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Xhafer Deva

Xhafer Deva (21 February 1904 – 25 May 1978) was a Kosovo Albanian politician during World War II. A notable local politician in Kosovo and in Axis-occupied Albania, he took charge German-occupied Mitrovica and worked with the Germans to establish a pro-German Albanian government in Kosovo. Following the capitulation of Italy from the war, he helped form a provisional government under German occupation and set up the Second League of Prizren alongside other Albanian nationalists.

Xhafer Ibrahim Deva
33rd Minister of Internal Affairs of Albania
In office
5 November 1943 – 16 June 1944
PresidentRegency Council
Prime MinisterRexhep Mitrovica
Preceded byKol Bib Mirakaj
Succeeded byFiqri Dine
Head of the local administration in Mitrovica
In office
1941 – 5 November 1943
Personal details
Born(1904-02-21)21 February 1904
Mitrovica, Kosovo Vilayet, Ottoman Empire
Died25 May 1978(1978-05-25) (aged 74)
San Francisco, California
Nationality Albanian
Political partyBalli Kombëtar
OccupationMerchant
Entrepreneur
Military service
AllegianceAlbanian Kingdom (1943–44)

In November 1943, he was appointed Minister of the Interior and was effectively given direct command of the forces of the newly formed Albanian government. On 4 February 1944, police units subordinate to him massacred 86 residents of Tirana suspected of being anti-fascists. Deva was later involved in recruiting Kosovo Albanians to join the 21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg (1st Albanian). He lost his position as Minister of the Interior with the dissolution of the Albanian government on 16 June, and subsequently became leader of the Second League of Prizren and led anti-Partisan operations around Prizren in September. Soon after, he fled to Croatia and then to Austria with the help of the Germans, where he joined other anti-Communist Albanians.

After the war, he moved via Italy to Damascus, where he helped publish an exile newspaper entitled Bashkimi i Kombit (Albanian: Unity of the Nation). In 1956, he immigrated to the United States and briefly lived in New York and Boston before moving to Calaveras County, California in 1960. Here, he worked as an assistant supervisor at the mailing department of Stanford University in Palo Alto until his retirement in 1972. During this time, he led the Third League of Prizren and played an active role in organizing anti-Communist resistance until his death on 25 May 1978. Files released after his death showed that he had been recruited by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) while living in the United States.

Contents

Xhafer Ibrahim Deva was born in Mitrovica, Kosovo Vilayet, Ottoman Empire on 21 February 1904. He was the seventh son of Ibrahim Deva, a wood merchant from Đakovica. Prior to the Balkan Wars, he attended a German-language school in Salonika. Afterwards, he studied commerce at Robert College, an American private boarding school in Istanbul's Arnavutköy neighbourhood. He graduated in 1922 and travelled to Egypt, where he briefly worked for a bank in Alexandria. Suffering from rheumatism, he left Egypt and sought treatment in Austria. He studied forestry in Vienna before returning to Mitrovica in 1933 and setting up a lumber business that lasted until 1941.

The Kingdom of Italy invaded the Albanian Kingdom on 7 April 1939, and deposed its monarch, King Zog I. Afterwards, they re-established the Albanian state as a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy,

By 1941, Deva was the first Kosovo Albanian political leader to declare himself ready to collaborate with the Germans in the event of the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia. Having been in contact with the Abwehr (the German military intelligence) for some time, he met Hermann Neubacher, the German special representative for southeastern Europe, in Belgrade prior to the invasion and had given the latter his support.

The Axis powers invaded the Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 6 April 1941. Afterwards, the country was dismantled and the Wehrmacht established the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia under a military government of occupation. The territory included most of Serbia proper, with the addition of the northern portion of Kosovo and the Banat. Italian Albania was expanded to include adjacent parts of Yugoslavia incorporated mainly from the Yugoslav banovinas (regional subdivisions) of Vardar and Morava. Most of Kosovo was annexed to Albania and in the beginning Albanians living there enthusiastically welcomed the Italian occupation. Although officially under Italian rule, the Albanians controlled the region and were encouraged to open Albanian language schools, which had been banned by the Yugoslav government. The Italians also gave the inhabitants Albanian citizenship and allowed them to fly the Albanian flag.

