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Tetragrammaton

For other uses, see Tetragrammaton (disambiguation).
"YHWH" redirects here. For the historic Iron Age deity, see Yahweh. For the modern Jewish conception of God, see God in Judaism and God in Abrahamic religions.

The Tetragrammaton () or Tetragram (from Greekτετραγράμματον, meaning "[consisting of] four letters") is the four-letter Hebrew wordיהוה‎ (transliterated as YHWH), the name of the national god of Israel. The four letters, read from right to left, are yodh, he, waw, and he. While there is no consensus about the structure and etymology of the name, the form Yahweh is now accepted almost universally.

The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (12th century BCE to 150 BCE), Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts

The books of the Torah and the rest of the Hebrew Bible except Esther, Ecclesiastes, and (with a possible instance in verse 8:6) the Song of Songs contain this Hebrew name. Observant Jews and those who follow Talmudic Jewish traditions do not pronounce יהוה‎ nor do they read aloud proposed transcription forms such as Yahweh or Yehovah; instead they replace it with a different term, whether in addressing or referring to the God of Israel. Common substitutions in Hebrew are Adonai ("My Lord") or Elohim (literally "gods" but treated as singular when meaning "God") in prayer, or HaShem ("The Name") in everyday speech.

Contents

The letters, properly read from right to left (in Biblical Hebrew), are:

Hebrew Letter name Pronunciation
י Yod
ה He
ו Waw , or placeholder for "O"/"U" vowel (see mater lectionis)
ה He (or often a silent letter at the end of a word)

YHWH and Hebrew script

Main article: Mater lectionis
Transcription of the divine name as ΙΑΩ in the 1st-century BCE Septuagint manuscript 4Q120

Like all letters in the Hebrew script, the letters in YHWH originally indicated consonants. In unpointed Biblical Hebrew, most vowels are not written, but some are indicated ambiguously, as certain letters came to have a secondary function indicating vowels (similar to the Latin use of I and V to indicate either the consonants /j, w/ or the vowels /i, u/). Hebrew letters used to indicate vowels are known as אִמּוֹת קְרִיאָה‎ or matres lectionis ("mothers of reading"). Therefore, it can be difficult to deduce how a word is pronounced from its spelling, and each of the four letters in the Tetragrammaton can individually serve as a mater lectionis.

Several centuries later, the original consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible was provided with vowel marks by the Masoretes to assist reading. In places where the word to be read (the qere) differed from that indicated by the consonants of the written text (the ketiv), they wrote the qere in the margin as a note showing what was to be read. In such a case the vowel marks of the qere were written on the ketiv. For a few frequent words, the marginal note was omitted: these are called qere perpetuum.

One of the frequent cases was the Tetragrammaton, which according to later Rabbinite Jewish practices should not be pronounced but read as "Adonai" (אֲדֹנָי‎/"my Lord"), or, if the previous or next word already was Adonai, as "Elohim" (אֱלֹהִים‎/"God"). Writing the vowel diacritics of these two words on the consonants YHVH produces יְהֹוָה‎ and יֱהֹוִה‎ respectively, non-words that would spell "Yehovah" and "Yehovih" respectively.

The oldest complete or nearly complete manuscripts of the Masoretic Text with Tiberian vocalisation, such as the Aleppo Codex and the Leningrad Codex, both of the 10th or 11th century, mostly write יְהוָה‎ (yhwah), with no pointing on the first h. It could be because the o diacritic point plays no useful role in distinguishing between Adonai and Elohim and so is redundant, or it could point to the qere being שְׁמָא‎ (šə), which is Aramaic for "the Name".

Yahweh

See also: Yahweh and Jehovah

The scholarly consensus is that the original pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton was Yahweh (יַהְוֶה‎): "The strong consensus of biblical scholarship is that the original pronunciation of the name YHWH ... was Yahweh." R. R. Reno agrees that, when in the late first millennium Jewish scholars inserted indications of vowels into the Hebrew Bible, they signalled that what was pronounced was "Adonai" (Lord); non-Jews later combined the vowels of Adonai with the consonants of the Tetragrammaton and invented the name "Jehovah." Modern scholars reached a consensus should be pronounced "Yahweh". Paul Joüon and Takamitsu Muraoka state: "The Qre is יְהֹוָהthe Lord, whilst the Ktiv is probably (יַהְוֶה‎ (according to ancient witnesses)", and they add: "Note 1: In our translations, we have used Yahweh, a form widely accepted by scholars, instead of the traditional Jehovah." Already in 1869, when, as shown by the use of the then traditional form "Jehovah" as title for its article on the question, the present strong consensus that the original pronunciation was "Yahweh" had not yet attained full force, Smith's Bible Dictionary, a collaborative work of noted scholars of the time, declared: "Whatever, therefore, be the true pronunciation of the word, there can be little doubt that it is not Jehovah." Mark P. Arnold remarks that certain conclusions drawn from the pronunciation of יהוה‎ as "Yahweh" would be valid even if the scholarly consensus were not correct. Thomas Römer holds that "the original pronunciation of Yhwh was 'Yahô' or 'Yahû'".

The adoption at the time of the Protestant Reformation of "Jehovah" in place of the traditional "Lord" in some new translations, vernacular or Latin, of the biblical Tetragrammaton stirred up dispute about its correctness. In 1711, Adriaan Reland published a book containing the text of 17th-century writings, five attacking and five defending it. As critical of the use of "Jehovah" it incorporated writings by Johannes van den Driesche (1550–1616), known as Drusius; Sixtinus Amama (1593–1629); Louis Cappel (1585–1658); Johannes Buxtorf (1564–1629); Jacob Alting (1618–1679). Defending "Jehovah" were writings by Nicholas Fuller (1557–1626) and Thomas Gataker (1574–1654) and three essays by Johann Leusden (1624–1699). The opponents of "Jehovah" said that the Tetragrammaton should be pronounced as "Adonai" and in general do not speculate on what may have been the original pronunciation, although mention is made of the fact that some held that Jahve was that pronunciation.

Almost two centuries after the 17th-century works reprinted by Reland, 19th-century Wilhelm Gesenius reported in his Thesaurus Philologicus on the main reasoning of those who argued either for יַהְוֹה‎/Yahwoh or יַהְוֶה‎/Yahweh as the original pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton, as opposed to יְהֹוָה‎/Yehovah, citing explicitly as supporters of יְהֹוָה‎ the 17th-century writers mentioned by Reland and implicitly Johann David Michaelis (1717–1791) and Johann Friedrich von Meyer (1772–1849), the latter of whom Johann Heinrich Kurtz described as the last of those "who have maintained with great pertinacity that יְהֹוָה‎ was the correct and original pointing". Edward Robinson's translation of a work by Gesenius, gives the personal view of Gesenius as: "My own view coincides with that of those who regard this name as anciently pronounced [יַהְוֶה‎/Yahweh] like the Samaritans."

Texts with Tetragrammaton

The Mesha Stele bears the earliest known reference (840 BCE) to the Israelite God Yahweh.

The oldest known inscription of the Tetragrammaton dates to 840 BCE: the Mesha Stele mentions the Israelite god Yahweh.

Of the same century are two pottery sherds found at Kuntillet Ajrud with inscriptions mentioning "Yahweh of Samaria and his Asherah" and "Yahweh of Teman and his Asherah". A tomb inscription at Khirbet el-Qom also mentions Yahweh. Dated slightly later (7th century BCE) there are an ostracon from the collections of Shlomo Moussaieff, and two tiny silver amulet scrolls found at Ketef Hinnom that mention Yahweh. Also a wall inscription, dated to the late 6th century BCE, with mention of Yahweh had been found in a tomb at Khirbet Beit Lei.

YHWH in one of the Lachish letters

Yahweh is mentioned also in the Lachish letters (587 BCE) and the slightly earlier Tel Arad ostraca, and on a stone from Mount Gerizim (3rd or the beginning of the 2nd century BCE).

Texts with similar theonyms

The theonyms YHW and YHH are found in the Elephantine papyri of about 500 BCE. One ostracon with YH is thought to have lost the final letter of an original YHW. These texts are in Aramaic, not the language of the Hebrew Tetragrammaton (YHWH) and, unlike the Tetragrammaton, are of three letters, not four. However, because they were written by Jews, they are assumed to refer to the same deity and to be either an abbreviated form of the Tetragrammaton or the original name from which the name YHWH developed.

Kristin De Troyer says that YHW or YHH, and also YH, are attested in the fifth and fourth-century BCE papyri from Elephantine and Wadi Daliyeh: "In both collections one can read the name of God as Yaho (or Yahu) and Ya". The name YH (Yah/Jah), the first syllable of "Yahweh", appears 50 times in the Old Testament, 26 times alone (Exodus 15:2; 17:16; and 24 times in the Psalms), 24 times in the expression "Hallelujah".

An Egyptian hieroglyphic inscription of the Pharaoh Amenhotep III (1402-1363 BCE) mentions a group of Shasu whom it calls "the Shashu of Yhw³" (read as: ja-h-wi or ja-h-wa). James D. G. Dunn and John W. Rogerson tentatively suggest that the Amenhotep III inscription may indicate that worship of Yahweh originated in an area to the southeast of Palestine. A later inscription from the time of Ramesses II (1279-1213) in West Amara associates the Shasu nomads with S-rr, interpreted as Mount Seir, spoken of in some texts as where Yahweh comes from. Frank Moore Cross says: "It must be emphasized that the Amorite verbal form is of interest only in attempting to reconstruct the proto-Hebrew or South Canaanite verbal form used in the name Yahweh. We should argue vigorously against attempts to take Amorite yuhwi and yahu as divine epithets."

