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Xikang

Xikang (also Sikang or Hsikang) was an illusory province formed by the Republic of China in 1939 on the initiative of prominent Sichuan warlord Liu Wenhui and continued by the early People's Republic of China. It comprised most of the Kham region, where the Khampa, a subgroup of the Tibetan people, live. The then independent Tibet controlled the portion of Kham west of the Upper Yangtze River. The nominal Xikang province also included in the south the Assam Himalayan region (Arunachal Pradesh) that Tibet had recognised as a part of British India by the 1914 McMahon Line agreement. The eastern part of the province was inhabited by a number of different ethnic groups, such as Han Chinese, Yi, Qiang people and Tibetan, then known as Chuanbian (川邊), a special administrative region of the Republic of China. In 1939, it became the new Xikang province with the additional territories belonging to Tibetan and British control added in. After the People's Republic of China invaded and occupied Tibet, the earlier nationalist imagination of Xikang came to fruition.

Xikang Province
西康省
Province of the Republic of China (1939–1950)
1939–1950

Xikang Province in the Republic of China, light blue under control of Chinese warlord
CapitalKangding (1912-1931)
Ba'an (1931-1935)
Ya'an (1935-1936)
Kangding (1935-1949)
Xichang (1949-1950)
Area
• Estimate
451,521 km2 (174,333 sq mi)
Population
• Estimate
1,748,458
History
Historical era20th century
• Established
1939
• Fall of Xichang
27 March 1950
• Disestablished
1950
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Today part ofChina
India
Xikang Province
西康省
Province of the People's Republic of China (1950–1955)
1950–1955

Xikang Province (orange) in the People's Republic of China
CapitalKangding (1950-1951)
Ya'an (1951-1955)
Area
• 1953
451,521 km2 (174,333 sq mi)
Population
• 1953
3,381,064
History
Historical era20th century
• Established
1950
• Disestablished
1955
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Today part ofChina
India

The provincial capital of Xikang was Kangding from 1939 to 1951 and Ya'an from 1951 to 1955. The province had a population of 3.4 million in 1954.

Contents

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(January 2021) ()
The Xikang province sketched in a 1950 map by CIA. Borders shown in dark green lines.
The Chinese control of the southeastern Tibet shown along with the proposed Simla Convention frontier of 1914.

In 1910, general Zhao Erfang occupied Kham region, destroyed a few monasteries and killed over 1000 lamas. Later on, he proclaimed this territory as a new Chinese province subsequently known as Xikang.

Following the Wuchang Uprising in October 1911 which led to the downfall of the Qing dynasty, this region[which?] was established as the Chuanbian Special Administrative District (川邊特別行政區) by the newly founded Republic of China.

In June 1930 this region[which?] was invaded by the army of Tibet, precipitating the Sino-Tibetan War. With the district locked in internal struggles, no reinforcements were sent to support the Sichuanese troops stationed here. As a result, the Tibetan army captured, without encountering much resistance, Garze and Xinlong Counties. When a negotiated ceasefire failed, Tibetan forces expanded the war attempting to capture parts of southern Qinghai province. In March 1932 their force invaded Qinghai but was defeated by the local Hui warlord Ma Bufang in July, routing the Tibetan army and driving it back to this district.

The Hui army captured counties that had fallen into the hands of the Tibetan army since 1919. Their victories threatened the supply lines to the Tibetan forces in Garze and Xinlong. As a result, part of the Tibetan army was forced to withdraw.

In 1932 Liu Wenhui in cooperation with the Qinghai army, sent out a brigade to attack the Tibetan troops in Garze and Xinlong, eventually occupying them, Dêgê and other counties east of the Jinshajiang River. The 1934 Khamba Rebellion led by the Pandatsang family broke out against the Tibetan government in Lhasa. The Khampa revolutionary leader Pandatsang Rapga was involved.

In January 1939, the Chuanbian Special Administrative District officially became a province of the Republic, the Hsikang Province. Kesang Tsering was sent by the Chinese to Batang to take control of Sikang, where he formed a local government. He was sent there for the purpose of propagating the Three Principles of the People to the Khampa.

In 1950, following the defeat of the Kuomintang by the Communists in the Chinese Civil War, Xikang was split along the Yangtze into Sikang to the east and a separate Chamdo Territory (昌都地区) to the west. Chamdo was merged into Tibet Autonomous Region in 1965. The rest of Hsikang was merged into Sichuan in 1955.

