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Wikipedia

Xenon

This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Xenon (disambiguation).

Xenon is a chemical element with the symbol Xe and atomic number 54. It is a colorless, dense, odorless noble gas found in Earth's atmosphere in trace amounts. Although generally unreactive, xenon can undergo a few chemical reactions such as the formation of xenon hexafluoroplatinate, the first noble gas compound to be synthesized.

Xenon, 54Xe
A xenon-filled discharge tube glowing light blue
Xenon
Pronunciation

  • ()

  • ()
Appearancecolorless gas, exhibiting a blue glow when placed in an electric field
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Xe)131.293(6)
Xenon in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Kr

Xe

Rn
iodinexenoncaesium
Atomic number(Z)54
Groupgroup 18 (noble gases)
Periodperiod 5
Block p-block
Electron configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18, 8
Physical properties
Phase atSTPgas
Melting point161.40 K ​(−111.75 °C, ​−169.15 °F)
Boiling point165.051 K ​(−108.099 °C, ​−162.578 °F)
Density(at STP)5.894 g/L
when liquid (at b.p.)2.942 g/cm3
Triple point161.405 K, ​81.77 kPa
Critical point289.733 K, 5.842 MPa
Heat of fusion2.27 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization12.64 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity21.01 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 83 92 103 117 137 165
Atomic properties
Oxidation states0, +2, +4, +6, +8 (rarely more than 0; a weakly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.6
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 1170.4 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 2046.4 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3099.4 kJ/mol
Covalent radius140±9 pm
Van der Waals radius216 pm
Spectral lines of xenon
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structureface-centered cubic (fcc)
Speed of soundgas: 178 m·s−1
liquid: 1090 m/s
Thermal conductivity5.65×10−3 W/(m⋅K)
Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic
Molar magnetic susceptibility−43.9×10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)
CAS Number7440-63-3
History
Discovery and first isolationWilliam Ramsay and Morris Travers (1898)
Main isotopes of xenon
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
124Xe 0.095% 1.8×1022 y εε 124Te
125Xe syn 16.9 h ε 125I
126Xe 0.089% stable (no decay seen) ββ
127Xe syn 36.345 d ε 127I
128Xe 1.910% stable
129Xe 26.401% stable
130Xe 4.071% stable
131Xe 21.232% stable
132Xe 26.909% stable
133Xe syn 5.247 d β 133Cs
134Xe 10.436% stable (no decay seen) ββ
135Xe syn 9.14 h β 135Cs
136Xe 8.857% 2.165×1021 y ββ 136Ba
Category: Xenon
| references

Xenon is used in flash lamps and arc lamps, and as a general anesthetic. The first excimer laser design used a xenon dimer molecule (Xe2) as the lasing medium, and the earliest laser designs used xenon flash lamps as pumps. Xenon is used to search for hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles and as the propellant for ion thrusters in spacecraft.

Naturally occurring xenon consists of seven stable isotopes and two long-lived radioactive isotopes. More than 40 unstable xenon isotopes undergo radioactive decay, and the isotope ratios of xenon are an important tool for studying the early history of the Solar System. Radioactive xenon-135 is produced by beta decay from iodine-135 (a product of nuclear fission), and is the most significant (and unwanted) neutron absorber in nuclear reactors.

Contents

Xenon was discovered in England by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in September 1898, shortly after their discovery of the elements krypton and neon. They found xenon in the residue left over from evaporating components of liquid air. Ramsay suggested the name xenon for this gas from the Greek word ξένον xénon, neuter singular form of ξένος xénos, meaning 'foreign(er)', 'strange(r)', or 'guest'. In 1902, Ramsay estimated the proportion of xenon in the Earth's atmosphere to be one part in 20 million.

During the 1930s, American engineer Harold Edgerton began exploring strobe light technology for high speed photography. This led him to the invention of the xenon flash lamp in which light is generated by passing brief electric current through a tube filled with xenon gas. In 1934, Edgerton was able to generate flashes as brief as one microsecond with this method.

In 1939, American physician Albert R. Behnke Jr. began exploring the causes of "drunkenness" in deep-sea divers. He tested the effects of varying the breathing mixtures on his subjects, and discovered that this caused the divers to perceive a change in depth. From his results, he deduced that xenon gas could serve as an anesthetic. Although Russian toxicologist Nikolay V. Lazarev apparently studied xenon anesthesia in 1941, the first published report confirming xenon anesthesia was in 1946 by American medical researcher John H. Lawrence, who experimented on mice. Xenon was first used as a surgical anesthetic in 1951 by American anesthesiologist Stuart C. Cullen, who successfully used it with two patients.

An acrylic cube specially prepared for element collectors containing liquefied xenon

Xenon and the other noble gases were for a long time considered to be completely chemically inert and not able to form compounds. However, while teaching at the University of British Columbia, Neil Bartlett discovered that the gas platinum hexafluoride (PtF6) was a powerful oxidizing agent that could oxidize oxygen gas (O2) to form dioxygenyl hexafluoroplatinate (O+
2
[PtF
6
]
). Since O2(1165 kJ/mol) and xenon (1170 kJ/mol) have almost the same first ionization potential, Bartlett realized that platinum hexafluoride might also be able to oxidize xenon. On March 23, 1962, he mixed the two gases and produced the first known compound of a noble gas, xenon hexafluoroplatinate.

Bartlett thought its composition to be Xe+[PtF6], but later work revealed that it was probably a mixture of various xenon-containing salts. Since then, many other xenon compounds have been discovered, in addition to some compounds of the noble gases argon, krypton, and radon, including argon fluorohydride (HArF), krypton difluoride (KrF2), and radon fluoride. By 1971, more than 80 xenon compounds were known.

In November 1989, IBM scientists demonstrated a technology capable of manipulating individual atoms. The program, called IBM in atoms, used a scanning tunneling microscope to arrange 35 individual xenon atoms on a substrate of chilled crystal of nickel to spell out the three letter company initialism. It was the first time atoms had been precisely positioned on a flat surface.

A layer of solid xenon floating on top of liquid xenon inside a high voltage apparatus.
Liquid (featureless) and crystalline solid Xe nanoparticles produced by implanting Xe+ ions into aluminium at room temperature.

Xenon has atomic number 54; that is, its nucleus contains 54 protons. At standard temperature and pressure, pure xenon gas has a density of 5.894 kg/m3, about 4.5 times the density of the Earth's atmosphere at sea level, 1.217 kg/m3. As a liquid, xenon has a density of up to 3.100 g/mL, with the density maximum occurring at the triple point. Liquid xenon has a high polarizability due to its large atomic volume, and thus is an excellent solvent. It can dissolve hydrocarbons, biological molecules, and even water. Under the same conditions, the density of solid xenon, 3.640 g/cm3, is greater than the average density of granite, 2.75 g/cm3. Under gigapascals of pressure, xenon forms a metallic phase.

Solid xenon changes from face-centered cubic (fcc) to hexagonal close packed (hcp) crystal phase under pressure and begins to turn metallic at about 140 GPa, with no noticeable volume change in the hcp phase. It is completely metallic at 155 GPa. When metallized, xenon appears sky blue because it absorbs red light and transmits other visible frequencies. Such behavior is unusual for a metal and is explained by the relatively small width of the electron bands in that state.

Liquid or solid xenon nanoparticles can be formed at room temperature by implanting Xe+ ions into a solid matrix. Many solids have lattice constants smaller than solid Xe. This results in compression of the implanted Xe to pressures that may be sufficient for its liquefaction or solidification.

Xenon is a member of the zero-valence elements that are called noble or inert gases. It is inert to most common chemical reactions (such as combustion, for example) because the outer valence shell contains eight electrons. This produces a stable, minimum energy configuration in which the outer electrons are tightly bound.

In a gas-filled tube, xenon emits a blue or lavenderish glow when excited by electrical discharge. Xenon emits a band of emission lines that span the visual spectrum, but the most intense lines occur in the region of blue light, producing the coloration.

Xenon is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere, occurring at87±1 nL/L (parts per billion), or approximately 1 part per 11.5 million. It is also found as a component of gases emitted from some mineral springs.

Xenon is obtained commercially as a by-product of the separation of air into oxygen and nitrogen. After this separation, generally performed by fractional distillation in a double-column plant, the liquid oxygen produced will contain small quantities of krypton and xenon. By additional fractional distillation, the liquid oxygen may be enriched to contain 0.1–0.2% of a krypton/xenon mixture, which is extracted either by absorption onto silica gel or by distillation. Finally, the krypton/xenon mixture may be separated into krypton and xenon by further distillation.