Later that year, Deva worked with the Balli Kombëtar and the Germans to establish a pro-German Albanian government in Kosovo linked to the Albanian nation. He quickly became the Balli Kombëtar's most powerful figure, instructing members to follow a militant interpretation of Islam. The most capable Kosovo Albanian politician of the war, he was then appointed head of the local administration in German-occupied Mitrovica. After the capitulation of Italy, Deva and Bedri Pejani, assisted by the German emissary Franz von Schweiger, set up the Second League of Prizren on 16 September 1943. The league, whose aim was to defend the borders of Greater Albania, declared jihad (holy war) against Slavs, Gypsies and Jews and sought to create an ethnically cleansed Greater Albania. Between 4 and 7 December 1943, 400 soldiers of Kosovo Regiment commanded by Deva surrounded Peć and committed mass murder of local Serbs and Montenegrins, killing at least 300 people. Deva subsequently placed the newly established units of Balli Kombëtar under the command of the Germans.

Together with Pejani and Ibrahim Biçakçiu, a landowner from Elbasan, he later helped create a national committee of twenty-two Albanian and Kosovo Albanian leaders which declared Albania independent and which elected an executive committee under Biçakçiu to form a provisional government. On 5 November, Deva was appointed Minister of the Interior in the Tirana Government of Rexhep Mitrovica and collaborated with the Germans to oppose the spread of Communist forces in the north, effectively giving him direct command over the forces of the new government.

Xhafer Deva's house in Mitrovica

On 4 February 1944, police units under his authority massacred 86 residents of Tirana suspected of being anti-fascists. Later, Deva began recruiting Kosovo Albanians to join the 21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg (1st Albanian). In May, he visited Germany with Ago Agaj, the Albanian Minister of National Economy. On 16 June, Mitrovica's government was dissolved and Deva lost his position as Minister of the Interior. He was then appointed leader of the Second League of Prizren, and took charge of anti-Partisan operations around the town in September.

With the Allied victory in the Balkans imminent, Deva was also involved in a last-ditch attempt to set up an anti-Communist government in Kosovo, and received large caches of weapons and ammunition from SS General Josef Fitzthum and Neubacher's special representative, Karl Gstottenbauer. He and his men also engaged in collecting food and radio equipment from withdrawing German soldiers and attempted to purchase further weapons from them in order to organize a "final solution" of the Slavic population of Kosovo. Nothing came of this as the powerful Yugoslav Partisans prevented any large-scale ethnic cleansing of Slavs from occurring. According to German reports from November 1944, Deva had a force of about 20,000 armed men at his disposal. Historian Jozo Tomasevich writes that this number is likely exaggerated, but concedes that large groups of Kosovo Albanians were active in the region at the time.

Historical review of Deva's role in World War II has become more complicated as, while his atrocities and collaboration with the Axis continue to be acknowledged and condemned, his role in saving Jews within Albania proper has also come to light. In the spring of 1944, the Nazi occupiers again asked for a list of Jews, which had earlier been refused by Albanian collaborationist authorities; upon hearing the grave situation, two of the local Jewish leaders sought the council of Mehdi Frasheri, a government official, for help; Frasheri referred them to Xhafer Deva, who apparently on the one hand had a "good reputation for protecting Jews" yet on the other "had become known for the terror he exercised across the streets of Tirana along with his hordes". Xhafer Deva, then the interior minister of the Albanian quisling government, reportedly told two Jewish delegates that he had the list, and agreed that he would protest the matter with the Germans. He refused to hand the list over to the Germans and rejected their requests to gather Jews in one place, purportedly because of the Albanian besa custom of hospitality. To the Germans, Deva argued that he would not hand over the list as he would not accept "interference in Albanian affairs". Deva informed the leaders of the Jewish community that he had successfully refused the German request afterward. In June 1944, the German government asked for the list of Jews again, and the Albanian collaborationist government refused yet again.