According to De Troyer, the short names, instead of being ineffable like "Yahweh", seem to have been in spoken use not only as elements of personal names but also in reference to God: "The Samaritans thus seem to have pronounced the Name of God as Jaho or Ja." She cites Theodoret (c. 393 – c. 460) as that the shorter names of God were pronounced by the Samaritans as "Iabe" and by the Jews as "Ia". She adds that the Bible also indicates that the short form "Yah" was spoken, as in the phrase "Halleluyah".

The Patrologia Graeca texts of Theodoret differ slightly from what De Troyer says. In Quaestiones in Exodum 15 he says that Samaritans pronounced the name Ἰαβέ and Jews the name Άϊά. (The Greek term Άϊά is a transcription of the Exodus 3:14 phrase אֶהְיֶה (ehyeh), "I am".) In Haereticarum Fabularum Compendium 5.3, he uses the spelling Ἰαβαί.

Magical papyri

Among the Jews in the Second Temple Period magical amulets became very popular. Representations of the Tetragrammaton name or combinations inspired by it in languages such as Greek and Coptic, giving some indication of its pronunciation, occur as names of powerful agents in Jewish magical papyri found in Egypt.Iαβε Iave andIαβα Yaba occurs frequently, "apparently the Samaritan enunciation of the tetragrammaton YHWH (Yahweh)".

The most commonly invoked god is Ιαω (Iaō), another vocalization of the tetragrammaton YHWH. There is a single instance of the heptagramιαωουηε (iaōouēe).

Yāwē is found in an Ethiopian Christian list of magical names of Jesus, purporting to have been taught by him to his disciples.

Masoretic Text

According to the Jewish Encyclopedia it occurs 5,410 times in the Hebrew scriptures. In the Hebrew Bible, the Tetragrammaton occurs 6828 times,: 142 as can be seen in Kittel's Biblia Hebraica and the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. In addition, the marginal notes or masorah indicate that in another 134 places, where the received text has the word Adonai, an earlier text had the Tetragrammaton. which would add up to 142 additional occurrences. Even in the Dead Sea Scrolls practice varied with regard to use of the Tetragrammaton. According to Brown–Driver–Briggs, יְהֹוָה‎ (qere אֲדֹנָי‎) occurs 6,518 times, and יֱהֹוִה‎ (qere אֱלֹהִים‎) 305 times in the Masoretic Text.

The first appearance of the Tetragrammaton is in the Book of Genesis 2:4. The only books it does not appear in are Ecclesiastes, the Book of Esther, and Song of Songs.

In the Book of Esther the Tetragrammaton does not appear, but it has been distinguished acrostic-wise in the initial or last letters of four consecutive words, as indicated in Est 7:5 by writing the four letters in red in at least three ancient Hebrew manuscripts.[original research?]

The short form יָהּ‎/Yah (a digrammaton) "occurs 50 times if the phrase hallellu-Yah is included": 43 times in the Psalms, once in Exodus 15:2; 17:16; Isaiah 12:2; 26:4, and twice in Isaiah 38:11. It also appears in the Greek phraseἉλληλουϊά (Alleluia, Hallelujah) inRevelation 19:1–6.

Other short forms are found as a component of theophoric Hebrew names in the Bible: jô- or jehô- (29 names) and -jāhû or -jāh (127 jnames). A form of jāhû/jehô appears in the name Elioenai (Elj(eh)oenai) in 1Ch 3:23–24; 4:36; 7:8; Ezr 22:22, 27; Neh 12:41.

The following graph shows the absolute number of occurrences of the Tetragrammaton (6828 in all) in the books in the Masoretic Text, without relation to the length of the books.

Leningrad Codex

Six presentations of the Tetragrammaton with some or all of the vowel points of אֲדֹנָי‎ (Adonai) or אֱלֹהִים‎ (Elohim) are found in the Leningrad Codex of 1008–1010, as shown below. The close transcriptions do not indicate that the Masoretes intended the name to be pronounced in that way (see qere perpetuum).

Chapter and verse Masoretic Text display Close transcription of the display Ref. Explanation
Genesis 2:4 יְהוָה Yǝhwāh This is the first occurrence of the Tetragrammaton in the Hebrew Bible and shows the most common set of vowels used in the Masoretic text. It is the same as the form used in Genesis 3:14 below, but with the dot (holam) on the first he left out, because it is a little redundant.
Genesis 3:14 יְהֹוָה Yǝhōwāh This is a set of vowels used rarely in the Masoretic text, and are essentially the vowels from Adonai (with the hataf patakh reverting to its natural state as a shewa).
Judges 16:28 יֱהֹוִה Yĕhōwih When the Tetragrammaton is preceded by Adonai, it receives the vowels from the name Elohim instead. The hataf segol does not revert to a shewa because doing so could lead to confusion with the vowels in Adonai.
Genesis 15:2 יֱהוִה Yĕhwih Just as above, this uses the vowels from Elohim, but like the second version, the dot (holam) on the first he is omitted as redundant.
1 Kings 2:26 יְהֹוִה Yǝhōwih Here, the dot (holam) on the first he is present, but the hataf segol does get reverted to a shewa.
Ezekiel 24:24 יְהוִה Yǝhwih Here, the dot (holam) on the first he is omitted, and the hataf segol gets reverted to a shewa.

ĕ is hataf segol; ǝ is the pronounced form of plain shva.

Dead Sea Scrolls

In the Dead Sea Scrolls and other Hebrew and Aramaic texts the Tetragrammaton and some other names of God in Judaism (such as El or Elohim) were sometimes written in paleo-Hebrew script, showing that they were treated specially. Most of God's names were pronounced until about the 2nd century BCE. Then, as a tradition of non-pronunciation of the names developed, alternatives for the Tetragrammaton appeared, such as Adonai, Kurios and Theos. The 4Q120, a Greek fragment of Leviticus (26:2–16) discovered in the Dead Sea scrolls (Qumran) has ιαω ("Iao"), the Greek form of the Hebrew trigrammaton YHW. The historian John the Lydian (6th century) wrote: "The Roman Varo [116–27 BCE] defining him [that is the Jewish God] says that he is called Iao in the Chaldean mysteries" (De Mensibus IV 53). Van Cooten mentions that Iao is one of the "specifically Jewish designations for God" and "the Aramaic papyri from the Jews at Elephantine show that 'Iao' is an original Jewish term".

The preserved manuscripts from Qumran show the inconsistent practice of writing the Tetragrammaton, mainly in biblical quotations: in some manuscripts is written in paleo-Hebrew script, square scripts or replaced with four dots or dashes (tetrapuncta).

The members of the Qumran community were aware of the existence of the Tetragrammaton, but this was not tantamount to granting consent for its existing use and speaking. This is evidenced not only by special treatment of the Tetragrammaton in the text, but by the recommendation recorded in the 'Rule of Association' (VI, 27): "Who will remember the most glorious name, which is above all [...]".

The table below presents all the manuscripts in which the Tetragrammaton is written in paleo-Hebrew script, in square scripts, and all the manuscripts in which the copyists have used tetrapuncta.

Copyists used the 'tetrapuncta' apparently to warn against pronouncing the name of God. In the manuscript number 4Q248 is in the form of bars.

PALEO-HEBREW SQUARE TETRAPUNCTA
1Q11 (1QPsb) 2–5 3 (link: [1]) 2Q13 (2QJer) (link: [2]) 1QS VIII 14 (link: [3])
1Q14 (1QpMic) 1–5 1, 2 (link: [4]) 4Q27 (4QNumb) (link: [5]) 1QIsaa XXXIII 7, XXXV 15 (link: [6])
1QpHab VI 14; X 7, 14; XI 10 (link: [7]) 4Q37 (4QDeutj) (link: [8]) 4Q53 (4QSamc) 13 III 7, 7 (link: [9])
1Q15 (1QpZeph) 3, 4 (link: [10]) 4Q78 (4QXIIc) (link: [11]) 4Q175 (4QTest) 1, 19
2Q3 (2QExodb) 2 2; 7 1; 8 3 (link: [12] [13]) 4Q96 (4QPso (link: [14]) 4Q176 (4QTanḥ) 1–2 i 6, 7, 9; 1–2 ii 3; 8–10 6, 8, 10 (link: [15])
3Q3 (3QLam) 1 2 (link: [16]) 4Q158 (4QRPa) (link: [17]) 4Q196 (4QpapToba ar) 17 i 5; 18 15 (link: [18])
4Q20 (4QExodj) 1–2 3 (link: [19]) 4Q163 (4Qpap pIsac) I 19; II 6; 15–16 1; 21 9; III 3, 9; 25 7 (link: [20]) 4Q248 (history of the kings of Greece) 5 (link: [21])
4Q26b (4QLevg) linia 8 (link: [22]) 4QpNah (4Q169) II 10 (link: [23]) 4Q306 (4QMen of People Who Err) 3 5 (link: [24])
4Q38a (4QDeutk2) 5 6 (link: [25]) 4Q173 (4QpPsb) 4 2 (link: [26]) 4Q382 (4QparaKings et al.) 9+11 5; 78 2
4Q57 (4QIsac) (link: [27]) 4Q177 (4QCatena A) (link: [28]) 4Q391 (4Qpap Pseudo-Ezechiel) 36, 52, 55, 58, 65 (link: [29])
4Q161 (4QpIsaa) 8–10 13 (link: [30]) 4Q215a (4QTime of Righteousness) (link: [31]) 4Q462 (4QNarrative C) 7; 12 (link: [32])
4Q165 (4QpIsae) 6 4 (link: [33]) 4Q222 (4QJubg) (link: [34]) 4Q524 (4QTb)) 6–13 4, 5 (link: [35])
4Q171 (4QpPsa) II 4, 12, 24; III 14, 15; IV 7, 10, 19 (link: [36]) 4Q225 (4QPsJuba) (link: [37]) XḤev/SeEschat Hymn (XḤev/Se 6) 2 7
11Q2 (11QLevb) 2 2, 6, 7 (link: [38]) 4Q365 (4QRPc) (link: [39])
11Q5 (11QPsa) (link: [40]) 4Q377 (4QApocryphal Pentateuch B) 2 ii 3, 5 (link: [41])
4Q382 (4Qpap paraKings) (link: [42])
11Q6 (11QPsb) (link: [43])
11Q7 (11QPsc) (link: [44])
11Q19 (11QTa)
11Q20 (11QTb) (link: [45])
11Q11 (11QapocrPs) (link: [46])

Editions of the Septuagint Old Testament are based on the complete or almost complete fourth-century manuscripts Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Alexandrinus and consistently use Κύριος, "Lord", where the Masoretic Text has the Tetragrammaton in Hebrew. This corresponds with the Jewish practice of replacing the Tetragrammaton with "Adonai" when reading the Hebrew word.

