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Wikipedia

Wayback Machine

For the time machine from Peabody's Improbable History, see Wayback Machine (Peabody's Improbable History). For help citing the Wayback Machine in the English Wikipedia, see .

The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web. It was founded by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit library based in San Francisco, California. Created in 1996 and launched to the public in 2001, it allows the user to go "back in time" and see how websites looked in the past. Its founders, Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, developed the Wayback Machine to provide "universal access to all knowledge" by preserving archived copies of defunct web pages.

Wayback Machine
Type of site
Archive
Area servedWorldwide (except China and Bahrain)
OwnerInternet Archive
URLweb.archive.org
RegistrationOptional
LaunchedMay 12, 1996; 25 years ago (1996-05-12) (private)
October 24, 2001; 20 years ago (2001-10-24) (public)
Current statusActive
Written inJava, Python

Since its creation in 1996, over 613 billion pages have been added to the archive. The service has also sparked controversy over whether creating archived pages without the owner's permission constitutes copyright infringement in certain jurisdictions.

Contents

The Wayback Machine began archiving cached web pages on May 12, 1996, with the goal of making the service public five years later.[failed verification]

Internet Archive founders Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat launched the Wayback Machine in San Francisco, California, in October 2001, primarily to address the problem of website content vanishing whenever it gets changed or when a website is shut down. The service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a "three-dimensional index". Kahle and Gilliat created the machine hoping to archive the entire Internet and provide "universal access to all knowledge". The name "Wayback Machine" is a reference to a fictional time-traveling and translation device, the "Wayback Machine", used by the characters Mister Peabody and Sherman in the animated cartoon The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle and Friends. In one of the cartoon's segments, "Peabody's Improbable History", the characters used the machine to witness, participate in, and often alter famous events in history.

From 1996 to 2001, the information was kept on digital tape, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers and scientists to tap into the "clunky" database. When the archive reached its fifth anniversary in 2001, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. By the time the Wayback Machine launched, it already contained over 10 billion archived pages. The data is stored on the Internet Archive's large cluster of Linux nodes. It revisits and archives new versions of websites on occasion (see technical details below). Sites can also be captured manually by entering a website's URL into the search box, provided that the website allows the Wayback Machine to "crawl" it and save the data.

On October 30, 2020, the Wayback Machine began fact-checking content.

Software has been developed to "crawl" the Web and download all publicly accessible information and data files on webpages, the Gopher hierarchy, the Netnews (Usenet) bulletin board system, and downloadable software. The information collected by these "crawlers" does not include all the information available on the Internet, since much of the data is restricted by the publisher or stored in databases that are not accessible. To overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.org was developed in 2005 by the Internet Archive as a means of allowing institutions and content creators to voluntarily harvest and preserve collections of digital content, and create digital archives.

Crawls are contributed from various sources, some imported from third parties and others generated internally by the Archive. For example, crawls are contributed by the Sloan Foundation and Alexa, crawls run by IA on behalf of NARA and the Internet Memory Foundation, mirrors of Common Crawl. The "Worldwide Web Crawls" have been running since 2010 and capture the global Web.

The frequency of snapshot captures varies per website. Websites in the "Worldwide Web Crawls" are included in a "crawl list", with the site archived once per crawl. A crawl can take months or even years to complete, depending on size. For example, "Wide Crawl Number 13" started on January 9, 2015, and completed on July 11, 2016. However, there may be multiple crawls ongoing at any one time, and a site might be included in more than one crawl list, so how often a site is crawled varies widely.

As of October 2019, users are limited to 5 archival requests and retrievals per minute.[citation needed][why?]

Storage capacity and growth

As technology has developed over the years, the storage capacity of the Wayback Machine has grown. In 2003, after only two years of public access, the Wayback Machine was growing at a rate of 12 terabytes/month. The data is stored on PetaBox rack systems custom designed by Internet Archive staff. The first 100TB rack became fully operational in June 2004, although it soon became clear that they would need much more storage than that.

The Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage in 2009, and hosts a new data centre in a Sun Modular Datacenter on Sun Microsystems' California campus. As of 2009[update], the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month.

A new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and a fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing in 2011, where captures appear in a calendar layout with circles whose width visualizes the number of crawls each day, but no marking of duplicates with asterisks or an advanced search page. Features like "Changes", "Summary", and a graphical site map were added subsequently.

In March that year, it was said on the Wayback Machine forum that "the Beta of the new Wayback Machine has a more complete and up-to-date index of all crawled materials into 2010, and will continue to be updated regularly. The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a little bit of material past 2008, and no further index updates are planned, as it will be phased out this year." Also in 2011, the Internet Archive installed their sixth pair of PetaBox racks which increased the Wayback Machine's storage capacity by 700 terabytes.

In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs.

In October 2013, the company introduced the "Save a Page" feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL, and quickly generates a permanent link unlike the preceding liveweb feature.

In December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained 435 billion web pages—almost nine petabytes of data, and was growing at about 20 terabytes a week.

In March 2015,[date verification needed] security researchers became aware of the threat posed by the service's unintentional hosting of malicious binaries from archived sites.

In July 2016, the Wayback Machine reportedly contained around 15 petabytes of data.

In September 2018, the Wayback Machine contained over 25 petabytes of data.

As of December 2020, the Wayback Machine contained over 70 petabytes of data.

Wayback Machine Growth
Wayback Machine by Year Pages Archived (billion)
2005
40
2008
85
2012
150
2013
373
2014
400
2015
452
2020
514

Between October 2013 and March 2015, the website's global Alexa rank changed from 163 to 208. In March 2019 the rank was at 244.

Website exclusion policy

Historically, the Wayback Machine has respected the robots exclusion standard (robots.txt) in determining if a website would be crawled – or if already crawled, if its archives would be publicly viewable. Website owners had the option to opt-out of Wayback Machine through the use of robots.txt. It applied robots.txt rules retroactively; if a site blocked the Internet Archive, any previously archived pages from the domain were immediately rendered unavailable as well. In addition, the Internet Archive stated that "Sometimes, a website owner will contact us directly and ask us to stop crawling or archiving a site. We comply with these requests." In addition, the website says: "The Internet Archive is not interested in preserving or offering access to Web sites or other internet documents of persons who do not want their materials in the collection."

On 17 April 2017, reports surfaced of sites that had gone defunct and became parked domains that were using robots.txt to exclude themselves from search engines, resulting in them being inadvertently excluded from the Wayback Machine. The Internet archive changed the policy to now require an explicit exclusion request to remove it from the Wayback Machine.