Worldwide production of xenon in 1998 was estimated at 5,000–7,000 m3. Because of its scarcity, xenon is much more expensive than the lighter noble gases—approximate prices for the purchase of small quantities in Europe in 1999 were 10 /L for xenon, 1 €/L for krypton, and 0.20 €/L for neon, while the much more plentiful argon costs less than a cent per liter. Equivalent costs per kilogram of xenon are calculated by multiplying cost per liter by 174.

Within the Solar System, the nucleon fraction of xenon is1.56 × 10−8, for an abundance of approximately one part in 630 thousand of the total mass. Xenon is relatively rare in the Sun's atmosphere, on Earth, and in asteroids and comets. The abundance of xenon in the atmosphere of planet Jupiter is unusually high, about 2.6 times that of the Sun. This abundance remains unexplained, but may have been caused by an early and rapid buildup of planetesimals—small, subplanetary bodies—before the heating of the presolar disk. (Otherwise, xenon would not have been trapped in the planetesimal ices.) The problem of the low terrestrial xenon may be explained by covalent bonding of xenon to oxygen within quartz, reducing the outgassing of xenon into the atmosphere.

Unlike the lower-mass noble gases, the normal stellar nucleosynthesis process inside a star does not form xenon. Elements more massive than iron-56 consume energy through fusion, and the synthesis of xenon represents no energy gain for a star. Instead, xenon is formed during supernova explosions, in classical nova explosions, by the slow neutron-capture process (s-process) in red giant stars that have exhausted their core hydrogen and entered the asymptotic giant branch, and from radioactive decay, for example by beta decay of extinct iodine-129 and spontaneous fission of thorium, uranium, and plutonium.

Main article: Isotopes of xenon

Naturally occurring xenon is composed of seven stable isotopes: 126Xe, 128–132Xe, and 134Xe. The isotopes 126Xe and 134Xe are predicted by theory to undergo double beta decay, but this has never been observed so they are considered stable. In addition, more than 40 unstable isotopes that have been studied. The longest lived of these isotopes are the primordial 124Xe, which undergoes double electron capture with a half-life of1.8 × 1022 yr, and 136Xe, which undergoes double beta decay with a half-life of2.11 × 1021 yr. 129Xe is produced by beta decay of 129I, which has a half-life of 16 million years. 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe, and 135Xe are some of the fission products of 235U and 239Pu, and are used to detect and monitor nuclear explosions.

Nuclei of two of the stable isotopes of xenon, 129Xe and 131Xe, have non-zero intrinsic angular momenta (nuclear spins, suitable for nuclear magnetic resonance). The nuclear spins can be aligned beyond ordinary polarization levels by means of circularly polarized light and rubidium vapor. The resulting spin polarization of xenon nuclei can surpass 50% of its maximum possible value, greatly exceeding the thermal equilibrium value dictated by paramagnetic statistics (typically 0.001% of the maximum value at room temperature, even in the strongest magnets). Such non-equilibrium alignment of spins is a temporary condition, and is called hyperpolarization. The process of hyperpolarizing the xenon is called optical pumping (although the process is different from pumping a laser).

Because a 129Xe nucleus has a spin of 1/2, and therefore a zero electric quadrupole moment, the 129Xe nucleus does not experience any quadrupolar interactions during collisions with other atoms, and the hyperpolarization persists for long periods even after the engendering light and vapor have been removed. Spin polarization of 129Xe can persist from several seconds for xenon atoms dissolved in blood to several hours in the gas phase and several days in deeply frozen solid xenon. In contrast, 131Xe has a nuclear spin value of32 and a nonzero quadrupole moment, and has t1 relaxation times in the millisecond and second ranges.

Some radioactive isotopes of xenon (for example, 133Xe and 135Xe) are produced by neutron irradiation of fissionable material within nuclear reactors. 135Xe is of considerable significance in the operation of nuclear fission reactors. 135Xe has a huge cross section for thermal neutrons, 2.6×106 barns, and operates as a neutron absorber or "poison" that can slow or stop the chain reaction after a period of operation. This was discovered in the earliest nuclear reactors built by the American Manhattan Project for plutonium production. However, the designers had made provisions in the design to increase the reactor's reactivity (the number of neutrons per fission that go on to fission other atoms of nuclear fuel).135Xe reactor poisoning was a major factor in the Chernobyl disaster. A shutdown or decrease of power of a reactor can result in buildup of 135Xe, with reactor operation going into a condition known as the iodine pit.

Under adverse conditions, relatively high concentrations of radioactive xenon isotopes may emanate from cracked fuel rods, or fissioning of uranium in cooling water.

Because xenon is a tracer for two parent isotopes, xenon isotope ratios in meteorites are a powerful tool for studying the formation of the Solar System. The iodine–xenon method of dating gives the time elapsed between nucleosynthesis and the condensation of a solid object from the solar nebula. In 1960, physicist John H. Reynolds discovered that certain meteorites contained an isotopic anomaly in the form of an overabundance of xenon-129. He inferred that this was a decay product of radioactive iodine-129. This isotope is produced slowly by cosmic ray spallation and nuclear fission, but is produced in quantity only in supernova explosions.

Because the half-life of 129I is comparatively short on a cosmological time scale (16 million years), this demonstrated that only a short time had passed between the supernova and the time the meteorites had solidified and trapped the 129I. These two events (supernova and solidification of gas cloud) were inferred to have happened during the early history of the Solar System, because the 129I isotope was likely generated shortly before the Solar System was formed, seeding the solar gas cloud with isotopes from a second source. This supernova source may also have caused collapse of the solar gas cloud.

In a similar way, xenon isotopic ratios such as 129Xe/130Xe and 136Xe/130Xe are a powerful tool for understanding planetary differentiation and early outgassing. For example, the atmosphere of Mars shows a xenon abundance similar to that of Earth (0.08 parts per million) but Mars shows a greater abundance of 129Xe than the Earth or the Sun. Since this isotope is generated by radioactive decay, the result may indicate that Mars lost most of its primordial atmosphere, possibly within the first 100 million years after the planet was formed. In another example, excess 129Xe found in carbon dioxide well gases from New Mexico is believed to be from the decay of mantle-derived gases from soon after Earth's formation.

After Neil Bartlett's discovery in 1962 that xenon can form chemical compounds, a large number of xenon compounds have been discovered and described. Almost all known xenon compounds contain the electronegative atoms fluorine or oxygen. The chemistry of xenon in each oxidation state is analogous to that of the neighboring element iodine in the immediately lower oxidation state.

Halides

XeF4 crystals, 1962

Three fluorides are known: XeF
2
, XeF
4
, and XeF
6
. XeF is theorized to be unstable. These are the starting points for the synthesis of almost all xenon compounds.

The solid, crystalline difluorideXeF
2
is formed when a mixture of fluorine and xenon gases is exposed to ultraviolet light. The ultraviolet component of ordinary daylight is sufficient. Long-term heating ofXeF
2
at high temperatures under anNiF
2
catalyst yieldsXeF
6
. Pyrolysis ofXeF
6
in the presence of NaF yields high-purityXeF
4
.

The xenon fluorides behave as both fluoride acceptors and fluoride donors, forming salts that contain such cations asXeF+
andXe
2
F+
3
, and anions such asXeF
5
,XeF
7
, andXeF2−
8
. The green, paramagneticXe+
2
is formed by the reduction ofXeF
2
by xenon gas.

XeF
2
also forms coordination complexes with transition metal ions. More than 30 such complexes have been synthesized and characterized.

Whereas the xenon fluorides are well characterized, with the exception of dichloride XeCl2 and XeCl4, the other halides are not known. Xenon dichloride, formed by the high-frequency irradiation of a mixture of xenon, fluorine, and silicon or carbon tetrachloride, is reported to be an endothermic, colorless, crystalline compound that decomposes into the elements at 80 °C. However,XeCl
2
may be merely a van der Waals molecule of weakly bound Xe atoms andCl
2
molecules and not a real compound. Theoretical calculations indicate that the linear moleculeXeCl
2
is less stable than the van der Waals complex. Xenon tetrachloride is more unstable that can't synthesized by chemical reaction.It was created by radioactive129
ICl
4
decay.

Oxides and oxohalides

Three oxides of xenon are known: xenon trioxide (XeO
3
) and xenon tetroxide (XeO
4
), both of which are dangerously explosive and powerful oxidizing agents, and xenon dioxide (XeO2), which was reported in 2011 with a coordination number of four. XeO2 forms when xenon tetrafluoride is poured over ice. Its crystal structure may allow it to replace silicon in silicate minerals. The XeOO+ cation has been identified by infrared spectroscopy in solid argon.

Xenon does not react with oxygen directly; the trioxide is formed by the hydrolysis ofXeF
6
:

XeF
6
+ 3H
2
O
XeO
3
+ 6 HF

XeO
3
is weakly acidic, dissolving in alkali to form unstable xenate salts containing theHXeO
4
anion. These unstable salts easily disproportionate into xenon gas and perxenate salts, containing theXeO4−
6
anion.