As the war in Albania drew to a close, Deva fled to Croatia and then to Austria in December, where he was resettled with the help of the Reich Foreign Ministry as the Germans evacuated Albania and Kosovo. There, he joined other anti-Communist Albanians in exile and took care of the ailing Rexhep Mitrovica. From late 1945 until early 1947, he lived in western Austria, at a safe distance from Soviet forces. In 1947, Deva moved via Italy to Damascus in Syria, where he helped publish an exile newspaper entitled Bashkimi i Kombit (Albanian: Unity of the Nation). In 1956, he immigrated to the United States and briefly lived in New York and Boston. In 1960, he moved to Calaveras County, California, and worked as an assistant supervisor at the mailing department of Stanford University in Palo Alto until his retirement in 1972. In his years in exile, Deva led the Third League of Prizren and played an active role in organizing anti-Communist resistance. He died on 25 May 1978, aged 74. Files released after his death showed that Deva was one of 743 suspected fascist war criminals recruited by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) during the Cold War.

  1. Elsie 2012, p. 108.
  2. Fischer 1999, pp. 21–57.
  3. Fischer 1999, p. 161.
  4. Ramet 2006, p. 111.
  5. Hehn 1971, p. 350, official name of the occupied territory.
  6. Tomasevich 2001, pp. 63–64.
  7. Lemkin 2008, pp. 260–261.
  8. Judah 2002, p. 27.
  9. Ramet 2006, p. 141.
  10. Judah 2002, p. 28.
  11. Bideleux & Jeffries 2007, p. 525.
  12. Simeunović & Dolnik 2013, p. 94.
  13. Meier 1999, p. 24.
  14. Elsie 2012, p. 109.
  15. Frank 2010, p. 97.
  16. (Filipović 1989, p. 148): "At the end of 1943 (December 3), about 400 members of the so-called "Kosovo Regiment", headed by the criminal Xhafer Deva, arrived in Pec. As early as December 4, after the complete encirclement of the town, began the mass massacre of ..."
  17. Pearson 2006, pp. 301–302.
  18. Pearson 2006, p. 302.
  19. Pearson 2006, p. 326.
  20. Fischer 1999, p. 215.
  21. Elsie 2012, p. 5.
  22. Tomasevich 2001, p. 154.
  23. Yeomans 2006, p. 31.
  24. Monika Stafa (June 2017). "Attitude of Collaborative Governments in Defense of the Jews during the War". Anglisticum Journal. 6 (6).
  25. Monika Stafa (June 2017). "Attitude of Collaborative Governments in Defense of the Jews during the War". Anglisticum Journal. 6 (6): 39.
  26. Aleksandar Gaon (2005). "We Survived... Yugoslav Jews on the Holocaust". The Jewish Historical Museum. Page 278.
  27. Joseph Berger (November 18, 2013). "Casting Light on Little-Known Story of Albania Rescuing Jews From Nazis". New York Times. Rafael Jakoel and his brother-in-law went to Tirana to meet the interior minister, Xhafer Deva, of what seemingly was a fascist government collaborating with the Nazis. The minister even showed them a list of Jews whom the Germans had asked for. Nevertheless besa was so forceful that he did not turn over the list, Ms. Jakoel said.
  28. Monika Stafa (June 2017). "Attitude of Collaborative Governments in Defense of the Jews during the War". Anglisticum Journal. 6 (6): 40.
  29. Fischer 1999, p. 237.
  30. Tomasevich 2001, p. 155.
  31. Breitman et al. 2005, p. 374.

