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Wikipedia

"Winter Olympics" redirects here. For the TV episode of The Goodies, see Winter Olympics (The Goodies). For the video game, see Winter Olympics (video game).

The Winter Olympic Games (French: Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympic Games, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were held in Chamonix, France. The modern Olympic Games were inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, leading to the first modern Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece in 1896. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority.

The original five Winter Olympic Sports (consisting of nine disciplines) were bobsleigh, curling, ice hockey, Nordic skiing (consisting of the disciplines military patrol, cross-country skiing, Nordic combined, and ski jumping), and skating (consisting of the disciplines figure skating and speed skating). The Games were held every four years from 1924 to 1936, interrupted in 1940 and 1944 by World War II, and resumed in 1948. Until 1992, the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games were held in the same year, and in accordance with the 1986 decision by the IOC to place the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games on separate four-year cycles in alternating even-numbered years, the next Winter Olympic Games after 1992 were held in 1994.

The Winter Olympic Games have evolved since their inception. Sports and disciplines have been added and some of them, such as alpine skiing, luge, short track speed skating, freestyle skiing, skeleton, and snowboarding, have earned a permanent spot on the Olympic program. Some others, including curling and bobsleigh, have been discontinued and later reintroduced; others have been permanently discontinued, such as military patrol, though the modern Winter Olympic sport of biathlon is descended from it. Still others, such as speed skiing, bandy and skijoring, were demonstration sports but never incorporated as Olympic sports. The rise of television as a global medium for communication enhanced the profile of the Games. It generated income via the sale of broadcast rights and advertising, which has become lucrative for the IOC. This allowed outside interests, such as television companies and corporate sponsors, to exert influence. The IOC has had to address numerous criticisms over the decades like internal scandals, the use of performance-enhancing drugs by Winter Olympians, as well as a political boycott of the Winter Olympic Games. Countries have used the Winter Olympic Games as well as the Summer Olympic Games to proclaim the superiority of their political systems.

The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted on three continents by thirteen countries. They have been held four times in the United States (1932, 1960, 1980, and 2002), three times in France (1924, 1968, and 1992) and twice each in Austria (1964 and 1976), Canada (1988 and 2010), Japan (1972 and 1998), Italy (1956 and 2006), Norway (1952 and 1994) and Switzerland (1928 and 1948). Also, the Winter Olympic Games have been held just once each in Germany (1936), Yugoslavia (1984), Russia (2014), South Korea (2018), and China (2022). The IOC has selected Italian cities of Milan and Cortina d'Ampezzo to host the 2026 Winter Olympics. As of 2018[update], no city in the Southern Hemisphere has applied to host the cold-weather-dependent Winter Olympic Games, which are held in February.

As of 2022[update], twelve countries have participated in every Winter Olympic Games – Austria, Canada, Finland, France, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. Also, Czechoslovakia participated in all Winter Olympic Games before its dissolution and its successors, Czech Republic and Slovakia have participated in all Winter Games thereafter. Six of these countries have won medals at every Winter Olympic Games – Austria, Canada, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States. The only country to have won a gold medal at every Winter Olympic Games is the United States. Norway leads the all-time Olympic Games medal table for the Winter Olympic Games. When including defunct states, Germany (comprising the former countries of West Germany and East Germany) leads, followed by Norway, Russia (including the former Soviet Union), and the United States.

Contents

Early years

Ulrich Salchow
at the 1908 Olympics

A predecessor, the Nordic Games, were organized by General Viktor Gustaf Balck in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1901 and were held again in 1903 and 1905 and then every fourth year thereafter until 1926. Balck was a charter member of the IOC and a close friend of Olympic Games founder Pierre de Coubertin. He attempted to have winter sports, specifically figure skating, added to the Olympic programme but was unsuccessful until the 1908 Summer Olympics in London. Four figure skating events were contested, at which Ulrich Salchow (10-time world champion) and Madge Syers won the individual titles.

Three years later, Italian count Eugenio Brunetta d'Usseaux proposed that the IOC stage a week of winter sports included as part of the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden. The organisers opposed this idea because they desired to protect the integrity of the Nordic Games and were concerned about a lack of facilities for winter sports.

The idea was resurrected for the 1916 Games, which were to be held in Berlin, Germany. A winter sports week with speed skating, figure skating, ice hockey and Nordic skiing was planned, but the 1916 Olympics was cancelled after the outbreak of World War I.

1920 to 1936

Sonia Henie's Olympic gold medal, St. Moritz 1928.

The first Olympics after the war, the 1920 Summer Olympics, were held in Antwerp, Belgium, and featured figure skating and an ice hockey tournament. Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey were banned from competing in the games. At the IOC Congress held the following year it was decided that the host nation of the 1924 Summer Olympics, France, would host a separate "International Winter Sports Week" under the patronage of the IOC. Chamonix was chosen to host this week (actually 11 days) of events.

The 1924 games in Chamonix proved to be a success when more than 250 athletes from 16 nations competed in 16 events. Athletes from Finland and Norway won 28 medals, more than the rest of the participating nations combined. The first gold medal awarded was won by Charles Jewtraw of the United States in the 500-meter speed skate. Sonja Henie of Norway, at just 11 years old, competed in the ladies' figure skating and, although finishing last, became popular with fans. Gillis Grafström of Sweden defended his 1920 gold medal in men's figure skating, becoming the first Olympian to win gold medals in both Summer and Winter Olympics. Germany remained banned until 1925, and instead hosted a series of games called Deutsche Kampfspiele, starting with the winter edition of 1922 (which predated the first Winter Olympics). In 1925 the IOC decided to create a separate winter event and the 1924 games in Chamonix was retroactively designated as the first Winter Olympics.

St. Moritz, Switzerland, was appointed by the IOC to host the second Winter Games in 1928. Fluctuating weather conditions challenged the hosts. The opening ceremony was held in a blizzard while warm weather conditions plagued sporting events throughout the rest of the games. Because of the weather the 10,000 metre speed-skating event had to be abandoned and officially cancelled. The weather was not the only noteworthy aspect of the 1928 games: Sonja Henie of Norway returned to the Winter Olympics to make history when she won the ladies' figure skating at the age of 15. She became the youngest Olympic champion in history, a distinction she held for 70 years, and went on to defend her title at the next two Winter Olympics. Gillis Grafström won his third consecutive figure skating gold and went on to win silver in 1932, becoming the most decorated men's figure skater to date.

The next Winter Olympics, held in Lake Placid, New York, United States was the first to be hosted outside of Europe. Seventeen nations and 252 athletes participated. This was less than in 1928, as the journey to Lake Placid was too long and expensive for some European nations that encountered financial problems in the midst of the Great Depression. The athletes competed in fourteen events in four sports. Virtually no snow fell for two months before the Games, and there was not enough snow to hold all the events until mid-January. Sonja Henie defended her Olympic title, and Eddie Eagan of the United States, who had been an Olympic champion in boxing in 1920, won the gold medal in the men's bobsleigh event to join Gillis Grafström as the only athletes to have won gold medals in both the Summer and Winter Olympics. Eagan has the distinction as the only Olympian as of 2020 to accomplish this feat in different sports.

The German towns of Garmisch and Partenkirchen joined to organise the 1936 edition of the Winter Games, held from 6–16 February. This was the last time the Summer and Winter Olympics were held in the same country in the same year. Alpine skiing made its Olympic debut, but skiing teachers were barred from entering because they were considered to be professionals. Because of this decision the Swiss and Austrian skiers refused to compete at the games.

World War II interrupted the Winter Olympics. The 1940 games had been awarded to Sapporo, Japan, but the decision was rescinded in 1938 because of the Japanese invasion of China. The games were then to be held at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, but the 1940 games were cancelled following the German invasion of Poland in 1939. Due to the ongoing war, the 1944 games, originally scheduled for Cortina D'Ampezzo, Italy, were cancelled.

1948 to 1960

The opening ceremonies of the 1956 Winter Olympics in Cortina d'Ampezzo

St. Moritz was selected to host the first post-war games, in 1948. Switzerland's neutrality had protected the town during World War II, and most venues from the 1928 games remained in place, which made St. Moritz a logical choice. It became the first city to host a Winter Olympics twice. Twenty-eight countries competed in Switzerland, but athletes from Germany and Japan were not invited. Controversy erupted when two hockey teams from the United States arrived, both claiming to be the legitimate U.S. Olympic hockey representative. The Olympic flag presented at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp was stolen, as was its replacement. There was unprecedented parity at these games, during which 10 countries won gold medals—more than any games to that point.

The Olympic Flame for the 1952 games in Oslo, was lit in the fireplace by Norwegian skiing pioneer Sondre Nordheim, and the torch relay was conducted by 94 participants entirely on skis. Bandy, a popular sport in the Nordic countries, was featured as a demonstration sport, though only Norway, Sweden, and Finland fielded teams. Norwegian athletes won 17 medals, which outpaced all the other nations. They were led by Hjalmar Andersen who won three gold medals in four events in the speed skating competition.

After not being able to host the games in 1944, Cortina d'Ampezzo was selected to organise the 1956 Winter Olympics. At the opening ceremonies the final torchbearer, Guido Caroli, entered the Olympic Stadium on ice skates. As he skated around the stadium his skate caught on a cable and he fell, nearly extinguishing the flame. He was able to recover and light the cauldron. These were the first Winter Games to be televised, and the first Olympics ever broadcast to an international audience, though no television rights were sold until the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome. The Cortina games were used to test the feasibility of televising large sporting events.

The Soviet Union made its Olympic debut and had an immediate impact, winning more medals than any other nation. The Soviets' immediate success might be explained by the advent of the state-sponsored "full-time amateur athlete". The USSR entered teams of athletes who were all nominally students, soldiers, or working in a profession, but many of whom were in reality paid by the state to train full-time; similar arguments have been made against US NCAA athletes. Chiharu Igaya won the first Winter Olympics medal for Japan and the continent of Asia when he placed second in the slalom.

The IOC awarded the 1960 Olympics to Squaw Valley, United States. It was an undeveloped resort in 1955, so from 1956 to 1960 the infrastructure and all of the venues were built at a cost of US$80,000,000. The opening and closing ceremonies were produced by Walt Disney. The Squaw Valley Olympics was the first Winter Games to have a dedicated athletes' village, the first to use a computer (courtesy of IBM) to tabulate results, and the first to feature female speed skating events. The bobsleigh events were absent for the only time due to a minimal number of nations expressing interest in competing and the cost of building a bobsleigh run.

1964 to 1980

The Herb Brooks Arena
in Lake Placid (c. 2007), site of
the "Miracle on Ice" in 1980

The Austrian city of Innsbruck was the host in 1964. Although Innsbruck was a traditional winter sports resort, warm weather caused a lack of snow during the games and the Austrian army was enlisted to transport snow and ice to the sports venues. Soviet speed-skater Lidia Skoblikova made history by winning all four-speed skating events. Her career total of six gold medals set a record for Winter Olympics athletes. Luge was first contested in 1964, but the sport received bad publicity when a competitor was killed in a pre-Olympic training run.

Held in the French town of Grenoble, the 1968 Winter Olympics were the first Olympic Games to be broadcast in colour. There were 1,158 athletes from 37 nations competing in 35 events. French alpine ski racer Jean-Claude Killy became only the second person to win all the men's alpine skiing events. The organising committee sold television rights for US$2 million, which was more than twice the cost of the broadcast rights for the Innsbruck Games. Venues were spread over long distances requiring three athletes' villages. The organisers claimed that this was necessary to accommodate technological advances, however, critics disputed this, alleging that the layout would incorporate the best possible venues for television broadcasts at the athletes' expense.

The 1972 Winter Games, held in Sapporo, Japan, were the first to be hosted on a continent other than North America or Europe. The issue of professionalism was disputed during these Games when a number of alpine skiers were found to have participated in a ski camp at Mammoth Mountain in the United States; three days before the opening ceremony, IOC president Avery Brundage threatened to bar the skiers from competing in the Games as he insisted that they were no longer amateurs having benefited financially from their status as athletes. Eventually only Austrian Karl Schranz, who earned more than the other skiers, was excluded from the competition. Canada did not send teams to the 1972 or 1976 ice hockey tournaments in protest at not being able to use players from professional leagues. It also accused the Soviet Union of using state-sponsored athletes, who were de facto professionals. Francisco Fernández Ochoa became the first and, as of 2018, only Spaniard to win a Winter Olympic gold medal when he triumphed in the slalom.

The 1976 Winter Olympics had initially been awarded in 1970 to Denver, Colorado in the United States. These Games would have coincided with the year of Colorado's centennial and the United States Bicentennial. However, in November 1972 the people of Colorado voted against public funding of the Games by a 3:2 margin. The IOC responded by offering the Games to Vancouver-Garibaldi, British Columbia, which had previously been an official candidate for the 1976 Games. However, a change in the provincial government resulted in an administration that did not support the Olympic bid, so the IOC's offer was rejected.