Barium perxenate, when treated with concentrated sulfuric acid, yields gaseous xenon tetroxide:

Ba
2
XeO
6
+ 2H
2
SO
4
→ 2BaSO
4
+ 2H
2
O
+XeO
4

To prevent decomposition, the xenon tetroxide thus formed is quickly cooled into a pale-yellow solid. It explodes above −35.9 °C into xenon and oxygen gas, but is otherwise stable.

A number of xenon oxyfluorides are known, includingXeOF
2
, XeOF
4
,XeO
2
F
2
, andXeO
3
F
2
.XeOF
2
is formed by reacting OF
2
with xenon gas at low temperatures. It may also be obtained by partial hydrolysis ofXeF
4
. It disproportionates at −20 °C intoXeF
2
andXeO
2
F
2
.XeOF
4
is formed by the partial hydrolysis ofXeF
6
, or the reaction ofXeF
6
with sodium perxenate,Na
4
XeO
6
. The latter reaction also produces a small amount ofXeO
3
F
2
.XeOF
4
reacts with CsF to form theXeOF
5
anion, while XeOF3 reacts with the alkali metal fluorides KF, RbF and CsF to form theXeOF
4
anion.

Other compounds

Xenon can be directly bonded to a less electronegative element than fluorine or oxygen, particularly carbon. Electron-withdrawing groups, such as groups with fluorine substitution, are necessary to stabilize these compounds. Numerous such compounds have been characterized, including:

  • C
    6
    F
    5
    –Xe+
    –N≡C–CH
    3
    , where C6F5 is the pentafluorophenyl group.
  • [C
    6
    F
    5
    ]
    2
    Xe
  • C
    6
    F
    5
    –Xe–C≡N
  • C
    6
    F
    5
    –Xe–F
  • C
    6
    F
    5
    –Xe–Cl
  • C
    2
    F
    5
    –C≡C–Xe+
  • [CH
    3
    ]
    3
    C–C≡C–Xe+
  • C
    6
    F
    5
    –XeF+
    2
  • (C
    6
    F
    5
    Xe)
    2
    Cl+

Other compounds containing xenon bonded to a less electronegative element includeF–Xe–N(SO
2
F)
2
andF–Xe–BF
2
. The latter is synthesized from dioxygenyl tetrafluoroborate,O
2
BF
4
, at −100 °C.

An unusual ion containing xenon is the tetraxenonogold(II) cation,AuXe2+
4
, which contains Xe–Au bonds. This ion occurs in the compoundAuXe
4
(Sb
2
F
11
)
2
, and is remarkable in having direct chemical bonds between two notoriously unreactive atoms, xenon and gold, with xenon acting as a transition metal ligand.

The compoundXe
2
Sb
2
F
11
contains a Xe–Xe bond, the longest element-element bond known (308.71 pm = 3.0871 Å).

In 1995, M. Räsänen and co-workers, scientists at the University of Helsinki in Finland, announced the preparation of xenon dihydride (HXeH), and later xenon hydride-hydroxide (HXeOH), hydroxenoacetylene (HXeCCH), and other Xe-containing molecules. In 2008, Khriachtchev et al. reported the preparation of HXeOXeH by the photolysis of water within a cryogenic xenon matrix. Deuterated molecules, HXeOD and DXeOH, have also been produced.

Clathrates and excimers

In addition to compounds where xenon forms a chemical bond, xenon can form clathrates—substances where xenon atoms or pairs are trapped by the crystalline lattice of another compound. One example is xenon hydrate (Xe·5+34H2O), where xenon atoms occupy vacancies in a lattice of water molecules. This clathrate has a melting point of 24 °C. The deuterated version of this hydrate has also been produced. Another example is xenon hydride (Xe(H2)8), in which xenon pairs (dimers) are trapped inside solid hydrogen. Such clathrate hydrates can occur naturally under conditions of high pressure, such as in Lake Vostok underneath the Antarctic ice sheet. Clathrate formation can be used to fractionally distill xenon, argon and krypton.

Xenon can also form endohedral fullerene compounds, where a xenon atom is trapped inside a fullerene molecule. The xenon atom trapped in the fullerene can be observed by 129Xe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Through the sensitive chemical shift of the xenon atom to its environment, chemical reactions on the fullerene molecule can be analyzed. These observations are not without caveat, however, because the xenon atom has an electronic influence on the reactivity of the fullerene.

When xenon atoms are in the ground energy state, they repel each other and will not form a bond. When xenon atoms becomes energized, however, they can form an excimer (excited dimer) until the electrons return to the ground state. This entity is formed because the xenon atom tends to complete the outermost electronic shell by adding an electron from a neighboring xenon atom. The typical lifetime of a xenon excimer is 1–5 nanoseconds, and the decay releases photons with wavelengths of about 150 and 173 nm. Xenon can also form excimers with other elements, such as the halogens bromine, chlorine, and fluorine.

Although xenon is rare and relatively expensive to extract from the Earth's atmosphere, it has a number of applications.

Illumination and optics

Gas-discharge lamps

Xenon is used in light-emitting devices called xenon flash lamps, used in photographic flashes and stroboscopic lamps; to excite the active medium in lasers which then generate coherent light; and, occasionally, in bactericidal lamps. The first solid-state laser, invented in 1960, was pumped by a xenon flash lamp, and lasers used to power inertial confinement fusion are also pumped by xenon flash lamps.

Xenon short-arc lamp
Space Shuttle Atlantis bathed in xenon lights
Xenon gas discharge tube

Continuous, short-arc, high pressure xenon arc lamps have a color temperature closely approximating noon sunlight and are used in solar simulators. That is, the chromaticity of these lamps closely approximates a heated black body radiator at the temperature of the Sun. First introduced in the 1940s, these lamps replaced the shorter-lived carbon arc lamps in movie projectors. They are also employed in typical 35mm, IMAX, and digital film projection systems. They are an excellent source of short wavelength ultraviolet radiation and have intense emissions in the near infrared used in some night vision systems. Xenon is used as a starter gas in metal halide lamps for automotive headlights, and high-end "tactical" flashlights.

The individual cells in a plasma display contain a mixture of xenon and neon ionized with electrodes. The interaction of this plasma with the electrodes generates ultraviolet photons, which then excite the phosphor coating on the front of the display.

Xenon is used as a "starter gas" in high pressure sodium lamps. It has the lowest thermal conductivity and lowest ionization potential of all the non-radioactive noble gases. As a noble gas, it does not interfere with the chemical reactions occurring in the operating lamp. The low thermal conductivity minimizes thermal losses in the lamp while in the operating state, and the low ionization potential causes the breakdown voltage of the gas to be relatively low in the cold state, which allows the lamp to be more easily started.

Lasers

In 1962, a group of researchers at Bell Laboratories discovered laser action in xenon, and later found that the laser gain was improved by adding helium to the lasing medium. The first excimer laser used a xenon dimer (Xe2) energized by a beam of electrons to produce stimulated emission at an ultraviolet wavelength of 176 nm. Xenon chloride and xenon fluoride have also been used in excimer (or, more accurately, exciplex) lasers.

Medical

Anesthesia

Xenon has been used as a general anesthetic, but it is more expensive than conventional anesthetics.

Xenon interacts with many different receptors and ion channels, and like many theoretically multi-modal inhalation anesthetics, these interactions are likely complementary. Xenon is a high-affinity glycine-site NMDA receptor antagonist. However, xenon is different from certain other NMDA receptor antagonists in that it is not neurotoxic and it inhibits the neurotoxicity of ketamine and nitrous oxide (N2O), while actually producing neuroprotective effects. Unlike ketamine and nitrous oxide, xenon does not stimulate a dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens.

Like nitrous oxide and cyclopropane, xenon activates the two-pore domain potassium channel TREK-1. A related channel TASK-3 also implicated in the actions of inhalation anesthetics is insensitive to xenon. Xenon inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine α4β2 receptors which contribute to spinally mediated analgesia. Xenon is an effective inhibitor of plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase. Xenon inhibits Ca2+ ATPase by binding to a hydrophobic pore within the enzyme and preventing the enzyme from assuming active conformations.

Xenon is a competitive inhibitor of the serotonin 5-HT3 receptor. While neither anesthetic nor antinociceptive, this reduces anesthesia-emergent nausea and vomiting.

Xenon has a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of 72% at age 40, making it 44% more potent than N2O as an anesthetic. Thus, it can be used with oxygen in concentrations that have a lower risk of hypoxia. Unlike nitrous oxide, xenon is not a greenhouse gas and is viewed as environmentally friendly. Though recycled in modern systems, xenon vented to the atmosphere is only returning to its original source, without environmental impact.