However, five of the oldest manuscripts now extant (in fragmentary form) render the Tetragrammaton into Greek in a different way.

Two of these are of the first century BCE: Papyrus Fouad 266 uses יהוה‎ in the normal Hebrew alphabet in the midst of its Greek text, and 4Q120 uses the Greek transcription of the name, ΙΑΩ. Three later manuscripts use 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄, the name יהוה‎ in Paleo-Hebrew script: the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever, Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 3522 and Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 5101.

Other extant ancient fragments of Septuagint or Old Greek manuscripts provide no evidence on the use of the Tetragrammaton, Κύριος, or ΙΑΩ in correspondence with the Hebrew-text Tetragrammaton. They include the oldest known example, Papyrus Rylands 458.

Scholars differ on whether in the original Septuagint translations the Tetragrammaton was represented by Κύριος, by ΙΑΩ, by the Tetragrammaton in either normal or Paleo-Hebrew form, or whether different translators used different forms in different books.

Frank Shaw argues that the Tetragrammaton continued to be articulated until the second or third century CE and that the use of Ιαω was by no means limited to magical or mystical formulas, but was still normal in more elevated contexts such as that exemplified by Papyrus 4Q120. Shaw considers all theories that posit in the Septuagint a single original form of the divine name as merely based on a priori assumptions. Accordingly, he declares: "The matter of any (especially single) 'original' form of the divine name in the LXX is too complex, the evidence is too scattered and indefinite, and the various approaches offered for the issue are too simplistic" to account for the actual scribal practices (p. 158). He holds that the earliest stages of the LXX's translation were marked by diversity (p. 262), with the choice of certain divine names depending on the context in which they appear (cf. Gen 4:26; Exod 3:15; 8:22; 28:32; 32:5; and 33:19). He treats of the related blank spaces in some Septuagint manuscripts and the setting of spaces around the divine name in 4Q120 and Papyrus Fouad 266b (p. 265), and repeats that "there was no one 'original' form but different translators had different feelings, theological beliefs, motivations, and practices when it came to their handling of the name" (p. 271). His view has won the support of Anthony R. Meyer, Bob Becking, and (commenting on Shaw's 2011 dissertation on the subject) D.T. Runia.

Mogens Müller says that, while no clearly Jewish manuscript of the Septuagint has been found with Κύριος representing the Tetragrammaton, other Jewish writings of the time show that Jews did use the term Κύριος for God, and it was because Christians found it in the Septuagint that they were able to apply it to Christ. In fact, the deuterocanonical books of the Septuagint, written originally in Greek (e.g., Wisdom, 2 and 3 Maccabees), do speak of God as Κύριος and thus show that "the use of κύριος as a representation of יהוה‎ must be pre-Christian in origin".

Similarly, while consistent use of Κύριος to represent the Tetragrammaton has been called "a distinguishing mark for any Christian LXX manuscript", Eugen J. Pentiuc says: "No definitive conclusion has been reached thus far." And Sean McDonough denounces as implausible the idea that Κύριος did not appear in the Septuagint before the Christian era.

Speaking of the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever, which is a kaige recension of the Septuagint, "a revision of the Old Greek text to bring it closer to the Hebrew text of the Bible as it existed in ca. 2nd-1st century BCE" (and thus not necessarily the original text), Kristin De Troyer remarks: "The problem with a recension is that one does not know what is the original form and what the recension. Hence, is the paleo-Hebrew Tetragrammaton secondary – a part of the recension – or proof of the Old Greek text? This debate has not yet been solved."

While some interpret the presence of the Tetragrammaton in Papyrus Fouad 266, the oldest Septuagint manuscript in which it appears, as an indication of what was in the original text, others see this manuscript as "an archaizing and hebraizing revision of the earlier translation κύριος". Of this papyrus, De Troyer asks: "Is it a recension or not?" In this regard she says that Emanuel Tov notes that in this manuscript a second scribe inserted the four-letter Tetragrammaton where the first scribe left spaces large enough for the six-letter word Κύριος, and that Pietersma and Hanhart say the papyrus "already contains some pre-hexaplaric corrections towards a Hebrew text (which would have had the Tetragrammaton". She also mentions Septuagint manuscripts that have Θεός and one that has παντοκράτωρ where the Hebrew text has the Tetragrammaton. She concludes: "It suffices to say that in old Hebrew and Greek witnesses, God has many names. Most if not all were pronounced till about the second century BCE As slowly onwards there developed a tradition of non-pronunciation, alternatives for the Tetragrammaton appeared. The reading Adonai was one of them. Finally, before Kurios became a standard rendering Adonai, the Name of God was rendered with Theos." In the Book of Exodus alone, Θεός represents the Tetragrammaton 41 times.

Robert J. Wilkinson says that the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever is also a kaige recension and thus not strictly a Septuagint text.

Origen (Commentary on Psalms 2.2) said that in the most accurate manuscripts the name was written in an older form of the Hebrew characters, the paleo-Hebrew letters, not the square: "In the more accurate exemplars the (divine) name is written in Hebrew characters; not, however, in the current script, but in the most ancient." While Pietersma interprets this statement as referring to the Septuagint, Wilkinson says one might assume that Origen refers specifically to the version of Aquila of Sinope, which follows the Hebrew text very closely, but he may perhaps refer to Greek versions in general.

Manuscripts of the Septuagint and later Greek renderings

The great majority of extant manuscripts of the Old Testament in Greek, complete or fragmentary, dated to the ninth century CE or earlier, employ Κύριος to represent the Tetragrammaton of the Hebrew text. The following do not. They include the oldest now extant.

  1. Manuscripts of the Septuagint or recensions thereof
    • 1st century BCE
      • 4QpapLXXLevb – fragments of the Book of Leviticus, chapters 1 to 5. In two verses: 3:12; 4:27 the Tetragrammaton of the Hebrew Bible is represented by Greek ΙΑΩ.
      • Papyrus Fouad 266b (848) – fragments of Deuteronomy, chapters 10 to 33. The Tetragrammaton appears in square Hebrew/Aramaic script. According to a disputed view, the first copyist left a blank space marked with a dot, and another inscribed the letters.
    • 1st century CE
    • 1st to 2nd century
    • 3rd century CE
      • Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1007 – contains Genesis 2 and 3. The divine name is written with a double yodh.
      • Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 656 – fragments of the Book of Genesis, chapters 14 to 27. Has Κύριος where the first copyist left blank spaces
      • Papyrus Berlin 17213 – fragments of the Book of Genesis, chapter 19. One space is left blank. Emanuel Tov thinks it indicated the end of a paragraph. It has been dated to 3rd century CE.
  2. Manuscripts of Greek translations made by Symmachus and Aquila of Sinope (2nd century CE)
    • 3rd century CE
    • 5th century CE
      • AqTaylor, this manuscript of the Aquila version is dated after the middle of the 5th century, but not later than the beginning of the 6th century.
      • AqBurkitt – a palimpsest manuscript of the Aquila version dated late 5th century or early 6th century.
  3. Manuscripts with Hexaplaric elements
    • 6th century CE
      • Codex Marchalianus – In addition to the Septuagint text of the prophets (withκς), the manuscript contains marginal notes from a hand "not much later than the original scribe" indicating Hexaplaric variations, each identified as from Aquila, Symmachus or Theodotion. Marginal notes on some of the prophets contain πιπι to indicate thatκς in the text corresponds to the Tetragrammaton. Two marginal notes at Ezekiel 1:2 and 11:1 use the formιαω with reference to the Tetragrammaton.
    • 7th century CE
      • Taylor-Schechter 12.182 – a Hexapla manuscript with Tetragrammaton in Greek letters ΠΙΠΙ. It has Hebrew text transliterated into Greek, Aquila, Symmachus and the Septuagint.
    • 9th century CE
      • Ambrosiano O 39 sup. – the latest Greek manuscript containing the name of God is Origen's Hexapla, transmitting among other translations the text of the Septuagint, Aquila, Symmachus and Theodotion, and in three other unidentified Greek translations (Quinta, Sextus and Septima). This codex, copied from a much earlier original, comes from the late 9th century, and is stored in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana.
Petrus Alphonsi's early 12th-century Tetragrammaton-Trinity diagram, rendering the name as "IEVE"
Tetragrammaton at the Fifth Chapel of the Palace of Versailles, France.