Oakland Archive Policy

Wayback's retroactive exclusion policy is based in part upon Recommendations for Managing Removal Requests and Preserving Archival Integrity published by the School of Information Management and Systems at University of California, Berkeley in 2002, which gives a website owner the right to block access to the site's archives. Wayback has complied with this policy to help avoid expensive litigation.

The Wayback retroactive exclusion policy began to relax in 2017, when it stopped honoring robots.txt on U.S. government and military web sites for both crawling and displaying web pages. As of April 2017, Wayback is ignoring robots.txt more broadly, not just for U.S. government websites.

From its public launch in 2001, the Wayback Machine has been studied by scholars both for the ways it stores and collects data as well as for the actual pages contained in its archive. As of 2013, scholars had written about 350 articles on the Wayback Machine, mostly from the information technology, library science, and social science fields. Social science scholars have used the Wayback Machine to analyze how the development of websites from the mid-1990s to the present has affected the company's growth.

When the Wayback Machine archives a page, it usually includes most of the hyperlinks, keeping those links active when they just as easily could have been broken by the Internet's instability. Researchers in India studied the effectiveness of the Wayback Machine's ability to save hyperlinks in online scholarly publications and found that it saved slightly more than half of them.

"Journalists use the Wayback Machine to view dead websites, dated news reports, and changes to website contents. Its content has been used to hold politicians accountable and expose battlefield lies." In 2014, an archived social media page of Igor Girkin, a separatist rebel leader in Ukraine, showed him boasting about his troops having shot down a suspected Ukrainian military airplane before it became known that the plane actually was a civilian Malaysian Airlines jet (Malaysia Airlines Flight 17), after which he deleted the post and blamed Ukraine's military for downing the plane. In 2017, the March for Science originated from a discussion on Reddit that indicated someone had visited Archive.org and discovered that all references to climate change had been deleted from the White House website. In response, a user commented, "There needs to be a Scientists' March on Washington".

Furthermore, the site is used heavily for verification, providing access to references and content creation by Wikipedia editors.

In September 2020, a partnership was announced with Cloudflare to automatically archive websites served via its "Always Online" service, which will also allow it to direct users to its copy of the site if it cannot reach the original host.

Limitations

In 2014 there was a six-month lag time between when a website was crawled and when it became available for viewing in the Wayback Machine. Currently, the lag time is 3 to 10 hours. The Wayback Machine offers only limited search facilities. Its "Site Search" feature allows users to find a site based on words describing the site, rather than words found on the web pages themselves.

The Wayback Machine does not include every web page ever made due to the limitations of its web crawler. The Wayback Machine cannot completely archive web pages that contain interactive features such as Flash platforms and forms written in JavaScript and progressive web applications, because those functions require interaction with the host website. This means that, since June 2013, the Wayback Machine has been unable to display YouTube comments when saving YouTube pages, as, according to the Archive Team, comments are no longer "loaded within the page itself." The Wayback Machine's web crawler has difficulty extracting anything not coded in HTML or one of its variants, which can often result in broken hyperlinks and missing images. Due to this, the web crawler cannot archive "orphan pages" that are not linked to by other pages. The Wayback Machine's crawler only follows a predetermined number of hyperlinks based on a preset depth limit, so it cannot archive every hyperlink on every page.

Starting in April 2018, administrative staff members of the Wayback Machine's archive team have enforced the Quarter month rule, by occasionally deleting time intervals of 23 days or 39 days (3/4 and 5/4 of a month, respectively), to reduce the queue size.[citation needed]

In legal evidence

Civil litigation

Netbula LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc.

In a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc., defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots.txt file on its website that was causing the Wayback Machine to retroactively remove access to previous versions of pages it had archived from Netbula's site, pages that Chordiant believed would support its case.

Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbula's website and that they should have subpoenaed Internet Archive for the pages directly. An employee of Internet Archive filed a sworn statement supporting Chordiant's motion, however, stating that it could not produce the web pages by any other means "without considerable burden, expense and disruption to its operations."

Magistrate Judge Howard Lloyd in the Northern District of California, San Jose Division, rejected Netbula's arguments and ordered them to disable the robots.txt blockage temporarily in order to allow Chordiant to retrieve the archived pages that they sought.

Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite

In an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No. 02 C 3293, 65 Fed. R. Evid. Serv. 673 (N.D. Ill. October 15, 2004), a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, perhaps for the first time. Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network. Prior to the trial proceedings, EchoStar indicated that it intended to offer Wayback Machine snapshots as proof of the past content of Telewizja Polska's website. Telewizja Polska brought a motion in limine to suppress the snapshots on the grounds of hearsay and unauthenticated source, but Magistrate Judge Arlander Keys rejected Telewizja Polska's assertion of hearsay and denied TVP's motion in limine to exclude the evidence at trial. At the trial, however, District Court Judge Ronald Guzman, the trial judge, overruled Magistrate Keys' findings, and held that neither the affidavit of the Internet Archive employee nor the underlying pages (i.e., the Telewizja Polska website) were admissible as evidence. Judge Guzman reasoned that the employee's affidavit contained both hearsay and inconclusive supporting statements, and the purported web page, printouts were not self-authenticating.

Patent law

Provided some additional requirements are met (e.g., providing an authoritative statement of the archivist), the United States patent office and the European Patent Office will accept date stamps from the Internet Archive as evidence of when a given Web page was accessible to the public. These dates are used to determine if a Web page is available as prior art for instance in examining a patent application.

Limitations of utility

There are technical limitations to archiving a website, and as a consequence, opposing parties in litigation can misuse the results provided by website archives. This problem can be exacerbated by the practice of submitting screenshots of web pages in complaints, answers, or expert witness reports when the underlying links are not exposed and therefore, can contain errors. For example, archives such as the Wayback Machine do not fill out forms and therefore, do not include the contents of non-RESTful e-commerce databases in their archives.

In Europe, the Wayback Machine could be interpreted as violating copyright laws. Only the content creator can decide where their content is published or duplicated, so the Archive would have to delete pages from its system upon request of the creator. The exclusion policies for the Wayback Machine may be found in the FAQ section of the site.

Some cases have been brought against the Internet Archive specifically for its Wayback Machine archiving efforts.

Scientology

In late 2002, the Internet Archive removed various sites that were critical of Scientology from the Wayback Machine. An error message stated that this was in response to a "request by the site owner". Later, it was clarified that lawyers from the Church of Scientology had demanded the removal and that the site owners did not want their material removed.

Healthcare Advocates, Inc.