Neuroprotectant

Xenon induces robust cardioprotection and neuroprotection through a variety of mechanisms. Through its influence on Ca2+, K+, KATP\HIF, and NMDA antagonism, xenon is neuroprotective when administered before, during and after ischemic insults. Xenon is a high affinity antagonist at the NMDA receptor glycine site. Xenon is cardioprotective in ischemia-reperfusion conditions by inducing pharmacologic non-ischemic preconditioning. Xenon is cardioprotective by activating PKC-epsilon and downstream p38-MAPK. Xenon mimics neuronal ischemic preconditioning by activating ATP sensitive potassium channels. Xenon allosterically reduces ATP mediated channel activation inhibition independently of the sulfonylurea receptor1 subunit, increasing KATP open-channel time and frequency.

Sports doping

Inhaling a xenon/oxygen mixture activates production of the transcription factor HIF-1-alpha, which may lead to increased production of erythropoietin. The latter hormone is known to increase red blood cell production and athletic performance. Reportedly, doping with xenon inhalation has been used in Russia since 2004 and perhaps earlier. On August 31, 2014, the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA) added xenon (and argon) to the list of prohibited substances and methods, although no reliable doping tests for these gases have yet been developed. In addition, effects of xenon on erythropoietin production in humans have not been demonstrated, so far.

Imaging

Gamma emission from the radioisotope 133Xe of xenon can be used to image the heart, lungs, and brain, for example, by means of single photon emission computed tomography. 133Xe has also been used to measure blood flow.

Xenon, particularly hyperpolarized 129Xe, is a useful contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the gas phase, it can image cavities in a porous sample, alveoli in lungs, or the flow of gases within the lungs. Because xenon is soluble both in water and in hydrophobic solvents, it can image various soft living tissues.

Xenon-129 is currently being used as a visualization agent in MRI scans. When a patient inhales hyperpolarized xenon-129 ventilation and gas exchange in the lungs can be imaged and quantified. Unlike xenon-133, xenon-129 is non-ionizing and is safe to be inhaled with no adverse effects.

Surgery

The xenon chloride excimer laser has certain dermatological uses.

NMR spectroscopy

Because of the xenon atom's large, flexible outer electron shell, the NMR spectrum changes in response to surrounding conditions and can be used to monitor the surrounding chemical circumstances. For instance, xenon dissolved in water, xenon dissolved in hydrophobic solvent, and xenon associated with certain proteins can be distinguished by NMR.

Hyperpolarized xenon can be used by surface chemists. Normally, it is difficult to characterize surfaces with NMR because signals from a surface are overwhelmed by signals from the atomic nuclei in the bulk of the sample, which are much more numerous than surface nuclei. However, nuclear spins on solid surfaces can be selectively polarized by transferring spin polarization to them from hyperpolarized xenon gas. This makes the surface signals strong enough to measure and distinguish from bulk signals.

Other

In nuclear energy studies, xenon is used in bubble chambers, probes, and in other areas where a high molecular weight and inert chemistry is desirable. A by-product of nuclear weapon testing is the release of radioactive xenon-133 and xenon-135. These isotopes are monitored to ensure compliance with nuclear test ban treaties, and to confirm nuclear tests by states such as North Korea.

A prototype of a xenon ion engine being tested at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Liquid xenon is used in calorimeters to measure gamma rays, and as a detector of hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. When a WIMP collides with a xenon nucleus, theory predicts it will impart enough energy to cause ionization and scintillation. Liquid xenon is useful for these experiments because its density makes dark matter interaction more likely and it permits a quiet detector through self-shielding.

Xenon is the preferred propellant for ion propulsion of spacecraft because it has low ionization potential per atomic weight and can be stored as a liquid at near room temperature (under high pressure), yet easily evaporated to feed the engine. Xenon is inert, environmentally friendly, and less corrosive to an ion engine than other fuels such as mercury or caesium. Xenon was first used for satellite ion engines during the 1970s. It was later employed as a propellant for JPL's Deep Space 1 probe, Europe's SMART-1 spacecraft and for the three ion propulsion engines on NASA's Dawn Spacecraft.

Chemically, the perxenate compounds are used as oxidizing agents in analytical chemistry. Xenon difluoride is used as an etchant for silicon, particularly in the production of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil can be produced by reacting xenon difluoride with uracil. Xenon is also used in protein crystallography. Applied at pressures from 0.5 to 5 MPa (5 to 50 atm) to a protein crystal, xenon atoms bind in predominantly hydrophobic cavities, often creating a high-quality, isomorphous, heavy-atom derivative that can be used for solving the phase problem.

Xenon
Hazards
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)

Because they are strongly oxidative, many oxygen–xenon compounds are toxic; they are also explosive (highly exothermic), breaking down to elemental xenon and diatomic oxygen (O2) with much stronger chemical bonds than the xenon compounds.

Xenon gas can be safely kept in normal sealed glass or metal containers at standard temperature and pressure. However, it readily dissolves in most plastics and rubber, and will gradually escape from a container sealed with such materials. Xenon is non-toxic, although it does dissolve in blood and belongs to a select group of substances that penetrate the blood–brain barrier, causing mild to full surgical anesthesia when inhaled in high concentrations with oxygen.

The speed of sound in xenon gas (169 m/s) is less than that in air because the average velocity of the heavy xenon atoms is less than that of nitrogen and oxygen molecules in air. Hence, xenon vibrates more slowly in the vocal cords when exhaled and produces lowered voice tones (low-frequency-enhanced sounds, but the fundamental frequency or pitch doesn't change), an effect opposite to the high-toned voice produced in helium. Specifically, when the vocal tract is filled with xenon gas, its natural resonant frequency becomes lower than when it's filled with air. Thus, the low frequencies of the sound wave produced by the same direct vibration of the vocal cords would be enhanced, resulting in a change of the timbre of the sound amplified by the vocal tract. Like helium, xenon does not satisfy the body's need for oxygen, and it is both a simple asphyxiant and an anesthetic more powerful than nitrous oxide; consequently, and because xenon is expensive, many universities have prohibited the voice stunt as a general chemistry demonstration. The gas sulfur hexafluoride is similar to xenon in molecular weight (146 versus 131), less expensive, and though an asphyxiant, not toxic or anesthetic; it is often substituted in these demonstrations.

Dense gases such as xenon and sulfur hexafluoride can be breathed safely when mixed with at least 20% oxygen. Xenon at 80% concentration along with 20% oxygen rapidly produces the unconsciousness of general anesthesia (and has been used for this, as discussed above). Breathing mixes gases of different densities very effectively and rapidly so that heavier gases are purged along with the oxygen, and do not accumulate at the bottom of the lungs. There is, however, a danger associated with any heavy gas in large quantities: it may sit invisibly in a container, and a person who enters an area filled with an odorless, colorless gas may be asphyxiated without warning. Xenon is rarely used in large enough quantities for this to be a concern, though the potential for danger exists any time a tank or container of xenon is kept in an unventilated space.