Salt Lake City, previously a candidate for the 1972 Winter Olympics, then put itself forward, but the IOC opted instead to invite Innsbruck to host the 1976 Games, as most of the infrastructure from the 1964 Games had been maintained. Despite only having half the usual time to prepare for the Games, Innsbruck accepted the invitation to replace Denver in February 1973. Two Olympic flames were lit because it was the second time that the Austrian town had hosted the Winter Games. The 1976 Games featured the first combination bobsleigh and luge track, in neighbouring Igls. The Soviet Union won its fourth consecutive ice hockey gold medal.

In 1980 the Winter Olympics returned to Lake Placid, which had hosted the 1932 Games. Cyprus made their Olympic debut at the games. The People's Republic of China and Costa Rica both made their Winter Olympic debut. The Republic of China refused to attend the Games over the IOC's recognition of the People's Republic of China as "China", and its request for the Republic of China to compete as "Chinese Taipei". The PRC, on the other hand, returned to the Olympics for the first time since 1952 and made its Winter Olympic debut.

American speed-skater Eric Heiden set either an Olympic or World record in every one of the five events in which he competed, winning a total of five individual gold medals and breaking the record for most individual golds in a single Olympics (both Summer and Winter). Hanni Wenzel won both the slalom and giant slalom and her country, Liechtenstein, became the smallest nation to produce an Olympic gold medallist. In the "Miracle on Ice", the American hockey team composed of college players beat the favoured seasoned professionals from the Soviet Union, and progressed to eventually win the gold medal.

1984 to 1998

Alberto Tomba, winner of five Olympic medals in Calgary, Albertville and Lillehammer

Sapporo, Japan, and Gothenburg, Sweden, were front-runners to host the 1984 Winter Olympics. It was therefore a surprise when Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, was selected as host. The Games were well-organised and not affected by the run-up to the war that engulfed the country eight years later. A total of 49 nations and 1,272 athletes participated in 39 events. Host nation Yugoslavia won its first Olympic medal when alpine skier Jure Franko won silver in the giant slalom. Another sporting highlight was the free dance performance of British ice dancers Jayne Torvill and Christopher Dean; their Boléro routine received unanimous perfect scores for artistic impression, earning them the gold medal.

The Olympic Torch from the 1988 Winter Olympic Games in Calgary

In 1988, the Canadian city of Calgary hosted the first Winter Olympics to span three weekends, lasting for a total of 16 days. New events were added in ski-jumping and speed skating, while future Olympic sports curling, short track speed skating and freestyle skiing made their debut appearance as demonstration sports. The speed skating events were held indoors for the first time, on the Olympic Oval. Dutch skater Yvonne van Gennip won three gold medals and set two world records, beating skaters from the favoured East German team in every race.

Her medal total was equalled by Finnish ski jumper Matti Nykänen, who won all three events in his sport. Alberto Tomba, an Italian skier, made his Olympic debut by winning both the giant slalom and slalom. Ski jumper Eddie the Eagle competed in the 70m and 90m in finishing last with a British record of 73.5 metres. East German Christa Rothenburger won the women's 1,000 metre speed skating event. Seven months later she would earn a silver in track cycling at the Summer Games in Seoul, to become the only athlete to win medals in both a Summer and Winter Olympics in the same year.

The 1992 Winter Games were the last to be held in the same year as the Summer Games. They were hosted in the French Savoie region, with 18 events held in the city of Albertville and the remaining events spread out over the Savoie. Political changes of the time were reflected in the composition of the Olympic teams competing in France: this was the first Games to be held after the fall of Communism and the fall of the Berlin Wall, and Germany competed as a single nation for the first time since the 1964 Games.

Former Yugoslavian republics Croatia and Slovenia made their debuts as independent nations; most of the former Soviet republics still competed as a single team known as the Unified Team, but the Baltic States made independent appearances for the first time since before World War II. At 16 years old, Finnish ski jumper Toni Nieminen made history by becoming the youngest male Winter Olympic champion. New Zealand skier Annelise Coberger became the first Winter Olympic medallist from the southern hemisphere when she won a silver medal in the women's slalom.

The 1994 Winter Olympics, held in Lillehammer, Norway, were the first Winter Games to be held in a different year from the Summer Games. This change resulted from the decision reached in the 91st IOC Session (1986) to separate the Summer and Winter Games and place them in alternating even-numbered years. Lillehammer is the northernmost city to ever host the Winter Games. It was the second time the Games were held in Norway, after the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo, and the first time the Olympic Truce was observed. As a result, after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993, the Czech Republic and Slovakia made their Olympic debuts.

The women's figure skating competition drew media attention when American skater Nancy Kerrigan was injured on 6 January 1994, in an assault planned by the ex-husband of opponent Tonya Harding. Both skaters competed in the Games, but the gold medal was controversially won by Oksana Baiul who became Ukraine's first Olympic champion, while Kerrigan won the silver medal. Johann Olav Koss of Norway won three gold medals, coming first in all of the distance speed skating events.

13-year-old Kim Yoon-Mi became the youngest-ever Olympic gold medallist when South Korea won the women's 3,000-metre speed skating relay. Bjørn Dæhli of Norway won a medal in four out of five cross-country events, becoming the most decorated Winter Olympian until then. Russia won the most events, with eleven gold medals, while Norway achieved 26 podium finishes, collecting the most medals overall on home ground. Juan Antonio Samaranch described Lillehammer as "the best Olympic Winter Games ever" in his closing ceremony speech.

The 1998 Winter Olympics were held in the Japanese city of Nagano and were the first Games to host more than 2,000 athletes. The National Hockey League allowed its players to participate in the men's ice hockey tournament for the first time, and the Czech Republic won the tournament. Women's ice hockey made its debut, and the United States won the gold medal. Bjørn Dæhlie of Norway won three gold medals in Nordic skiing, becoming the most decorated Winter Olympic athlete, with eight gold medals and twelve medals overall. Austrian Hermann Maier survived a crash during the downhill competition and returned to win gold in the super-G and the giant slalom. Tara Lipinski of the United States, aged just 15, became the youngest ever female gold medallist in an individual event when she won the Ladies' Singles, a record that had stood since Sonja Henie of Norway won the same event, also aged 15, in St. Moritz in 1928. New world records were set in speed skating largely due to the introduction of the clap skate.

2002 to 2022

The Olympic flame during the Opening Ceremony of the 2002 Games in Salt Lake City

After a tumultuous host city process, the 2002 Winter Olympics were held in Salt Lake City, United States. 2,399 athletes from 77 National Olympic Committees participated at 78 events in 7 sports. These Games were the first to take place since the September 11 attacks of 2001, which meant a higher degree of security to avoid a terrorist attack. The opening ceremony saw signs of the aftermath of the events of that day, including the flag that flew at Ground Zero, and honour guards of NYPD and FDNY members.

German Georg Hackl won a silver in the singles luge, becoming the first athlete in Olympic history to win medals in the same individual event in five consecutive Olympics. Canada achieved an unprecedented double by winning both the men's and women's ice hockey gold medals. Canada became embroiled with Russia in a controversy that involved the judging of the pairs figure skating competition. The Russian pair of Yelena Berezhnaya and Anton Sikharulidze competed against the Canadian pair of Jamie Salé and David Pelletier for the gold medal.

The Canadians appeared to have skated well enough to win the competition, yet the Russians were awarded the gold. The French judge, Marie-Reine Le Gougne, awarded the gold to the Russians. An investigation revealed that she had been pressured to give the gold to the Russian pair regardless of how they skated; in return, the Russian judge would look favourably on the French entrants in the ice dancing competition.

The IOC decided to award both pairs the gold medal in a second medal ceremony held later in the Games. Australian Steven Bradbury became the first gold medallist from the southern hemisphere when he won the 1,000 metre short-track speed skating event.

A close-up of the Olympic Flame during the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin

The Italian city of Turin hosted the 2006 Winter Olympics. It was the second time that Italy had hosted the Winter Olympic Games. South Korean athletes won 10 medals, including 6 gold in the short-track speed skating events. Sun-Yu Jin won three gold medals while her teammate Hyun-Soo Ahn won three gold medals and a bronze. In the women's Cross-Country team pursuit Canadian Sara Renner broke one of her poles and, when he saw her dilemma, Norwegian coach Bjørnar Håkensmoen decided to lend her a pole. In so doing she was able to help her team win a silver medal in the event at the expense of the Norwegian team, who finished fourth.

On winning the Super-G, Kjetil-Andre Aamodt of Norway became the most decorated ski racer of all time with 4 gold and 8 overall medals. He is also the only ski racer to have won the same event at three Olympics, winning the Super-G in 1992, 2002 and 2006. Claudia Pechstein of Germany became the first speed skater to earn nine career medals.

In February 2009, Pechstein tested positive for "blood manipulation" and received a two-year suspension, which she appealed. The Court of Arbitration for Sport upheld her suspension but a Swiss court ruled that she could compete for a spot on the 2010 German Olympic team. This ruling was brought to the Swiss Federal Tribunal, which overturned the lower court's ruling and precluded her from competing in Vancouver.

In 2003 the IOC awarded the 2010 Winter Olympics to Vancouver, thus allowing Canada to host its second Winter Olympics. With a population of more than 2.5 million people Vancouver is the largest metropolitan area to ever host a Winter Olympic Games. Over 2,500 athletes from 82 countries participated in 86 events. The death of Georgian luger Nodar Kumaritashvili in a training run on the day of the opening ceremonies resulted in the Whistler Sliding Centre changing the track layout on safety grounds.

Norwegian cross-country skier Marit Bjørgen won five medals in the six cross-country events on the women's programme. She finished the Olympics with three golds, a silver and a bronze. For the first time, Canada won a gold medal at an Olympic Games it hosted, having failed to do so at both the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal and the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary. In contrast to the lack of gold medals at these previous Olympics, the Canadian team finished first overall in gold medal wins, and became the first host nation—since Norway in 1952—to lead the gold medal count, with 14 medals. In doing so, it also broke the record for the most gold medals won by a NOC at a single Winter Olympics (the previous was 13, set by the Soviet Union in 1976 and matched by Norway in 2002).

The Vancouver Games were notable for the poor performance of the Russian athletes. From their first Winter Olympics in 1956 to the 2006 Games, a Soviet or Russian delegation had never been outside the top five medal-winning nations, but in 2010 they finished sixth in total medals and eleventh in gold medals. President Dmitry Medvedev called for the resignation of top sports officials immediately after the Games. Russia's disappointing performance at Vancouver is cited as the reason behind the enhancement of an already existing doping scheme alleged to have been in operation at major events such as the 2014 Games at Sochi.

The success of Asian countries stood in stark contrast to the under-performing Russian team, with Vancouver marking a high point for medals won by Asian countries. At the Albertville Games in 1992 the Asian countries had won fifteen medals, three of which were gold. In Vancouver, the total number of medals won by athletes from Asia had increased to thirty-one, with eleven of them being gold. The rise of Asian nations in Winter Olympics sports is due in part to the growth of winter sports programmes and the interest in winter sports in nations such as Kazakhstan, South Korea, Japan and China. These results increased the chances of an Asian city hosting the 2018 Winter Olympics that would be held the following year.

Sochi, Russia, was selected as the host city for the 2014 Winter Olympics over Salzburg, Austria, and Pyeongchang, South Korea. This was the first time that Russia had hosted a Winter Olympics. The Games took place from 7 to 23 February 2014. A record 2,800 athletes from 88 countries competed in 98 events. The Olympic Village and Olympic Stadium were located on the Black Sea coast. All of the mountain venues were 50 kilometres (31 mi) away in the alpine region known as Krasnaya Polyana. The Games were the most expensive until the date, with a cost of £30 billion (US$51 billion).

On the snow, Norwegian biathlete Ole Einar Bjørndalen took two golds to bring his total tally of Olympic medals to 13, overtaking his compatriot Bjørn Dæhlie to become the most decorated Winter Olympian of all time. Another Norwegian, cross-country skier Marit Bjørgen took three golds; her total of ten Olympic medals tied her as the female Winter Olympian with most medals, alongside Raisa Smetanina and Stefania Belmondo. Snowboarder Ayumu Hirano became the youngest medallist on snow at the Winter Games when he took a silver in the halfpipe competition at the age of fifteen.

On the ice, the Netherlands team dominated the speed skating events, taking 23 medals, four clean sweeps of the podium places and at least one medal in each of the twelve medal events. Ireen Wüst was their most successful competitor, taking two golds and three silvers. In figure skating, Yuzuru Hanyu became the first skater to break the 100-point barrier in the short programme on the way to winning the gold medal. Among the sledding disciplines, luger Armin Zöggeler took a bronze, becoming the first Winter Olympian to secure a medal in six consecutive Games.