In 2003, Harding Earley Follmer & Frailey defended a client from a trademark dispute using the Archive's Wayback Machine. The attorneys were able to demonstrate that the claims made by the plaintiff were invalid, based on the content of their website from several years prior. The plaintiff, Healthcare Advocates, then amended their complaint to include the Internet Archive, accusing the organization of copyright infringement as well as violations of the DMCA and the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Healthcare Advocates claimed that, since they had installed a robots.txt file on their website, even if after the initial lawsuit was filed, the Archive should have removed all previous copies of the plaintiff website from the Wayback Machine, however, some material continued to be publicly visible on Wayback. The lawsuit was settled out of court after Wayback fixed the problem.

Suzanne Shell

Activist Suzanne Shell filed suit in December 2005, demanding Internet Archive pay her US$100,000 for archiving her website profane-justice.org between 1999 and 2004. Internet Archive filed a declaratory judgment action in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California on January 20, 2006, seeking a judicial determination that Internet Archive did not violate Shell's copyright. Shell responded and brought a countersuit against Internet Archive for archiving her site, which she alleges is in violation of her terms of service. On February 13, 2007, a judge for the United States District Court for the District of Colorado dismissed all counterclaims except breach of contract. The Internet Archive did not move to dismiss copyright infringement claims Shell asserted arising out of its copying activities, which would also go forward.

On April 25, 2007, Internet Archive and Suzanne Shell jointly announced the settlement of their lawsuit. The Internet Archive said it "...has no interest in including materials in the Wayback Machine of persons who do not wish to have their Web content archived. We recognize that Ms. Shell has a valid and enforceable copyright in her Web site and we regret that the inclusion of her Web site in the Wayback Machine resulted in this litigation." Shell said, "I respect the historical value of Internet Archive's goal. I never intended to interfere with that goal nor cause it any harm."

Daniel Davydiuk

Between 2013 and 2016, a pornographic actor named Daniel Davydiuk tried to remove archived images of himself from the Wayback Machine's archive, first by sending multiple DMCA requests to the archive, and then by appealing to the Federal Court of Canada.

archive.org is currently blocked in China. After the Islamic State terrorist organization was banned, the Internet Archive had been blocked in its entirety in Russia as a host of an outreach video from that organization, for a short time in 2015–16.[needs update] Since 2016, the website has been back, available in its entirety, although local commercial lobbyists are suing the Internet Archive in a local court to ban it on copyright grounds.

Alison Macrina, director of the Library Freedom Project, notes that "while librarians deeply value individual privacy, we also strongly oppose censorship".

There is at least one case in which an article was removed from the archive shortly after it had been removed from its original website. A Daily Beast reporter had written an article that outed several gay Olympian athletes in 2016 after he had made a fake profile posing as a gay man on a dating app. The Daily Beast removed the article after it was met with widespread furor; not long after, the Internet Archive soon did as well, but emphatically stated that they did so for no other reason than to protect the safety of the outed athletes.

Other threats include natural disasters, destruction (remote or physical), manipulation of the archive's contents (see also: cyberattack, backup), problematic copyright laws and surveillance of the site's users.

Alexander Rose, executive director of the Long Now Foundation, suspects that in the long term of multiple generations "next to nothing" will survive in a useful way, stating, "If we have continuity in our technological civilization, I suspect a lot of the bare data will remain findable and searchable. But I suspect almost nothing of the format in which it was delivered will be recognizable" because sites "with deep back-ends of content-management systems like Drupal and Ruby and Django" are harder to archive.

In an article reflecting on the preservation of human knowledge, The Atlantic has commented that the Internet Archive, which describes itself to be built for the long-term, "is working furiously to capture data before it disappears without any long-term infrastructure to speak of."