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Xhafer Deva
Xhafer Deva Language Watch Edit Xhafer Deva 21 February 1904 25 May 1978 was a Kosovo Albanian politician during World War II A notable local politician in Kosovo and in Axis occupied Albania he took charge German occupied Mitrovica and worked with the Germans to establish a pro German Albanian government in Kosovo Following the capitulation of Italy from the war he helped form a provisional government under German occupation and set up the Second League of Prizren alongside other Albanian nationalists Xhafer Ibrahim Deva33rd Minister of Internal Affairs of AlbaniaIn office 5 November 1943 16 June 1944PresidentRegency CouncilPrime MinisterRexhep MitrovicaPreceded byKol Bib MirakajSucceeded byFiqri DineHead of the local administration in MitrovicaIn office 1941 5 November 1943Personal detailsBorn 1904 02 21 21 February 1904 Mitrovica Kosovo Vilayet Ottoman EmpireDied25 May 1978 1978 05 25 aged 74 San Francisco CaliforniaNationalityAlbanianPolitical partyBalli KombetarOccupationMerchant EntrepreneurMilitary serviceAllegianceAlbanian Kingdom 1943 44 In November 1943 he was appointed Minister of the Interior and was effectively given direct command of the forces of the newly formed Albanian government On 4 February 1944 police units subordinate to him massacred 86 residents of Tirana suspected of being anti fascists Deva was later involved in recruiting Kosovo Albanians to join the 21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg 1st Albanian He lost his position as Minister of the Interior with the dissolution of the Albanian government on 16 June and subsequently became leader of the Second League of Prizren and led anti Partisan operations around Prizren in September Soon after he fled to Croatia and then to Austria with the help of the Germans where he joined other anti Communist Albanians After the war he moved via Italy to Damascus where he helped publish an exile newspaper entitled Bashkimi i Kombit Albanian Unity of the Nation In 1956 he immigrated to the United States and briefly lived in New York and Boston before moving to Calaveras County California in 1960 Here he worked as an assistant supervisor at the mailing department of Stanford University in Palo Alto until his retirement in 1972 During this time he led the Third League of Prizren and played an active role in organizing anti Communist resistance until his death on 25 May 1978 Files released after his death showed that he had been recruited by the Central Intelligence Agency CIA while living in the United States Contents 1 Early life 2 World War II 3 Exile and death 4 Notes 5 References 5 1 Books 5 2 Journals 6 External linksEarly life EditXhafer Ibrahim Deva was born in Mitrovica Kosovo Vilayet Ottoman Empire on 21 February 1904 He was the seventh son of Ibrahim Deva a wood merchant from Đakovica Prior to the Balkan Wars he attended a German language school in Salonika Afterwards he studied commerce at Robert College an American private boarding school in Istanbul s Arnavutkoy neighbourhood He graduated in 1922 and travelled to Egypt where he briefly worked for a bank in Alexandria Suffering from rheumatism he left Egypt and sought treatment in Austria He studied forestry in Vienna before returning to Mitrovica in 1933 and setting up a lumber business that lasted until 1941 1 World War II EditThe Kingdom of Italy invaded the Albanian Kingdom on 7 April 1939 and deposed its monarch King Zog I Afterwards they re established the Albanian state as a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy 2 By 1941 Deva was the first Kosovo Albanian political leader to declare himself ready to collaborate with the Germans in the event of the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia Having been in contact with the Abwehr the German military intelligence for some time he met Hermann Neubacher the German special representative for southeastern Europe in Belgrade prior to the invasion and had given the latter his support 3 The Axis powers invaded the Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 6 April 1941 4 Afterwards the country was dismantled and the Wehrmacht established the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia 5 under a military government of occupation The territory included most of Serbia proper with the addition of the northern portion of Kosovo and the Banat 6 Italian Albania was expanded to include adjacent parts of Yugoslavia incorporated mainly from the Yugoslav banovinas regional subdivisions of Vardar and Morava 7 Most of Kosovo was annexed to Albania and in the beginning Albanians living there enthusiastically welcomed the Italian occupation 8 Although officially under Italian rule the Albanians controlled the region and were encouraged to open Albanian language schools 9 which had been banned by the Yugoslav government 10 The Italians also gave the inhabitants Albanian citizenship and allowed them to fly the Albanian flag 9 Later that year Deva worked with the Balli Kombetar