Following their disappointing performance at the 2010 Games, and an investment of £600 million in elite sport, Russia initially topped the medal table, taking 33 medals including thirteen golds. However Grigory Rodchenkov, the former head of the Russian national anti-doping laboratory, subsequently claimed that he had been involved in doping dozens of Russian competitors for the Games, and that he had been assisted by the Russian Federal Security Service in opening and re-sealing bottles containing urine samples so that samples with banned substances could be replaced with "clean" urine.

A subsequent investigation commissioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency led by Richard McLaren concluded that a state-sponsored doping programme had operated in Russia from "at least late 2011 to 2015" across the "vast majority" of Summer and Winter Olympic sports. On 5 December 2017, the IOC announced that Russia would compete as the Olympic Athletes from Russia at the 2018 Winter Olympics and by the end of 2017 the IOC Disciplinary Commission had disqualified 43 Russian athletes, stripping thirteen medals and knocking Russia from the top of the medal table, thus putting Norway in the lead. However, nine medals were later returned , meaning Russia reclaimed first place in the overall medal tables, and joint first place with Norway in terms of gold medals.

On 6 July 2011, Pyeongchang, South Korea, was selected to host the 2018 Winter Olympics over Munich, Germany, and Annecy, France. This was the first time that South Korea had been selected to host a Winter Olympics and it was the second time the Olympics were held in the country overall, after the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. The Games took place from 9 to 25 February 2018. More than 2,900 athletes from 92 countries participated in 102 events. The main venue cluster was the Alpensia Resort in Daegwallyeong-myeon, while the ice events are held at Gangneung Olympic Park in Pyeongchang's neighbouring sea-city of Gangneung.

The lead-up to the 2018 Winter Olympics was affected by the tensions between North and South Korea and the ongoing Russian doping scandal. Despite tense relations, North Korea agreed to participate in the Games, enter with South Korea during the opening ceremony as a unified Korea, and field a unified team in women's ice hockey. Russian athletes, who complied with the IOC's doping regulations, were given the option to compete in Pyeongchang as "Olympic Athletes from Russia" (OAR).

The Games saw the addition of big air snowboarding, mass start speed skating, mixed doubles curling, and mixed team alpine skiing to the programme. Like four years early, the Netherlands again dominated speed skating, winning gold medals in seven of the ten individual events. Dutch speed skater Sven Kramer won gold in the men's 5000m event, becoming the only male speed skater to win the same Olympic event three times. On the snow, Norway led the medal tally in cross-country skiing, with Marit Bjørgen winning bronze in the women's team sprint and gold in the 30-kilometre classical event, bringing her total Olympic medal haul to fifteen, the most won by any athlete (male or female) in Winter Olympics history.

Johannes Høsflot Klæbo of Norway became the youngest ever male to win an Olympic gold in cross-country skiing when he won the men's sprint at age 21. Noriaki Kasai of Japan became the first athlete in history to participate in eight Winter Olympics when he took part in the ski jumping qualification the day before the opening of the Games. Ester Ledecká of the Czech Republic won gold in the skiing super-G event and another gold in the snowboarding parallel giant slalom, making her the first female athlete to win Olympic gold medals in two sports at a single Winter Games.

Norway led the total medal standings with 39, the highest number of medals by a nation in any Winter Olympics, followed by Germany's 31 and Canada's 29. Host nation South Korea won seventeen medals, five of them gold, its highest medal haul at a Winter Olympics.

Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China, was elected as the host city for the 2022 Winter Olympics on 31 July 2015 at the 128th IOC Session. Beijing became the first city ever to have hosted both the Summer and Winter Olympics. Like the Summer Olympics held six months earlier in Tokyo, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the implementation of strict health and safety protocols, including restrictions on public attendance at the Games. The Games included a record 109 events over 15 disciplines in seven sports with seven new medal events, including mixed team competitions in freestyle skiing aerials, ski jumping, and snowboard cross. The Games were held between 4 February and 20 February 2022 at venues in Beijing and Zhangjiakou which for the first time were run entirely on renewable energy. Several of the events were impacted by temperatures as low as minus 20 Celsius and strong wind.

The first gold medal of the Games was won by Therese Johaug of Norway in the women's skiathlon. Johaug had been excluded from the 2018 Winter Olympics in a controversial decision after having used a banned cream for sunburned lips. She went on to also win the women's 10km and 30km cross-country distances. In the women's snowboard cross, Lindsey Jacobellis of the United States won the gold, having lost the gold 16 years earlier at the 2006 Winter Olympics in Torino due to a brutal fall. On the ice, the Netherlands dominated with a total of six gold medals and Irene Schouten winning the women's mass start, 3,000m and 5,000m distances. Nils van der Poel of Sweden won the men's 5,000m and 10,000m distances setting new Olympic records in both distances. Kamila Valieva of Russia was allowed to compete in the women's figure skating in spite of a failed doping test in December 2021. She failed, however, to win an individual medal after falling in her final routine. Finland claimed its first ice hockey gold ever, having beaten Russia in the final on the last day of the Games.

Norway was first in the overall medal standings, claiming 37 medals in total and 16 gold medals, the highest number of gold medals of any country in any Winter Olympics. This was the ninth time Norway claimed the highest number of gold medals in a Winter Olympic Games.

Future

The 2026 Winter Olympics will be in Milan-Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy and take place between 6 and 22 February 2026.

Controversy

Juan Antonio Samaranch, former IOC president, who was in charge of the Olympic movement for more than 20 years

The process for awarding host city honours came under intense scrutiny after Salt Lake City had been awarded the right to host the 2002 Games. Soon after the host city had been announced it was discovered that the organisers had engaged in an elaborate bribery scheme to curry favour with IOC officials. Gifts and other financial considerations were given to those who would evaluate and vote on Salt Lake City's bid. These gifts included medical treatment for relatives, a college scholarship for one member's son and a land deal in Utah. Even IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch received two rifles valued at $2,000. Samaranch defended the gift as inconsequential since, as president, he was a non-voting member.

The subsequent investigation uncovered inconsistencies in the bids for every Olympics (both Summer and Winter) since 1988. For example, the gifts received by IOC members from the Japanese Organising Committee for Nagano's bid for the 1998 Winter Olympics were described by the investigation committee as "astronomical". Although nothing strictly illegal had been done, the IOC feared that corporate sponsors would lose faith in the integrity of the process and that the Olympic brand would be tarnished to such an extent that advertisers would begin to pull their support.

The investigation resulted in the expulsion of 10 IOC members and the sanctioning of another 10. New terms and age limits were established for IOC membership, and 15 former Olympic athletes were added to the committee. Stricter rules for future bids were imposed, with ceilings imposed on the value of gifts IOC members could accept from bid cities.

Host city legacy

According to the IOC, the host city for the Winter Olympics is responsible for "...establishing functions and services for all aspects of the Games, such as sports planning, venues, finance, technology, accommodation, catering, media services, etc., as well as operations during the Games." Due to the cost of hosting the Games, most host cities never realise a profit on their investment. For example, the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy, cost $3.6 billion to host. By comparison, the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan, cost $12.5 billion. The organisers of the Nagano Games claimed that the cost of extending the bullet train service from Tokyo to Nagano was responsible for the large price tag.

The organising committee had hoped that the exposure gained from hosting the Winter Olympics, and the improved access to Nagano from Tokyo, would benefit the local economy for years afterwards. In fact, Nagano's economy did experience a post-Olympic boom for a year or two, but the long-term effects have not materialised as anticipated. The likelihood of heavy debt is a deterrent to prospective host cities, as well as the prospect of unused sports venues and infrastructure saddling the local community with upkeep costs into the future with no appreciable post-Olympic value.

The Winter Olympics has the added problem of the alpine events requiring a mountain location; the men's downhill needs an 800-meter altitude difference along a suitable course. As this is a focal event that is central to the Games, the IOC has previously not agreed to it taking place a great distance from the main host city, in contrast to the Summer Games, where sailing and horse sports have taken place more than 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) away. The requirement for a mountain location also means that venues such as hockey arenas often have to be built in sparsely populated areas with little future need for a large arena and for the hotels and infrastructure needed for all Olympic visitors. Due to cost issues, fewer and fewer cities are willing to host. Both the Torino 2006 and Vancouver 2010 Games, which were hosted in countries where large cities are located close to suitable mountain regions, had lower costs since more venues, hotels and transport infrastructure already existed. In contrast, the Sochi 2014 games had large costs as most installations had to be built.

The IOC has enacted several initiatives to mitigate these concerns. Firstly, the commission has agreed to fund part of the host city's budget for staging the Games. Secondly, the qualifying host countries are limited to those that have the resources and infrastructure to successfully host an Olympic Games without negatively impacting the region or nation; this consequently rules out a large portion of the developing world. Finally, any prospective host city planning to bid for the Games is required to add a "legacy plan" to their proposal, with a view to the long-term economic and environmental impact that hosting the Olympics will have on the region.

For the 2022 Winter Games, IOC allowed a longer distance between the alpine events and other events. The Oslo bid had 220 kilometres (140 mi) to the Kvitfjell downhill arena. For the 2026 Winter Games, IOC allowed Stockholm to have the alpine event in Åre, 620 kilometres (390 mi) away by road.

Doping

In 1967 the IOC began enacting drug testing protocols. They started by randomly testing athletes at the 1968 Winter Olympics. The first Winter Games athlete to test positive for a banned substance was Alois Schloder, a West German hockey player, but his team was still allowed to compete. During the 1970s testing outside of competition was escalated because it was found to deter athletes from using performance-enhancing drugs. The problem with testing during this time was a lack of standardisation of the test procedures, which undermined the credibility of the tests. It was not until the late 1980s that international sporting federations began to coordinate efforts to standardise the drug-testing protocols. The IOC took the lead in the fight against steroids when it established the independent World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in November 1999.

The 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin became notable for a scandal involving the emerging trend of blood doping, the use of blood transfusions or synthetic hormones such as Erythropoietin (EPO) to improve oxygen flow and thus reduce fatigue. The Italian police conducted a raid on the Austrian cross-country ski team's residence during the Games where they seized blood-doping specimens and equipment. This event followed the pre-Olympics suspension of 12 cross-country skiers who tested positive for unusually high levels of haemoglobin, which is evidence of blood doping.

The 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi's Russian Doping Scandal has resulted in the International Olympic Committee to begin disciplinary proceedings against 28 (later increased to 46) Russian athletes who competed at the 2014 Winter Games in Sochi, Russia, acting on evidence that their urine samples were tampered with.

Cold War

A postage stamp issued by East Germany in 1968 in commemoration of their first Winter Olympics as an independent country

The Winter Olympics have been an ideological front in the Cold War since the Soviet Union first participated at the 1956 Winter Games. It did not take long for the Cold War combatants to discover what a powerful propaganda tool the Olympic Games could be. The advent of the state-sponsored "full-time amateur athlete" of the Eastern Bloc countries further eroded the ideology of the pure amateur, as it put the self-financed amateurs of the Western countries at a disadvantage. The Soviet Union entered teams of athletes who were all nominally students, soldiers, or working in a profession, but many of whom were in reality paid by the state to train on a full-time basis. Nevertheless, the IOC held to the traditional rules regarding amateurism until the '90s.

The Cold War created tensions amongst countries allied to the two superpowers. The strained relationship between East and West Germany created a difficult political situation for the IOC. Because of its role in World War II, Germany was not allowed to compete at the 1948 Winter Olympics. In 1950 the IOC recognised the West German Olympic Committee, and invited East and West Germany to compete as a unified team at the 1952 Winter Games. East Germany declined the invitation and instead sought international legitimacy separate from West Germany.

In 1955 the Soviet Union recognised East Germany as a sovereign state, thereby giving more credibility to East Germany's campaign to become an independent participant at the Olympics. The IOC agreed to provisionally accept the East German National Olympic Committee with the condition that East and West Germans compete on one team. The situation became tenuous when the Berlin Wall was constructed by East Germany in 1962 and Western European nations began refusing visas to East German athletes. The uneasy compromise of a unified team held until the 1968 Grenoble Games when the IOC officially split the teams and threatened to reject the host-city bids of any country that refused entry visas to East German athletes.

Boycott

The Winter Games have had only one national team boycott when Taiwan decided not to participate in the 1980 Winter Olympics held in Lake Placid. Prior to the Games, the IOC agreed to allow China to compete in the Olympics for the first time since 1952. China was given permission to compete as the "People's Republic of China" (PRC) and to use the PRC flag and anthem. Until 1980 the island of Taiwan had been competing under the name "Republic of China" (ROC) and had been using the ROC flag and anthem. The IOC attempted to have the countries compete together but when this proved to be unacceptable the IOC demanded that Taiwan cease to call itself the "Republic of China".