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Xenon
Xenon Language Watch Edit This article is about the chemical element For other uses see Xenon disambiguation Xenon is a chemical element with the symbol Xe and atomic number 54 It is a colorless dense odorless noble gas found in Earth s atmosphere in trace amounts 11 Although generally unreactive xenon can undergo a few chemical reactions such as the formation of xenon hexafluoroplatinate the first noble gas compound to be synthesized 12 13 14 Xenon 54XeA xenon filled discharge tube glowing light blueXenonPronunciation ˈ z ɛ n ɒ n 1 ZEN on ˈ z iː n ɒ n 2 ZEE non Appearancecolorless gas exhibiting a blue glow when placed in an electric fieldStandard atomic weightAr std Xe 131 293 6 3 Xenon in the periodic tableHydrogen HeliumLithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine NeonSodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine ArgonPotassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine KryptonRubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine XenonCaesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury element Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine RadonFrancium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson Kr Xe Rniodine xenon caesiumAtomic number Z 54Groupgroup 18 noble gases Periodperiod 5Block p blockElectron configuration Kr 4d10 5s2 5p6Electrons per shell2 8 18 18 8Physical propertiesPhase at STPgasMelting point161 40 K 111 75 C 169 15 F Boiling point165 051 K 108 099 C 162 578 F Density at STP 5 894 g Lwhen liquid at b p 2 942 g cm3 4 Triple point161 405 K 81 77 kPa 5 Critical point289 733 K 5 842 MPa 5 Heat of fusion2 27 kJ molHeat of vaporization12 64 kJ molMolar heat capacity21 01 6 J mol K Vapor pressureP Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 kat T K 83 92 103 117 137 165Atomic propertiesOxidation states0 2 4 6 8 rarely more than 0 a weakly acidic oxide ElectronegativityPauling scale 2 6Ionization energies1st 1170 4 kJ mol2nd 2046 4 kJ mol3rd 3099 4 kJ molCovalent radius140 9 pmVan der Waals radius216 pmSpectral lines of xenonOther propertiesNatural occurrenceprimordialCrystal structure face centered cubic fcc Speed of soundgas 178 m s 1 liquid 1090 m sThermal conductivity5 65 10 3 W m K Magnetic orderingdiamagnetic 7 Molar magnetic susceptibility 43 9 10 6 cm3 mol 298 K 8 CAS Number7440 63 3HistoryDiscovery and first isolationWilliam Ramsay and Morris Travers 1898 Main isotopes of xenonIso tope Abun dance Half life t1 2 Decay mode Pro duct124Xe 0 095 1 8 1022 y 9 ee 124Te125Xe syn 16 9 h e 125I126Xe 0 089 stable no decay seen b b 127Xe syn 36 345 d e 127I128Xe 1 910 stable129Xe 26 401 stable130Xe 4 071 stable131Xe 21 232 stable132Xe 26 909 stable133Xe syn 5 247 d b 133Cs134Xe 10 436 stable no decay seen b b 135Xe syn 9 14 h b 135Cs136Xe 8 857 2 165 1021 y 10 b b 136Ba Category Xenon viewtalkedit references Xenon is used in flash lamps 15 and arc lamps 16 and as a general anesthetic 17 The first excimer laser design used a xenon dimer molecule Xe2 as the lasing medium 18 and the earliest laser designs used xenon flash lamps as pumps 19 Xenon is used to search for hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles 20 and as the propellant for ion thrusters in spacecraft 21 Naturally occurring xenon consists of seven stable isotopes and two long lived radioactive isotopes More than 40 unstable xenon isotopes undergo radioactive decay and the isotope ratios of xenon are an important tool for studying the early history of the Solar System 22 Radioactive xenon 135 is produced by beta decay from iodine 135 a product of nuclear fission and is the most significant and unwanted neutron absorber in nuclear reactors 23 Contents 1 History 2 Characteristics 3 Occurrence and production 4 Isotopes 5 Compounds 5 1 Halides 5 2 Oxides and oxohalides 5 3 Other compounds 5 4 Clathrates and excimers 6 Applications 6 1 Illumination and optics 6 1 1 Gas discharge lamps 6 1 2 Lasers 6 2 Medical 6 2 1 Anesthesia 6 2 2 Neuroprotectant 6 2 3 Sports doping 6 2 4 Imaging 6 2 5 Surgery 6 3 NMR spectroscopy 6 4 Other 7 Precautions 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksHistory EditXenon was discovered in England by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in September 1898 24 shortly after their discovery of the elements krypton and neon They found xenon in the residue left over from evaporating components of liquid air 25 26 Ramsay suggested the name xenon for this gas from the Greek word 3enon xenon neuter singular form of 3enos xenos meaning foreign er strange r or guest 27 28 In 1902 Ramsay estimated the proportion of xenon in the Earth s atmosphere to be one part in 20 million 29 During the 1930s American engineer Harold Edgerton began exploring strobe light technology for high speed photography This led him to the invention of the xenon flash lamp in which light is generated by passing brief electric current through a tube filled with xenon gas In 1934 Edgerton was able to generate flashes as brief as one microsecond with this method 15 30 31 In 1939 American physician Albert R Behnke Jr began exploring the causes of drunkenness in deep sea divers He tested the effects of varying the breathing mixtures on his subjects and discovered that this caused the divers to perceive a change in depth From his results he deduced that xenon gas could serve as an anesthetic Although Russian toxicologist Nikolay V Lazarev apparently studied xenon anesthesia in 1941 the first published report confirming xenon anesthesia was in 1946 by American medical researcher John H Lawrence who experimented on mice Xenon was first used as a surgical anesthetic in 1951 by American anesthesiologist Stuart C Cullen who successfully used it with two patients 32 An acrylic cube specially prepared for element collectors containing liquefied xenon Xenon and the other noble gases were for a long time considered to be completely chemically inert and not able to form compounds However while teaching at the University of British Columbia Neil Bartlett discovered that the gas platinum hexafluoride PtF6 was a powerful oxidizing agent that could oxidize oxygen gas O2 to form dioxygenyl hexafluoroplatinate O 2 PtF6 33 Since O2 1165 kJ mol and xenon 1170 kJ mol have almost the same first ionization potential Bartlett realized that platinum hexafluoride might also be able to oxidize xenon On March 23 1962 he mixed the two gases and produced the first known compound of a noble gas xenon hexafluoroplatinate 34 14 Bartlett thought its composition to be Xe PtF6 but later work revealed that it was probably a mixture of various xenon containing salts 35 36 37 Since then many other xenon compounds have been discovered 38 in addition to some compounds of the noble gases argon krypton and radon including argon fluorohydride HArF 39 krypton difluoride KrF2 40 41 and radon fluoride 42 By 1971 more than 80 xenon compounds were known 43 44 In November 1989 IBM scientists demonstrated a technology capable of manipulating individual atoms The program called IBM in atoms used a scanning tunneling microscope to arrange 35 individual xenon atoms on a substrate of chilled crystal of nickel to spell out the three letter company initialism It was the first time atoms had been precisely positioned on a flat surface 45 Characteristics Edit A layer of solid xenon floating on top of liquid xenon inside a high voltage apparatus Liquid featureless and crystalline solid Xe nanoparticles produced by implanting Xe ions into aluminium at room temperature Xenon has atomic number 54 that is its nucleus contains 54 protons At standard temperature and pressure pure xenon gas has a density of 5 894 kg m3 about 4 5 times the density of the Earth s atmosphere at sea level 1 217 kg m3 46 As a liquid xenon has a density of up to 3 100 g mL with the density maximum occurring at the triple point 47 Liquid xenon has a high polarizability due to its large atomic volume and thus is an excellent solvent It can dissolve hydrocarbons biological molecules and even water 48 Under the same conditions the density of solid xenon 3 640 g cm3 is greater than the average density of granite 2 75 g cm3 47 Under gigapascals of pressure xenon forms a metallic phase 49 Solid xenon changes from face centered cubic fcc to hexagonal close packed hcp crystal phase under pressure and begins to turn metallic at about 140 GPa with no noticeable volume change in the hcp phase It is completely metallic at 155 GPa When metallized xenon appears sky blue because it absorbs red light and transmits other visible frequencies Such behavior is unusual for a metal and is explained by the relatively small width of the electron bands in that state 50 51 Xenon flash animated version Liquid or solid xenon nanoparticles can be formed at room temperature by implanting Xe ions into a solid matrix Many solids have lattice constants smaller than solid Xe This results in compression of the implanted Xe to pressures that may be sufficient for its liquefaction or solidification 52 Xenon is a member of the zero valence elements that are called noble or inert gases It is inert to most common chemical reactions such as combustion for example because the outer valence shell contains eight electrons This produces a stable minimum energy configuration in which the outer electrons are tightly bound 53 In a gas filled tube xenon emits a blue or lavenderish glow when excited by electrical discharge Xenon emits a band of emission lines that span the visual spectrum 54 but the most intense lines occur in the region of blue light producing the coloration 55 Occurrence and production EditXenon is a trace gas in Earth s atmosphere occurring at 87 1 nL L parts per billion or approximately 1 part per 11 5 million 56 It is also found as a component of gases emitted from some mineral springs Xenon is obtained commercially as a by product of the separation of air into oxygen and nitrogen 57 After this separation generally performed by fractional distillation in a double column plant the liquid oxygen produced will contain small quantities of