fbpx
Wikipedia

William Le Baron Jenney (September 25, 1832 – June 14, 1907) was an American architect and engineer who is known for building the first skyscraper in 1884.

William LeBaron Jenney
Born(1832-09-25)September 25, 1832
DiedJune 15, 1907(1907-06-15) (aged 74)
NationalityAmerican
Alma materÉcole Centrale Paris
OccupationArchitect
BuildingsHome Insurance Building in Chicago
Designmetal-framed skyscraper

In 1998, Jenney was ranked number 89 in the book 1,000 Years, 1,000 People: Ranking the Men and Women Who Shaped the Millennium.

Contents

Jenney was born in Fairhaven, Massachusetts, on September 25, 1832, son of William Proctor Jenney and Eliza LeBaron Gibbs. Jenney began his formal education at Phillips Academy, Andover, in 1846, and at the Lawrence Scientific school at Harvard in 1853, but transferred to École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures (École Centrale Paris) to study engineering and architecture.[1]

The Home Insurance Building in Chicago built in 1885 (photo after a 1891 addition of 2 more floors)

At École Centrale Paris, he learned the latest iron construction techniques as well as the classical functionalist doctrine of Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand (1760-1834) - Professor of Architecture at the Ecole Polytechnique. He graduated in 1856, one year after his classmate, Gustave Eiffel, the designer of the Eiffel Tower.[7]

In 1861, he returned to the US to join the Union Army as an engineer in the Civil War, designing fortifications for Generals Sherman and Grant.

By the end of the war, he had become a major, and was Engineer-in-Charge at Nashville's Union headquarters.[1] After the war, in 1867, Jenney moved to Chicago, Illinois, and began his own architectural office, which specialized in commercial buildings and urban planning.

During the late 1870s, he commuted weekly to Ann Arbor, Michigan, to start and teach in the architecture program at the University of Michigan. In later years future leaders of the Chicago School like Louis Sullivan, Daniel Burnham, William Holabird, and Martin Roche, performed their architectural apprenticeships on Jenney's staff.[1] On May 8, 1867, Jenney and Elizabeth "Lizzie" Hannah Cobb, from Cleveland, Ohio, were married.[7] They had two children named Max and Francis.[7]

Chicago residence designed for Walter Cass Newberry, 1889

Jenney was elected an Associate of the American Institute of Architects in 1872, and became a Fellow in 1885. He served as first Vice President from 1898 to 1899.[4] In Chicago he designed the Ludington Building and Manhattan building, both built in 1891 and National Historic Landmarks. He also designed the Horticultural Building for the World's Columbian Exposition (1893) held in Chicago.

Jenney is best known for designing the ten-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago. The building was the first fully metal-framed building, and is considered the first skyscraper. It was built from 1884 to 1885, enlarged by adding two stories in 1891, and demolished in 1931.[3] In his designs, he used metal columns and beams, instead of stone and brick to support the building's upper levels.

Leiter II Building, South State & East Congress Streets, Chicago

The steel needed to support the Home Insurance Building weighed only one-third as much as a ten-story building made of heavy masonry.[3] Using this method, the weight of the building was reduced, thus allowing the possibility to construct even taller structures. Later, he solved the problem of fireproof construction for tall buildings by using masonry, iron, and terra cotta flooring and partitions. In the years from 1889 to 1891, he displayed his system in the construction of the Second Leiter Building, also in Chicago.

According to popular story, one day he came home early and surprised his wife who was reading. She put her book down on top of a bird cage and ran to meet him. He strode across the room, lifted the book and dropped it back on the bird cage two or three times. Then, he exclaimed: "It works! It works! Don’t you see? If this little cage can hold this heavy book, why can’t an iron or steel cage be the framework for a whole building?" Jenney applied his new idea to the construction of the Home Insurance Building, the first skyscraper in the world, which was erected in 1884 at the corner of LaSalle and Monroe Streets in Chicago. Another source cites the inspiration for the steel skyscraper as coming from vernacular Philippine architecture, where wooden framed construction gave Jenney the idea. The Home Insurance Building was the first example of a steel skeleton building, the first grid of iron columns, girders, beams and floor joists ever constructed.[citation needed]

He died in Los Angeles, California, on June 15, 1907. After Jenney's death, his ashes were scattered over his wife's grave, just south of the Eternal Silence section of Uptown's Graceland Cemetery.[5] In 1998, Jenney was ranked number 89 in the book 1,000 Years, 1,000 People: Ranking the Men and Women Who Shaped the Millennium.[7]

Original notes and papers of Jenney, including "Jenney's 1884 holograph notebook containing, among other things, structural calculations for the Home Insurance Building, and his undated sketch entitled 'Key to the sky scraper.'", are held by the Art Institute of Chicago.