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Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine Language Watch Edit For the time machine from Peabody s Improbable History see Wayback Machine Peabody s Improbable History For help citing the Wayback Machine in the English Wikipedia see Help Using the Wayback Machine The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web It was founded by the Internet Archive a nonprofit library based in San Francisco California Created in 1996 and launched to the public in 2001 it allows the user to go back in time and see how websites looked in the past Its founders Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat developed the Wayback Machine to provide universal access to all knowledge by preserving archived copies of defunct web pages Wayback MachineType of siteArchiveArea servedWorldwide except China and Bahrain OwnerInternet ArchiveURLweb wbr archive wbr orgRegistrationOptionalLaunchedMay 12 1996 25 years ago 1996 05 12 private October 24 2001 20 years ago 2001 10 24 public Current statusActiveWritten inJava Python Since its creation in 1996 over 613 billion pages have been added to the archive The service has also sparked controversy over whether creating archived pages without the owner s permission constitutes copyright infringement in certain jurisdictions Contents 1 History 2 Technical details 2 1 Storage capacity and growth 2 2 Website exclusion policy 2 2 1 Oakland Archive Policy 3 Uses 3 1 Limitations 3 2 In legal evidence 3 2 1 Civil litigation 3 2 1 1 Netbula LLC v Chordiant Software Inc 3 2 1 2 Telewizja Polska USA Inc v Echostar Satellite 3 2 2 Patent law 3 2 3 Limitations of utility 4 Legal status 5 Archived content legal issues 5 1 Scientology 5 2 Healthcare Advocates Inc 5 3 Suzanne Shell 5 4 Daniel Davydiuk 6 Censorship and other threats 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksHistory EditThe Wayback Machine began archiving cached web pages on May 12 1996 1 2 with the goal of making the service public five years later 3 failed verification Internet Archive founders Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat launched the Wayback Machine in San Francisco California 4 in October 2001 5 6 primarily to address the problem of website content vanishing whenever it gets changed or when a website is shut down 7 The service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time which the archive calls a three dimensional index 8 Kahle and Gilliat created the machine hoping to archive the entire Internet and provide universal access to all knowledge 9 The name Wayback Machine is a reference to a fictional time traveling and translation device the Wayback Machine used by the characters Mister Peabody and Sherman in the animated cartoon The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle and Friends 10 11 In one of the cartoon s segments Peabody s Improbable History the characters used the machine to witness participate in and often alter famous events in history From 1996 to 2001 the information was kept on digital tape with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers and scientists to tap into the clunky database 12 When the archive reached its fifth anniversary in 2001 it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California Berkeley 13 By the time the Wayback Machine launched it already contained over 10 billion archived pages 14 The data is stored on the Internet Archive s large cluster of Linux nodes 9 It revisits and archives new versions of websites on occasion see technical details below 15 Sites can also be captured manually by entering a website s URL into the search box provided that the website allows the Wayback Machine to crawl it and save the data 3 On October 30 2020 the Wayback Machine began fact checking content 16 Technical details EditSoftware has been developed to crawl the Web and download all publicly accessible information and data files on webpages the Gopher hierarchy the Netnews Usenet bulletin board system and downloadable software 17 The information collected by these crawlers does not include all the information available on the Internet since much of the data is restricted by the publisher or stored in databases that are not accessible To overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites Archive It org was developed in 2005 by the Internet Archive as a means of allowing institutions and content creators to voluntarily harvest and preserve collections of digital content and create digital archives 18 Crawls are contributed from various sources some imported from third parties and others generated internally by the Archive 15 For example crawls are contributed by the Sloan Foundation and Alexa crawls run by IA on behalf of NARA and the Internet Memory Foundation mirrors of Common Crawl 15 The Worldwide Web Crawls have been running since 2010 and capture the global Web 15 19 The frequency of snapshot captures varies per website 15 Websites in the Worldwide Web Crawls are included in a crawl list with the site archived once per crawl 15 A crawl can take months or even years to complete depending on size 15 For example Wide Crawl Number 13 started on January 9 2015 and completed on July 11 2016 20 However there may be multiple crawls ongoing at any one time and a site might be included in more than one crawl list so how often a site is crawled varies widely 15 As of October 2019 users are limited to 5 archival requests and retrievals per minute citation needed why Storage capacity and growth Edit As technology has developed over the years the storage capacity of the Wayback Machine has grown In 2003 after only two years of public access the Wayback Machine was growing at a rate of 12 terabytes month The data is stored on PetaBox rack systems custom designed by Internet Archive staff The first 100TB rack became fully operational in June 2004 although it soon became clear that they would need much more storage than that 21 22 The Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage in 2009 and hosts a new data centre in a Sun Modular Datacenter on Sun Microsystems California campus 23 As of 2009 update the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month 24 A new improved version of the Wayback Machine with an updated interface and a fresher index of archived content was made available for public testing in 2011 where captures appear in a calendar layout with circles whose width visualizes the number of crawls each day but no marking of duplicates with asterisks or an advanced search page 25 26 Features like Changes Summary and a graphical site map were added subsequently In March that year it was said on the Wayback Machine forum that the Beta of the new Wayback Machine has a more complete and up to date index of all crawled materials into 2010 and will continue to be updated regularly The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a little bit of material past 2008 and no further index updates are planned as it will be phased out this year 27 Also in 2011 the Internet Archive installed their sixth pair of PetaBox racks which increased the Wayback Machine s storage capacity by 700 terabytes 28 In January 2013 the company announced a ground breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs 29 In October 2013 the company introduced the Save a Page feature 30 31 which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL and quickly generates a permanent link unlike the preceding liveweb feature In December 2014 the Wayback Machine contained 435 billion web pages almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at about 20 terabytes a week 14 32 33 In March 2015 date verification needed security researchers became aware of the threat posed by the service s unintentional hosting of malicious binaries from archived sites 34 35 In July 2016 the Wayback Machine reportedly contained around 15 petabytes of data 36 In September 2018 the Wayback Machine contained over 25 petabytes of data 37 38 As of December 2020 the Wayback Machine contained over 70 petabytes of data 39 Wayback Machine Growth 40 41 Wayback Machine by Year Pages Archived billion 2005 402008 852012 1502013 3732014 4002015 4522020 514 Between October 2013 and March 2015 the website s global Alexa rank changed from 163 42 to 208 43 In March 2019 the rank was at 244 44 Website exclusion policy Edit Historically the Wayback Machine has respected the robots exclusion standard robots txt in determining if a website