The IOC renamed the island "Chinese Taipei" and demanded that it adopt a different flag and national anthem, stipulations to which Taiwan would not agree. Despite numerous appeals and court hearings, the IOC's decision stood. When the Taiwanese athletes arrived at the Olympic village with their Republic of China identification cards they were not admitted. They subsequently left the Olympics in protest, just before the opening ceremonies. Taiwan returned to Olympic competition at the 1984 Winter Games in Sarajevo as Chinese Taipei. The country agreed to compete under a flag bearing the emblem of their National Olympic Committee and to play the anthem of their National Olympic Committee should one of their athletes win a gold medal. The agreement remains in place to this day.

The Olympic Charter limits winter sports to "those sports which are practised on snow or ice." Since 1992 a number of new sports have been added to the Olympic programme; which include short track speed skating, snowboarding, freestyle and moguls skiing. The addition of these events has broadened the appeal of the Winter Olympics beyond Europe and North America. While European powers such as Norway and Germany still dominate the traditional Winter Olympic sports, countries such as South Korea, Australia and Canada are finding success in the new sports. The results are: more parity in the national medal tables; more interest in the Winter Olympics; and higher global television ratings.

Current sports

Sport Years Events Medal events contested in 2022
Alpine skiing Since 1936 11 Men's: downhill, super G, giant slalom, slalom, alpine combined.
Women's: downhill, super G, giant slalom, slalom, alpine combined.
Mixed parallel slalom.
Biathlon Since 1960 11 Men's: sprint 10 km, individual 20 km, pursuit 12.5 km, mass start 15 km, relay 4×7.5 km.
Women's: sprint 7.5 km, individual 15 km, pursuit 10 km, mass start 12.5 km, relay 4×6 km.
Mixed relay 4×6 km.
Bobsleigh Since 1924 (except 1960) 4 Men's: four-man race, two-man race. Women's: two-woman race, monobob race.
Cross-country skiing Since 1924 12 Men's: sprint, team sprint, 15 km, 30 km skiathlon, 50 km mass start, 4×10 km relay.
Women's: sprint, team sprint, 10 km, 15 km skiathlon, 30 km mass start, 4×5 km relay.
Curling 1924, since 1998 3 Men's, women's and mixed doubles tournaments.
Figure skating Since 1924 5 Men's singles. Women's singles. Pairs, ice dancing, team event.
Freestyle skiing Since 1992 13 Men's: aerials, moguls, ski cross, halfpipe, big air, slopestyle.
Women's: aerials, moguls, ski cross, halfpipe, big air, slopestyle.
Mixed aerials.
Ice hockey Since 1924 2 Men's and women's tournaments.
Luge Since 1964 4 Men's singles. Women's singles. Open doubles, mixed team relay.
Nordic combined Since 1924 3 Men's 10 km individual normal hill, 10 km individual large hill, team 4×5 km large hill.
Short track speed skating Since 1992 9 Men's: 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 m, 5000 m relay.
Women's: 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 m, 3000 m relay.
Mixed 2000 m relay.
Skeleton 1928, 1948, Since 2002 2 Men's and women's events.
Ski jumping Since 1924 5 Men's: individual normal hill, individual large hill, team large hill.
Women's: individual normal hill.
Mixed team normal hill.
Snowboarding Since 1998 11 Men's: snowboard cross, parallel, half-pipe, slopestyle, big air.
Women's: snowboard cross, parallel, half-pipe, slopestyle, big air.
Mixed snowboard cross.
Speed skating Since 1924 14 Men's: 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 m, 5000 m, 10,000 m, mass start, team pursuit.
Women's 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 m, 3000 m, 5000 m, mass start, team pursuit.
  1. Figure skating events were held at the 1908 and 1920 Summer Olympics.
  2. A men's ice hockey tournament was held at the 1920 Summer Olympics.

Demonstration events

Demonstration sports have historically provided a venue for host countries to attract publicity to locally popular sports by having a competition without granting medals. Demonstration sports were discontinued after 1992. Military patrol, a precursor to the biathlon, was a medal sport in 1924 and was demonstrated in 1928, 1936 and 1948, becoming an official sport in 1960. The special figures figure skating event was only contested at the 1908 Summer Olympics. Bandy (Russian hockey) is a sport popular in the Nordic countries and Russia. In the latter it's considered a national sport. It was demonstrated at the Oslo Games.

Ice stock sport, a German variant of curling, was demonstrated in 1936 in Germany and 1964 in Austria. The ski ballet event, later known as ski-acro, was demonstrated in 1988 and 1992. Skijöring, skiing behind dogs, was a demonstration sport in St. Moritz in 1928. A sled-dog race was held at Lake Placid in 1932. Speed skiing was demonstrated in Albertville at the 1992 Winter Olympics. Winter pentathlon, a variant of the modern pentathlon, was included as a demonstration event at the 1948 Games in Switzerland. It included cross-country skiing, shooting, downhill skiing, fencing, and horse riding.

The table below uses official data provided by the IOC.

Defunct nation
No. Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total Games
1 Norway(NOR) 148 133 124 405 24
2 United States(USA) 113 122 95 330 24
3 Germany(GER) 102 98 65 267 13
4 Soviet Union(URS) 78 57 59 194 9
5 Canada(CAN) 77 72 80 229 24
6 Austria(AUT) 71 88 91 250 24
7 Sweden(SWE) 65 61 60 166 24
8 Switzerland(SUI) 63 47 57 167 24
9 Netherlands(NED) 53 49 45 147 22
10 Russia(RUS) 47 39 35 121 6
11 Finland(FIN) 45 65 65 175 24
12 Italy(ITA) 42 43 55 141 24
13 France(FRA) 41 47 55 138 24
14 East Germany(GDR) 39 36 35 110 6
15 South Korea(KOR) 32 30 16 78 19
16 China(CHN) 22 32 23 77 12
17 Japan(JPN) 17 28 31 76 23
18 Great Britain(GBR) 12 5 17 34 24
19 West Germany(FRG) 11 15 13 39 6
20 Czech Republic(CZE) 10 11 12 33 7