Horticultural Building at World's Columbian Exposition
  1. "William le Baron Jenney: Biography of Skyscraper Architect".
  2. Architecture and Building. XII (1): 5–6. January 4, 1890.{{cite journal}}:Missing or empty |title= ()
  3. Condit C., The Chicago School of Architecture. A History of Commercial and Public Building, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1964, Chapter 4, "Jenney and the New Structural Technique," p. 81.
  4. "Elmer C. Jensen Papers, 1871-2014 (bulk 1880s-1950s)". Art Institute of Chicago. 2012. RetrievedMay 22, 2019. Finding aid, including biographical info on William Le Baron Jenney and Elmer C. Jensen, published 2012.
  5. Carol Lohry Cartwright (2001). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Main Street Historic District (Lake Geneva)". National Park Service. RetrievedApril 6, 2018.

Notes

  1. ^ Haden, Erik. "William LeBaron Jenney". Structural Engineers Association of Texas. Archived from the original on May 19, 2005. RetrievedDecember 17, 2005.
  2. ^ "Home Insurance Building". PBS Big Building Databank. RetrievedDecember 17, 2005.
  3. ^ "Graceland Cemetery". Graveyards of Chicago. RetrievedDecember 17, 2005.

Further reading

  • Turak, Theodore (1986). William Le Baron Jenney: A Pioneer of Modern Architecture (Architecture and Urban Design, No 17). Umi Research Pr. ISBN 0-8357-1734-8.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toWilliam Le Baron Jenney.
Political offices
Preceded by Secretary of State of Michigan
1879–1883
Succeeded by