would be crawled or if already crawled if its archives would be publicly viewable Website owners had the option to opt out of Wayback Machine through the use of robots txt It applied robots txt rules retroactively if a site blocked the Internet Archive any previously archived pages from the domain were immediately rendered unavailable as well In addition the Internet Archive stated that Sometimes a website owner will contact us directly and ask us to stop crawling or archiving a site We comply with these requests 45 In addition the website says The Internet Archive is not interested in preserving or offering access to Web sites or other internet documents of persons who do not want their materials in the collection 46 47 On 17 April 2017 reports surfaced of sites that had gone defunct and became parked domains that were using robots txt to exclude themselves from search engines resulting in them being inadvertently excluded from the Wayback Machine 48 The Internet archive changed the policy to now require an explicit exclusion request to remove it from the Wayback Machine 49 Oakland Archive Policy Edit Wayback s retroactive exclusion policy is based in part upon Recommendations for Managing Removal Requests and Preserving Archival Integrity published by the School of Information Management and Systems at University of California Berkeley in 2002 which gives a website owner the right to block access to the site s archives 50 Wayback has complied with this policy to help avoid expensive litigation 51 The Wayback retroactive exclusion policy began to relax in 2017 when it stopped honoring robots txt on U S government and military web sites for both crawling and displaying web pages As of April 2017 Wayback is ignoring robots txt more broadly not just for U S government websites 52 53 54 55 Uses EditFrom its public launch in 2001 the Wayback Machine has been studied by scholars both for the ways it stores and collects data as well as for the actual pages contained in its archive As of 2013 scholars had written about 350 articles on the Wayback Machine mostly from the information technology library science and social science fields Social science scholars have used the Wayback Machine to analyze how the development of websites from the mid 1990s to the present has affected the company s growth 14 When the Wayback Machine archives a page it usually includes most of the hyperlinks keeping those links active when they just as easily could have been broken by the Internet s instability Researchers in India studied the effectiveness of the Wayback Machine s ability to save hyperlinks in online scholarly publications and found that it saved slightly more than half of them 56 Journalists use the Wayback Machine to view dead websites dated news reports and changes to website contents Its content has been used to hold politicians accountable and expose battlefield lies 57 In 2014 an archived social media page of Igor Girkin a separatist rebel leader in Ukraine showed him boasting about his troops having shot down a suspected Ukrainian military airplane before it became known that the plane actually was a civilian Malaysian Airlines jet Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 after which he deleted the post and blamed Ukraine s military for downing the plane 57 58 In 2017 the March for Science originated from a discussion on Reddit that indicated someone had visited Archive org and discovered that all references to climate change had been deleted from the White House website In response a user commented There needs to be a Scientists March on Washington 59 60 61 Furthermore the site is used heavily for verification providing access to references and content creation by Wikipedia editors 62 In September 2020 a partnership was announced with Cloudflare to automatically archive websites served via its Always Online service which will also allow it to direct users to its copy of the site if it cannot reach the original host 63 Limitations Edit In 2014 there was a six month lag time between when a website was crawled and when it became available for viewing in the Wayback Machine 64 Currently the lag time is 3 to 10 hours 65 The Wayback Machine offers only limited search facilities Its Site Search feature allows users to find a site based on words describing the site rather than words found on the web pages themselves 66 The Wayback Machine does not include every web page ever made due to the limitations of its web crawler The Wayback Machine cannot completely archive web pages that contain interactive features such as Flash platforms and forms written in JavaScript and progressive web applications because those functions require interaction with the host website This means that since June 2013 the Wayback Machine has been unable to display YouTube comments when saving YouTube pages as according to the Archive Team comments are no longer loaded within the page itself 67 The Wayback Machine s web crawler has difficulty extracting anything not coded in HTML or one of its variants which can often result in broken hyperlinks and missing images Due to this the web crawler cannot archive orphan pages that are not linked to by other pages 66 68 The Wayback Machine s crawler only follows a predetermined number of hyperlinks based on a preset depth limit so it cannot archive every hyperlink on every page 19 Starting in April 2018 administrative staff members of the Wayback Machine s archive team have enforced the Quarter month rule by occasionally deleting time intervals of 23 days or 39 days 3 4 and 5 4 of a month respectively to reduce the queue size citation needed In legal evidence Edit Civil litigation Edit Netbula LLC v Chordiant Software Inc Edit In a 2009 case Netbula LLC v Chordiant Software Inc defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots txt file on its website that was causing the Wayback Machine to retroactively remove access to previous versions of pages it had archived from Netbula s site pages that Chordiant believed would support its case 69 Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbula s website and that they should have subpoenaed Internet Archive for the pages directly 70 An employee of Internet Archive filed a sworn statement supporting Chordiant s motion however stating that it could not produce the web pages by any other means without considerable burden expense and disruption to its operations 69 Magistrate Judge Howard Lloyd in the Northern District of California San Jose Division rejected Netbula s arguments and ordered them to disable the robots txt blockage temporarily in order to allow Chordiant to retrieve the archived pages that they sought 69 Telewizja Polska USA Inc v Echostar Satellite Edit In an October 2004 case Telewizja Polska USA Inc v Echostar Satellite No 02 C 3293 65 Fed R Evid Serv 673 N D Ill October 15 2004 a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence perhaps for the first time Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network Prior to the trial proceedings EchoStar indicated that it intended to offer Wayback Machine snapshots as proof of the past content of Telewizja Polska s website Telewizja Polska brought a motion in limine to suppress the snapshots on the grounds of hearsay and unauthenticated source but Magistrate Judge Arlander Keys rejected Telewizja Polska s assertion of hearsay and denied TVP s motion in limine to exclude the evidence at trial 71 72 At the trial however District Court Judge Ronald Guzman the trial judge overruled Magistrate Keys findings and held that neither the affidavit of the Internet Archive employee nor the underlying pages i e the Telewizja Polska website were admissible as evidence Judge Guzman reasoned that the employee s affidavit contained both hearsay and inconclusive supporting statements and the purported web page printouts were not self authenticating 73 74 Patent law Edit Main article Internet as a source of prior art Provided some additional requirements are met e g providing an authoritative statement of the archivist the United States patent office and the European Patent Office will accept date stamps from the Internet Archive as evidence of when a given Web page was accessible to the public These dates are used to determine if a Web page is available as prior art for instance in examining a patent application 75 Limitations of utility Edit There are technical limitations to archiving a website and as a consequence opposing parties