1939-1950

Name Administrative Seat Traditional Chinese Subdivisions Comments
First Administrative Circuit Kangding County 第一行政督察區 4 counties, 1 bureau Later the Xikang Province Tibetan Autonomous Region
Second Administrative Circuit Yingjing County 第二行政督察區 7 counties Later the Ya'an Division
Third Administrative Circuit Xichang County 第三行政督察區 9 counties, 3 bureaus Later the XIchang Division
Fourth Administrative Circuit Garzê County 第四行政督察區 15 counties Later the Xikang Province Tibetan Autonomous Region
Fifth Administrative Circuit 第五行政督察區 13 counties Chamdo Region; de facto controlled by Tibet

1950–1955

Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Subdivisions
Ya'an (1951-1955) 雅安市 Yǎ'ān shì 1 city
Ya'an
Ya'an Division 雅安专区 Yǎ'ān Zhuānqū 8 counties
Ya'an (1950-1951), Baoxing, Lushan, Tianquan, Yingjing, Hanyuan, Mingshan (1951-1955), Shimian (1951-1955)
Xichang Division 西昌专区 Xīchāng Zhuānqū 13 counties
Xichang, Yanyuan, Yanbian, Huili, Ningnan, Dechang, Zhaojue (1950-1952), Yuexi, Mianning, Jinkang (1952-1955), Muli (1952-1955), Miyi (1952-1955), Huidong
3 bureaus
Puge (1950-1952), Ningdong (1950-1952), Luoning (1950-1952)
Xikang Province Tibetan Autonomous Region 西康省藏族自治区 Xīkāng Shěng Zàngzú Zìzhìqū 20 counties
direct controlled
Kangding, Danba, Qianning, Yajiang, Luding, Jiulong
1 bureau
Jintang

Ganzi Regional Office (1951-1955)
Ganzi, Shiqi, Dengke, Dege, Baiyu, Zhanghua→Xinlong, Luhuo, Daofu


Litang Regional Office (1951-1955)
Litang, Batang, Derong, Dingxiang→Xiangcheng, Daocheng, Yidun

Liangshan Yi Autonomous Region (1952-1955) 凉山彝族自治区 Liángshān Yízú Zìzhìqū 8 counties
Zhaojue, Puge, Ningdong, Xide, Butuo, Jinyang, Meigu, Puxiong

Kuomintang (Nationalist) Communist Party of China

Chairperson of the Provincial Government

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party
1 Liu Wenhui
劉文輝
Liú Wénhuī
(1895–1976)
1 January 1939 9 December 1949 Kuomintang
Defected to the Communists.
2 Ho Kuo-kuang
賀國光
Hè Guóguāng
(1885–1969)
25 December 1949 March 1950 Kuomintang
Fled to Taiwan via Haikou after fall of Xichang.

Xikang CPC Party Committee Secretary

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party
1 Liao Zhigao
廖志高
Liào Zhìgāo
(1913–2000)
1950 1955 Communist Party of China
Province abolished.

Xikang People's Government Chairperson (Governor after January 1955)

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party
1 Liao Zhigao
廖志高
Liào Zhìgāo
(1913–2000)
26 April 1950 September 1955 Communist Party of China
Province abolished.
  1. Lin, Boundary, sovereignty and imagination (2004), p. 30: "Despite its almost entirely illusory nature, the so-called Xikang province was officially sketched out by Chinese map-makers, from whom it came to be known nation-wide.
  2. Yajun Mo, "The New Frontier: Zhuang Xueben and Xikang Province", in "Chinese History in Geographical Perspective", edited by Yongtao Du and Jeff Kyong-McClain, p. 124, Lexington Books, 2013
  3. Lin, Boundary, sovereignty and imagination (2004), p. 29: "According to the Kuomintang, the boundary of this new Xikang province encompassed, not only part of the southwestern province of Sichuan that was then dominated by the Han Chinese warlord Liu Wenhui, but also a huge portion of the ethnographic Tibetan area west of the Upper Yangtze River that was then effectively administered by the autonomous Tibetan government."
  4. Lin, Boundary, sovereignty and imagination (2004), p. 29: "In addition, the newly carved provincial boundary also extended deep into the Tibetan-Assam tribal territory, including areas south of the theoretically existing McMahon Line that had been signed away to British India by Lhasa in 1914."
  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. RetrievedNovember 17, 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. Hsiao-ting Lin (2010). Modern China's ethnic frontiers: a journey to the west. Volume 67 of Routledge studies in the modern history of Asia (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-415-58264-3. Retrieved2011-12-27. area and spreading Sun Yat-sen's Three People's Principle among the Tibetan and Khampa minorities, Kesang Tsering set up a field headquarters in Batang (Pa'an). There he appointed his own Xikang provincial government staff and issued an|volume= has extra text ()