According to the Catholic Encyclopedia (1910) and B.D. Eerdmans:

  • Diodorus Siculus (1st century BCE) writesἸαῶ (Iao);
  • Irenaeus (d. c. 202) reports that the Gnostics formed a compoundἸαωθ (Iaoth) with the last syllable of Sabaoth. He also reports that the Valentinian heretics useἸαῶ (Iao);
  • Clement of Alexandria (d. c. 215) reports: "the mystic name of four letters which was affixed to those alone to whom the adytum was accessible, is calledἸαοὺ" (Iaoú); manuscript variants also have the formsἰαοῦε (Iaoúe) andἰὰ οὐὲ.
  • Origen (d. c. 254),Ἰαώ (Iao);
  • Porphyry (d. c. 305) according to Eusebius (died 339),Ἰευώ (Ieuo);
  • Epiphanius (died 404), who was born in Palestine and spent a considerable part of his life there, givesἸά (Ia) andἸάβε (pronounced at that time /ja'vε/) and explains Ἰάβε as meaning He who was and is and always exists.
  • Jerome (died 420) speaks of certain Greek writers who misunderstood the Hebrew letters יהוה‎ (read right-to-left) as the Greek lettersΠΙΠΙ (read left-to-right), thus changing YHWH to pipi.
  • Theodoret (d. c. 457) writesἸαώ (Iao); he also reports that the Samaritans sayἸαβέ orἸαβαί (both pronounced at that time /ja'vε/), while the Jews sayἈϊά (Aia). (The latter is probably not יהוה‎ but אהיהEhyeh = "I am " or "I will be",Exod. 3:14 which the Jews counted among the names of God.)
  • (Pseudo-)Jerome (4th/5th or 9th century),: IAHO. This work was traditionally attributed to Jerome and, in spite of the view of one modern writer who in 1936 said it is "now believed to be genuine and to be dated before CE 392" is still generally attributed to the 9th century and to be non-authentic.

The Peshitta (Syriac translation), probably in the second century, uses the word "Lord" (ܡܳܪܝܳܐ, pronounced moryo) for the Tetragrammaton.

The Vulgate (Latin translation) made from the Hebrew in the 4th century CE, uses the word Dominus ("Lord"), a translation of the Hebrew word Adonai, for the Tetragrammaton.

The Vulgate translation, though made not from the Septuagint but from the Hebrew text, did not depart from the practice used in the Septuagint. Thus, for most of its history, Christianity's translations of the Scriptures have used equivalents of Adonai to represent the Tetragrammaton. Only at about the beginning of the 16th century did Christian translations of the Bible appear combining the vowels of Adonai with the four (consonantal) letters of the Tetragrammaton.

Judaism

Main article: Genizah

Especially due to the existence of the Mesha Stele, the Jahwist tradition found in Exod. 3:15, and ancient Hebrew and Greek texts, biblical scholars widely hold that the Tetragrammaton and other names of God were spoken by the ancient Israelites and their neighbours.: 40

Some time after the destruction of Solomon's Temple, the spoken use of God's name as it was written ceased among the people, even though knowledge of the pronunciation was perpetuated in rabbinic schools. The Talmud relays this occurred after the death of Simeon the Just (either Simon I or his great-great-grandson Simon II). Philo calls it ineffable, and says that it is lawful for those only whose ears and tongues are purified by wisdom to hear and utter it in a holy place (that is, for priests in the Temple). In another passage, commenting on Lev. xxiv. 15 seq.: "If any one, I do not say should blaspheme against the Lord of men and gods, but should even dare to utter his name unseasonably, let him expect the penalty of death."

Rabbinic sources suggest that the name of God was pronounced only once a year, by the high priest, on the Day of Atonement. Others, including Maimonides, claim that the name was pronounced daily in the liturgy of the Temple in the priestly benediction of worshippers (Num. vi. 27), after the daily sacrifice; in the synagogues, though, a substitute (probably "Adonai") was used. According to the Talmud, in the last generations before the fall of Jerusalem, the name was pronounced in a low tone so that the sounds were lost in the chant of the priests. Since the destruction of Second Temple of Jerusalem in 70 CE, the Tetragrammaton has no longer been pronounced in the liturgy. However the pronunciation was still known in Babylonia in the latter part of the 4th century.

Spoken prohibitions

The vehemence with which the utterance of the name is denounced in the Mishnah suggests that use of Yahweh was unacceptable in rabbinical Judaism. "He who pronounces the Name with its own letters has no part in the world to come!" Such is the prohibition of pronouncing the Name as written that it is sometimes called the "Ineffable", "Unutterable", or "Distinctive Name", or "Explicit Name" ("Shem HaMephorash" in Hebrew).

Halakha prescribes that whereas the Name is written "yodh he waw he", it is only to be pronounced "Adonai"; and the latter name too is regarded as a holy name, and is only to be pronounced in prayer. Thus when someone wants to refer in third person to either the written or spoken Name, the term HaShem "the Name" is used; and this handle itself can also be used in prayer. The Masoretes added vowel points (niqqud) and cantillation marks to the manuscripts to indicate vowel usage and for use in ritual chanting of readings from the Bible in Jewish prayer in synagogues. To יהוה‎ they added the vowels for "Adonai" ("My Lord"), the word to use when the text was read. While "HaShem" is the most common way to reference "the Name", the terms "HaMaqom" (lit. "The Place", i.e. "The Omnipresent") and "Raḥmana" (Aramaic, "Merciful") are used in the mishna and gemara, still used in the phrases "HaMaqom y'naḥem ethḥem" ("may The Omnipresent console you"), the traditional phrase used in sitting Shiva and "Raḥmana l'tzlan" ("may the Merciful save us" i.e. "God forbid").

Written prohibitions

The written Tetragrammaton, as well as six other names of God, must be treated with special sanctity. They cannot be disposed of regularly, lest they be desecrated, but are usually put in long-term storage or buried in Jewish cemeteries in order to retire them from use. Similarly, writing the Tetragrammaton (or these other names) unnecessarily is prohibited, so as to avoid having them treated disrespectfully, an action that is forbidden. To guard the sanctity of the Name, sometimes a letter is substituted by a different letter in writing (e.g. יקוק), or the letters are separated by one or more hyphens, a practice applied also to the English name "God", which Jews commonly write as "G-d". Most Jewish authorities say that this practice is not obligatory for the English name.

Kabbalah

Kabbalistic tradition holds that the correct pronunciation is known to a select few people in each generation, it is not generally known what this pronunciation is. There are two main schools of Kabbalah arising in 13th century Spain. These are called Theosophic Kabbalah represented by Rabbi Moshe De leon and the Zohar, and the Kabbalah of Names or Prophetic Kabbalah whose main representative is Rabbi Abraham Abulafia of Saragossa. Rabbi Abulafia wrote many wisdom books and prophetic books where the name is used for meditation purposes from 1271 onwards. Abulafia put a lot of attention on Exodus 15 and the Songs of Moses. In this song it says "Yehovah is a Man of War, Yehovah is his name". For Abulafia the goal of prophecy was for a man to come to the level of prophecy and be called "Yehovah a man of war". Abulafia also used the tetragrammaton in a spiritual war against his spiritual enemies. For example, he prophesied in his book "The Sign", "Therefore, thus said YHWH, the God of Israel: Have no fear of the enemy" (See Hylton, A The Prophetic Jew Abraham Abulafia, 2015).

Moshe Chaim Luzzatto, says that the tree of the Tetragrammaton "unfolds" in accordance with the intrinsic nature of its letters, "in the same order in which they appear in the Name, in the mystery of ten and the mystery of four." Namely, the upper cusp of the Yod is Arich Anpin and the main body of Yod is and Abba; the first Hei is Imma; the Vav is Ze`ir Anpin and the second Hei is Nukvah. It unfolds in this aforementioned order and "in the mystery of the four expansions" that are constituted by the following various spellings of the letters:

ע"ב/`AV : יו"ד ה"י וי"ו ה"י, so called "`AV" according to its gematria value ע"ב=70+2=72.

ס"ג/SaG: יו"ד ה"י וא"ו ה"י, gematria 63.

מ"ה/MaH: יו"ד ה"א וא"ו ה"א, gematria 45.

ב"ן/BaN: יו"ד ה"ה ו"ו ה"ה, gematria 52.

Luzzatto summarises, "In sum, all that exists is founded on the mystery of this Name and upon the mystery of these letters of which it consists. This means that all the different orders and laws are all drawn after and come under the order of these four letters. This is not one particular pathway but rather the general path, which includes everything that exists in the Sefirot in all their details and which brings everything under its order."

Another parallel is drawn[by whom?] between the four letters of the Tetragrammaton and the Four Worlds: the י is associated with Atziluth, the first ה with Beri'ah, the ו with Yetzirah, and final ה with Assiah.

A tetractys of the letters of the Tetragrammaton adds up to 72 by gematria.

There are some[who?] who believe that the tetractys and its mysteries influenced the early kabbalists. A Hebrew tetractys in a similar way has the letters of the Tetragrammaton (the four lettered name of God in Hebrew scripture) inscribed on the ten positions of the tetractys, from right to left. It has been argued that the Kabbalistic Tree of Life, with its ten spheres of emanation, is in some way connected to the tetractys, but its form is not that of a triangle. The occult writer Dion Fortune says:

The point is assigned to Kether;
the line to Chokmah;
the two-dimensional plane to Binah;
consequently the three-dimensional solid naturally falls to Chesed.

(The first three-dimensional solid is the tetrahedron.)

The relationship between geometrical shapes and the first four Sephirot is analogous to the geometrical correlations in tetractys, shown above underPythagorean Symbol, and unveils the relevance of the Tree of Life with the tetractys.

Samaritans

The Samaritans shared the taboo of the Jews about the utterance of the name, and there is no evidence that its pronunciation was common Samaritan practice. However Sanhedrin 10:1 includes the comment of Rabbi Mana II, "for example those Kutim who take an oath" would also have no share in the world to come, which suggests that Mana thought some Samaritans used the name in making oaths. (Their priests have preserved a liturgical pronunciation "Yahwe" or "Yahwa" to the present day.) As with Jews, the use of Shema (שמא "the Name") remains the everyday usage of the name among Samaritans, akin to Hebrew "the Name" (Hebrew השם "HaShem").