in litigation can misuse the results provided by website archives This problem can be exacerbated by the practice of submitting screenshots of web pages in complaints answers or expert witness reports when the underlying links are not exposed and therefore can contain errors For example archives such as the Wayback Machine do not fill out forms and therefore do not include the contents of non RESTful e commerce databases in their archives 76 Legal status EditIn Europe the Wayback Machine could be interpreted as violating copyright laws Only the content creator can decide where their content is published or duplicated so the Archive would have to delete pages from its system upon request of the creator 77 The exclusion policies for the Wayback Machine may be found in the FAQ section of the site 78 Archived content legal issues EditSome cases have been brought against the Internet Archive specifically for its Wayback Machine archiving efforts Scientology Edit See also Scientology and the Internet In late 2002 the Internet Archive removed various sites that were critical of Scientology from the Wayback Machine 79 An error message stated that this was in response to a request by the site owner 80 Later it was clarified that lawyers from the Church of Scientology had demanded the removal and that the site owners did not want their material removed 81 Healthcare Advocates Inc Edit In 2003 Harding Earley Follmer amp Frailey defended a client from a trademark dispute using the Archive s Wayback Machine The attorneys were able to demonstrate that the claims made by the plaintiff were invalid based on the content of their website from several years prior The plaintiff Healthcare Advocates then amended their complaint to include the Internet Archive accusing the organization of copyright infringement as well as violations of the DMCA and the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act Healthcare Advocates claimed that since they had installed a robots txt file on their website even if after the initial lawsuit was filed the Archive should have removed all previous copies of the plaintiff website from the Wayback Machine however some material continued to be publicly visible on Wayback 82 The lawsuit was settled out of court after Wayback fixed the problem 83 Suzanne Shell Edit Activist Suzanne Shell filed suit in December 2005 demanding Internet Archive pay her US 100 000 for archiving her website profane justice org between 1999 and 2004 84 85 Internet Archive filed a declaratory judgment action in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California on January 20 2006 seeking a judicial determination that Internet Archive did not violate Shell s copyright Shell responded and brought a countersuit against Internet Archive for archiving her site which she alleges is in violation of her terms of service 86 On February 13 2007 a judge for the United States District Court for the District of Colorado dismissed all counterclaims except breach of contract 85 The Internet Archive did not move to dismiss copyright infringement claims Shell asserted arising out of its copying activities which would also go forward 87 On April 25 2007 Internet Archive and Suzanne Shell jointly announced the settlement of their lawsuit 84 The Internet Archive said it has no interest in including materials in the Wayback Machine of persons who do not wish to have their Web content archived We recognize that Ms Shell has a valid and enforceable copyright in her Web site and we regret that the inclusion of her Web site in the Wayback Machine resulted in this litigation Shell said I respect the historical value of Internet Archive s goal I never intended to interfere with that goal nor cause it any harm 88 Daniel Davydiuk Edit Between 2013 and 2016 a pornographic actor named Daniel Davydiuk tried to remove archived images of himself from the Wayback Machine s archive first by sending multiple DMCA requests to the archive and then by appealing to the Federal Court of Canada 89 90 91 Censorship and other threats Editarchive org is currently blocked in China 92 93 After the Islamic State terrorist organization was banned the Internet Archive had been blocked in its entirety in Russia as a host of an outreach video from that organization for a short time in 2015 16 57 94 95 needs update Since 2016 the website has been back available in its entirety although local commercial lobbyists are suing the Internet Archive in a local court to ban it on copyright grounds 96 Alison Macrina director of the Library Freedom Project notes that while librarians deeply value individual privacy we also strongly oppose censorship 57 There is at least one case in which an article was removed from the archive shortly after it had been removed from its original website A Daily Beast reporter had written an article that outed several gay Olympian athletes in 2016 after he had made a fake profile posing as a gay man on a dating app The Daily Beast removed the article after it was met with widespread furor not long after the Internet Archive soon did as well but emphatically stated that they did so for no other reason than to protect the safety of the outed athletes 57 Other threats include natural disasters 97 destruction remote or physical 98 manipulation of the archive s contents see also cyberattack backup problematic copyright laws 99 and surveillance of the site s users 100 Alexander Rose executive director of the Long Now Foundation suspects that in the long term of multiple generations next to nothing will survive in a useful way stating If we have continuity in our technological civilization I suspect a lot of the bare data will remain findable and searchable But I suspect almost nothing of the format in which it was delivered will be recognizable because sites with deep back ends of content management systems like Drupal and Ruby and Django are harder to archive 101 In an article reflecting on the preservation of human knowledge The Atlantic has commented that the Internet Archive which describes itself to be built for the long term 102 is working furiously to capture data before it disappears without any long term infrastructure to speak of 103 See also EditList of Web archiving initiatives Heritrix Library Genesis Web archiving Time capsule Time travelReferences Edit MTV Online Main Page Wayback Machine Wayback Machine May 12 1996 Archived from the original on May 12 1996 Retrieved July 17 2020 Infoseek Guide Wayback Machine Wayback Machine May 12 1996 Archived from the original on May 12 1996 Retrieved December 16 2016 a b Internet Archive Wayback Machine archive org Archived from the original on January 3 2014 Retrieved October 15 2018 Wayback Machine General Information archive org Archived from the original on December 5 2019 Retrieved March 2 2021 WayBackMachine org WHOIS DNS amp Domain Info DomainTools WHOIS Archived from the original on May 14 2020 Retrieved March 13 2016 InternetArchive org WHOIS DNS amp Domain Info DomainTools WHOIS Archived from the original on May 12 2020 Retrieved March 13 2016 Notess Greg R March April 2002 The Wayback Machine The Web s Archive Online 26 59 61 INIST 13517724 The Wayback Machine Frequently Asked Questions archived from the original on September 18 2018 retrieved September 18 2018 a b 20 000 Hard Drives on a Mission Internet Archive Blogs blog archive org October 25 2016 Archived from the original on October 20 2018 Retrieved October 15 2018 Green Heather February 28 2002 A Library as Big as the World BusinessWeek Archived from the original on December 20 2011 Tong Judy September 8 2002 Responsible Party Brewster Kahle A Library Of the Web On the Web The New York Times Archived from the original on February 20 2011 Retrieved August 15 2011 Cook John November 1 2001 Web site takes you way back in Internet history Seattle Post Intelligencer Archived from the original on August 12 2014 Retrieved August 15 2011 Mayfield Kendra October 28 2001 Wayback Goes Way Back on Web Wired Archived from the original on October 16 2017 Retrieved October 16 2017 a b c Arora Sanjay K Li Yin Youtie Jan Shapira Philip May 5 2015 Using the wayback machine to mine websites in the social sciences A methodological resource Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology 67 8 1904 1915 doi 10 1002 asi 23503 ISSN 2330 1635 a b c d e f g h Leetaru Kalev January 28 2016 The Internet Archive Turns 20 A Behind the Scenes Look at Archiving the Web Forbes Archived from