Xikang
Xikang Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Xikang Province Xikang also Sikang or Hsikang was an illusory province 1 formed by the Republic of China in 1939 on the initiative of prominent Sichuan warlord Liu Wenhui 2 and continued by the early People s Republic of China It comprised most of the Kham region where the Khampa a subgroup of the Tibetan people live The then independent Tibet controlled the portion of Kham west of the Upper Yangtze River 3 The nominal Xikang province also included in the south the Assam Himalayan region Arunachal Pradesh that Tibet had recognised as a part of British India by the 1914 McMahon Line agreement 4 The eastern part of the province was inhabited by a number of different ethnic groups such as Han Chinese Yi Qiang people and Tibetan then known as Chuanbian 川邊 a special administrative region of the Republic of China In 1939 it became the new Xikang province with the additional territories belonging to Tibetan and British control added in After the People s Republic of China invaded and occupied Tibet the earlier nationalist imagination of Xikang came to fruition Xikang Province西康省Province of the Republic of China 1939 1950 1939 1950Xikang Province in the Republic of China light blue under control of Chinese warlordCapitalKangding 1912 1931 Ba an 1931 1935 Ya an 1935 1936 Kangding 1935 1949 Xichang 1949 1950 Area Estimate451 521 km2 174 333 sq mi Population Estimate1 748 458HistoryHistorical era20th century Established1939 Fall of Xichang27 March 1950 Disestablished1950Preceded by Succeeded byChuanbian Special Region XikangChamdo RegionToday part of China IndiaXikang Province西康省Province of the People s Republic of China 1950 1955 1950 1955Xikang Province orange in the People s Republic of ChinaCapitalKangding 1950 1951 Ya an 1951 1955 Area 1953451 521 km2 174 333 sq mi Population 19533 381 064HistoryHistorical era20th century Established1950 Disestablished1955Preceded by Succeeded byXikang SichuanTibet Autonomous RegionToday part of China India The provincial capital of Xikang was Kangding from 1939 to 1951 and Ya an from 1951 to 1955 The province had a population of 3 4 million in 1954 5 Contents 1 History 2 Administrative divisions 2 1 1939 1950 2 2 1950 1955 3 List of governors 3 1 Chairperson of the Provincial Government 3 2 Xikang CPC Party Committee Secretary 3 3 Xikang People s Government Chairperson Governor after January 1955 4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyHistory EditThis section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed January 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message The Xikang province sketched in a 1950 map by CIA Borders shown in dark green lines The Chinese control of the southeastern Tibet shown along with the proposed Simla Convention frontier of 1914 In 1910 general Zhao Erfang occupied Kham region destroyed a few monasteries and killed over 1000 lamas Later on he proclaimed this territory as a new Chinese province subsequently known as Xikang Following the Wuchang Uprising in October 1911 which led to the downfall of the Qing dynasty this region which was established as the Chuanbian Special Administrative District 川邊特別行政區 by the newly founded Republic of China In June 1930 this region which was invaded by the army of Tibet precipitating the Sino Tibetan War With the district locked in internal struggles no reinforcements were sent to support the Sichuanese troops stationed here As a result the Tibetan army captured without encountering much resistance Garze and Xinlong Counties When a negotiated ceasefire failed Tibetan forces expanded the war attempting to capture parts of southern Qinghai province In March 1932 their force invaded Qinghai but was defeated by the local Hui warlord Ma Bufang in July routing the Tibetan army and driving it back to this district The Hui army captured counties that had fallen into the hands of the Tibetan army since 1919 Their victories threatened the supply lines to the Tibetan forces in Garze and Xinlong As a result part of the Tibetan army was forced to withdraw In 1932 Liu Wenhui in cooperation with the Qinghai army sent out a brigade to attack the Tibetan troops in Garze and Xinlong eventually occupying them Dege and other counties east of the Jinshajiang River The 1934 Khamba Rebellion led by the Pandatsang family broke out against the Tibetan government in Lhasa The Khampa revolutionary leader Pandatsang Rapga was involved In January 1939 the Chuanbian Special Administrative District officially became a province of the Republic the Hsikang Province Kesang Tsering was sent by the Chinese to Batang to take control of Sikang where he formed a local government He was sent there for the purpose of propagating the Three Principles of the People to the Khampa 6 In 1950 following the defeat of the Kuomintang by the Communists in the Chinese Civil War Xikang was split along the Yangtze into Sikang to the east and a separate Chamdo