Christianity

Tetragrammaton by Francisco Goya: "The Name of God", YHWH in triangle, detail from fresco Adoration of the Name of God, 1772
The Tetragrammaton as represented in stained glass in an 1868 Episcopal Church in Iowa

It is assumed that early Jewish Christians inherited from Jews the practice of reading "Lord" where the Tetragrammaton appears in the Hebrew text (and where a few Greek manuscripts use it in the midst of their Greek translation). Gentile Christians, primarily non-Hebrew speaking and using Greek Scripture texts, may have read Κύριος ("Lord"), as in the Greek text of the New Testament and in their copies of the Greek Old Testament. This practice continued into the Latin Vulgate where Dominus ("Lord") represented the Tetragrammaton in the Latin text. At the Reformation, the Luther Bible used capitalized Herr ("Lord") in the German text of the Old Testament to represent the Tetragrammaton.

Christian translations

The Septuagint (Greek translation), the Vulgate (Latin translation), and the Peshitta (Syriac translation) use the word "Lord" (κύριος, kyrios, dominus, andܡܳܪܝܳܐ, moryo respectively).

Use of the Septuagint by Christians in polemics with Jews led to its abandonment by the latter, making it a specifically Christian text. From it Christians made translations into Coptic, Arabic, Slavonic and other languages used in Oriental Orthodoxy and the Eastern Orthodox Church, whose liturgies and doctrinal declarations are largely a cento of texts from the Septuagint, which they consider to be inspired at least as much as the Masoretic Text. Within the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Greek text remains the norm for texts in all languages, with particular reference to the wording used in prayers.

The Septuagint, with its use of Κύριος to represent the Tetragrammaton, was the basis also for Christian translations associated with the West, in particular the Vetus Itala, which survives in some parts of the liturgy of the Latin Church, and the Gothic Bible.

Christian translations of the Bible into English commonly use "LORD" in place of the Tetragrammaton in most passages, often in small capitals (or in all caps), so as to distinguish it from other words translated as "Lord".

Eastern Orthodoxy

The Eastern Orthodox Church considers the Septuagint text, which uses Κύριος (Lord), to be the authoritative text of the Old Testament, and in its liturgical books and prayers it uses Κύριος in place of the Tetragrammaton in texts derived from the Bible.: 247–248

Catholicism

The Tetragrammaton on the Tympanum of the Roman Catholic Basilica of St. Louis, King of France in Missouri

In the Catholic Church, the first edition of the official Vatican Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio, editio typica, published in 1979, used the traditional Dominus when rendering the Tetragrammaton in the overwhelming majority of places where it appears; however, it also used the form Iahveh for rendering the Tetragrammaton in three known places:

  • Exodus 3:15
  • Exodus 15:3
  • Exodus 17:15

In the second edition of the Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio, editio typica altera, published in 1986, these few occurrences of the form Iahveh were replaced with Dominus, in keeping with the long-standing Catholic tradition of avoiding direct usage of the Ineffable Name.

On 29 June 2008, the Holy See reacted to the then still recent practice of pronouncing, within Catholic liturgy, the name of God represented by the Tetragrammaton. As examples of such vocalisation it mentioned "Yahweh" and "Yehovah". The early Christians, it said, followed the example of the Septuagint in replacing the name of God with "the Lord", a practice with important theological implications for their use of "the Lord" in reference to Jesus, as in Philippians 2:9–11 and other New Testament texts. It therefore directed that, "in liturgical celebrations, in songs and prayers the name of God in the form of the Tetragrammaton YHWH is neither to be used or pronounced"; and that translations of Biblical texts for liturgical use are to follow the practice of the Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate, replacing the divine name with "the Lord" or, in some contexts, "God". The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops welcomed this instruction, adding that it "provides also an opportunity to offer catechesis for the faithful as an encouragement to show reverence for the Name of God in daily life, emphasizing the power of language as an act of devotion and worship".

Notes

  1. masora parva (small) or masora marginalis: notes to the Masoretic text, written in the margins of the left, right and between the columns and the comments on the top and bottom margins to masora magna (large).
  2. C. D. Ginsburg in The Massorah. Compiled from manuscripts, London 1880, vol I, p. 25, 26, § 115 lists the 134 places where this practice is observed, and likewise in 8 places where the received text has Elohim (C. D. Ginsburg, Introduction to the Massoretico-Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible, London 1897, s. 368, 369). These places are listed in: C.D. Ginsburg, The Massorah. Compiled from manuscripts, vol I, p. 26, § 116.
  3. These are Est 1:20; 5:4, 13 and 7:7. The same acrostic has been seen in Exodus 3:14 and in the first four words of Psalm 96:11 ("Bible Gateway passage: 96:11 תהילים - The Westminster Leningrad Codex".).
  4. In some manuscripts the Tetragrammaton was replaced by the word ’El or ’Elohim written in Paleo-Hebrew script, they are: 1QpMic (1Q14) 12 3; 1QMyst (1Q27) II 11; 1QHa I (Suk. = Puech IX) 26; II (X) 34; VII (XV) 5; XV (VII) 25; 1QHb (1Q35) 1 5; 3QUnclassified fragments (3Q14) 18 2; 4QpPsb (4Q173) 5 4; 4QAges of Creation A (4Q180) 1 1; 4QMidrEschate?(4Q183) 2 1; 3 1; fr. 1 kol. II 3; 4QSd (4Q258) IX 8; 4QDb (4Q267) fr. 9 kol. i 2; kol. iv 4; kol. v 4; 4QDc (4Q268) 1 9; 4QComposition Concerning Divine Providence (4Q413) fr. 1–2 2, 4; 6QD (6Q15) 3 5; 6QpapHymn (6Q18) 6 5; 8 5; 10 3. W 4QShirShabbg (4Q406) 1 2; 3 2 występuje ’Elohim.
  5. For example, in the common utterance and praise, "Barukh Hashem" (Blessed [i.e. the source of all] is Hashem), or "Hashem yishmor" (God protect [us])

