February 2 1992 Retrieved November 20 2011 Han John J 2007 W E B Du Bois in Encyclopedia of American Race Riots Greenwood Publishing Group p 181 W E B Du Bois Medal Recipients The Hutchins Center for African amp African American Research hutchinscenter fas harvard edu Retrieved 28 October 2018 The History of W E B Du Bois College House Archived 19 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine University of Pennsylvania Retrieved November 20 2011 Bloom Harold 2001 W E B Du Bois Infobase Publishing p 244 W E B Du Bois Lectures Humboldt University Retrieved November 20 2011 Asante Molefi Kete 2002 100 Greatest African Americans A Biographical Encyclopedia Prometheus Books pp 114 116 Noteworthy The Crisis November December 2005 p 64 Holy Women Holy Men Celebrating the Saints PDF Church Publishing 2010 Retrieved November 20 2011 William Edward Burghardt DuBois Sociologist 1963 Episcopal Church 17 August 2011 Retrieved 1 August 2019 Dr William Edward Burghardt Du Bois Honorary Emeritus Professorship of Sociology and Africana Studies The University of Pennsylvania Almanac February 7 2012 W E B Du Bois receives honorary emeritus professorship The Daily Pennsylvanian February 19 2012 Du Bois Art Projects CAUDuBoisLegacy net Clark Atlanta University Archived from the original on 20 October 2017 Retrieved May 12 2017 Education Outreach Through Music Harvard Graduate School of Education Retrieved 3 March 2021 WEB Du Bois awarded Grand Prix de la Memoire Lebledparle com Bois W E B 2020 The Gift of Black Folk The Negroes in the Making of America Newburyport Open Road Media ISBN 9781504064200 OCLC 1178648633 Retrieved 15 October 2020 W E B Du Bois Papers UMass Amherst Libraries Special Collections and University Archives Retrieved October 8 2020 ReferencesGabbidon Shaun 2007 W E B Du Bois on Crime and Justice Laying the Foundations of Sociological Criminology Ashgate Publishing Ltd ISBN 978 0 7546 4956 4 Horne Gerald 2010 W E B Du Bois A Biography Greenwood Press ISBN 978 0 313 34979 9 Johnson Brian 2008 W E B Du Bois Toward Agnosticism 1868 1934 Rowman amp Littlefield ISBN 978 0 7425 6449 7 Lewis David Levering 2009 W E B Du Bois A Biography Henry Holt and Co Single volume edition updated of his 1994 and 2001 works ISBN 978 0 8050 8769 7 Du Bois W E B Wilson Woodrow 1973 My Impressions of Woodrow Wilson The Journal of Negro History 58 4 453 459 doi 10 2307 2716751 ISSN 0022 2992 JSTOR 2716751 Lomotey Kofi 2009 Encyclopedia of African American Education Volume 1 Sage ISBN 978 1 4129 4050 4 Marable Manning 2005 W E B Du Bois Black Radical Democrat Paradigm Publishers ISBN 978 1 59451 018 2 Rabaka Reiland 2009 Du Bois s Dialectics Black Radical Politics and the Reconstruction of Critical Social Theory Lexington Books ISBN 978 0 7391 1958 7 Young Mary and Horne Gerald eds 2001 W E B Du Bois An Encyclopedia Greenwood Publishing Group ISBN 978 0 313 29665 9 Further readingExternal video Presentation by Kwame Anthony Appiah on Lines of Descent April 29 2014 C SPANExternal video Booknotes interview with David Levering Lewis on W E B Du Bois The Biography of a Race 1868 1919 January 2 1994 C SPAN Presentation by Lewis on W E B Du Bois The Fight for Equality and the American Century 1919 1963 at the Atlanta History Center October 30 2000 C SPAN Interview with Lewis about W E B Du Bois The Fight for Equality and the American Century 1919 1963 April 29 2001 C SPAN Presentation by Lewis about his Du Bois biographies at the National Book Festival September 8 2001 C SPAN Presentation by Lewis and Deborah Willis on their book A Small Nation of People W E B Du Bois and African American Portraits of Progress October 29 2003 C SPANAdams John Henry 1905 Rough Sketches William Edward Burghardt Du Bois Voice of the Negro 176 181 Appiah Kwame Anthony 2014 Lines of Descent W E B Du Bois and the Emergence of Identity Harvard University Press ISBN 978 0 674 72491 4 Broderick Francis L 1959 W E B Du Bois Negro Leader in a Time of Crisis Stanford University Press ASIN B000X665SM Bulmer Martin 1991 W E B Du Bois as a Social Investigator The Philadelphia Negro 1899 in Martin Bulmer Kevin Bales and Kathryn