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Xenon trioxide

Xenon trioxide is an unstable compound of xenon in its +6 oxidation state. It is a very powerful oxidizing agent, and liberates oxygen from water slowly, accelerated by exposure to sunlight. It is dangerously explosive upon contact with organic materials. When it detonates, it releases xenon and oxygen gas.

Xenon trioxide
Names
IUPAC names
Xenon trioxide
Xenon(VI) oxide
Other names
Xenic anhydride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
UNII
  • InChI=1S/O3Xe/c1-4(2)3 Y
    Key: ZWAWYSBJNBVQHP-UHFFFAOYSA-N Y
  • InChI=1/O3Xe/c1-4(2)3
    Key: ZWAWYSBJNBVQHP-UHFFFAOYAR
  • [O-][Xe+3]([O-])[O-]
Properties
XeO3
Molar mass 179.288 g/mol
Appearance colourless crystalline solid
Density 4.55 g/cm3, solid
Melting point 25 °C (77 °F; 298 K) Violent decomposition
Soluble (with reaction)
Structure
trigonal pyramidal (C3v)
Thermochemistry
402 kJ·mol−1
Hazards
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Xenon tetroxide
Xenic acid
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Nverify (what is YN ?)
Infobox references

Xenon trioxide is a strong oxidising agent and can oxidise most substances that are at all oxidisable. However, it is slow-acting and this reduces its usefulness.

Above 25 °C, xenon trioxide is very prone to violent explosion:

2 XeO3 → 2 Xe + 3 O2Hf = −402 kJ/mol)

When it dissolves in water, an acidic solution of xenic acid is formed:

XeO3(aq) + H2O → H2XeO4 ⇌ H+ +HXeO
4

This solution is stable at room temperature and lacks the explosive properties of xenon trioxide. It oxidises carboxylic acids quantitatively to carbon dioxide and water.

Alternatively, it dissolves in alkaline solutions to form xenates. TheHXeO
4
anion is the predominant species in xenate solutions. These are not stable and begin to disproportionate into perxenates (+8 oxidation state) and xenon and oxygen gas. Solid perxenates containingXeO4−
6
have been isolated by reactingXeO
3
with an aqueous solution of hydroxides. Xenon trioxide reacts with inorganic fluorides such as KF, RbF, or CsF to form stable solids of the formMXeO
3
F
.

Hydrolysis of xenon hexafluoride or xenon tetrafluoride yields a solution from which colorless XeO3 crystals can be obtained by evaporation. The crystals are stable for days in dry air, but readily absorb water from humid air to form a concentrated solution. The crystal structure is orthorhombic with a = 6.163 Å, b = 8.115 Å, c = 5.234 Å, and 4 molecules per unit cell. The density is 4.55 g/cm3.

ball-and-stick model of part of
the crystal structure of XeO3
space-filling model coordination geometry of Xe

XeO3 should be handled with great caution. Samples have detonated when undisturbed at room temperature. Dry crystals react explosively with cellulose.

  1. Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A23. ISBN 978-0-618-94690-7.
  2. Greenwood, N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  3. Jaselskis B.; Krueger R. H. (July 1966). "Titrimetric determination of some organic acids by xenon trioxide oxidation". Talanta. 13 (7): 945–949. doi:10.1016/0039-9140(66)80192-3. PMID 18959958.
  4. Peterson, J. L.; Claassen, H. H.; Appelman, E. H. (March 1970). "Vibrational spectra and structures of xenate(VI) and perxenate(VIII) ions in aqueous solution". Inorganic Chemistry. 9 (3): 619–621. doi:10.1021/ic50085a037.
  5. W. Henderson (2000).Main group chemistry. Great Britain: Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 152–153. ISBN 0-85404-617-8.
  6. Egon Wiberg; Nils Wiberg; Arnold Frederick Holleman (2001). Inorganic chemistry. Academic Press. p. 399. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  7. John H. Holloway; Eric G. Hope (1998). A. G. Sykes (ed.). Recent Advances in Noble-gas Chemistry. Advances in Inorganic Chemistry, Volume 46. Academic Press. p. 65. ISBN 0-12-023646-X.
  8. Templeton, D. H.; Zalkin, A.; Forrester, J. D.; Williamson, S. M. (1963). "Crystal and Molecular Structure of Xenon Trioxide". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 85 (6): 817. doi:10.1021/ja00889a037.
  9. Bartlett, N.; Rao, P. R. (1963). "Xenon Hydroxide: an Experimental Hazard". Science. 139 (3554): 506. Bibcode:1963Sci...139..506B. doi:10.1126/science.139.3554.506. PMID 17843880.