Citations

  1. The word "tetragrammaton" originates from tetra "four" + γράμμα gramma (gen. grammatos) "letter" "Online Etymology Dictionary".
  2. Botterweck, G. Johannes; Ringgren, Helmer, eds. (1986). Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. 5. Translated by Green, David E. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 500. ISBN 0-8028-2329-7.
  3. Geoffrey William Bromiley; Erwin Fahlbusch; Jan Milic Lochman; John Mbiti; Jaroslav Pelikan; Lukas Vischer, eds. (15 February 2008). "Yahweh". The Encyclopedia of Christianity. 5. Translated by Geoffrey William Bromiley. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing / Brill. pp. 823–824. ISBN 978-90-04-14596-2.
  4. G. Johannes Botterweck; Helmer Ringgren, eds. (1979). Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, Volume 3. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-2327-4.
  5. Norbert Samuelson (2006). Jewish Philosophy: An Historical Introduction. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0-8264-9244-9.
  6. Alter, Robert (2018). The Hebrew Bible: A Translation with Commentary. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393292503.
  7. Reno, R. R. (2010). Genesis. Brazos Press. ISBN 9781587430916.
  8. Paul Joüon and T. Muraoka. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew (Subsidia Biblica). Part One: Orthography and Phonetics. Rome : Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblio, 1996. ISBN 978-8876535956.
  9. William Smith (1872). Dictionary of the Bible. 2. p. 1239.
  10. Arnold, Mark P. (2015). Revealing the Name: An Investigation of the Divine Character through a Conversation Analysis of the Dialogues between God and Moses in the Book of Exodus (PhD thesis). University of Gloucestershire. p. 28.
  11. Thomas Römer (2015). The Invention of God. Translated by Raymond Geuss. Harvard University Press. pp. 32–33. ISBN 9780674504974.
  12. Reeland 1707.
  13. Reeland 1707, p. 392.
  14. Gesenius, Wilhelm (1839). Thesaurus Philologicus Criticus Linguae Hebraeae et Chaldaeae veteris testamenti. Vol. 2. pp. 575–577.|volume= has extra text ()
  15. Johann Heinrich Kurtz. History of the Old Covenant, tr., annotated and prefaced by a condensed abstract of Kurtz's 'Bible and astronomy', by A. Edersheim. 1859. p. 214.
  16. Wilhelm Gesenius. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament: Including the Biblical Chaldee. Crocker and Brewster; 1844. p. 389.
  17. Lemaire, Andre (May–June 1994). ""House of David" Restored in Moabite Inscription"(PDF). Biblical Archaeology Review. Biblical Archaeology Society. 20 (3). Archived from the original(PDF) on 31 March 2012.
  18. Bonanno, Anthony (23 February 1986). Archaeology and Fertility Cult in the Ancient Mediterranean: Papers Presented at the First International Conference on Archaeology of the Ancient Mediterranean, University of Malta, 2-5 September 1985. John Benjamins. ISBN 9060322886.
  19. Keel, Othmar; Uehlinger, Christoph (1998). Gods, Goddesses, And Images of God. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 9780567085917.
  20. Becking, Bob (1 January 2001). Only One God?: Monotheism in Ancient Israel and the Veneration of the Goddess Asherah. A&C Black. ISBN 9781841271996.
  21. Cross 1997, p. 61.
  22. J.M. Lindenberger (2003). Ancient Aramaic and Hebrew Letters. Atlanta. pp. 110, 111.
  23. Knight, Douglas A.; Levine, Amy-Jill (2011). The Meaning of the Bible: What the Jewish Scriptures and Christian Old Testament Can Teach Us (1st ed.). New York: HarperOne. ISBN 978-0062098597.
  24. Joseph Naveh (1963). "Old Hebrew Inscriptions in a Burial Cave". Israel Exploration Journal. 13 (2): 74–92.
  25. G. Davis (2004). Ancient Hebrew inscriptions: corpus and concordance. 2. Cambridge. p. 18.
  26. A. Vincent (1937). La religion des judéo-araméens d'Éléphantine (in French). Paris.
  27. B. Porten (1968). Archives from Elephantine, The Life of an Ancient Jewish Military Colony. Berkeley – Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp. 105–106.
  28. D.N. Freedman (1974). YHWH. Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. 5. Eerdmans. p. 504. ISBN 0802823297.
  29. De Troyer 2005.
  30. Becchio & Schadé 2006, p. 463.
  31. James D. G. Dunn; John William Rogerson (2003). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 3. ISBN 9780802837110.
  32. Coogan, Michael David; Coogan, Michael D. (23 February 2001). The Oxford History of the Biblical World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195139372.
  33. Smith, Mark S. (9 August 2001). The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel's Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199881178.
  34. Cross 1997, pp. 61–63.
  35. Jacques-Paul Migne (1860). Patrologiae cursus completus, series graeca. 80. pp. col. 244. English translation: Walter Woodburn Hyde, Paganism to Christianity in the Roman Empire (Wipf and Stock 2008), p. 80
  36. Toy, Crawford Howell; Blau, Ludwig. "Tetragrammaton". Jewish Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020.
  37. Jacques-Paul Migne (1864). Patrologiae cursus completus, series graeca. 83. pp. col. 460.
  38. B. Alfrink, La prononciation 'Jehova' du tétragramme, O.T.S. V (1948) 43–62.
  39. Moore, George Foot (1911)."Jehovah" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 311–314.
  40. Hans Dieter Betz (editor), The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation (The University of Chicago Press 1986), p. 335
  41. Evans, Luke, Aaron, Ralph, "Recipes for Love: A Semiotic Analysis of the Tools in the Erotic Magical Papyri" (Durham University 2015), p. 26
  42. K. Preisendanz, Papyri Graecae Magicae, Leipzig-Berlin, I, 1928 and II, 1931.
  43. http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/14346-tetragrammaton
  44. C. D. Ginsburg. The Massorah. Translated into English with a critical and exegetical commentary. IV. p. 28,§115.
  45. Steven Ortlepp (2010). Pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton: A Historico-Linguistic Approach. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-4452-7220-7.
  46. The Bible translator. 56. United Bible Societies. 2005. p. 71.; Nelson's expository dictionary of the Old Testament. Merrill Frederick Unger, William White. 1980. p. 229.
  47. The Name of Jehovah in the Book of Esther., appendix 60, Companion Bible.
  48. G.H. Parke-Taylor (2006). Yahweh: The Divine Name in the Bible. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 9780889206526.
  49. G. Lisowsky, Konkordanz zum hebräischen Alten Testament, Stuttgart 1958, p. 1612. Basic information about the form Jāh, see L. Koehler, W. Baumgartner, J.J. Stamm, Wielki słownik hebrajsko-polski i aramejsko-polski Starego Testamentu (Great Dictionary of the Hebrew-Aramaic-Polish and Polish Old Testament), Warszawa 2008, vol 1, p. 327, code No. 3514.
  50. E. Jenni, C. Westermann, Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament, Hendrickson Publishers 1997, page 685.
  51. "Genesis 2:4 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us. Retrieved18 November 2011.
  52. "Genesis 3:14 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us. Retrieved18 November 2011.
  53. "Judges 16:28 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us. Retrieved18 November 2011.
  54. "Genesis 15:2 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us. Retrieved18 November 2011.
  55. "1 Kings 2:26 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us. Retrieved18 November 2011.
  56. "Ezekiel 24:24 in the Unicode/XML Leningrad Codex". Tanach.us. Retrieved18 November 2011.
  57. Bezalel Porten, Archives from Elephantine: The life of an ancient Jewish military colony, 1968, University of California Press, pp. 105, 106.
  58. Stern M., Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism (1974–84) 1:172; Schafer P., Judeophobia: Attitudes toward the Jews in the Ancient World (1997) 232; Cowley A., Aramaic Papyri of the 5th century (1923); Kraeling E.G., The Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri: New Documents of the 5th century BCE from the Jewish Colony at Elephantine (1953)
  59. Sufficient examination of the subject is available at Sean McDonough's YHWH at Patmos (1999), pp 116 to 122 and George van Kooten's The Revelation of the Name YHWH to Moses (2006), pp 114, 115, 126–136. It is worth mentioning a fundamental, though aged, source about the subject: Adolf Deissmann's Bible studies: Contributions chiefly from papyri and inscriptions to the history of the language, the literature, and the religion of Hellenistic Judaism and primitive Christianity (1909), at chapter "Greek transcriptions of the Tetragrammaton".
  60. Translated by: P. Muchowski, Rękopisy znad Morza Martwego. Qumran – Wadi Murabba‘at – Masada, Kraków 1996, pp. 31.
  61. Tov 2018, p. 206.
  62. A complete list: A. Sanders, The Psalms Scroll of Qumran Cave 11 (11QPsa), serie Discoveries of the Judaean Desert of Jordan IV, pp. 9.
  63. T. Muraoka. A Greek-Hebrew/Aramaic Two-way Index to the Septuagint. Peeters Publishers 2010. p. 72.
  64. T. Muraoka. A Greek-Hebrew/Aramaic Two-way Index to the Septuagint. Peeters Publishers 2010. p. 56.
  65. E. Hatch, H.A. Redpath (1975). A Concordance to the Septuagint: And the Other Greek Versions of the Old Testament (Including the Apocryphal Books). I. pp. 630–648.
  66. H. Bietenhard, “Lord,” in the New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology, C. Brown (gen. ed.), Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1986, Vol. 2, p. 512, ISBN 0310256208
  67. Metzger, Bruce M. (17 September 1981). Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Palaeography. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195365320.
  68. Hiebert, Cox & Gentry 2001, p. 125.
  69. Tov 2018, p. 304.
  70. Pietersma 1984, p. 90.
  71. Rösel, Martin (June 2007). "The Reading and Translation of the Divine Name in the Masoretic Tradition and the Greek Pentateuch". Journal for the Study of the Old Testament. 31 (4): 411. doi:10.1177/0309089207080558. ISSN 0309-0892. S2CID 170886081.
  72. Larry Perkins, "ΚΥΡΙΟΣ – Articulation and Non-articulation in Greek Exodus" in Bulletin of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies, volume 41 (2008), p. 23
  73. Larry Perkins, "ΚΥΡΙΟΣ – Proper Name or Title in Greek Exodus", p. 6
  74. Skehan 1957, pp. 148–160.
  75. "F. Shaw, The Earliest Non-Mystical Jewish Use of Ιαω". www.jhsonline.org.
  76. ThLZ - 2016 Nr. 11 / Shaw, Frank / The Earliest Non-Mystical Jewish Use of IAO. / Bob Becking Theologische Literaturzeitung, 241 (2016), 1203–1205
  77. Runia, D. T. (28 October 2011). Philo of Alexandria: An Annotated Bibliography 1997-2006. BRILL. pp. 229–230. ISBN 978-9004210806.; David T. Runia, Philo of Alexandria: An Annotated Bibliography 1997–2006 (BRILL 2012), pp. 229–230
  78. Mogens Müller (1996). The First Bible of the Church. The First Bible of the Church: A Plea for the Septuagint, Volume 1 of Copenhagen International Seminar, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement series, Issue 206 of Supplement series. A&C Black. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-85075571-5.