krypton and xenon By additional fractional distillation the liquid oxygen may be enriched to contain 0 1 0 2 of a krypton xenon mixture which is extracted either by absorption onto silica gel or by distillation Finally the krypton xenon mixture may be separated into krypton and xenon by further distillation 58 59 Worldwide production of xenon in 1998 was estimated at 5 000 7 000 m3 60 Because of its scarcity xenon is much more expensive than the lighter noble gases approximate prices for the purchase of small quantities in Europe in 1999 were 10 L for xenon 1 L for krypton and 0 20 L for neon 60 while the much more plentiful argon costs less than a cent per liter Equivalent costs per kilogram of xenon are calculated by multiplying cost per liter by 174 Within the Solar System the nucleon fraction of xenon is 1 56 10 8 for an abundance of approximately one part in 630 thousand of the total mass 61 Xenon is relatively rare in the Sun s atmosphere on Earth and in asteroids and comets The abundance of xenon in the atmosphere of planet Jupiter is unusually high about 2 6 times that of the Sun 62 63 This abundance remains unexplained but may have been caused by an early and rapid buildup of planetesimals small subplanetary bodies before the heating of the presolar disk 64 Otherwise xenon would not have been trapped in the planetesimal ices The problem of the low terrestrial xenon may be explained by covalent bonding of xenon to oxygen within quartz reducing the outgassing of xenon into the atmosphere 65 Unlike the lower mass noble gases the normal stellar nucleosynthesis process inside a star does not form xenon Elements more massive than iron 56 consume energy through fusion and the synthesis of xenon represents no energy gain for a star 66 Instead xenon is formed during supernova explosions 67 in classical nova explosions 68 by the slow neutron capture process s process in red giant stars that have exhausted their core hydrogen and entered the asymptotic giant branch 69 and from radioactive decay for example by beta decay of extinct iodine 129 and spontaneous fission of thorium uranium and plutonium 70 Isotopes EditMain article Isotopes of xenon Naturally occurring xenon is composed of seven stable isotopes 126Xe 128 132Xe and 134Xe The isotopes 126Xe and 134Xe are predicted by theory to undergo double beta decay but this has never been observed so they are considered stable 71 In addition more than 40 unstable isotopes that have been studied The longest lived of these isotopes are the primordial 124Xe which undergoes double electron capture with a half life of 1 8 1022 yr 9 and 136Xe which undergoes double beta decay with a half life of 2 11 1021 yr 72 129Xe is produced by beta decay of 129I which has a half life of 16 million years 131mXe 133Xe 133mXe and 135Xe are some of the fission products of 235U and 239Pu 70 and are used to detect and monitor nuclear explosions Nuclei of two of the stable isotopes of xenon 129Xe and 131Xe have non zero intrinsic angular momenta nuclear spins suitable for nuclear magnetic resonance The nuclear spins can be aligned beyond ordinary polarization levels by means of circularly polarized light and rubidium vapor 73 The resulting spin polarization of xenon nuclei can surpass 50 of its maximum possible value greatly exceeding the thermal equilibrium value dictated by paramagnetic statistics typically 0 001 of the maximum value at room temperature even in the strongest magnets Such non equilibrium alignment of spins is a temporary condition and is called hyperpolarization The process of hyperpolarizing the xenon is called optical pumping although the process is different from pumping a laser 74 Because a 129Xe nucleus has a spin of 1 2 and therefore a zero electric quadrupole moment the 129Xe nucleus does not experience any quadrupolar interactions during collisions with other atoms and the hyperpolarization persists for long periods even after the engendering light and vapor have been removed Spin polarization of 129Xe can persist from several seconds for xenon atoms dissolved in blood 75 to several hours in the gas phase 76 and several days in deeply frozen solid xenon 77 In contrast 131Xe has a nuclear spin value of 3 2 and a nonzero quadrupole moment and has t1 relaxation times in the millisecond and second ranges 78 Some radioactive isotopes of xenon for example 133Xe and 135Xe are produced by neutron irradiation of fissionable material within nuclear reactors 12 135Xe is of considerable significance in the operation of nuclear fission reactors 135Xe has a huge cross section for thermal neutrons 2 6 106 barns 23 and operates as a neutron absorber or poison that can slow or stop the chain reaction after a period of operation This was discovered in the earliest nuclear reactors built by the American Manhattan Project for plutonium production However the designers had made provisions in the design to increase the reactor s reactivity the number of neutrons per fission that go on to fission other atoms of nuclear fuel 79 135Xe reactor poisoning was a major factor in the Chernobyl disaster 80 A shutdown or decrease of power of a reactor can result in buildup of 135Xe with reactor operation going into a condition known as the iodine pit Under adverse conditions relatively high concentrations of radioactive xenon isotopes may emanate from cracked fuel rods 81 or fissioning of uranium in cooling water 82 Because xenon is a tracer for two parent isotopes xenon isotope ratios in meteorites are a powerful tool for studying the formation of the Solar System The iodine xenon method of dating gives the time elapsed between nucleosynthesis and the condensation of a solid object from the solar nebula In 1960 physicist John H Reynolds discovered that certain meteorites contained an isotopic anomaly in the form of an overabundance of xenon 129 He inferred that this was a decay product of radioactive iodine 129 This isotope is produced slowly by cosmic ray spallation and nuclear fission but is produced in quantity only in supernova explosions 83 84 Because the half life of 129I is comparatively short on a cosmological time scale 16 million years this demonstrated that only a short time had passed between the supernova and the time the meteorites had solidified and trapped the 129I These two events supernova and solidification of gas cloud were inferred to have happened during the early history of the Solar System because the 129I isotope was likely generated shortly before the Solar System was formed seeding the solar gas cloud with isotopes from a second source This supernova source may also have caused collapse of the solar gas cloud 83 84 In a similar way xenon isotopic ratios such as 129Xe 130Xe and 136Xe 130Xe are a powerful tool for understanding planetary differentiation and early outgassing 22 For example the atmosphere of Mars shows a xenon abundance similar to that of Earth 0 08 parts per million 85 but Mars shows a greater abundance of 129Xe than the Earth or the Sun Since this isotope is generated by radioactive decay the result may indicate that Mars lost most of its primordial atmosphere possibly within the first 100 million years after the planet was formed 86 87 In another example excess 129Xe found in carbon dioxide well gases from New Mexico is believed to be from the decay of mantle derived gases from soon after Earth s formation 70 88 Compounds EditSee also Category Xenon compounds After Neil Bartlett s discovery in 1962 that xenon can form chemical compounds a large number of xenon compounds have been discovered and described Almost all known xenon compounds contain the electronegative atoms fluorine or oxygen The chemistry of xenon in each oxidation state is analogous to that of the neighboring element iodine in the immediately lower oxidation state 89 Halides Edit Xenon tetrafluoride XeF4 crystals 1962 Three fluorides are known XeF2 XeF4 and XeF6 XeF is theorized to be unstable 90 These are the starting points for the synthesis of almost all xenon compounds The solid crystalline difluoride XeF2 is formed when a mixture of fluorine and xenon gases is exposed to ultraviolet light 91 The ultraviolet component of ordinary daylight is sufficient 92 Long term heating of XeF2 at high temperatures under an NiF2 catalyst yields XeF6 93 Pyrolysis of XeF6 in the presence of NaF yields high purity XeF4 94 The xenon fluorides behave as both fluoride acceptors and fluoride donors forming salts that contain such cations as XeF and Xe 2 F 3 and anions such as XeF 5 XeF 7 and XeF2 8 The green paramagnetic Xe 2 is formed by the reduction of XeF2 by xenon gas 89 XeF2 also forms coordination complexes with transition metal ions More than 30 such complexes have been synthesized and characterized 93 Whereas the xenon fluorides are well characterized with the exception of dichloride XeCl2 and XeCl4 the other halides are not known Xenon dichloride formed by the high frequency irradiation of a mixture of xenon fluorine and silicon or carbon tetrachloride 95 is reported to be an endothermic colorless crystalline compound that decomposes into the elements at 80 C However XeCl2 may be merely a van der Waals molecule of weakly bound Xe atoms and Cl2 molecules and not a real compound 96 Theoretical calculations indicate that the linear molecule XeCl2 is less stable than the van der Waals complex 97 Xenon tetrachloride is more unstable that can t synthesized by chemical reaction It was created by radioactive 129 ICl 4 decay 98 99 Oxides and oxohalides Edit Three oxides of xenon are known xenon trioxide XeO3 and xenon tetroxide XeO4 both of which are dangerously explosive and powerful oxidizing agents and xenon dioxide XeO2 which was reported in 2011 with a coordination number of four 100 XeO2 forms when xenon tetrafluoride is poured over ice Its crystal structure may allow it to replace silicon in silicate minerals 101 The XeOO cation has been identified by infrared spectroscopy in solid argon 102 Xenon does not react with oxygen directly the trioxide is formed by the hydrolysis of XeF6 103 XeF6 3 H2 O XeO3 6 HF XeO3 is weakly acidic dissolving in