Medal leaders by year

Number of occurrences
A map of Winter Olympics locations. Countries that have hosted one Winter Olympiad are shaded green, while countries that have hosted two or more are shaded blue.
Year No. Host Games dates /
Opened by
Sports
(Disciplines)
Competitors Events Nations Top nation
Total Men Women
Amateur era
1924 I Chamonix 25 January – 5 February 1924
Gaston Vidal
6 (9) 258 247 11 16 16 Norway(NOR)
1928 II St. Moritz 11–19 February 1928
President Edmund Schulthess[A]
4 (8) 464 438 26 14 25 Norway(NOR)
1932 III Lake Placid 4–15 February 1932
Governor Franklin Roosevelt
4 (7) 252 231 21 14 17 United States(USA)
1936 IV Garmisch-Partenkirchen 6–16 February 1936
Chancellor Adolf Hitler[B]
4 (8) 646 566 80 17 28 Norway(NOR)
1940 [C] Awarded to Japan (Sapporo); cancelled because of World War II
1944 [C] Awarded to Italy (Cortina d'Ampezzo); cancelled because of World War II
1948 V St. Moritz 30 January – 8 February 1948
President Enrico Celio[A]
4 (9) 669 592 77 22 28 Norway(NOR)
Sweden(SWE)
1952 VI Oslo 14–25 February 1952
Princess Ragnhild
4 (8) 694 585 109 22 30 Norway(NOR)
1956 VII Cortina d'Ampezzo 26 January – 5 February 1956
President Giovanni Gronchi
4 (8) 821 687 134 24 32 Soviet Union(URS)
1960 VIII Squaw Valley 18–28 February 1960
Vice President Richard Nixon
4 (8) 665 521 144 27 30 Soviet Union(URS)
1964 IX Innsbruck 29 January – 9 February 1964
President Adolf Schärf
6 (10) 1091 892 199 34 36 Soviet Union(URS)
1968 X Grenoble 6–18 February 1968
President Charles de Gaulle
6 (10) 1158 947 211 35 37 Norway(NOR)
1972 XI Sapporo 3–13 February 1972
Emperor Hirohito
6 (10) 1006 801 205 35 35 Soviet Union(URS)
1976 XII Innsbruck 4–15 February 1976
President Rudolf Kirchschläger
6 (10) 1123 892 231 37 37 Soviet Union(URS)
1980 XIII Lake Placid 13–24 February 1980
Vice President Walter Mondale
6 (10) 1072 840 232 38 37 Soviet Union(URS)
1984 XIV Sarajevo 8–19 February 1984
President Mika Špiljak
6 (10) 1272 998 274 39 49 East Germany(GDR)
Open era
1988 XV Calgary 13–28 February 1988
Governor-General Jeanne Sauvé
6 (10) 1423 1122 301 46 57 Soviet Union(URS)
1992 XVI Albertville 8–23 February 1992
President François Mitterrand
6 (12) 1801 1313 488 57 64 Germany(GER)
1994 XVII Lillehammer 12–27 February 1994
King Harald V
6 (12) 1737 1215 522 61 67 Russia(RUS)
1998 XVIII Nagano 7–22 February 1998
Emperor Akihito
7 (14) 2176 1389 787 68 72 Germany(GER)
2002 XIX Salt Lake City 8–24 February 2002
President George W. Bush
7 (15) 2399 1513 886 78 78[D] Norway(NOR)
2006 XX Turin 10–26 February 2006
President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi
7 (15) 2508 1548 960 84 80 Germany(GER)
2010 XXI Vancouver 12–28 February 2010
Governor-General Michaëlle Jean
7 (15) 2566 1522 1044 86 82 Canada(CAN)
2014 XXII Sochi 7–23 February 2014
President Vladimir Putin
7 (15) 2873 1714 1159 98 88 Russia(RUS)
2018 XXIII Pyeongchang 9–25 February 2018
President Moon Jae-in
7 (15) 2922 1680 1242 102 92+1[E] Norway(NOR)
2022 XXIV Beijing 4–20 February 2022
President Xi Jinping[F]
7 (15) 2861 TBA TBA 109 91 Norway(NOR)
2026 XXV Milan and Cortina d'Ampezzo 6–22 February 2026
President Sergio Mattarella
8 (16) TBA TBA TBA 114 TBA TBA
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  2. The official website of the IOC now treats Men's Military Patrol at the 1924 Games as a separate discipline, without mixing it with the sports of Skiing or Biathlon. However, the 1924 Official Report treats it as an event and discipline within what was then called Skiing and is now called Nordic skiing.
  3. At the closing of the 1924 Games a prize was also awarded for 'alpinisme' (mountaineering), a sport that did not lend itself very well for tournaments: Pierre de Coubertin presented a prize for 'alpinisme' to Charles Granville Bruce, the leader of the expedition that tried to climb Mount Everest in 1922.
  4. The US beat the Soviets as part of a medal round that also included Finland and Sweden, so they did not actually win the gold medal until beating Finland a few days later.
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Winter Olympic Games Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Winter Olympics Winter Olympics redirects here For the TV episode of The Goodies see Winter Olympics The Goodies For the video game see Winter Olympics video game The Winter Olympic Games French Jeux olympiques d hiver note 1 is a major international multi sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice The first Winter Olympic Games the 1924 Winter Olympics were held in Chamonix France The modern Olympic Games were inspired by the ancient Olympic Games which were held in Olympia Greece from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee IOC in 1894 leading to the first modern Summer Olympic Games in Athens Greece in 1896 The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority The original five Winter Olympic Sports consisting of nine disciplines were bobsleigh curling ice hockey Nordic skiing consisting of the disciplines military patrol note 2 cross country skiing Nordic combined and ski jumping and skating consisting of the disciplines figure skating and speed skating note 3 The Games were held every four years from 1924 to 1936 interrupted in 1940 and 1944 by World War II and resumed in 1948 Until 1992 the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games were held in the same year and in accordance with the 1986 decision by the IOC to place the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games on separate four year cycles in alternating even numbered years the next Winter Olympic Games after 1992 were held in 1994 The Winter Olympic Games have evolved since their inception Sports and disciplines have been added and some of them such as alpine skiing luge short track speed skating freestyle skiing skeleton and snowboarding have earned a permanent spot on the Olympic program Some others including curling and bobsleigh have been discontinued and later reintroduced others have been permanently discontinued such as military patrol though the modern Winter Olympic sport of biathlon is descended from it note 2 Still others such as speed skiing bandy and skijoring were demonstration sports but never incorporated as Olympic sports The rise of television as a global medium for communication enhanced the profile of the Games It generated income via the sale of broadcast rights and advertising which has become lucrative for the IOC This allowed outside interests such as television companies and corporate sponsors to exert influence The IOC has had to address numerous criticisms over the decades like internal scandals the use of performance enhancing drugs by Winter Olympians as well as a political boycott of the Winter Olympic Games Countries have used the Winter Olympic Games as well as the Summer Olympic Games to proclaim the superiority of their political systems The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted on three continents by thirteen countries They have been held four times in the United States 1932 1960 1980 and 2002 three times in France 1924 1968 and 1992 and twice each in Austria 1964 and 1976 Canada 1988 and 2010 Japan 1972 and 1998 Italy 1956 and 2006 Norway 1952 and 1994 and Switzerland 1928 and 1948 Also the Winter Olympic Games have been held just once each in Germany 1936 Yugoslavia 1984 Russia 2014 South Korea 2018 and China 2022 The IOC has selected Italian cities of Milan and Cortina d Ampezzo to host the 2026 Winter Olympics 6 7 As of 2018 update no city in the Southern Hemisphere has applied to host the cold weather dependent Winter Olympic Games which are held in February As of 2022 update twelve countries have participated in every Winter Olympic Games Austria Canada Finland France Great Britain Hungary Italy Norway Poland Sweden Switzerland and the United States Also Czechoslovakia participated in all Winter Olympic Games before its dissolution and its successors Czech Republic and Slovakia have participated in all Winter Games thereafter Six of these countries have won medals at every Winter Olympic Games Austria Canada Finland Norway Sweden and the United States The only country to have won a gold medal at every Winter Olympic Games is the United States Norway leads the all time Olympic Games medal table for the Winter Olympic Games When including defunct states Germany comprising the former countries of West Germany and East Germany leads followed by Norway Russia including the former Soviet Union and the United States Contents 1 History 1 1 Early years 1 2 1920 to 1936 1 3 1948 to 1960 1 4 1964 to 1980 1 5 1984 to 1998 1 6 2002 to 2022 1 7 Future 2 Problems and politics 2 1 Controversy 2 2 Host city legacy 2 3 Doping 2 4 Cold War 2 5 Boycott 3 Sports 3 1 Current sports 3 2 Demonstration events 4 All time medal table 4 1 Medal leaders by year 5 List of Winter Olympiads 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Sources 10 External linksHistory EditEarly years Edit Ulrich Salchow at the 1908 Olympics A predecessor the Nordic Games were organized by General Viktor Gustaf Balck in Stockholm Sweden in 1901 and were held again in 1903 and 1905 and then every fourth year thereafter until 1926 8 Balck was a charter member of the IOC and a close friend of Olympic Games founder Pierre de Coubertin He attempted to have winter sports specifically figure skating added to the Olympic programme but was unsuccessful until the 1908 Summer Olympics in London 8 Four figure skating events were contested at which Ulrich Salchow 10 time world champion and Madge Syers won the individual titles 9 10 Three years later Italian count Eugenio Brunetta d Usseaux proposed that the IOC stage a week of winter sports included as part of the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm Sweden The organisers opposed this idea because they desired to protect the integrity of the Nordic Games and were concerned about a lack of facilities for winter sports 11 12 13 The idea was resurrected for the 1916 Games which were to be held in Berlin Germany A winter sports week with speed skating figure skating ice hockey and Nordic skiing was planned but the 1916 Olympics was cancelled after the outbreak of World War I 12 1920 to 1936 Edit Sonia Henie s Olympic gold medal St Moritz 1928 The first Olympics after the war the 1920 Summer Olympics were held in Antwerp Belgium 14 and featured figure skating 15 and an ice hockey tournament Germany Austria Hungary Bulgaria and Turkey were banned from competing in the games At the IOC Congress held the following year it was decided that the host nation of the 1924 Summer Olympics France would host a separate International Winter Sports Week under the patronage of the IOC Chamonix was chosen to host this week actually 11 days of events The 1924 games in Chamonix proved to be a success when more than 250 athletes from 16 nations competed in 16 events 16 Athletes from Finland and Norway won 28 medals more than the rest of the participating nations combined 17 The first gold medal awarded was won by Charles Jewtraw of the United States in the 500 meter speed skate Sonja Henie of Norway at just 11 years old competed in the ladies figure skating and although finishing last became popular with fans Gillis Grafstrom of Sweden defended his 1920 gold medal 15 in men s figure skating becoming the first Olympian to win gold medals in both Summer and Winter Olympics 18 Germany remained banned until 1925 and instead hosted a series of games called Deutsche Kampfspiele starting with the winter edition of 1922 which predated the first Winter Olympics In 1925 the IOC decided to create a separate winter event and the 1924 games in Chamonix was retroactively designated as the first Winter Olympics 12 16 St Moritz Switzerland was appointed by the IOC to host the second Winter Games in 1928 19 Fluctuating weather conditions challenged the hosts The opening ceremony was held in a blizzard while warm weather conditions plagued sporting events throughout the rest of the games 20 Because of the weather the 10 000 metre speed skating event had to be abandoned and officially cancelled 21 The weather was not the only noteworthy aspect of the 1928 games Sonja Henie of Norway returned to the Winter Olympics to make history when she won the ladies figure skating at the age of 15 She became the youngest Olympic champion in history a distinction she held for 70 years and went on to defend her title at the next two Winter Olympics 22 Gillis Grafstrom won his third consecutive figure skating gold 23 and went on to win silver in 1932 24 becoming the most decorated men s figure skater to date The next Winter Olympics held in Lake Placid New York United States was the first to be hosted outside of Europe Seventeen nations and 252 athletes participated 25 This was less than in 1928 as the journey to Lake Placid was too long and expensive for some European nations that encountered financial problems in the midst of the Great Depression The athletes competed in fourteen events in four sports 25 Virtually no snow fell for two months before the Games and there was not enough snow to hold all the events until mid January 26 Sonja Henie defended her Olympic title 24 and Eddie Eagan of the United States who had been an Olympic champion in boxing in 1920 27 won the gold medal in the men s bobsleigh event 28 to join Gillis Grafstrom as the only athletes to have won gold medals in both the Summer and Winter Olympics 25 Eagan has the distinction as the only Olympian as of 2020 to accomplish this feat in different sports 29 The German towns of Garmisch and Partenkirchen joined to organise the 1936 edition of the Winter Games held from 6 16 February 30 This was the last time the Summer and Winter Olympics were held in the same country in the same year Alpine skiing made its Olympic debut but skiing teachers were barred from entering because they were considered to be professionals 31 Because of this decision the Swiss and Austrian skiers refused to compete at the games 31 World War II interrupted the Winter Olympics The 1940 games had been awarded to Sapporo Japan but the decision was rescinded in 1938 because of the Japanese invasion of China The games were then to be held at Garmisch Partenkirchen Germany but the 1940 games were cancelled following the German invasion of Poland in 1939 32 Due to the ongoing war the 1944 games originally scheduled for Cortina D Ampezzo Italy were cancelled 33 1948 to 1960 Edit The opening ceremonies of the 1956 Winter Olympics in Cortina d Ampezzo St Moritz was selected to host the first post war games in 1948 Switzerland s neutrality had protected the town during World War II and most venues from the 1928 games remained in place which made St Moritz a logical choice It became the first city to host a Winter Olympics twice 34 Twenty eight countries competed in Switzerland but athletes from Germany and Japan were not invited 35 Controversy erupted when two hockey teams from the United States arrived both claiming to be the legitimate U S Olympic hockey representative The Olympic flag presented at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp was stolen as was its replacement There was unprecedented parity at these games during which 10 countries won gold medals more than any games to that point 36 The Olympic Flame for the 1952 games in Oslo was lit in the fireplace by Norwegian skiing pioneer Sondre Nordheim and the torch relay was conducted by 94 participants entirely on skis 37 38 Bandy a popular sport in the Nordic countries was featured as a demonstration sport though only Norway Sweden and Finland fielded teams Norwegian athletes won 17 medals which outpaced all the other nations 39 They were led by Hjalmar Andersen who won three gold medals in four events in the speed skating competition 40 After not being able to host the games in 1944 Cortina d Ampezzo was selected to organise the 1956 Winter Olympics At the opening ceremonies the final torchbearer Guido Caroli entered the Olympic Stadium on ice skates As he skated around the stadium his skate caught on a cable and he fell nearly extinguishing the flame He was able to recover and light the cauldron 41 These were the first Winter Games to be televised and the first Olympics ever broadcast to an international audience though no television rights were sold until the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome 42 The Cortina games were used to test the feasibility of televising large sporting events 42 The Soviet Union made its Olympic debut and had an immediate impact winning more medals than any other nation 43 The Soviets immediate success might be explained