  79. Rösel, Martin (June 2007). "The Reading and Translation of the Divine Name in the Masoretic Tradition and the Greek Pentateuch". Journal for the Study of the Old Testament. 31 (4): 425. doi:10.1177/0309089207080558. ISSN 0309-0892. S2CID 170886081.
  80. Eugen J. Pentiuc (2014). Septuagint Manuscripts and Printed Editions. The Old Testament in Eastern Orthodox Tradition. Oxford University Press USA. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-0-19533123-3.
  81. Sean M. McDonough (1999). "2". The Use of the Name YHWH. YHWH at Patmos: Rev. 1:4 in Its Hellenistic and Early Jewish Setting, Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament. Mohr Siebeck. p. 60. ISBN 978-31-6147055-4.
  82. Wurthwein & Fischer 2014, p. 264.
  83. Pietersma & Wright 2007, p. 46.
  84. Wilkinson 2015, p. 55.
  85. Wilkinson 2015, p. 70.
  86. Andrew Phillips. "The Septuagint". Orthodox England (journal).
  87. Z. Aly, L. Koenen, Three Rolls of the Early Septuagint: Genesis and Deuteronomy, Bonn 1980, s. 5, 6.
  88. Meron Piotrkowski; Geoffrey Herman; Saskia Doenitz, eds. (2018). Sources and Interpretation in Ancient Judaism: Studies for Tal Ilan at Sixty. BRILL. p. 149. ISBN 9789004366985.
  89. Tov 2018, p. 231.
  90. Michael P. Theophilos. Recently Discovered Greek Papyri and Parchment of the Psalter from the Oxford Oxyrhynchus Manuscripts: Implications for Scribal Practice and Textual Transmission. Australian Catholic University.
  91. Thomas J. Kraus (2007). Ad Fontes: Original Manuscripts and Their Significance for Studying Early Christianity: Selected Essays. Texts and Editions for New Testament Study. 3. BRILL. p. 3. ISBN 9789004161825.
  92. Larry W. Hurtado (2006). The Earliest Christian Artifacts: Manuscripts and Christian Origins. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 214. ISBN 9780802828958.
  93. Carl Wessely (1911). Studien zur Palaeographie und Papyruskunde. XI. Leipzig. p. 171.
  94. Bruce M. Metzger. Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Palaeography. Oxford University Press; 17 September 1981. ISBN 978-0-19-536532-0. pp. 94–95 (commentary on p. 94, image of a page from the manuscript on p. 95), cited also on p. 35 fn. 66.
  95. Eerdmans 1948, pp. 1–29.
  96. Maas 1910.
  97. "Among the Jews Moses referred his laws to the god who is invoked as Iao (Gr. Ιαώ)." (Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica I, 94:2)
  98. Irenaeus, "Against Heresies", II, xxxv, 3, in P. G., VII, col. 840.
  99. Irenaeus, "Against Heresies", I, iv, 1, in P.G., VII, col. 481.
  100. Stromata v,6,34; see Karl Wilhelm Dindorf, ed. (1869). Clementis Alexandrini Opera (in Greek). III. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 27. ἀτὰρ καὶ τὸ τετράγραμμον ὄνομα τὸ μυστικόν, ὃ περιέκειντο οἷς μόνοις τὸ ἄδυτον βάσιμον ἦν· λέγεται δὲ Ἰαοὺ [also ἰαοῦε; ἰὰ οὐὲ]
  101. Origen, "In Joh.", II, 1, in P.G., XIV, col. 105, where a footnote says that the last part of the name of Jeremiah refers to what the Samaritans expressed as Ἰαβαί, Eusebius as Ἰευώ, Theodoretus as Ἀϊά and the ancient Greeks as Ἰαώ.
  102. Eusebius, Praeparatio evangelica I, ix, in P.G., XXI, col. 72 A; and also ibid. X, ix, in P.G., XXI, col. 808 B.
  103. Epiphanius, Panarion, I, iii, 40, in P.G., XLI, col. 685
  104. Jerome, "Ep. xxv ad Marcell.", in P. L., XXII, col. 429.
  105. "the word Nethinim means in Hebrew 'gift of Iao', that is of the God who is" (Theodoret, "Quaest. in I Paral.", cap. ix, in P. G., LXXX, col. 805 C)
  106. Theodoret, "Ex. quaest.", xv, in P. G., LXXX, col. 244 and "Haeret. Fab.", V, iii, in P. G., LXXXIII, col. 460
  107. "nomen Domini apud Hebraeos quatuor litterarum est, jod, he, vau, he: quod proprie Dei vocabulum sonat: et legi potest JAHO, et Hebraeiἄῤῥητον, id est, ineffabile opinatur." ("Breviarium in Psalmos. Psalm. viii.", in P.L., XXVI, col. 838 A)
  108. ZATW (W. de Gruyter, 1936. page 266)
  109. British Library
  110. Martin J. McNamara. The Psalms in the Early Irish Church. Bloomsbury Publishing; 1 February 2000. ISBN 978-0-567-54034-8. p. 49.
  111. Manuscrits de Cîteaux
  112. Sebastian P. Brock The Bible in the Syriac Tradition St. Ephrem Ecumenical Research Institute, 1988. Quote Page 17: "The Peshitta Old Testament was translated directly from the original Hebrew text, and most Biblical scholars believe that the Peshitta New Testament directly from the original Greek. The so-called ""deuterocanonical" books, or "Apocrypha" were all translated from Greek, with ..."
  113. Joshua Bloch, The Authorship of the Peshitta The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures Vol. 35, No. 4, July 1919
  114. Adam Kamesar. Jerome, Greek Scholarship, and the Hebrew Bible: A Study of the Quaestiones Hebraicae in Genesim. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993. ISBN 9780198147275. page 97.
  115. In the 7th paragraph of Introduction to the Old Testament of the New English Bible, Sir Godfry Driver wrote, "The early translators generally substituted 'Lord' for [YHWH]. [...] The Reformers preferred Jehovah, which first appeared as Iehouah in 1530 A.D., in Tyndale's translation of the Pentateuch (Exodus 6.3), from which it passed into other Protestant Bibles."
  116. Clifford Hubert Durousseau, "Yah: A Name of God" in Jewish Bible Quarterly, Vol. 42, No. 1, January–March 2014
  117. "Names Of God". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved18 November 2011.
  118. Miller, Patrick D (2000). The Religion of Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0664221454.
  119. Yoma; Tosef. Soṭah, xiii
  120. The Cambridge History of Judaism: The Late Roman-Rabbinic Period p 779 William David Davies, Louis Finkelstein, Steven T. Katz – 2006 "(BT Kidd 7ia) The historical picture described above is probably wrong because the Divine Names were a priestly ... Name was one of the climaxes of the Sacred Service: it was entrusted exclusively to the High Priest once a year on the "
  121. Mishneh Torah Maimonides, Laws of Prayer and Priestly Blessings, Chapter 14; http://www.chabad.org/dailystudy/rambam.asp?tDate=28 March 2012&rambamChapters=3
  122. "Judaism 101 on the Name of God". jewfaq.org.
  123. For example, see Saul Weiss and Joseph Dov Soloveitchik (February 2005). Insights of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7425-4469-7. and Minna Rozen (1992). Jewish Identity and Society in the 17th century. p. 67. ISBN 978-3-16-145770-8.
  124. Rösel, Martin (June 2007). "The Reading and Translation of the Divine Name in the Masoretic Tradition and the Greek Pentateuch". Journal for the Study of the Old Testament. 31 (4): 418. doi:10.1177/0309089207080558. ISSN 0309-0892. S2CID 170886081. It is in this book that we find the strictest prohibition against pronouncing the name of the Lord. The Hebrew of 24.16, which may be translated as 'And he that blasphemes/curses (3B?) the name of the Lord (9H9J), he shall surely be put to death', in the LXX is subjected to a ...
  125. "They [the Priests, when reciting the Priestly Blessing, when the Temple stood] recite [God's] name – i.e., the name yod-hei-vav-hei, as it is written. This is what is referred to as the 'explicit name' in all sources. In the country [that is, outside the Temple], it is read [using another one of God's names], א-ד-נ-י ('Adonai'), for only in the Temple is this name [of God] recited as it is written." – Mishneh Torah Maimonides, Laws of Prayer and Priestly Blessings, 14:10
  126. Kiddushin 71a states, "I am not referred to as [My name] is written. My name is written yod-hei-vav-hei and it is pronounced "Adonai."
  127. Stanley S. Seidner,"HaShem: Uses through the Ages." Unpublished paper, Rabbinical Society Seminar, Los Angeles, CA,1987.
  128. For example, two common prayer books are titled "Tehillat Hashem" and "Avodat Hashem." Or, a person may tell a friend, "Hashem helped me to perform a great mitzvah today."
  129. See Deut. 12:2-4: "You must destroy all the sites at which the nations you are to dispossess worshiped their gods...tear down their altars...and cut down the images of their gods, obliterating their name from that site. Do not do the same thing to Hashem (YHWH) your God."
  130. "Based on the Talmud (Shavuot 35a-b), Maimonides (Hilkhot Yesodei HaTorah, Chapter 6), and the Shulchan Arukh (Yoreh Deah 276:9) it is prohibited to erase or obliterate the seven Hebrew names for God found in the Torah (in addition to the above, there is E-l, E-loha, Tzeva-ot, Sha-dai,...).
  131. "Judaism 101: The Name of G-d". www.jewfaq.org.
  132. Why Don't You Spell Out G-d's Name?, Aron Moss, Chabad.org
  133. "Why do some Jews write "G-d" instead of "God"?". ReformJudaism.org. 19 February 2014.
  134. In קל"ח פתחי חכמה by Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzato, Opening #31; English translation in book "138 Openings of Wisdom" by Rabbi Avraham Greenbaum, 2008, also viewable at http://www.breslev.co.il/articles/spirituality_and_faith/kabbalah_and_mysticism/the_name_of_havayah.aspx?id=10847&language=english, accessed 12 March 2012
  135. The Mystical Qabalah, Dion Fortune, Chapter XVIII, 25
  136. The Talmud Yerushalmi and Graeco-Roman culture: Volume 3 – Page 152 Peter Schäfer, Catherine Hezser – 2002 " In fact, there is no proof in any other rabbinic writing that Samaritans used to pronounce the Divine Name when they took an oath. The only evidence for Sarmaritans uttering the Tetragrammaton at that ..."
  137. Euan Cameron. The Annotated Luther, Volume 6: The Interpretation of Scripture. Fortress Press; 1 April 2019. ISBN 978-1-5064-6043-7. pp. 62–63.
  138. "BibliaHebraica.org, "The Septuagint"". Archived from the original on 4 May 2010.
  139. "HTC: An Orthodox Critique of Bible Translations".
  140. "orthodoxresearchinstitute.org".
  141. Fairbarn, Donald (2002). Eastern Orthodoxy through Western Eyes. Westminister John Knox Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-66422497-4.
  142. Eugen J. Pentiuc. The Old Testament in Eastern Orthodox Tradition, p. 77. Oxford University Press (6 February 2014) ISBN 978-0195331233
  143. "Fatherhood of God" in The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, 2 Volume Set, Editor John Anthony McGuckin. Wiley 2010 ISBN 9781444392548
  144. "Dixítque íterum Deus ad Móysen: «Hæc dices fíliis Israel: Iahveh (Qui est), Deus patrum vestrórum, Deus Abraham, Deus Isaac et Deus Iacob misit me ad vos; hoc nomen mihi est in ætérnum, et hoc memoriále meum in generatiónem et generatiónem." (Exodus 3:15).
  145. "Dominus quasi vir pugnator; Iahveh nomen eius!" (Exodus 15:3).
  146. "Aedificavitque Moyses altare et vocavit nomen eius Iahveh Nissi (Dominus vexillum meum)" (Exodus 17:15).
  147. "Exodus 3:15: Dixítque íterum Deus ad Móysen: «Hæc dices fíliis Israel: Dominus, Deus patrum vestrórum, Deus Abraham, Deus Isaac et Deus Iacob misit me ad vos; hoc nomen mihi est in ætérnum, et hoc memoriále meum in generatiónem et generatiónem."
  148. "Exodus 15:3: Dominus quasi vir pugnator; Dominus nomen eius!"
  149. "Exodus 17:15: Aedificavitque Moyses altare et vocavit nomen eius Dominus Nissi (Dominus vexillum meum)"
  150. "Letter of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments (PDF)"(PDF). Retrieved17 May 2016.
  151. "United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Committee on Divine Worship (PDF)"(PDF). Retrieved15 May 2014.