alkali to form unstable xenate salts containing the HXeO 4 anion These unstable salts easily disproportionate into xenon gas and perxenate salts containing the XeO4 6 anion 104 Barium perxenate when treated with concentrated sulfuric acid yields gaseous xenon tetroxide 95 Ba2 XeO6 2 H2 SO4 2 BaSO4 2 H2 O XeO4 To prevent decomposition the xenon tetroxide thus formed is quickly cooled into a pale yellow solid It explodes above 35 9 C into xenon and oxygen gas but is otherwise stable A number of xenon oxyfluorides are known including XeOF2 XeOF4 XeO2 F2 and XeO3 F2 XeOF2 is formed by reacting OF2 with xenon gas at low temperatures It may also be obtained by partial hydrolysis of XeF4 It disproportionates at 20 C into XeF2 and XeO2 F2 105 XeOF4 is formed by the partial hydrolysis of XeF6 106 or the reaction of XeF6 with sodium perxenate Na4 XeO6 The latter reaction also produces a small amount of XeO3 F2 XeOF4 reacts with CsF to form the XeOF 5 anion 105 107 while XeOF3 reacts with the alkali metal fluorides KF RbF and CsF to form the XeOF 4 anion 108 Other compounds Edit Xenon can be directly bonded to a less electronegative element than fluorine or oxygen particularly carbon 109 Electron withdrawing groups such as groups with fluorine substitution are necessary to stabilize these compounds 104 Numerous such compounds have been characterized including 105 110 C6 F5 Xe N C CH3 where C6F5 is the pentafluorophenyl group C6 F5 2 Xe C6 F5 Xe C N C6 F5 Xe F C6 F5 Xe Cl C2 F5 C C Xe CH3 3 C C C Xe C6 F5 XeF 2 C6 F5 Xe 2 Cl Other compounds containing xenon bonded to a less electronegative element include F Xe N SO2 F 2 and F Xe BF2 The latter is synthesized from dioxygenyl tetrafluoroborate O2 BF4 at 100 C 105 111 An unusual ion containing xenon is the tetraxenonogold II cation AuXe2 4 which contains Xe Au bonds 112 This ion occurs in the compound AuXe4 Sb2 F11 2 and is remarkable in having direct chemical bonds between two notoriously unreactive atoms xenon and gold with xenon acting as a transition metal ligand The compound Xe2 Sb2 F11 contains a Xe Xe bond the longest element element bond known 308 71 pm 3 0871 A 113 In 1995 M Rasanen and co workers scientists at the University of Helsinki in Finland announced the preparation of xenon dihydride HXeH and later xenon hydride hydroxide HXeOH hydroxenoacetylene HXeCCH and other Xe containing molecules 114 In 2008 Khriachtchev et al reported the preparation of HXeOXeH by the photolysis of water within a cryogenic xenon matrix 115 Deuterated molecules HXeOD and DXeOH have also been produced 116 Clathrates and excimers Edit In addition to compounds where xenon forms a chemical bond xenon can form clathrates substances where xenon atoms or pairs are trapped by the crystalline lattice of another compound One example is xenon hydrate Xe 5 3 4 H2O where xenon atoms occupy vacancies in a lattice of water molecules 117 This clathrate has a melting point of 24 C 118 The deuterated version of this hydrate has also been produced 119 Another example is xenon hydride Xe H2 8 in which xenon pairs dimers are trapped inside solid hydrogen 120 Such clathrate hydrates can occur naturally under conditions of high pressure such as in Lake Vostok underneath the Antarctic ice sheet 121 Clathrate formation can be used to fractionally distill xenon argon and krypton 122 Xenon can also form endohedral fullerene compounds where a xenon atom is trapped inside a fullerene molecule The xenon atom trapped in the fullerene can be observed by 129Xe nuclear magnetic resonance NMR spectroscopy Through the sensitive chemical shift of the xenon atom to its environment chemical reactions on the fullerene molecule can be analyzed These observations are not without caveat however because the xenon atom has an electronic influence on the reactivity of the fullerene 123 When xenon atoms are in the ground energy state they repel each other and will not form a bond When xenon atoms becomes energized however they can form an excimer excited dimer until the electrons return to the ground state This entity is formed because the xenon atom tends to complete the outermost electronic shell by adding an electron from a neighboring xenon atom The typical lifetime of a xenon excimer is 1 5 nanoseconds and the decay releases photons with wavelengths of about 150 and 173 nm 124 125 Xenon can also form excimers with other elements such as the halogens bromine chlorine and fluorine 126 Applications EditAlthough xenon is rare and relatively expensive to extract from the Earth s atmosphere it has a number of applications Illumination and optics Edit Gas discharge lamps Edit Xenon is used in light emitting devices called xenon flash lamps used in photographic flashes and stroboscopic lamps 15 to excite the active medium in lasers which then generate coherent light 127 and occasionally in bactericidal lamps 128 The first solid state laser invented in 1960 was pumped by a xenon flash lamp 19 and lasers used to power inertial confinement fusion are also pumped by xenon flash lamps 129 Xenon short arc lamp Space Shuttle Atlantis bathed in xenon lights Xenon gas discharge tube Continuous short arc high pressure xenon arc lamps have a color temperature closely approximating noon sunlight and are used in solar simulators That is the chromaticity of these lamps closely approximates a heated black body radiator at the temperature of the Sun First introduced in the 1940s these lamps replaced the shorter lived carbon arc lamps in movie projectors 16 They are also employed in typical 35mm IMAX and digital film projection systems They are an excellent source of short wavelength ultraviolet radiation and have intense emissions in the near infrared used in some night vision systems Xenon is used as a starter gas in metal halide lamps for automotive headlights and high end tactical flashlights The individual cells in a plasma display contain a mixture of xenon and neon ionized with electrodes The interaction of this plasma with the electrodes generates ultraviolet photons which then excite the phosphor coating on the front of the display 130 131 Xenon is used as a starter gas in high pressure sodium lamps It has the lowest thermal conductivity and lowest ionization potential of all the non radioactive noble gases As a noble gas it does not interfere with the chemical reactions occurring in the operating lamp The low thermal conductivity minimizes thermal losses in the lamp while in the operating state and the low ionization potential causes the breakdown voltage of the gas to be relatively low in the cold state which allows the lamp to be more easily started 132 Lasers Edit In 1962 a group of researchers at Bell Laboratories discovered laser action in xenon 133 and later found that the laser gain was improved by adding helium to the lasing medium 134 135 The first excimer laser used a xenon dimer Xe2 energized by a beam of electrons to produce stimulated emission at an ultraviolet wavelength of 176 nm 18 Xenon chloride and xenon fluoride have also been used in excimer or more accurately exciplex lasers 136 Medical Edit Anesthesia Edit Xenon has been used as a general anesthetic but it is more expensive than conventional anesthetics 137 Xenon interacts with many different receptors and ion channels and like many theoretically multi modal inhalation anesthetics these interactions are likely complementary Xenon is a high affinity glycine site NMDA receptor antagonist 138 However xenon is different from certain other NMDA receptor antagonists in that it is not neurotoxic and it inhibits the neurotoxicity of ketamine and nitrous oxide N2O while actually producing neuroprotective effects 139 140 Unlike ketamine and nitrous oxide xenon does not stimulate a dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens 141 Like nitrous oxide and cyclopropane xenon activates the two pore domain potassium channel TREK 1 A related channel TASK 3 also implicated in the actions of inhalation anesthetics is insensitive to xenon 142 Xenon inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine a4b2 receptors which contribute to spinally mediated analgesia 143 144 Xenon is an effective inhibitor of plasma membrane Ca2 ATPase Xenon inhibits Ca2 ATPase by binding to a hydrophobic pore within the enzyme and preventing the enzyme from assuming active conformations 145 Xenon is a competitive inhibitor of the serotonin 5 HT3 receptor While neither anesthetic nor antinociceptive this reduces anesthesia emergent nausea and vomiting 146 Xenon has a minimum alveolar concentration MAC of 72 at age 40 making it 44 more potent than N2O as an anesthetic 147 Thus it can be used with oxygen in concentrations that have a lower risk of hypoxia Unlike nitrous oxide xenon is not a greenhouse gas and is viewed as environmentally friendly 148 Though recycled in modern systems xenon vented to the atmosphere is only returning to its original source without environmental impact Neuroprotectant Edit Xenon induces robust cardioprotection and neuroprotection through a variety of mechanisms Through its influence on Ca2 K KATP HIF and NMDA antagonism xenon is neuroprotective when administered before during and after ischemic insults 149 150 Xenon is a high affinity antagonist at the NMDA receptor glycine site 138 Xenon is cardioprotective in ischemia reperfusion conditions by inducing pharmacologic non ischemic preconditioning Xenon is cardioprotective by activating PKC epsilon and downstream p38 MAPK 151 Xenon mimics neuronal ischemic preconditioning by activating ATP sensitive potassium channels 152 Xenon allosterically reduces ATP mediated channel activation inhibition independently of the sulfonylurea receptor1 subunit increasing KATP open channel time and frequency 153 Sports doping Edit Inhaling a xenon oxygen mixture activates production of the transcription factor HIF 1 alpha which may lead to increased production of erythropoietin The latter hormone is known to increase red blood cell production and athletic performance Reportedly doping with xenon inhalation has been used in Russia since 2004 and perhaps earlier 154 On August 31 