Xenon trioxide
Xenon trioxide Language Watch Edit Xenon trioxide is an unstable compound of xenon in its 6 oxidation state It is a very powerful oxidizing agent and liberates oxygen from water slowly accelerated by exposure to sunlight It is dangerously explosive upon contact with organic materials When it detonates it releases xenon and oxygen gas Xenon trioxide NamesIUPAC names Xenon trioxide Xenon VI oxideOther names Xenic anhydrideIdentifiersCAS Number 13776 58 4 Y3D model JSmol Interactive imageChemSpider 21106493 YUNII IM8XMX5O5Q YCompTox Dashboard EPA DTXSID80894909InChI InChI 1S O3Xe c1 4 2 3 YKey ZWAWYSBJNBVQHP UHFFFAOYSA N YInChI 1 O3Xe c1 4 2 3Key ZWAWYSBJNBVQHP UHFFFAOYARSMILES O Xe 3 O O PropertiesChemical formula XeO3Molar mass 179 288 g molAppearance colourless crystalline solidDensity 4 55 g cm3 solidMelting point 25 C 77 F 298 K Violent decompositionSolubility in water Soluble with reaction StructureMolecular shape trigonal pyramidal C3v ThermochemistryStd enthalpy of formation DfH 298 402 kJ mol 1 1 HazardsNFPA 704 fire diamond 404OXRelated compoundsRelated compounds Xenon tetroxide Xenic acidExcept where otherwise noted data are given for materials in their standard state at 25 C 77 F 100 kPa N verify what is Y N Infobox referencesChemistry EditXenon trioxide is a strong oxidising agent and can oxidise most substances that are at all oxidisable However it is slow acting and this reduces its usefulness 2 Above 25 C xenon trioxide is very prone to violent explosion 2 XeO3 2 Xe 3 O2 DHf 402 kJ mol When it dissolves in water an acidic solution of xenic acid is formed XeO3 aq H2O H2XeO4 H HXeO 4 This solution is stable at room temperature and lacks the explosive properties of xenon trioxide It oxidises carboxylic acids quantitatively to carbon dioxide and water 3 Alternatively it dissolves in alkaline solutions to form xenates The HXeO 4 anion is the predominant species in xenate solutions 4 These are not stable and begin to disproportionate into perxenates 8 oxidation state and xenon and oxygen gas 5 Solid perxenates containing XeO4 6 have been isolated by reacting XeO3 with an aqueous solution of hydroxides Xenon trioxide reacts with inorganic fluorides such as KF RbF or CsF to form stable solids of the form MXeO3 F 6 Physical properties EditHydrolysis of xenon hexafluoride or xenon tetrafluoride yields a solution from which colorless XeO3 crystals can be obtained by evaporation 7 The crystals are stable for days in dry air but readily absorb water from humid air to form a concentrated solution The crystal structure is orthorhombic with a 6 163 A b 8 115 A c 5 234 A and 4 molecules per unit cell The density is 4 55 g cm3 8 ball and stick model of part of the crystal structure of XeO3 space filling model coordination geometry of XeSafety EditXeO3 should be handled with great caution Samples have detonated when undisturbed at room temperature Dry crystals react explosively with cellulose 8 9 References Edit Zumdahl Steven S 2009 Chemical Principles 6th Ed Houghton Mifflin Company p A23 ISBN 978 0 618 94690 7 Greenwood N Earnshaw A 1997 Chemistry of the Elements Oxford Butterworth Heinemann Jaselskis B Krueger R H July 1966 Titrimetric determination of some organic acids by xenon trioxide oxidation Talanta 13 7 945 949 doi 10 1016 0039 9140 66 80192 3 PMID 18959958 Peterson J L Claassen H H Appelman E H March 1970 Vibrational spectra and structures of xenate VI and perxenate VIII ions in aqueous solution Inorganic Chemistry 9 3 619 621 doi 10 1021 ic50085a037 W Henderson 2000 Main group chemistry Great Britain Royal Society of Chemistry pp 152 153 ISBN 0 85404 617 8 Egon Wiberg Nils Wiberg Arnold Frederick Holleman 2001 Inorganic chemistry Academic Press p 399 ISBN 0 12 352651 5 John H Holloway Eric G Hope 1998 A G Sykes ed Recent Advances in Noble gas Chemistry Advances in Inorganic Chemistry Volume 46 Academic Press p 65 ISBN 0 12 023646 X a b Templeton D H Zalkin A Forrester J D Williamson S M 1963 Crystal and Molecular Structure of Xenon Trioxide Journal of the American Chemical Society 85 6 817 doi 10 1021 ja00889a037 Bartlett N Rao P R 1963 Xenon Hydroxide an Experimental Hazard Science 139 3554 506 Bibcode 1963Sci 139 506B doi 10 1126 science 139 3554 506 PMID 17843880 External links EditWebelements periodic table page on Xenon VI oxide Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Xenon trioxide amp oldid 1041697450, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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