and the Germans to establish a pro German Albanian government in Kosovo linked to the Albanian nation 1 He quickly became the Balli Kombetar s most powerful figure 11 instructing members to follow a militant interpretation of Islam 12 The most capable Kosovo Albanian politician of the war 13 he was then appointed head of the local administration in German occupied Mitrovica 1 After the capitulation of Italy Deva and Bedri Pejani assisted by the German emissary Franz von Schweiger 14 set up the Second League of Prizren on 16 September 1943 11 The league whose aim was to defend the borders of Greater Albania 1 declared jihad holy war against Slavs Gypsies and Jews and sought to create an ethnically cleansed Greater Albania 15 Between 4 and 7 December 1943 400 soldiers of Kosovo Regiment commanded by Deva surrounded Pec and committed mass murder of local Serbs and Montenegrins killing at least 300 people 16 Deva subsequently placed the newly established units of Balli Kombetar under the command of the Germans 11 Together with Pejani and Ibrahim Bicakciu a landowner from Elbasan he later helped create a national committee of twenty two Albanian and Kosovo Albanian leaders which declared Albania independent and which elected an executive committee under Bicakciu to form a provisional government On 5 November 17 Deva was appointed Minister of the Interior in the Tirana Government of Rexhep Mitrovica and collaborated with the Germans to oppose the spread of Communist forces in the north 14 effectively giving him direct command over the forces of the new government 18 Xhafer Deva s house in Mitrovica On 4 February 1944 police units under his authority massacred 86 residents of Tirana suspected of being anti fascists 14 19 Later Deva began recruiting Kosovo Albanians to join the 21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg 1st Albanian 20 In May he visited Germany with Ago Agaj the Albanian Minister of National Economy 21 On 16 June Mitrovica s government was dissolved and Deva lost his position as Minister of the Interior 1 He was then appointed leader of the Second League of Prizren 14 and took charge of anti Partisan operations around the town in September 22 With the Allied victory in the Balkans imminent Deva was also involved in a last ditch attempt to set up an anti Communist government in Kosovo and received large caches of weapons and ammunition from SS General Josef Fitzthum and Neubacher s special representative Karl Gstottenbauer 1 He and his men also engaged in collecting food and radio equipment from withdrawing German soldiers 22 and attempted to purchase further weapons from them in order to organize a final solution of the Slavic population of Kosovo Nothing came of this as the powerful Yugoslav Partisans prevented any large scale ethnic cleansing of Slavs from occurring 23 According to German reports from November 1944 Deva had a force of about 20 000 armed men at his disposal Historian Jozo Tomasevich writes that this number is likely exaggerated but concedes that large groups of Kosovo Albanians were active in the region at the time 22 Historical review of Deva s role in World War II has become more complicated as while his atrocities and collaboration with the Axis continue to be acknowledged and condemned his role in saving Jews within Albania proper has also come to light 24 In the spring of 1944 the Nazi occupiers again asked for a list of Jews which had earlier been refused by Albanian collaborationist authorities upon hearing the grave situation two of the local Jewish leaders sought the council of Mehdi Frasheri a government official for help Frasheri referred them to Xhafer Deva who apparently on the one hand had a good reputation for protecting Jews yet on the other had become known for the terror he exercised across the streets of Tirana along with his hordes 25 26 Xhafer Deva then the interior minister of the Albanian quisling government reportedly told two Jewish delegates that he had the list and agreed that he would protest the matter with the Germans 25 He refused to hand the list over to the Germans and rejected their requests to gather Jews in one place purportedly because of the Albanian besa custom of hospitality 27 25 To the Germans Deva argued that he would not hand over the list as he would not accept interference in Albanian affairs 28 Deva informed the leaders of the Jewish community that he had successfully refused the German request afterward 28 In June 1944 the German government asked for the list of Jews again and the Albanian collaborationist government refused yet again 28 Exile and death EditAs the war in Albania drew to a close Deva fled to Croatia and then to Austria in December 1 where he was resettled with the help of the Reich Foreign Ministry as the Germans evacuated Albania and Kosovo 29 There he joined other anti Communist Albanians in exile and took care of the ailing Rexhep Mitrovica From late 1945 until early 1947 he lived in western Austria at a safe distance from Soviet forces In 1947 