by the advent of the state sponsored full time amateur athlete The USSR entered teams of athletes who were all nominally students soldiers or working in a profession but many of whom were in reality paid by the state to train full time similar arguments have been made against US NCAA athletes 44 45 Chiharu Igaya won the first Winter Olympics medal for Japan and the continent of Asia when he placed second in the slalom 46 The IOC awarded the 1960 Olympics to Squaw Valley United States 47 It was an undeveloped resort in 1955 so from 1956 to 1960 the infrastructure and all of the venues were built at a cost of US 80 000 000 48 49 The opening and closing ceremonies were produced by Walt Disney 50 The Squaw Valley Olympics was the first Winter Games to have a dedicated athletes village 51 52 the first to use a computer courtesy of IBM to tabulate results and the first to feature female speed skating events The bobsleigh events were absent for the only time due to a minimal number of nations expressing interest in competing and the cost of building a bobsleigh run 50 1964 to 1980 Edit The Herb Brooks Arena in Lake Placid c 2007 site of the Miracle on Ice in 1980 The Austrian city of Innsbruck was the host in 1964 Although Innsbruck was a traditional winter sports resort warm weather caused a lack of snow during the games and the Austrian army was enlisted to transport snow and ice to the sports venues 50 Soviet speed skater Lidia Skoblikova made history by winning all four speed skating events Her career total of six gold medals set a record for Winter Olympics athletes 50 Luge was first contested in 1964 but the sport received bad publicity when a competitor was killed in a pre Olympic training run 53 54 Held in the French town of Grenoble the 1968 Winter Olympics were the first Olympic Games to be broadcast in colour There were 1 158 athletes from 37 nations competing in 35 events 55 French alpine ski racer Jean Claude Killy became only the second person to win all the men s alpine skiing events The organising committee sold television rights for US 2 million which was more than twice the cost of the broadcast rights for the Innsbruck Games 56 Venues were spread over long distances requiring three athletes villages The organisers claimed that this was necessary to accommodate technological advances however critics disputed this alleging that the layout would incorporate the best possible venues for television broadcasts at the athletes expense 56 The 1972 Winter Games held in Sapporo Japan 57 were the first to be hosted on a continent other than North America or Europe The issue of professionalism was disputed during these Games when a number of alpine skiers were found to have participated in a ski camp at Mammoth Mountain in the United States three days before the opening ceremony IOC president Avery Brundage threatened to bar the skiers from competing in the Games as he insisted that they were no longer amateurs having benefited financially from their status as athletes 58 Eventually only Austrian Karl Schranz who earned more than the other skiers was excluded from the competition 59 Canada did not send teams to the 1972 or 1976 ice hockey tournaments in protest at not being able to use players from professional leagues 60 It also accused the Soviet Union of using state sponsored athletes who were de facto professionals 61 Francisco Fernandez Ochoa became the first and as of 2018 only Spaniard to win a Winter Olympic gold medal when he triumphed in the slalom 62 The 1976 Winter Olympics had initially been awarded in 1970 to Denver Colorado in the United States These Games would have coincided with the year of Colorado s centennial and the United States Bicentennial However in November 1972 the people of Colorado voted against public funding of the Games by a 3 2 margin 63 64 The IOC responded by offering the Games to Vancouver Garibaldi British Columbia which had previously been an official candidate for the 1976 Games However a change in the provincial government resulted in an administration that did not support the Olympic bid so the IOC s offer was rejected 65 Salt Lake City previously a candidate for the 1972 Winter Olympics then put itself forward but the IOC opted instead to invite Innsbruck to host the 1976 Games as most of the infrastructure from the 1964 Games had been maintained Despite only having half the usual time to prepare for the Games Innsbruck accepted the invitation to replace Denver in February 1973 65 Two Olympic flames were lit because it was the second time that the Austrian town had hosted the Winter Games 65 The 1976 Games featured the first combination bobsleigh and luge track in neighbouring Igls 62 The Soviet Union won its fourth consecutive ice hockey gold medal 65 In 1980 the Winter Olympics returned to Lake Placid which had hosted the 1932 Games Cyprus made their Olympic debut at the games The People s Republic of China and Costa Rica both made their Winter Olympic debut The Republic of China refused to attend the Games over the IOC s recognition of the People s Republic of China as China and its request for the Republic of China to compete as Chinese Taipei The PRC on the other hand returned to the Olympics for the first time since 1952 and made its Winter Olympic debut 66 67 American speed skater Eric Heiden set either an Olympic or World record in every one of the five events in which he competed winning a total of five individual gold medals and breaking the record for most individual golds in a single Olympics both Summer and Winter 68 Hanni Wenzel won both the slalom and giant slalom and her country Liechtenstein became the smallest nation to produce an Olympic gold medallist 69 In the Miracle on Ice the American hockey team composed of college players beat the favoured seasoned professionals from the Soviet Union and progressed to eventually win the gold medal 70 note 4 1984 to 1998 Edit Alberto Tomba winner of five Olympic medals in Calgary Albertville and Lillehammer Sapporo Japan and Gothenburg Sweden were front runners to host the 1984 Winter Olympics It was therefore a surprise when Sarajevo Yugoslavia was selected as host 72 The Games were well organised and not affected by the run up to the war that engulfed the country eight years later 73 A total of 49 nations and 1 272 athletes participated in 39 events Host nation Yugoslavia won its first Olympic medal when alpine skier Jure Franko won silver in the giant slalom Another sporting highlight was the free dance performance of British ice dancers Jayne Torvill and Christopher Dean their Bolero routine received unanimous perfect scores for artistic impression earning them the gold medal 73 The Olympic Torch from the 1988 Winter Olympic Games in Calgary In 1988 the Canadian city of Calgary hosted the first Winter Olympics to span three weekends lasting for a total of 16 days 74 New events were added in ski jumping and speed skating while future Olympic sports curling short track speed skating and freestyle skiing made their debut appearance as demonstration sports The speed skating events were held indoors for the first time on the Olympic Oval Dutch skater Yvonne van Gennip won three gold medals and set two world records beating skaters from the favoured East German team in every race 75 Her medal total was equalled by Finnish ski jumper Matti Nykanen who won all three events in his sport Alberto Tomba an Italian skier made his Olympic debut by winning both the giant slalom and slalom Ski jumper Eddie the Eagle competed in the 70m and 90m in finishing last with a British record of 73 5 metres East German Christa Rothenburger won the women s 1 000 metre speed skating event Seven months later she would earn a silver in track cycling at the Summer Games in Seoul to become the only athlete to win medals in both a Summer and Winter Olympics in the same year 74 The 1992 Winter Games were the last to be held in the same year as the Summer Games 76 They were hosted in the French Savoie region with 18 events held in the city of Albertville and the remaining events spread out over the Savoie 76 Political changes of the time were reflected in the composition of the Olympic teams competing in France this was the first Games to be held after the fall of Communism and the fall of the Berlin Wall and Germany competed as a single nation for the first time since the 1964 Games 77 Former Yugoslavian republics Croatia and Slovenia made their debuts as independent nations most of the former Soviet republics still competed as a single team known as the Unified Team but the Baltic States made independent appearances for the first time since before World War II 78 At 16 years old Finnish ski jumper Toni Nieminen made history by becoming the youngest male Winter Olympic champion 79 New Zealand skier Annelise Coberger became the first Winter Olympic medallist from the southern hemisphere when she won a silver medal in the women s slalom The 1994 Winter Olympics held in Lillehammer Norway were the first Winter Games to be held in a different year from the Summer Games This change resulted from the decision reached in the 91st IOC Session 1986 to separate the Summer and Winter Games and place them in alternating even numbered years 80 Lillehammer is the northernmost city to ever host the Winter Games It was the second time the Games were held in Norway after the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo and the first time the Olympic Truce was observed As a result after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993 the Czech Republic and Slovakia made their Olympic debuts 81 The women s figure skating competition drew media attention when American skater Nancy Kerrigan was injured on 6 January 1994 in an assault planned by the ex husband of opponent Tonya Harding 82 Both skaters competed in the Games but the gold medal was controversially won by Oksana Baiul who became Ukraine s first Olympic champion while Kerrigan won the silver medal 83 84 Johann Olav Koss of Norway won three gold medals coming first in all of the distance speed skating events 85 13 year old Kim Yoon Mi became the youngest ever Olympic gold medallist when South Korea won the women s 3 000 metre speed skating relay Bjorn Daehli of Norway won a medal in four out of five cross country events becoming the most decorated Winter Olympian until then Russia won the most events with eleven gold medals while Norway achieved 26 podium finishes collecting the most medals overall on home ground Juan Antonio Samaranch described Lillehammer as the best Olympic Winter Games ever in his closing ceremony speech 86 The 1998 Winter Olympics were held in the Japanese city of Nagano and were the first Games to host more than 2 000 athletes 87 The National Hockey League allowed its players to participate in the men s ice hockey tournament for the first time and the Czech Republic won the tournament Women s ice hockey made its debut and the United States won the gold medal 88 Bjorn Daehlie of Norway won three gold medals in Nordic skiing becoming the most decorated Winter Olympic athlete with eight gold medals and twelve medals overall 87 89 Austrian Hermann Maier survived a crash during the downhill competition and returned to win gold in the super G and the giant slalom 87 Tara Lipinski of the United States aged just 15 became the youngest ever female gold medallist in an individual event when she won the Ladies Singles a record that had stood since Sonja Henie of Norway won the same event also aged 15 in St Moritz in 1928 New world records were set in speed skating largely due to the introduction of the clap skate 90 2002 to 2022 Edit The Olympic flame during the Opening Ceremony of the 2002 Games in Salt Lake City After a tumultuous host city process the 2002 Winter Olympics were held in Salt Lake City United States 2 399 athletes from 77 National Olympic Committees participated at 78 events in 7 sports 91 These Games were the first to take place since the September 11 attacks of 2001 which meant a higher degree of security to avoid a terrorist attack The opening ceremony saw signs of the aftermath of the events of that day including the flag that flew at Ground Zero and honour guards of NYPD and FDNY members 92 German Georg Hackl won a silver in the singles luge becoming the first athlete in Olympic history to win medals in the same individual event in five consecutive Olympics 91 Canada achieved an unprecedented double by winning both the men s and women s ice hockey gold medals 91 Canada became embroiled with Russia in a controversy that involved the judging of the pairs figure skating competition The Russian pair of Yelena Berezhnaya and Anton Sikharulidze competed against the Canadian pair of Jamie Sale and David Pelletier for the gold medal 93 The Canadians appeared to have skated well enough to win the competition yet the Russians were awarded the gold The French judge Marie Reine Le Gougne awarded the gold to the Russians An investigation revealed that she had been pressured to give the gold to the Russian pair regardless of how they skated in return the Russian judge would look favourably on the French entrants in the ice dancing competition 94 The IOC decided to award both pairs the gold medal in a second medal ceremony held later in the Games 95 Australian Steven Bradbury became the first gold medallist from the southern hemisphere when he won the 1 000 metre short track speed skating event 96 A close up of the Olympic Flame during the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin The Italian city of Turin hosted the 2006 Winter Olympics It was the second time that Italy had hosted the Winter Olympic Games South Korean athletes won 10 medals including 6 gold in the short track speed skating events Sun Yu Jin won three gold medals while her teammate Hyun Soo Ahn won three gold medals and a bronze 97 In the women s Cross Country team pursuit Canadian Sara Renner broke one of her poles and when he saw her dilemma Norwegian coach Bjornar Hakensmoen decided to lend her a pole In so doing she was able to help her team win a silver medal in the event at the expense of the Norwegian team who finished fourth 97 98 On winning the Super G Kjetil Andre Aamodt of Norway became the most decorated ski racer of all time with 4 gold and 8 overall medals He is also the only ski racer to have won the same event at three Olympics winning the Super G in 1992 2002 and 2006 Claudia Pechstein of Germany became the first speed skater to earn nine career medals 97 In February 2009 Pechstein tested positive for blood manipulation and received a two year suspension which she appealed The Court of Arbitration for Sport upheld her suspension but a Swiss court ruled that she could compete for a spot on the 2010 German Olympic team 99 This ruling was brought to the Swiss Federal Tribunal which overturned the lower court s ruling and precluded her from competing in Vancouver 100 In 2003 the IOC awarded the 2010 Winter Olympics to Vancouver thus allowing Canada to host its second Winter Olympics With a population of more than 2 5 million people Vancouver is the largest metropolitan area to ever host a Winter Olympic Games 101 Over 2 500 athletes from 82 countries participated in 86 events 102 The death of Georgian luger Nodar Kumaritashvili in a training run on the day of the opening ceremonies resulted in the Whistler Sliding Centre changing the track layout on safety grounds 103 Norwegian cross country skier Marit Bjorgen won five medals in the six cross country events on the women s programme She finished the Olympics with three golds a silver and a bronze 104 For the first time Canada won a gold medal at an Olympic Games it hosted having failed to do so at both the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal and the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary In contrast to the lack of gold medals at these previous Olympics the Canadian team finished first overall in gold medal wins 105 and became the first host nation since Norway in 1952 to lead the gold medal count with 14 medals In doing so it also broke the record for the most gold medals won by a NOC at a single Winter Olympics the previous was 13 set by the Soviet Union in 1976 and matched by Norway in 2002 106 The Vancouver Games were notable for the poor performance of the Russian athletes From their first Winter Olympics in 1956 to the 2006 Games a Soviet or Russian delegation had never been outside the top five medal winning nations but in 2010 they finished sixth in total medals and eleventh in gold medals President Dmitry Medvedev called for the resignation of top sports officials