2014 the World Anti Doping Agency WADA added xenon and argon to the list of prohibited substances and methods although no reliable doping tests for these gases have yet been developed 155 In addition effects of xenon on erythropoietin production in humans have not been demonstrated so far 156 Imaging Edit Gamma emission from the radioisotope 133Xe of xenon can be used to image the heart lungs and brain for example by means of single photon emission computed tomography 133Xe has also been used to measure blood flow 157 158 159 Xenon particularly hyperpolarized 129Xe is a useful contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging MRI In the gas phase it can image cavities in a porous sample alveoli in lungs or the flow of gases within the lungs 160 161 Because xenon is soluble both in water and in hydrophobic solvents it can image various soft living tissues 162 163 164 Xenon 129 is currently being used as a visualization agent in MRI scans When a patient inhales hyperpolarized xenon 129 ventilation and gas exchange in the lungs can be imaged and quantified Unlike xenon 133 xenon 129 is non ionizing and is safe to be inhaled with no adverse effects 165 Surgery Edit The xenon chloride excimer laser has certain dermatological uses 166 NMR spectroscopy Edit Because of the xenon atom s large flexible outer electron shell the NMR spectrum changes in response to surrounding conditions and can be used to monitor the surrounding chemical circumstances For instance xenon dissolved in water xenon dissolved in hydrophobic solvent and xenon associated with certain proteins can be distinguished by NMR 167 168 Hyperpolarized xenon can be used by surface chemists Normally it is difficult to characterize surfaces with NMR because signals from a surface are overwhelmed by signals from the atomic nuclei in the bulk of the sample which are much more numerous than surface nuclei However nuclear spins on solid surfaces can be selectively polarized by transferring spin polarization to them from hyperpolarized xenon gas This makes the surface signals strong enough to measure and distinguish from bulk signals 169 170 Other Edit In nuclear energy studies xenon is used in bubble chambers 171 probes and in other areas where a high molecular weight and inert chemistry is desirable A by product of nuclear weapon testing is the release of radioactive xenon 133 and xenon 135 These isotopes are monitored to ensure compliance with nuclear test ban treaties 172 and to confirm nuclear tests by states such as North Korea 173 A prototype of a xenon ion engine being tested at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory Liquid xenon is used in calorimeters 174 to measure gamma rays and as a detector of hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs When a WIMP collides with a xenon nucleus theory predicts it will impart enough energy to cause ionization and scintillation Liquid xenon is useful for these experiments because its density makes dark matter interaction more likely and it permits a quiet detector through self shielding Xenon is the preferred propellant for ion propulsion of spacecraft because it has low ionization potential per atomic weight and can be stored as a liquid at near room temperature under high pressure yet easily evaporated to feed the engine Xenon is inert environmentally friendly and less corrosive to an ion engine than other fuels such as mercury or caesium Xenon was first used for satellite ion engines during the 1970s 175 It was later employed as a propellant for JPL s Deep Space 1 probe Europe s SMART 1 spacecraft 21 and for the three ion propulsion engines on NASA s Dawn Spacecraft 176 Chemically the perxenate compounds are used as oxidizing agents in analytical chemistry Xenon difluoride is used as an etchant for silicon particularly in the production of microelectromechanical systems MEMS 177 The anticancer drug 5 fluorouracil can be produced by reacting xenon difluoride with uracil 178 Xenon is also used in protein crystallography Applied at pressures from 0 5 to 5 MPa 5 to 50 atm to a protein crystal xenon atoms bind in predominantly hydrophobic cavities often creating a high quality isomorphous heavy atom derivative that can be used for solving the phase problem 179 180 Precautions EditXenon HazardsNFPA 704 fire diamond 181 000SA Because they are strongly oxidative many oxygen xenon compounds are toxic they are also explosive highly exothermic breaking down to elemental xenon and diatomic oxygen O2 with much stronger chemical bonds than the xenon compounds 182 Xenon gas can be safely kept in normal sealed glass or metal containers at standard temperature and pressure However it readily dissolves in most plastics and rubber and will gradually escape from a container sealed with such materials 183 Xenon is non toxic although it does dissolve in blood and belongs to a select group of substances that penetrate the blood brain barrier causing mild to full surgical anesthesia when inhaled in high concentrations with oxygen 182 The speed of sound in xenon gas 169 m s is less than that in air 184 because the average velocity of the heavy xenon atoms is less than that of nitrogen and oxygen molecules in air Hence xenon vibrates more slowly in the vocal cords when exhaled and produces lowered voice tones low frequency enhanced sounds but the fundamental frequency or pitch doesn t change an effect opposite to the high toned voice produced in helium Specifically when the vocal tract is filled with xenon gas its natural resonant frequency becomes lower than when it s filled with air Thus the low frequencies of the sound wave produced by the same direct vibration of the vocal cords would be enhanced resulting in a change of the timbre of the sound amplified by the vocal tract Like helium xenon does not satisfy the body s need for oxygen and it is both a simple asphyxiant and an anesthetic more powerful than nitrous oxide consequently and because xenon is expensive many universities have prohibited the voice stunt as a general chemistry demonstration The gas sulfur hexafluoride is similar to xenon in molecular weight 146 versus 131 less expensive and though an asphyxiant not toxic or anesthetic it is often substituted in these demonstrations 185 Dense gases such as xenon and sulfur hexafluoride can be breathed safely when mixed with at least 20 oxygen Xenon at 80 concentration along with 20 oxygen rapidly produces the unconsciousness of general anesthesia and has been used for this as discussed above Breathing mixes gases of different densities very effectively and rapidly so that heavier gases are purged along with the oxygen and do not accumulate at the bottom of the lungs 186 There is however a danger associated with any heavy gas in large quantities it may sit invisibly in a container and a person who enters an area filled with an odorless colorless gas may be asphyxiated without warning Xenon is rarely used in large enough quantities for this to be a concern though the potential for danger exists any time a tank or container of xenon is kept in an unventilated space 187 See also Edit Chemistry portal Buoyant levitation Noble gases Penning mixtureReferences Edit xenon Oxford English Dictionary 20 2nd ed Oxford University Press 1989 Xenon Dictionary com Unabridged 2010 Retrieved May 6 2010 Standard Atomic Weights Xenon CIAAW 1999 Xenon Gas Encyclopedia Air Liquide 2009 a b Haynes William M ed 2011 CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 92nd ed Boca Raton FL CRC Press p 4 123 ISBN 1 4398 5511 0 Hwang Shuen Cheng Weltmer William R 2000 Helium Group Gases Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology Wiley pp 343 383 doi 10 1002 0471238961 0701190508230114 a01 ISBN 0 471 23896 1 Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds in Lide D R ed 2005 CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 86th ed Boca Raton FL CRC Press ISBN 0 8493 0486 5 Weast Robert 1984 CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics Boca Raton Florida Chemical Rubber Company Publishing pp E110 ISBN 0 8493 0464 4 a b Observation of two neutrino double electron 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Mesters Jeroen 2007 The Solution of the Phase Problem by the Isomorphous Replacement Method Principles of Protein X Ray Crystallography 3rd ed New York Springer pp 123 171 doi 10 1007 0 387 33746 6 7 ISBN 978 0 387 33334 2 Safety Data Sheet Xenon PDF Report Airgas February 15 2018 a b Finkel A J Katz J J Miller C E April 1 1968 Metabolic and toxicological effects of water soluble xenon compounds are studied NASA Retrieved 2007 10 04 LeBlanc Adrian D Johnson Philip C 1971 The handling of xenon 133 in clinical studies Physics in Medicine and Biology 16 1 105 9 Bibcode 1971PMB 16 105L doi 10 1088 0031 9155 16 1 310 PMID 5579743 169 44 m s in xenon at 0 C and 107 kPa compared to 344 m s in air See Vacek V Hallewell G Lindsay S 2001 Velocity of sound measurements in gaseous per fluorocarbons and their mixtures Fluid Phase Equilibria 185 1 2 305 314 doi 10 1016 S0378 3812 01 00479 4 Spangler Steve 2007 Anti Helium Sulfur Hexafluoride Steve Spangler Science Archived from the original on September 29 2007 Retrieved 2007 10 04 Yamaguchi K Soejima K Koda E Sugiyama N 2001 Inhaling Gas With Different CT Densities Allows Detection of Abnormalities in the Lung Periphery of Patients With Smoking Induced COPD Chest 120 6 1907 16 doi 10 1378 chest 120 6 1907 PMID 11742921 Staff August 1 2007 Cryogenic and Oxygen Deficiency Hazard Safety Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Archived from the original on June 9 2007 Retrieved 2007 10 10 External links EditXenonat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Resources from Wikiversity Xenon at The Periodic Table of Videos University of Nottingham USGS Periodic Table Xenon EnvironmentalChemistry com Xenon Xenon as an anesthetic Sir William Ramsay s Nobel Prize lecture 1904 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Xenon amp oldid 1053609111, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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