Deva moved via Italy to Damascus in Syria where he helped publish an exile newspaper entitled Bashkimi i Kombit Albanian Unity of the Nation In 1956 he immigrated to the United States and briefly lived in New York and Boston In 1960 he moved to Calaveras County California 14 and worked as an assistant supervisor at the mailing department 30 of Stanford University in Palo Alto until his retirement in 1972 In his years in exile Deva led the Third League of Prizren and played an active role in organizing anti Communist resistance He died on 25 May 1978 aged 74 14 Files released after his death showed that Deva was one of 743 suspected fascist war criminals recruited by the Central Intelligence Agency CIA during the Cold War 31 Notes Edit a b c d e f g Elsie 2012 p 108 Fischer 1999 pp 21 57 Fischer 1999 p 161 Ramet 2006 p 111 Hehn 1971 p 350 official name of the occupied territory Tomasevich 2001 pp 63 64 Lemkin 2008 pp 260 261 Judah 2002 p 27 a b Ramet 2006 p 141 Judah 2002 p 28 a b c Bideleux amp Jeffries 2007 p 525 Simeunovic amp Dolnik 2013 p 94 Meier 1999 p 24 a b c d e f Elsie 2012 p 109 Frank 2010 p 97 Filipovic 1989 p 148 At the end of 1943 December 3 about 400 members of the so called Kosovo Regiment headed by the criminal Xhafer Deva arrived in Pec As early as December 4 after the complete encirclement of the town began the mass massacre of Pearson 2006 pp 301 302 Pearson 2006 p 302 Pearson 2006 p 326 Fischer 1999 p 215 Elsie 2012 p 5 a b c Tomasevich 2001 p 154 Yeomans 2006 p 31 Monika Stafa June 2017 Attitude of Collaborative Governments in Defense of the Jews during the War Anglisticum Journal 6 6 a b c Monika Stafa June 2017 Attitude of Collaborative Governments in Defense of the Jews during the War Anglisticum Journal 6 6 39 Aleksandar Gaon 2005 We Survived Yugoslav Jews on the Holocaust The Jewish Historical Museum Page 278 Joseph Berger November 18 2013 Casting Light on Little Known Story of Albania Rescuing Jews From Nazis New York Times Rafael Jakoel and his brother in law went to Tirana to meet the interior minister Xhafer Deva of what seemingly was a fascist government collaborating with the Nazis The minister even showed them a list of Jews whom the Germans had asked for Nevertheless besa was so forceful that he did not turn over the list Ms Jakoel said a b c Monika Stafa June 2017 Attitude of Collaborative Governments in Defense of the Jews during the War Anglisticum Journal 6 6 40 Fischer 1999 p 237 Tomasevich 2001 p 155 Breitman et al 2005 p 374 References EditBooks Edit Bideleux Robert Jeffries Ian 2007 The Balkans A Post Communist History London England Routledge ISBN 978 0 203 96911 3 Breitman Richard Goda Norman J W Naftali Timothy Wolfe Robert 2005 U S Intelligence and the Nazis Cambridge Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 61794 9 Elsie Robert 2012 A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History London I B Tauris ISBN 978 1 78076 431 3 Filipovic Gordana 1989 Kosovo past and present Review of International Affairs Fischer Bernd Jurgen 1999 Albania at War 1939 1945 West Lafayette Indiana Purdue Research Foundation ISBN 978 1 55753 141 4 Frank Chaim 2010 Petersen Hans Christian Salzborn Samuel eds Antisemitism in Eastern Europe History and Present in Comparison Bern Switzerland Peter Lang ISBN 978 3 631 59828 3 Judah Tim 2002 Kosovo War and Revenge New Haven Connecticut Yale University Press ISBN 978 0 300 09725 2 Meier Viktor 1999 Yugoslavia A History of Its Demise New York Routledge ISBN 0 415 18595 5 Pearson Owen 2006 Albania in the Twentieth Century A History Albania in Occupation and War 1939 45 2 London I B Tauris ISBN 978 1 84511 104 5 Lemkin Raphael 2008 Axis Rule in Occupied Europe Clark New Jersey The Lawbook Exchange ISBN 978 1 58477 901 8 Ramet Sabrina P 2006 The Three Yugoslavias State Building and Legitimation 1918 2005 Bloomington Indiana Indiana University Press ISBN 978 0 253 34656 8 Simeunovic Dragan Dolnik Adam 2013 Security Threats of Violent Islamist Extremism In Cross Sharyl Kentera Savo Nation R Craig et al eds Shaping South East Europe s Security Community for the Twenty First Century Trust Partnership Integration Basingstoke England Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 978 1 137 01020 9 Tomasevich Jozo 2001 War and Revolution in Yugoslavia 1941 1945 Occupation and Collaboration Stanford California Stanford University Press ISBN 978 0 8047 3615 2 Yeomans Rory 2006 Blamires Cyprian Jackson Paul eds World Fascism A Historical Encyclopedia 1 Santa Barbara California ABC CLIO ISBN 978 1 57607 940 9 Journals Edit Hehn Paul N 1971 Serbia Croatia and Germany 1941 1945 Civil War and Revolution in the Balkans Canadian Slavonic Papers University of Alberta 13 4 344 373 doi 10 1080 00085006 1971 11091249 JSTOR 40866373 External links Edit Media related to Xhafer Deva at Wikimedia Commons Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Xhafer Deva amp oldid 1053104056, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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