immediately after the Games 107 Russia s disappointing performance at Vancouver is cited as the reason behind the enhancement of an already existing doping scheme alleged to have been in operation at major events such as the 2014 Games at Sochi 108 The success of Asian countries stood in stark contrast to the under performing Russian team with Vancouver marking a high point for medals won by Asian countries At the Albertville Games in 1992 the Asian countries had won fifteen medals three of which were gold In Vancouver the total number of medals won by athletes from Asia had increased to thirty one with eleven of them being gold The rise of Asian nations in Winter Olympics sports is due in part to the growth of winter sports programmes and the interest in winter sports in nations such as Kazakhstan South Korea Japan and China These results increased the chances of an Asian city hosting the 2018 Winter Olympics that would be held the following year 109 110 Sochi Russia was selected as the host city for the 2014 Winter Olympics over Salzburg Austria and Pyeongchang South Korea This was the first time that Russia had hosted a Winter Olympics 111 The Games took place from 7 to 23 February 2014 112 A record 2 800 athletes from 88 countries competed in 98 events The Olympic Village and Olympic Stadium were located on the Black Sea coast All of the mountain venues were 50 kilometres 31 mi away in the alpine region known as Krasnaya Polyana 111 The Games were the most expensive until the date with a cost of 30 billion US 51 billion On the snow Norwegian biathlete Ole Einar Bjorndalen took two golds to bring his total tally of Olympic medals to 13 overtaking his compatriot Bjorn Daehlie to become the most decorated Winter Olympian of all time Another Norwegian cross country skier Marit Bjorgen took three golds her total of ten Olympic medals tied her as the female Winter Olympian with most medals alongside Raisa Smetanina and Stefania Belmondo Snowboarder Ayumu Hirano became the youngest medallist on snow at the Winter Games when he took a silver in the halfpipe competition at the age of fifteen 111 On the ice the Netherlands team dominated the speed skating events taking 23 medals four clean sweeps of the podium places and at least one medal in each of the twelve medal events Ireen Wust was their most successful competitor taking two golds and three silvers In figure skating Yuzuru Hanyu became the first skater to break the 100 point barrier in the short programme on the way to winning the gold medal Among the sledding disciplines luger Armin Zoggeler took a bronze becoming the first Winter Olympian to secure a medal in six consecutive Games 111 Following their disappointing performance at the 2010 Games and an investment of 600 million in elite sport Russia initially topped the medal table taking 33 medals including thirteen golds 113 However Grigory Rodchenkov the former head of the Russian national anti doping laboratory subsequently claimed that he had been involved in doping dozens of Russian competitors for the Games and that he had been assisted by the Russian Federal Security Service in opening and re sealing bottles containing urine samples so that samples with banned substances could be replaced with clean urine 114 A subsequent investigation commissioned by the World Anti Doping Agency led by Richard McLaren concluded that a state sponsored doping programme had operated in Russia from at least late 2011 to 2015 across the vast majority of Summer and Winter Olympic sports 115 On 5 December 2017 the IOC announced that Russia would compete as the Olympic Athletes from Russia at the 2018 Winter Olympics 116 and by the end of 2017 the IOC Disciplinary Commission had disqualified 43 Russian athletes stripping thirteen medals and knocking Russia from the top of the medal table thus putting Norway in the lead 117 118 119 However nine medals were later returned meaning Russia reclaimed first place in the overall medal tables and joint first place with Norway in terms of gold medals On 6 July 2011 Pyeongchang South Korea was selected to host the 2018 Winter Olympics over Munich Germany and Annecy France 120 This was the first time that South Korea had been selected to host a Winter Olympics and it was the second time the Olympics were held in the country overall after the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul The Games took place from 9 to 25 February 2018 121 More than 2 900 athletes from 92 countries participated in 102 events The main venue cluster was the Alpensia Resort in Daegwallyeong myeon while the ice events are held at Gangneung Olympic Park in Pyeongchang s neighbouring sea city of Gangneung The lead up to the 2018 Winter Olympics was affected by the tensions between North and South Korea and the ongoing Russian doping scandal Despite tense relations North Korea agreed to participate in the Games enter with South Korea during the opening ceremony as a unified Korea and field a unified team in women s ice hockey Russian athletes who complied with the IOC s doping regulations were given the option to compete in Pyeongchang as Olympic Athletes from Russia OAR 116 The Games saw the addition of big air snowboarding mass start speed skating mixed doubles curling and mixed team alpine skiing to the programme Like four years early the Netherlands again dominated speed skating winning gold medals in seven of the ten individual events Dutch speed skater Sven Kramer won gold in the men s 5000m event becoming the only male speed skater to win the same Olympic event three times On the snow Norway led the medal tally in cross country skiing with Marit Bjorgen winning bronze in the women s team sprint and gold in the 30 kilometre classical event bringing her total Olympic medal haul to fifteen the most won by any athlete male or female in Winter Olympics history Johannes Hosflot Klaebo of Norway became the youngest ever male to win an Olympic gold in cross country skiing when he won the men s sprint at age 21 Noriaki Kasai of Japan became the first athlete in history to participate in eight Winter Olympics when he took part in the ski jumping qualification the day before the opening of the Games Ester Ledecka of the Czech Republic won gold in the skiing super G event and another gold in the snowboarding parallel giant slalom making her the first female athlete to win Olympic gold medals in two sports at a single Winter Games Norway led the total medal standings with 39 the highest number of medals by a nation in any Winter Olympics followed by Germany s 31 and Canada s 29 Host nation South Korea won seventeen medals five of them gold its highest medal haul at a Winter Olympics Beijing the capital of the People s Republic of China was elected as the host city for the 2022 Winter Olympics on 31 July 2015 at the 128th IOC Session Beijing became the first city ever to have hosted both the Summer and Winter Olympics Like the Summer Olympics held six months earlier in Tokyo the COVID 19 pandemic resulted in the implementation of strict health and safety protocols including restrictions on public attendance at the Games The Games included a record 109 events over 15 disciplines in seven sports with seven new medal events including mixed team competitions in freestyle skiing aerials ski jumping and snowboard cross The Games were held between 4 February and 20 February 2022 at venues in Beijing and Zhangjiakou which for the first time were run entirely on renewable energy Several of the events were impacted by temperatures as low as minus 20 Celsius and strong wind The first gold medal of the Games was won by Therese Johaug of Norway in the women s skiathlon Johaug had been excluded from the 2018 Winter Olympics in a controversial decision after having used a banned cream for sunburned lips She went on to also win the women s 10km and 30km cross country distances In the women s snowboard cross Lindsey Jacobellis of the United States won the gold having lost the gold 16 years earlier at the 2006 Winter Olympics in Torino due to a brutal fall On the ice the Netherlands dominated with a total of six gold medals and Irene Schouten winning the women s mass start 3 000m and 5 000m distances Nils van der Poel of Sweden won the men s 5 000m and 10 000m distances setting new Olympic records in both distances Kamila Valieva of Russia was allowed to compete in the women s figure skating in spite of a failed doping test in December 2021 She failed however to win an individual medal after falling in her final routine Finland claimed its first ice hockey gold ever having beaten Russia in the final on the last day of the Games Norway was first in the overall medal standings claiming 37 medals in total and 16 gold medals the highest number of gold medals of any country in any Winter Olympics This was the ninth time Norway claimed the highest number of gold medals in a Winter Olympic Games Future Edit The 2026 Winter Olympics will be in Milan Cortina d Ampezzo Italy and take place between 6 and 22 February 2026 122 Problems and politics EditControversy Edit Main article Olympic Games scandals and controversies Winter Olympics Juan Antonio Samaranch former IOC president who was in charge of the Olympic movement for more than 20 years The process for awarding host city honours came under intense scrutiny after Salt Lake City had been awarded the right to host the 2002 Games 123 Soon after the host city had been announced it was discovered that the organisers had engaged in an elaborate bribery scheme to curry favour with IOC officials 123 Gifts and other financial considerations were given to those who would evaluate and vote on Salt Lake City s bid These gifts included medical treatment for relatives a college scholarship for one member s son and a land deal in Utah Even IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch received two rifles valued at 2 000 Samaranch defended the gift as inconsequential since as president he was a non voting member 124 The subsequent investigation uncovered inconsistencies in the bids for every Olympics both Summer and Winter since 1988 125 For example the gifts received by IOC members from the Japanese Organising Committee for Nagano s bid for the 1998 Winter Olympics were described by the investigation committee as astronomical 126 Although nothing strictly illegal had been done the IOC feared that corporate sponsors would lose faith in the integrity of the process and that the Olympic brand would be tarnished to such an extent that advertisers would begin to pull their support 127 The investigation resulted in the expulsion of 10 IOC members and the sanctioning of another 10 New terms and age limits were established for IOC membership and 15 former Olympic athletes were added to the committee Stricter rules for future bids were imposed with ceilings imposed on the value of gifts IOC members could accept from bid cities 128 129 130 Host city legacy Edit According to the IOC the host city for the Winter Olympics is responsible for establishing functions and services for all aspects of the Games such as sports planning venues finance technology accommodation catering media services etc as well as operations during the Games 131 Due to the cost of hosting the Games most host cities never realise a profit on their investment 132 For example the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin Italy cost 3 6 billion to host By comparison the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano Japan cost 12 5 billion 133 The organisers of the Nagano Games claimed that the cost of extending the bullet train service from Tokyo to Nagano was responsible for the large price tag 133 The organising committee had hoped that the exposure gained from hosting the Winter Olympics and the improved access to Nagano from Tokyo would benefit the local economy for years afterwards In fact Nagano s economy did experience a post Olympic boom for a year or two but the long term effects have not materialised as anticipated 133 The likelihood of heavy debt is a deterrent to prospective host cities as well as the prospect of unused sports venues and infrastructure saddling the local community with upkeep costs into the future with no appreciable post Olympic value 134 The Winter Olympics has the added problem of the alpine events requiring a mountain location the men s downhill needs an 800 meter altitude difference along a suitable course As this is a focal event that is central to the Games the IOC has previously not agreed to it taking place a great distance from the main host city 135 in contrast to the Summer Games where sailing and horse sports have taken place more than 1 000 kilometres 620 mi away The requirement for a mountain location also means that venues such as hockey arenas often have to be built in sparsely populated areas with little future need for a large arena and for the hotels and infrastructure needed for all Olympic visitors Due to cost issues fewer and fewer cities are willing to host Both the Torino 2006 and Vancouver 2010 Games which were hosted in countries where large cities are located close to suitable mountain regions had lower costs since more venues hotels and transport infrastructure already existed In contrast the Sochi 2014 games had large costs as most installations had to be built The IOC has enacted several initiatives to mitigate these concerns Firstly the commission has agreed to fund part of the host city s budget for staging the Games 136 Secondly the qualifying host countries are limited to those that have the resources and infrastructure to successfully host an Olympic Games without negatively impacting the region or nation this consequently rules out a large portion of the developing world 137 Finally any prospective host city planning to bid for the Games is required to add a legacy plan to their proposal with a view to the long term economic and environmental impact that hosting the Olympics will have on the region 138 For the 2022 Winter Games IOC allowed a longer distance between the alpine events and other events The Oslo bid had 220 kilometres 140 mi to the Kvitfjell downhill arena For the 2026 Winter Games IOC allowed Stockholm to have the alpine event in Are 620 kilometres 390 mi away by road Doping Edit In 1967 the IOC began enacting drug testing protocols They started by randomly testing athletes at the 1968 Winter Olympics 139 The first Winter Games athlete to test positive for a banned substance was Alois Schloder a West German hockey player 140 but his team was still allowed to compete 141 During the 1970s testing outside of competition was escalated because it was found to deter athletes from using performance enhancing drugs 142 The problem with testing during this time was a lack of standardisation of the test procedures which undermined the credibility of the tests It was not until the late 1980s that international sporting federations began to coordinate efforts to standardise the drug testing protocols 143 The IOC took the lead in the fight against steroids when it established the independent World Anti Doping Agency WADA in November 1999 144 145 The 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin became notable for a scandal involving the emerging trend of blood doping the use of blood transfusions or synthetic hormones such as Erythropoietin EPO to improve oxygen flow and thus reduce fatigue 146 The Italian police conducted a raid on the Austrian cross country ski team s residence during the Games where they seized blood doping specimens and equipment 147 This event followed the pre Olympics suspension of 12 cross country skiers who tested positive for unusually high levels of haemoglobin which is evidence of blood doping 146 The 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi s Russian Doping Scandal has resulted in the International Olympic Committee to begin disciplinary proceedings against 28 later increased to 46 Russian athletes who competed at the 2014 Winter Games in Sochi Russia acting on evidence that their urine samples were tampered with 148 149 150 151 152 Cold War Edit A postage stamp issued by East Germany in 1968 in commemoration of their first Winter Olympics as an independent country The Winter Olympics have been an ideological front in the Cold War since the Soviet Union first participated at the 1956 Winter Games It did not take long for the Cold War combatants to discover what a powerful propaganda tool the Olympic Games could be The advent of the state sponsored full time amateur athlete of the Eastern Bloc countries further eroded the ideology of the pure amateur as it put the self financed amateurs