the original on October 16 2017 Retrieved October 16 2017 Graham Mark October 30 2020 Fact Checks and Context for Wayback Machine Pages Internet Archive Blogs Retrieved January 17 2021 Kahle Brewster Archiving the Internet Scientific American March 1997 Issue Archived from the original on April 3 2012 Retrieved August 19 2011 Kaplan Jeff October 27 2014 Archive It Crawling the Web Together Internet Archive Blogs Archived from the original on October 12 2017 Retrieved October 16 2017 a b Worldwide Web Crawls Internet Archive Archived from the original on October 19 2017 Retrieved October 16 2017 Wide Crawl Number 13 Internet Archive Archived from the original on October 19 2017 Retrieved October 16 2017 Internet Archive Petabox archive org Retrieved October 25 2018 Kanellos Michael July 29 2005 Big storage on the cheap CNET News com Archived from the original on April 3 2007 Retrieved July 29 2007 Internet Archive and Sun Microsystems Create Living History of the Internet Sun Microsystems March 25 2009 Archived from the original on March 26 2009 Retrieved March 27 2009 Mearian Lucas March 19 2009 Internet Archive to unveil massive Wayback Machine data center Computerworld com Archived from the original on March 23 2009 Retrieved March 22 2009 Updated Wayback Machine in Beta Testing Archived from the original on August 23 2011 Retrieved August 19 2011 Internet Archive Wayback Machine archive ph January 31 2010 Retrieved October 17 2021 Cite uses generic title help Beta Wayback Machine in forum Archived from the original on April 17 2014 Retrieved April 16 2014 Internet Archive Forums 6th pair of racks go into service over 2PB of data space used archive org Archived from the original on October 24 2016 Retrieved October 25 2018 Wayback Machine Now with 240 000 000 000 URLs Internet Archive Blogs January 9 2013 Archived from the original on April 14 2014 Retrieved April 16 2014 Rossi Alexis October 25 2013 Fixing Broken Links on the Internet archive org San Francisco CA US Collections Team the Internet Archive Archived from the original on November 7 2014 Retrieved March 25 2015 We have added the ability to archive a page instantly and get back a permanent URL for that page in the Wayback Machine This service allows anyone wikipedia editors scholars legal professionals students or home cooks like me to create a stable URL to cite share or bookmark any information they want to still have access to in the future Baron Alexander October 23 2013 The new Internet Archive Wayback Machine now online Digital Journal Archived from the original on November 19 2020 Retrieved November 19 2020 Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions Archived from the original on October 21 2009 Retrieved January 17 2015 Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions December 18 2014 Archived from the original on December 18 2014 Retrieved December 13 2018 The VirusTotal Team March 25 2015 207 241 226 190 IP address information virustotal com Dublin 2 Ireland VirusTotal Archived from the original on July 14 2014 Retrieved March 25 2015 2015 03 25 Latest URLs hosted in this IP address detected by at least one URL scanner or malicious URL dataset 2 62 2015 03 25 16 14 12 complete URL redacted Renegotiating TLS pdf 1 62 2015 03 25 04 46 34 complete URL redacted CBLightSetup exe CS1 maint location link Advisory provided by Google March 25 2015 Safe Browsing Diagnostic page for archive org google com safebrowsing Mountain View CA US Archived from the original on April 6 2015 Retrieved March 25 2015 2015 03 25 Part of this site was listed for suspicious activity 138 time s over the past 90 days What happened when Google visited this site Of the 42410 pages we tested on the site over the past 90 days 450 page s resulted in malicious software being downloaded and installed without user consent The last time Google visited this site was on 2015 03 25 and the last time suspicious content was found on this site was on 2015 03 25 Malicious software includes 169 trojan s 126 virus 43 backdoor s Can the manipulation of big data change the way the world thinks The National Archived from the original on January 12 2017 Retrieved May 14 2017 Crockett Zachary September 28 2018 Inside Wayback Machine the internet s time capsule The Hustle Archived from the original on October 2 2018 Retrieved October 26 2018 Heffernan Virginia September 18 2018 Things Break and Decay on the Internet That s a Good Thing WIRED Archived from the original on September 25 2018 Retrieved October 26 2018 Donate to the Internet Archive Digital Library of Free amp Borrowable Books Movies Music amp Wayback Machine adafruit Archived from the original on December 2 2020 Retrieved December 2 2020 michelle May 9 2014 Wayback Machine Hits 400 000 000 000 Internet Archive Archived from the original on August 26 2014 Retrieved March 25 2015 Internet Archive Internet Archive Archived from the original on December 31 2020 Retrieved March 8 2021 Archive org Site Info Alexa Internet Archived from the original on October 28 2013 Retrieved October 29 2013 Archive org Site Overview Alexa Internet Archived from the original on April 9 2015 Retrieved April 9 2015 Archive org Traffic Demographics and Competitors Alexa March 23 2019 Archived from the original on March 23 2019 Retrieved April 5 2019 Some sites are not available because of Robots txt or other exclusions Archived from the original on April 15 2011 Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions Archived from the original on April 17 2014 Cox Joseph May 22 2018 The Wayback Machine Is Deleting Evidence of Malware Sold to Stalkers Archived from the original on May 23 2018 Retrieved May 23 2018 Robots txt meant for search engines don t work well for web archives Internet Archive April 17 2017 Retrieved June 29 2019 Using The Wayback Machine Internet Archive Help Center Recommendations for Managing Removal Requests And Preserving Archival Integrity University of California December 14 2002 Archived from the original on September 18 2017 Retrieved September 14 2017 Retroactive robots txt removal of past crawls AKA Oakland Archive Policy Internet Archive July 7 2014 Archived from the original on October 10 2017 Retrieved September 14 2017 Graham Mark April 17 2017 Robots txt meant for search engines don t work well for web archives Internet Archive Blogs Archived from the original on April 17 2017 Retrieved April 16 2017 Archivierung des Internets Internet Archive ignoriert kunftig robots txt in German heise online Archived from the original on April 27 2017 Retrieved May 14 2017 Suchmaschinen Internet Archive will kunftig Robots txt Eintrage ignorieren Golem de in German Archived from the original on June 19 2017 Retrieved May 14 2017 Internet Archive will ignore robots txt files to keep historical record accurate Digital Trends April 24 2017 Archived from the original on May 16 2017 Retrieved May 14 2017 Sampath Kumar B T Prithviraj K R October 21 2014 Bringing life to dead Role of Wayback Machine in retrieving vanished URLs Journal of Information Science 41 1 71 81 doi 10 1177 0165551514552752 ISSN 0165 5515 S2CID 28320982 a b c d e Wayback Machine Won t Censor Archive for Taste Director Says After Olympics Article Scrubbed Archived from the original on January 6 2017 Retrieved May 14 2017 Lepore Jill January 26 2015 What the Web Said Yesterday The New Yorker Archived from the original on January 25 2015 Retrieved May 14 2017 The March for Science began with this person s throwaway line on Reddit Washington Post Archived from the original on April 23 2017 Retrieved April 23 2017 Are scientists going to march on Washington The Washington Post Archived from the original on January 31 2017 Retrieved January 31 2017 Foley Katherine Ellen The global March for Science started with a single Reddit thread Quartz Archived from the original on April 24 2017 Retrieved April 23 2017 Graham Mark October 1 2018 More than 9 million broken links on Wikipedia are now rescued Graham Mark September 17 2020 Cloudflare and the Wayback Machine joining forces for a more reliable Web Internet Archive Blogs Retrieved September 17 2020 Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions Internet Archive April 2 2014 Archived from the original on April 2 2014 Retrieved November 23 2018 Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions archive org Retrieved November 23 2018 a b Bates Mary Ellen 2002 The Wayback Machine Online 26 80 YouTube Archiveteam archiveteam org