Territory 昌都地区 to the west Chamdo was merged into Tibet Autonomous Region in 1965 The rest of Hsikang was merged into Sichuan in 1955 Administrative divisions Edit1939 1950 Edit Name Administrative Seat Traditional Chinese Subdivisions CommentsFirst Administrative Circuit Kangding County 第一行政督察區 4 counties 1 bureau Later the Xikang Province Tibetan Autonomous RegionSecond Administrative Circuit Yingjing County 第二行政督察區 7 counties Later the Ya an DivisionThird Administrative Circuit Xichang County 第三行政督察區 9 counties 3 bureaus Later the XIchang DivisionFourth Administrative Circuit Garze County 第四行政督察區 15 counties Later the Xikang Province Tibetan Autonomous RegionFifth Administrative Circuit 第五行政督察區 13 counties Chamdo Region de facto controlled by Tibet1950 1955 Edit Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin SubdivisionsYa an 1951 1955 雅安市 Yǎ an shi 1 city Ya anYa an Division 雅安专区 Yǎ an Zhuanqu 8 counties Ya an 1950 1951 Baoxing Lushan Tianquan Yingjing Hanyuan Mingshan 1951 1955 Shimian 1951 1955 Xichang Division 西昌专区 Xichang Zhuanqu 13 counties Xichang Yanyuan Yanbian Huili Ningnan Dechang Zhaojue 1950 1952 Yuexi Mianning Jinkang 1952 1955 Muli 1952 1955 Miyi 1952 1955 Huidong 3 bureaus Puge 1950 1952 Ningdong 1950 1952 Luoning 1950 1952 Xikang Province Tibetan Autonomous Region 西康省藏族自治区 Xikang Sheng Zangzu Zizhiqu 20 counties direct controlled Kangding Danba Qianning Yajiang Luding Jiulong 1 bureau Jintang Ganzi Regional Office 1951 1955 Ganzi Shiqi Dengke Dege Baiyu Zhanghua Xinlong Luhuo Daofu Litang Regional Office 1951 1955 Litang Batang Derong Dingxiang Xiangcheng Daocheng YidunLiangshan Yi Autonomous Region 1952 1955 凉山彝族自治区 Liangshan Yizu Zizhiqu 8 counties Zhaojue Puge Ningdong Xide Butuo Jinyang Meigu PuxiongList of governors Edit Kuomintang Nationalist Communist Party of China Chairperson of the Provincial Government Edit No Portrait Name Birth Death Term of office Political party1 Liu Wenhui 劉文輝 Liu Wenhui 1895 1976 1 January 1939 9 December 1949 KuomintangDefected to the Communists 2 Ho Kuo kuang 賀國光 He Guoguang 1885 1969 25 December 1949 March 1950 KuomintangFled to Taiwan via Haikou after fall of Xichang Xikang CPC Party Committee Secretary Edit No Portrait Name Birth Death Term of office Political party1 Liao Zhigao 廖志高 Liao Zhigao 1913 2000 1950 1955 Communist Party of ChinaProvince abolished Xikang People s Government Chairperson Governor after January 1955 Edit No Portrait Name Birth Death Term of office Political party1 Liao Zhigao 廖志高 Liao Zhigao 1913 2000 26 April 1950 September 1955 Communist Party of ChinaProvince abolished See also EditKham Map showing the locations of provinces of the ROCReferences Edit Lin Boundary sovereignty and imagination 2004 p 30 Despite its almost entirely illusory nature the so called Xikang province was officially sketched out by Chinese map makers from whom it came to be known nation wide Yajun Mo The New Frontier Zhuang Xueben and Xikang Province in Chinese History in Geographical Perspective edited by Yongtao Du and Jeff Kyong McClain p 124 Lexington Books 2013 Lin Boundary sovereignty and imagination 2004 p 29 According to the Kuomintang the boundary of this new Xikang province encompassed not only part of the southwestern province of Sichuan that was then dominated by the Han Chinese warlord Liu Wenhui but also a huge portion of the ethnographic Tibetan area west of the Upper Yangtze River that was then effectively administered by the autonomous Tibetan government Lin Boundary sovereignty and imagination 2004 p 29 In addition the newly carved provincial boundary also extended deep into the Tibetan Assam tribal territory including areas south of the theoretically existing McMahon Line that had been signed away to British India by Lhasa in 1914 Archived copy Archived from the original on August 5 2009 Retrieved November 17 2009 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Hsiao ting Lin 2010 Modern China s ethnic frontiers a journey to the west Volume 67 of Routledge studies in the modern history of Asia illustrated ed Taylor amp Francis p 27 ISBN 978 0 415 58264 3 Retrieved 2011 12 27 area and spreading Sun Yat sen s Three People s Principle among the Tibetan and Khampa minorities Kesang Tsering set up a field headquarters in Batang Pa an There he appointed his own Xikang provincial government staff and issued an volume has extra text help Bibliography EditLin Hsiao ting 2004 Boundary sovereignty and imagination Reconsidering the frontier disputes between British India and Republican China 1914 47 The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 32 3 25 47 doi 10 1080 0308653042000279650 S2CID 159560382 Lin Hsiao ting 2010 Modern China s Ethnic Frontiers A journey to the west Taylor amp Francis ISBN 978 0 415 58264 3 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Xikang amp oldid 1051218372, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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