of the Western countries at a disadvantage The Soviet Union entered teams of athletes who were all nominally students soldiers or working in a profession but many of whom were in reality paid by the state to train on a full time basis 44 Nevertheless the IOC held to the traditional rules regarding amateurism until the 90s 45 The Cold War created tensions amongst countries allied to the two superpowers The strained relationship between East and West Germany created a difficult political situation for the IOC Because of its role in World War II Germany was not allowed to compete at the 1948 Winter Olympics 35 In 1950 the IOC recognised the West German Olympic Committee and invited East and West Germany to compete as a unified team at the 1952 Winter Games 153 East Germany declined the invitation and instead sought international legitimacy separate from West Germany 154 In 1955 the Soviet Union recognised East Germany as a sovereign state thereby giving more credibility to East Germany s campaign to become an independent participant at the Olympics The IOC agreed to provisionally accept the East German National Olympic Committee with the condition that East and West Germans compete on one team 155 The situation became tenuous when the Berlin Wall was constructed by East Germany in 1962 and Western European nations began refusing visas to East German athletes 156 The uneasy compromise of a unified team held until the 1968 Grenoble Games when the IOC officially split the teams and threatened to reject the host city bids of any country that refused entry visas to East German athletes 157 Boycott Edit The Winter Games have had only one national team boycott when Taiwan decided not to participate in the 1980 Winter Olympics held in Lake Placid Prior to the Games the IOC agreed to allow China to compete in the Olympics for the first time since 1952 China was given permission to compete as the People s Republic of China PRC and to use the PRC flag and anthem Until 1980 the island of Taiwan had been competing under the name Republic of China ROC and had been using the ROC flag and anthem 67 The IOC attempted to have the countries compete together but when this proved to be unacceptable the IOC demanded that Taiwan cease to call itself the Republic of China 158 159 The IOC renamed the island Chinese Taipei and demanded that it adopt a different flag and national anthem stipulations to which Taiwan would not agree Despite numerous appeals and court hearings the IOC s decision stood When the Taiwanese athletes arrived at the Olympic village with their Republic of China identification cards they were not admitted They subsequently left the Olympics in protest just before the opening ceremonies 67 Taiwan returned to Olympic competition at the 1984 Winter Games in Sarajevo as Chinese Taipei The country agreed to compete under a flag bearing the emblem of their National Olympic Committee and to play the anthem of their National Olympic Committee should one of their athletes win a gold medal The agreement remains in place to this day 160 Sports EditThe Olympic Charter limits winter sports to those sports which are practised on snow or ice 161 Since 1992 a number of new sports have been added to the Olympic programme which include short track speed skating snowboarding freestyle and moguls skiing The addition of these events has broadened the appeal of the Winter Olympics beyond Europe and North America While European powers such as Norway and Germany still dominate the traditional Winter Olympic sports countries such as South Korea Australia and Canada are finding success in the new sports The results are more parity in the national medal tables more interest in the Winter Olympics and higher global television ratings 162 Current sports Edit Sport Years Events Medal events contested in 2022Alpine skiing Since 1936 11 163 Men s downhill super G giant slalom slalom alpine combined Women s downhill super G giant slalom slalom alpine combined Mixed parallel slalom Biathlon Since 1960 note 2 11 164 Men s sprint 10 km individual 20 km pursuit 12 5 km mass start 15 km relay 4 7 5 km Women s sprint 7 5 km individual 15 km pursuit 10 km mass start 12 5 km relay 4 6 km Mixed relay 4 6 km Bobsleigh Since 1924 except 1960 4 165 Men s four man race two man race Women s two woman race monobob race Cross country skiing Since 1924 12 166 Men s sprint team sprint 15 km 30 km skiathlon 50 km mass start 4 10 km relay Women s sprint team sprint 10 km 15 km skiathlon 30 km mass start 4 5 km relay Curling 1924 since 1998 3 167 Men s women s and mixed doubles tournaments Figure skating Since 1924 i 5 168 Men s singles Women s singles Pairs ice dancing team event Freestyle skiing Since 1992 13 169 Men s aerials moguls ski cross halfpipe big air slopestyle Women s aerials moguls ski cross halfpipe big air slopestyle Mixed aerials Ice hockey Since 1924 ii 2 170 Men s and women s tournaments Luge Since 1964 4 171 Men s singles Women s singles Open doubles mixed team relay Nordic combined Since 1924 3 172 Men s 10 km individual normal hill 10 km individual large hill team 4 5 km large hill Short track speed skating Since 1992 9 173 Men s 500 m 1000 m 1500 m 5000 m relay Women s 500 m 1000 m 1500 m 3000 m relay Mixed 2000 m relay Skeleton 1928 1948 Since 2002 2 174 Men s and women s events Ski jumping Since 1924 5 175 Men s individual normal hill individual large hill team large hill Women s individual normal hill Mixed team normal hill Snowboarding Since 1998 11 176 Men s snowboard cross parallel half pipe slopestyle big air Women s snowboard cross parallel half pipe slopestyle big air Mixed snowboard cross Speed skating Since 1924 14 177 Men s 500 m 1000 m 1500 m 5000 m 10 000 m mass start team pursuit Women s 500 m 1000 m 1500 m 3000 m 5000 m mass start team pursuit Figure skating events were held at the 1908 and 1920 Summer Olympics A men s ice hockey tournament was held at the 1920 Summer Olympics Demonstration events Edit Demonstration sports have historically provided a venue for host countries to attract publicity to locally popular sports by having a competition without granting medals Demonstration sports were discontinued after 1992 178 Military patrol a precursor to the biathlon was a medal sport in 1924 and was demonstrated in 1928 1936 and 1948 becoming an official sport in 1960 179 The special figures figure skating event was only contested at the 1908 Summer Olympics 180 Bandy Russian hockey is a sport popular in the Nordic countries and Russia In the latter it s considered a national sport 181 It was demonstrated at the Oslo Games 182 Ice stock sport a German variant of curling was demonstrated in 1936 in Germany and 1964 in Austria 31 The ski ballet event later known as ski acro was demonstrated in 1988 and 1992 183 Skijoring skiing behind dogs was a demonstration sport in St Moritz in 1928 182 A sled dog race was held at Lake Placid in 1932 182 Speed skiing was demonstrated in Albertville at the 1992 Winter Olympics 184 Winter pentathlon a variant of the modern pentathlon was included as a demonstration event at the 1948 Games in Switzerland It included cross country skiing shooting downhill skiing fencing and horse riding 164 All time medal table EditMain article All time Olympic Games medal table The table below uses official data provided by the IOC Defunct nation No Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total Games1 Norway NOR 148 133 124 405 242 United States USA 113 122 95 330 243 Germany GER 102 98 65 267 134 Soviet Union URS 78 57 59 194 95 Canada CAN 77 72 80 229 246 Austria AUT 71 88 91 250 247 Sweden SWE 65 61 60 166 248 Switzerland SUI 63 47 57 167 249 Netherlands NED 53 49 45 147 2210 Russia RUS 47 39 35 121 611 Finland FIN 45 65 65 175 2412 Italy ITA 42 43 55 141 2413 France FRA 41 47 55 138 2414 East Germany GDR 39 36 35 110 615 South Korea KOR 32 30 16 78 1916 China CHN 22 32 23 77 1217 Japan JPN 17 28 31 76 2318 Great Britain GBR 12 5 17 34 2419 West Germany FRG 11 15 13 39 620 Czech Republic CZE 10 11 12 33 7Medal leaders by year Edit Number of occurrences Norway 9 times Soviet Union 7 times Germany 3 times Russia 2 times United States 1 time Sweden 1 time East Germany 1 time Canada 1 timeList of Winter Olympiads Edit A map of Winter Olympics locations Countries that have hosted one Winter Olympiad are shaded green while countries that have hosted two or more are shaded blue Year No Host Games dates Opened by Sports Disciplines Competitors Events Nations Top nationTotal Men WomenAmateur era1924 16 I Chamonix 25 January 5 February 1924 Gaston Vidal 6 9 258 247 11 16 16 Norway NOR 1928 22 II St Moritz 11 19 February 1928 President Edmund Schulthess A 4 8 464 438 26 14 25 Norway NOR 1932 25 III Lake Placid 4 15 February 1932 Governor Franklin Roosevelt 4 7 252 231 21 14 17 United States USA 1936 31 IV Garmisch Partenkirchen 6 16 February 1936 Chancellor Adolf Hitler B 4 8 646 566 80 17 28 Norway NOR 1940 C Awarded to Japan Sapporo cancelled because of World War II1944 C Awarded to Italy Cortina d Ampezzo cancelled because of World War II1948 35 V St Moritz 30 January 8 February 1948 President Enrico Celio A 4 9 669 592 77 22 28 Norway NOR Sweden SWE 1952 37 VI Oslo 14 25 February 1952 Princess Ragnhild 4 8 694 585 109 22 30 Norway NOR 1956 43 VII Cortina d Ampezzo 26 January 5 February 1956 President Giovanni Gronchi 4 8 821 687 134 24 32 Soviet Union URS 1960 47 VIII Squaw Valley 18 28 February 1960 Vice President Richard Nixon 4 8 665 521 144 27 30 Soviet Union URS 1964 53 IX Innsbruck 29 January 9 February 1964 President Adolf Scharf 6 10 1091 892 199 34 36 Soviet Union URS 1968 55 X Grenoble 6 18 February 1968 President Charles de Gaulle 6 10 1158 947 211 35 37 Norway NOR 1972 57 XI Sapporo 3 13 February 1972 Emperor Hirohito 6 10 1006 801 205 35 35 Soviet Union URS 1976 65 XII Innsbruck 4 15 February 1976 President Rudolf Kirchschlager 6 10 1123 892 231 37 37 Soviet Union URS 1980 69 XIII Lake Placid 13 24 February 1980 Vice President Walter Mondale 6 10 1072 840 232 38 37 Soviet Union URS 1984 73 XIV Sarajevo 8 19 February 1984 President Mika Spiljak 6 10 1272 998 274 39 49 East Germany GDR Open era1988 74 XV Calgary 13 28 February 1988 Governor General Jeanne Sauve 6 10 1423 1122 301 46 57 Soviet Union URS 1992 76 XVI Albertville 8 23 February 1992 President Francois Mitterrand 6 12 1801 1313 488 57 64 Germany GER 1994 80 XVII Lillehammer 12 27 February 1994 King Harald V 6 12 1737 1215 522 61 67 Russia RUS 1998 87 XVIII Nagano 7 22 February 1998 Emperor Akihito 7 14 2176 1389 787 68 72 Germany GER 2002 91 XIX Salt Lake City 8 24 February 2002 President George W Bush 7 15 2399 1513 886 78 78 D Norway NOR 2006 97 XX Turin 10 26 February 2006 President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi 7 15 2508 1548 960 84 80 Germany GER 2010 102 XXI Vancouver 12 28 February 2010 Governor General Michaelle Jean 7 15 2566 1522 1044 86 82 Canada CAN 2014 111 XXII Sochi 7 23 February 2014 President Vladimir Putin 7 15 2873 1714 1159 98 88 Russia RUS 2018 121 XXIII Pyeongchang 9 25 February 2018 President Moon Jae in 7 15 2922 1680 1242 102 92 1 E Norway NOR 2022 185 XXIV Beijing 4 20 February 2022 President Xi Jinping F 7 15 2861 TBA TBA 109 91 Norway NOR 2026 122 XXV Milan and Cortina d Ampezzo 6 22 February 2026 President Sergio Mattarella 8 16 TBA TBA TBA 114 TBA TBAOpenedBy1928 OpenedBy1948 This office is technically not head of state in and of itself but is the presiding officer of the Federal Council which collectively acts as head of state OpenedBy1936 IOC records state Hitler opened these Games as Chancellor head of government but in 1934 that office was consolidated with President head of state into Fuhrer und Reichskanzler or Fuhrer 186 No1940 No1944 Unlike the Summer Olympics the cancelled 1940 Winter Olympics and 1944 Winter Olympics are not included in the official Roman numeral counts for the Winter Games While the official titles of the Summer Games count Olympiads the titles of the Winter Games only count the Games themselves Nations2002 The IOC site for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games gives an erroneous figure of 77 participated teams however one can count 78 participated nations looking through Official Report of the XIX Olympic Winter Games This error probably resulted from the fact that Costa Rica s delegation of one athlete joined the Games after the Opening Ceremony so 77 nations participated in Opening Ceremony and 78 nations participated in the Games Nations2018 The IOC site for the 2018 Winter Olympic Games does not include United Korean COR women s ice hockey team as separate nation when counting participating nations Nevertheless the IOC shows the Korean team in the Pyeongchang 2018 Ice Hockey Women s Tournament Results Thus 92 national teams plus 1 team composed of athletes from both South Korea and North Korea participated in the Games OpenedBy2022 Xi Jinping is the Chinese President de jure head of state Xi is also de facto ruler as General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party See also EditList of multiple Winter Olympic medallists List of participating nations at the Winter Olympic Games Lists of Olympic medallists Olympic Games scandals and controversies Winter Paralympic Games Paralympic Games Summer Olympic GamesNotes Edit French and English are the official languages for the Olympic Games 1 a b c The official website of the IOC now treats Men s Military Patrol at the 1924 Games as a separate discipline without mixing it with the sports of Skiing or Biathlon 2 3 However the 1924 Official Report treats it as an event and discipline within what was then called Skiing and is now called Nordic skiing 4 5 At the closing of the 1924 Games a prize was also awarded for alpinisme mountaineering a sport that did not lend itself very well for tournaments Pierre de Coubertin presented a prize for alpinisme to Charles Granville Bruce the leader of the expedition that tried to climb Mount Everest in 1922 The US beat the Soviets as part of a medal round that also included Finland and Sweden so they did not actually win the gold medal until beating Finland a few days later 71 References Edit Olympic Charter Section 23 Languages PDF 8 August 2021 p 53 Retrieved 31 January 2022 Chamonix 1924 Results IOC Retrieved 31 January 2022 Chamonix 1924 Military Patrol Men Results IOC Retrieved 31 January 2022 Official Report 1924 p 646 Le Programme II Epreuves par equipes 12 Ski Course militaire 20 a 30 kilometres avec tir The Programme II Team events 12 Skiing Military Race 20 to 30 kilometres with shooting Official Report 1924 p 664 CONCOURS DE SKI Jurys COURSE MILITAIRE Skiing Competitions Juries Military Race Winter Olympics Italy s Milan Cortina bid chosen as host for the 2026 Games BBC News 24 June 2019 Milan Cortina d Ampezzo bid for the 2026 Winter Olympics milanocortina2026 org a b Edgeworth Ron May 1994 The Nordic Games and the Origins of the Winter Olympic Games PDF International Society of Olympic Historians Journal LA84 Foundation 2 2 Archived from the 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Comite Olympique Francais ed Les Jeux de la VIIIe Olympiade Paris 1924 Rapport Officiel PDF in French Paris Librairie de France Archived from the original PDF on 5 May 2011 Retrieved 7 May 2011 Payne Michael 2006 Olympic turnaround Westport Connecticut Greenwood Publishing Group ISBN 0 275 99030 3 Preuss Holger 2004 The Economics of Staging the Olympics A Comparison of the Games 1972 2008 Cheltenham England Edward Elgar Publishing Limited ISBN 1 84376 893 3 Schaffer Kay Smith Sidonie 2000 Olympics at the Millennium Piscataway New Jersey Rutgers University Press ISBN 0 8135 2820 8 Seligmann Matthew S Davison John McDonald John 2003 Daily Life in Hitler s Germany New York NY Macmillan ISBN 0 312 32811 7 Senn Alfred Erich 1999 Power Politics and the Olympic Games Champaign Illinois Human Kinetics ISBN 0 88011 958 6 Wallechinsky David Loucky Jaime 2010 The complete book of the Winter Olympics 8th ed Greystone Books ISBN 978 1 55365 502 2 Whannel Garry 1992 Fields in vision television sport and cultural transformation New York NY Routledge ISBN 978 0 2039 7756 9 Yesalis Charles 2000 Anabolic steroids and sports and exercise Champaign Illinois Human Kinetics ISBN 978 0 8801 1786 9 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Winter Olympics Olympic Games IOC official website Winter Olympic Sports IOC official website Portal Olympics Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Winter Olympic Games amp oldid 1087626742, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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