Archived from the original on August 5 2020 Retrieved August 6 2020 Internet Archive Frequently Asked Questions archive org Archived from the original on April 20 2013 Retrieved October 18 2018 a b c Lloyd Howard October 2009 Order to Disable Robots txt PDF Archived from the original PDF on August 8 2019 Retrieved October 15 2009 Cortes Antonio October 2009 Motion Opposing Removal of Robots txt Archived from the original on October 27 2010 Retrieved October 15 2009 Gelman Lauren November 17 2004 Internet Archive s Web Page Snapshots Held Admissible as Evidence Packets 2 3 Archived from the original on April 30 2011 Retrieved January 4 2007 Howell Beryl A February 2006 Proving Web History How to use the Internet Archive PDF Journal of Internet Law 3 9 Archived from the original PDF on July 5 2010 Retrieved August 6 2008 Looking For Evidence in Virtual Places Admissibility of Internet Evidence Archived from the original on July 1 2019 Retrieved June 14 2020 Levitt Carole A Rosch Mark E 2010 Find Info Like a Pro Mining the Internet s Publicly Available Resources for Investigative Research Tom 1 American Bar Association pp 194 196 ISBN 978 1 60442 890 2 Archived from the original on December 18 2020 Retrieved June 14 2020 Coggins Wynn W Fall 2002 Prior Art in the Field of Business Method Patents When is an Electronic Document a Printed Publication for Prior Art Purposes USPTO Archived from the original on September 21 2012 Retrieved August 15 2012 Debunking the Wayback Machine Archived from the original on June 29 2010 Bahr Martin 2002 The Wayback Machine und Google Cache eine Verletzung deutschen Urheberrechts JurPC in German 9 doi 10 7328 jurpcb 20021719 Archived from the original on August 23 2009 Internet Archive FAQ Archived from the original on April 17 2014 Retrieved April 16 2014 Bowman Lisa M September 24 2002 Net archive silences Scientology critic CNET News com Archived from the original on May 15 2012 Retrieved January 4 2007 Jeff September 23 2002 exclusions from the Wayback Machine Blog Wayback Machine Forum Internet Archive Archived from the original on February 11 2007 Retrieved January 4 2007 Author and Date indicate initiation of forum thread Miller Ernest Sherman Set the Wayback Machine for Scientology LawMeme Yale Law School Archived from the original Blog on November 16 2012 Retrieved January 4 2007 Dye Jessica 2005 Website Sued for Controversial Trip into Internet Past EContent 28 11 8 9 Bangeman Eric August 31 2006 Internet Archive Settles Suit Over Wayback Machine Ars Technica Archived from the original on November 5 2007 Retrieved November 29 2007 a b Internet Archive v Shell 505 F Supp 2d 755 at justia com 1 2006cv01726 Colorado District Court August 31 2006 April 25 2007 Settlement agreement announced Filing 65 2007 04 30 therefore ORDERED that this matter shall be DISMISSED WITH PREJUDICE a b Babcock Lewis T Chief Judge February 13 2007 Internet Archive v Shell Civil Action No 06cv01726LTBCBS PDF Archived PDF from the original on January 25 2014 Retrieved March 25 2015 1 Internet Archive s motion to dismiss Shell s counterclaim for conversion and civil theft Second Cause of Action is GRANTED 2 Internet Archive s motion to dismiss Shell s counterclaim for breach of contract Third Cause of Action is DENIED 3 Internet Archive s motion to dismiss Shell s counterclaim for Racketeering under RICO and COCCA Fourth Cause of Action is GRANTED Claburn Thomas March 16 2007 Colorado Woman Sues To Hold Web Crawlers To Contracts New York NY US InformationWeek UBM Tech UBM LLC Archived from the original on September 4 2014 Retrieved March 25 2015 Computers can enter into contracts on behalf of people The Uniform Electronic Transactions Act UETA says that a contract may be formed by the interaction of electronic agents of the parties even if no individual was aware of or reviewed the electronic agents actions or the resulting terms and agreements Samson Martin H Phillips Nizer LLP 2007 Internet Archive v Suzanne Shell internetlibrary com Internet Library of Law and Court Decisions Archived from the original on August 3 2014 Retrieved March 25 2015 More importantly held the court Internet Archive s mere copying of Shell s site and display thereof in its database did not constitute the requisite exercise of dominion and control over defendant s property Importantly noted the court the defendant at all times owned and operated her own site Said the Court Shell has failed to allege facts showing that Internet Archive exercised dominion or control over her website since Shell s complaint states explicitly that she continued to own and operate the website while it was archived on the Wayback machine Shell identifies no authority supporting the notion that copying documents is by itself enough of a deprivation of use to support conversion Conversely numerous circuits have determined that it is not brewster April 25 2007 Internet Archive and Suzanne Shell Settle Lawsuit archive org Denver CO USA Internet Archive Archived from the original on December 5 2010 Retrieved March 25 2015 Both parties sincerely regret any turmoil that the lawsuit may have caused for the other Neither Internet Archive nor Ms Shell condones any conduct which may have caused harm to either party arising out of the public attention to this lawsuit The parties have not engaged in such conduct and request that the public response to the amicable resolution of this litigation be consistent with their wishes that no further harm or turmoil be caused to either party Stobbe Richard December 5 2014 Copyright Implications Of A Right To Be Forgotten Or How To Take Down The Internet Archive Mondaq Archived from the original on November 18 2018 Retrieved March 8 2019 McVeigh Glennys October 16 2014 Philpott James Weissman Adam Bucholz Ren Kettles Brent Pearl Aaron eds Davydiuk v Internet Archive Canada 2014 FC 944 CanLII Federation of Law Societies of Canada Archived from the original on December 18 2020 Retrieved March 8 2019 Southcott Richard F November 30 2016 Philpott John Alton Alex Bucholz Ren eds Davydiuk v Internet Archive Canada and Internet Archive 2016 FC 1313 CanLII CanLII Ottawa Ontario Federation of Law Societies of Canada Archived from the original on June 29 2019 Retrieved March 8 2019 Conger Kate Backing up the history of the internet in Canada to save it from Trump TechCrunch Archived from the original on December 27 2016 Retrieved May 14 2017 Where to find what s disappeared online and a whole lot more the Internet Archive Public Radio International Archived from the original on March 28 2017 Retrieved May 14 2017 Chirgwin Richard There s no Wayback in Russia Putin blocks Archive org The Register Archived from the original on October 7 2016 Retrieved May 14 2017 Russia won t go Wayback blocks the Internet Archive Digital Trends June 26 2015 Archived from the original on April 17 2016 Retrieved May 14 2017 V Rossii razblokirovan krupnejshij internet arhiv Rossijskaya gazeta in Russian Archived from the original on April 5 2019 Retrieved October 18 2020 Help Us Keep the Archive Free Accessible and Reader Private Internet Archive Blogs November 29 2016 Archived from the original on May 21 2017 Retrieved May 14 2017 Archived copy Archived from the original on November 9 2020 Retrieved September 28 2020 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Internet Archive Proposed Changes To DMCA Would Make Us Censor The Web Consumerist June 7 2016 Archived from the original on November 11 2016 Retrieved May 14 2017 Herb Ulrich Die Trump Angst grassiert in German heise online Archived from the original on December 7 2016 Retrieved May 14 2017 LaFrance Adrienne October 14 2015 The Internet s Dark Ages The Atlantic Archived from the original on May 7 2017 Retrieved May 14 2017 The Entire Internet Will Be Archived In Canada to Protect It From Trump Motherboard November 29 2016 Archived from the original on May 16 2017 Retrieved May 14 2017 LaFrance Adrienne June 3 2016 The Human Fear of Total Knowledge The Atlantic Archived from the original on December 2 2016 Retrieved May 14 2017 External links EditOfficial website Internet history is fragile This archive is making sure it doesn t disappear San Francisco PBS Newshour Archived from the original on October 18 2021 Retrieved September 19 2018 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Wayback Machine amp oldid 1053848474, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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