William Le Baron Jenney Article Talk Language Watch Edit William Le Baron Jenney September 25 1832 June 14 1907 was an American architect and engineer who is known for building the first skyscraper in 1884 William LeBaron JenneyBorn 1832 09 25 September 25 1832 Fairhaven MassachusettsDiedJune 15 1907 1907 06 15 aged 74 NationalityAmericanAlma materEcole Centrale ParisOccupationArchitectBuildingsHome Insurance Building in ChicagoDesignmetal framed skyscraper In 1998 Jenney was ranked number 89 in the book 1 000 Years 1 000 People Ranking the Men and Women Who Shaped the Millennium Contents 1 Life and career 2 Advent of the steel frame skyscraper 3 Legacy 4 Projects 5 References 6 External linksLife and career EditJenney was born in Fairhaven Massachusetts on September 25 1832 son of William Proctor Jenney and Eliza LeBaron Gibbs Jenney began his formal education at Phillips Academy Andover in 1846 and at the Lawrence Scientific school at Harvard in 1853 but transferred to Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures Ecole Centrale Paris to study engineering and architecture 1 The Home Insurance Building in Chicago built in 1885 photo after a 1891 addition of 2 more floors At Ecole Centrale Paris he learned the latest iron construction techniques as well as the classical functionalist doctrine of Jean Nicolas Louis Durand 1760 1834 Professor of Architecture at the Ecole Polytechnique 1 He graduated in 1856 one year after his classmate Gustave Eiffel the designer of the Eiffel Tower 7 In 1861 he returned to the US to join the Union Army as an engineer in the Civil War designing fortifications for Generals Sherman and Grant By the end of the war he had become a major and was Engineer in Charge at Nashville s Union headquarters 1 After the war in 1867 Jenney moved to Chicago Illinois and began his own architectural office which specialized in commercial buildings and urban planning During the late 1870s he commuted weekly to Ann Arbor Michigan to start and teach in the architecture program at the University of Michigan In later years future leaders of the Chicago School like Louis Sullivan Daniel Burnham William Holabird and Martin Roche performed their architectural apprenticeships on Jenney s staff 1 On May 8 1867 Jenney and Elizabeth Lizzie Hannah Cobb from Cleveland Ohio were married 7 They had two children named Max and Francis 7 Chicago residence designed for Walter Cass Newberry 1889 2 Jenney was elected an Associate of the American Institute of Architects in 1872 and became a Fellow in 1885 He served as first Vice President from 1898 to 1899 4 In Chicago he designed the Ludington Building and Manhattan building both built in 1891 and National Historic Landmarks He also designed the Horticultural Building for the World s Columbian Exposition 1893 held in Chicago Advent of the steel frame skyscraper EditJenney is best known for designing the ten story Home Insurance Building in Chicago The building was the first fully metal framed building and is considered the first skyscraper It was built from 1884 to 1885 enlarged by adding two stories in 1891 and demolished in 1931 3 In his designs he used metal columns and beams instead of stone and brick to support the building s upper levels Leiter II Building South State amp East Congress Streets Chicago The steel needed to support the Home Insurance Building weighed only one third as much as a ten story building made of heavy masonry 3 Using this method the weight of the building was reduced thus allowing the possibility to construct even taller structures Later he solved the problem of fireproof construction for tall buildings by using masonry iron and terra cotta flooring and partitions In the years from 1889 to 1891 he displayed his system in the construction of the Second Leiter Building also in Chicago According to popular story one day he came home early and surprised his wife who was reading She put her book down on top of a bird cage and ran to meet him He strode across the room lifted the book and dropped it back on the bird cage two or three times Then he exclaimed It works It works Don t you see If this little cage can hold this heavy book why can t an iron or steel cage be the framework for a whole building Jenney applied his new idea to the construction of the Home Insurance Building the first skyscraper in the world which was erected in 1884 at the corner of LaSalle and Monroe Streets in Chicago Another source cites the inspiration for the steel skyscraper as coming from vernacular Philippine architecture where wooden framed construction gave Jenney the idea 3 The Home Insurance Building was the first example of a steel skeleton building the first grid of iron columns girders beams and floor joists ever constructed citation needed Legacy EditHe died in Los Angeles California on June 15 1907 After Jenney s death his ashes were scattered over his wife s grave just south of the Eternal Silence section of Uptown s Graceland Cemetery 5 In 1998 Jenney was ranked number 89 in the book 1 000 Years 1 000 People Ranking the Men and Women Who Shaped the Millennium 7 Original notes and papers of Jenney including Jenney s 1884 holograph notebook containing among other things structural calculations for the Home Insurance Building and his undated sketch entitled Key to the sky scraper are held by the Art Institute of Chicago 4 Projects Edit Horticultural Building at World s Columbian Exposition 19 South LaSalle Street 1893 downtown Chicago Church of the Redeemer 1886 Chicago Col James H Bowen House Hyde Park Chicago built in 1869 Metropolitan Block 770 Main St Lake Geneva Wisconsin built in 1874 NRHP listed 5 First Congregational Church Manistee Michigan built in 1892 or 1888 Home Insurance Building Chicago built in 1884 Horticultural Building for the World s Columbian Exposition Chicago built in 1893 Lake Forest Cemetery Lake Forest Illinois Ludington Building Chicago built in 1891 National Historic Landmark L Y Schermerhorn Residence 124 Scottswood Road Riverside Illinois built in 1869 Manhattan Building Chicago built in 1891 National Historic Landmark New York Life Insurance Building Chicago built in 1894 Second Leiter Building Chicago built in 1889 West Park District section of Chicago s boulevard system DKE Shant Ann Arbor Michigan 1878 Part or all of Garfield Park 100 N Central Park Ave Chicago NRHP listed Part or all of Humboldt Park roughly bounded by N Sacramento and Augusta Blvds and N Kedzie North and N California Aves and W Division St Chicago NRHP listed Illinois Memorial Vicksburg National Military Park 1906References Edit William le Baron Jenney Biography of Skyscraper Architect Architecture and Building XII 1 5 6 January 4 1890 a href wiki Template Cite journal title Template Cite journal cite journal a Missing or empty title help Condit C The Chicago School of Architecture A History of Commercial and Public Building Chicago The University of Chicago Press 1964 Chapter 4 Jenney and the New Structural Technique p 81 Elmer C Jensen Papers 1871 2014 bulk 1880s 1950s Art Institute of Chicago 2012 Retrieved May 22 2019 Finding aid including biographical info on William Le Baron Jenney and Elmer C Jensen published 2012 Carol Lohry Cartwright 2001 National Register of Historic Places Registration Main Street Historic District Lake Geneva National Park Service Retrieved April 6 2018 Notes Haden Erik William LeBaron Jenney Structural Engineers Association of Texas Archived from the original on May 19 2005 Retrieved December 17 2005 Home Insurance Building PBS Big Building Databank Retrieved December 17 2005 Graceland Cemetery Graveyards of Chicago Retrieved December 17 2005 Further reading Turak Theodore 1986 William Le Baron Jenney A Pioneer of Modern Architecture Architecture and Urban Design No 17 Umi Research Pr ISBN 0 8357 1734 8 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to William Le Baron Jenney Architect William LeBaron Jenney 1832 1907 William Le Baron Jenney at StructuraePolitical officesPreceded byEbenezer G D Holden Secretary of State of Michigan 1879 1883 Succeeded byHarry A Conant Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title William Le Baron Jenney amp oldid 1092835156, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.