Kish Sklar eds The Social Survey in Historical Perspective 1880 1940 pp 170 188 Crouch Stanley and Playthell Benjamin 2002 Reconsidering The Souls of Black Folk Running Press Dorrien Gary 2015 The New Abolition W E B Du Bois and the Black Social Gospel New Haven CT Yale University Press ISBN 978 0300205602 Gooding Williams Robert 2009 In the Shadow of Du Bois Afro Modern Political Thought in America Harvard University Press ISBN 978 0 674 03526 3 Holt Thomas C Du Bois W E B in American National Biography Online 2000 Hubbard Dolan ed 2003 The Souls of Black Folk One Hundred Years Later University of Missouri Press ISBN 978 0 8262 1433 1 Lewis David Levering 1994 W E B Du Bois Biography of a Race 1868 1919 Owl Books Winner of the Pulitzer Prize Bancroft Prize and the Francis Parkman Prize ISBN 978 0 8050 6813 9 Lewis David Levering 2001 W E B Du Bois The Fight for Equality and the American Century 1919 1963 Owl Books Winner of the 2001 Pulitzer Prize for Biography ISBN 978 0 8050 6813 9 Lewis David Levering and Willis Deborah 2005 A Small Nation of People W E B Du Bois and African American Portraits of Progress HarperCollins ISBN 0 06 081756 9 Meier August 1963 Negro Thought in America 1880 1915 Racial Ideologies in the Age of Booker T Washington University of Michigan Press ISBN 978 0472061181 Mullen Bill V 2015 Un American W E B Du Bois and the Century of World Revolution Philadelphia Temple University Press ISBN 978 1439911105 Mullen Bill V 2016 W E B Du Bois Revolutionary Across the Color Line London UK Pluto Press ISBN 978 0 7453 3506 3 Rampersad Arnold 1976 The Art and Imagination of W E B Du Bois Harvard University Press ISBN 978 0 674 04711 2 Richardson Mark W E B Du Bois and the Redemption of the Body In The Wings of Atalanta Essays Written Along the Color Line Camden House 2019 73 109 ISBN 1571132392 Rudwick Elliott M 1968 W E B Du Bois Propagandist of the Negro Protest University of Pennsylvania Press ASIN B00442HZQ2 Shaw Stephanie J 2013 W E B Du Bois and The Souls of Black Folk Chapel Hill NC University of North Carolina Press ISBN 978 1469626437 Sterne Emma Gelders 1971 His Was The Voice The Life of W E B Du Bois Crowell Collier Press Book for children ASIN B000I1XNX2 Sundquist Eric J 1996 Ed The Oxford W E B Du Bois Reader Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 509178 6 Wolfenstein Eugene Victor 2007 A Gift of the Spirit Reading The Souls of Black Folk Cornell University Press 2007 ISBN 0 8014 7353 5 Wright William D 1985 The Socialist Analysis of W E B Du Bois Ph D dissertation State University of New York at Buffalo Zuckerman Phil 2000 Du Bois on Religion Rowman amp Littlefield A collection of Du Bois s writings on religion ISBN 978 0 7425 0421 9 Documentaries Massiah Louis producer and director W E B Du Bois A Biography in Four Voices documentary movie 1996 California NewsreelExternal linksW E B Du Boisat Wikipedia s sister projects Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata Works by W E B Du Bois in eBook form at Standard Ebooks Works by W E B Du Bois at Project Gutenberg Works by or about W E B Du Bois at Internet Archive Works by W E B Du Bois at LibriVox public domain audiobooks W E B Du Bois Online Resources from the Library of Congress W E B Du Bois National Historic Site W E B Du Bois in the New Georgia Encyclopedia W E B Du Bois Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Writings of B Washington and Du Bois from C SPAN s American Writers A Journey Through History Works by W E B Du Bois at FRASER Audio of W E B Du Bois lecturing on Socialism and the American Negro April 9 1960 at YouTube W E B Du Bois Papers held by the University of Massachusetts Amherst Special Collections and University Archives W E B Dubois Collection Yale Collection of American Literature Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library FBI files on DuBois released under the Freedom of Information Act in The Vault FBI electronic reading room Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title W E B Du Bois amp oldid 1053098371, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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