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Tetragrammaton
Tetragrammaton Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from YHVH For other uses see Tetragrammaton disambiguation YHWH redirects here For the historic Iron Age deity see Yahweh For the modern Jewish conception of God see God in Judaism and God in Abrahamic religions The Tetragrammaton ˌ t ɛ t r e ˈ ɡ r ae m e t ɒ n or Tetragram from Greek tetragrammaton meaning consisting of four letters is the four letter Hebrew word יהוה transliterated as YHWH the name of the national god of Israel The four letters read from right to left are yodh he waw and he 1 While there is no consensus about the structure and etymology of the name the form Yahweh is now accepted almost universally 2 3 The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician 12th century BCE to 150 BCE Paleo Hebrew 10th century BCE to 135 CE and square Hebrew 3rd century BCE to present scripts The books of the Torah and the rest of the Hebrew Bible except Esther Ecclesiastes and with a possible instance in verse 8 6 the Song of Songs contain this Hebrew name 3 Observant Jews and those who follow Talmudic Jewish traditions do not pronounce יהוה nor do they read aloud proposed transcription forms such as Yahweh or Yehovah instead they replace it with a different term whether in addressing or referring to the God of Israel Common substitutions in Hebrew are Adonai My Lord or Elohim literally gods but treated as singular when meaning God in prayer or HaShem The Name in everyday speech Contents 1 Four letters 2 Vocalisation 2 1 YHWH and Hebrew script 2 2 Yahweh 3 Non biblical texts 3 1 Texts with Tetragrammaton 3 1 1 Texts with similar theonyms 3 1 2 Magical papyri 4 Hebrew Bible 4 1 Masoretic Text 4 2 Leningrad Codex 4 3 Dead Sea Scrolls 5 Septuagint 5 1 Manuscripts of the Septuagint and later Greek renderings 6 Patristic writings 7 Peshitta 8 Vulgate 9 Usage in religious traditions 9 1 Judaism 9 1 1 Spoken prohibitions 9 1 2 Written prohibitions 9 1 3 Kabbalah 9 2 Samaritans 9 3 Christianity 9 3 1 Christian translations 9 3 2 Eastern Orthodoxy 9 3 3 Catholicism 10 See also 11 References 11 1 Notes 11 2 Citations 11 3 SourcesFour letters EditThe letters properly read from right to left in Biblical Hebrew are Hebrew Letter name Pronunciationי Yod j ה He h ו Waw w or placeholder for O U vowel see mater lectionis ה He h or often a silent letter at the end of a word Vocalisation EditYHWH and Hebrew script Edit Main article Mater lectionis See also Biblical Hebrew orthography Hebrew diacritics Tiberian vocalization and Niqqud Transcription of the divine name as IAW in the 1st century BCE Septuagint manuscript 4Q120 Like all letters in the Hebrew script the letters in YHWH originally indicated consonants In unpointed Biblical Hebrew most vowels are not written but some are indicated ambiguously as certain letters came to have a secondary function indicating vowels similar to the Latin use of I and V to indicate either the consonants j w or the vowels i u Hebrew letters used to indicate vowels are known as א מ ו ת ק ר יא ה or matres lectionis mothers of reading Therefore it can be difficult to deduce how a word is pronounced from its spelling and each of the four letters in the Tetragrammaton can individually serve as a mater lectionis Several centuries later the original consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible was provided with vowel marks by the Masoretes to assist reading In places where the word to be read the qere differed from that indicated by the consonants of the written text the ketiv they wrote the qere in the margin as a note showing what was to be read In such a case the vowel marks of the qere were written on the ketiv For a few frequent words the marginal note was omitted these are called qere perpetuum One of the frequent cases was the Tetragrammaton which according to later Rabbinite Jewish practices should not be pronounced but read as Adonai א ד נ י my Lord or if the previous or next word already was Adonai as Elohim א ל ה ים God Writing the vowel diacritics of these two words on the consonants YHVH produces י ה ו ה and י ה ו ה respectively non words that would spell Yehovah and Yehovih respectively 4 5 The oldest complete or nearly complete manuscripts of the Masoretic Text with Tiberian vocalisation such as the Aleppo Codex and the Leningrad Codex both of the 10th or 11th century mostly write י הו ה yhwah with no pointing on the first h It could be because the o diacritic point plays no useful role in distinguishing between Adonai and Elohim and so is redundant or it could point to the qere being ש מ א sema which is Aramaic for the Name Yahweh Edit See also Yahweh and Jehovah The scholarly consensus is that the original pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton was Yahweh י ה ו ה The strong consensus of biblical scholarship is that the original pronunciation of the name YHWH was Yahweh 6 R R Reno agrees that when in the late first millennium Jewish scholars inserted indications of vowels into the Hebrew Bible they signalled that what was pronounced was Adonai Lord non Jews later combined the vowels of Adonai with the consonants of the Tetragrammaton and invented the name Jehovah Modern scholars reached a consensus should be pronounced Yahweh 7 Paul Jouon and Takamitsu Muraoka state The Qre is י ה ו ה the Lord whilst the Ktiv is probably י ה ו ה according to ancient witnesses and they add Note 1 In our translations we have used Yahweh a form widely accepted by scholars instead of the traditional Jehovah 8 Already in 1869 when as shown by the use of the then traditional form Jehovah as title for its article on the question the present strong consensus that the original pronunciation was Yahweh had not yet attained full force Smith s Bible Dictionary a collaborative work of noted scholars of the time declared Whatever therefore be the true pronunciation of the word there can be little doubt that it is not Jehovah 9 Mark P Arnold remarks that certain conclusions drawn from the pronunciation of יהוה as Yahweh would be valid even if the scholarly consensus were not correct 10 Thomas Romer holds that the original pronunciation of Yhwh was Yaho or Yahu 11 The adoption at the time of the Protestant Reformation of Jehovah in place of the traditional Lord in some new translations vernacular or Latin of the biblical Tetragrammaton stirred up dispute about its correctness In 1711 Adriaan Reland published a book containing the text of 17th century writings five attacking and five defending it 12 As critical of the use of Jehovah it incorporated writings by Johannes van den Driesche 1550 1616 known as Drusius Sixtinus Amama 1593 1629 Louis Cappel 1585 1658 Johannes Buxtorf 1564 1629 Jacob Alting 1618 1679 Defending Jehovah were writings by Nicholas Fuller 1557 1626 and Thomas Gataker 1574 1654 and three essays by Johann Leusden 1624 1699 The opponents of Jehovah said that the Tetragrammaton should be pronounced as Adonai and in general do not speculate on what may have been the original pronunciation although mention is made of the fact that some held that Jahve was that pronunciation 13 Almost two centuries after the 17th century works reprinted by Reland 19th century Wilhelm Gesenius reported in his Thesaurus Philologicus on the main reasoning of those who argued either for י ה ו ה Yahwoh or י ה ו ה Yahweh as the original pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton as opposed to י ה ו ה Yehovah citing explicitly as supporters of י ה ו ה the 17th century writers mentioned by Reland and implicitly Johann David Michaelis 1717 1791 and Johann Friedrich von Meyer 1772 1849 14 the latter of whom Johann Heinrich Kurtz described as the last of those who have maintained with great pertinacity that י ה ו ה was the correct and original pointing 15 Edward Robinson s translation of a work by Gesenius gives the personal view of Gesenius as My own view coincides with that of those who regard this name as anciently pronounced י ה ו ה Yahweh like the Samaritans 16 Non biblical texts EditTexts with Tetragrammaton Edit The Mesha Stele bears the earliest known reference 840 BCE to the Israelite God Yahweh The oldest known inscription of the Tetragrammaton dates to 840 BCE the Mesha Stele mentions the Israelite god Yahweh 17 Of the same century are two pottery sherds found at Kuntillet Ajrud with inscriptions mentioning Yahweh of Samaria and his Asherah and Yahweh of Teman and his Asherah 18 A tomb inscription at Khirbet el Qom also mentions Yahweh 19 20 21 Dated slightly later 7th century BCE there are an ostracon from the collections of Shlomo Moussaieff 22 and two tiny silver amulet scrolls found at Ketef Hinnom that mention Yahweh 23 Also a wall inscription dated to the late 6th century BCE with mention of Yahweh had been found in a tomb at Khirbet Beit Lei 24 YHWH in one of the Lachish letters Yahweh is mentioned also in the Lachish letters 587 BCE and the slightly earlier Tel Arad ostraca and on a stone from Mount Gerizim 3rd or the beginning of the 2nd century BCE 25 Texts with similar theonyms Edit The theonyms YHW and YHH are found in the Elephantine papyri of about 500 BCE 26 One ostracon with YH is thought to have lost the final letter of an original YHW 27 28 These texts are in Aramaic not the language of the Hebrew Tetragrammaton YHWH and unlike the Tetragrammaton are of three letters not four However because they were written by Jews they are assumed to refer to the same deity and to be either an abbreviated form of the Tetragrammaton or the original name from which the name YHWH developed Kristin De Troyer says that YHW or YHH and also YH are attested in the fifth and fourth century BCE papyri from Elephantine and Wadi Daliyeh In both collections one can read the name of God as Yaho or Yahu and Ya 29 The name YH Yah Jah the first syllable of Yahweh appears 50 times in the Old Testament 26 times alone Exodus 15 2 17 16 and 24 times in the Psalms 24 times in the expression Hallelujah 30 An Egyptian hieroglyphic inscription of the Pharaoh Amenhotep III 1402 1363 BCE mentions a group of Shasu whom it calls the Shashu of Yhw read as ja h wi or ja h wa James D G Dunn and John W Rogerson tentatively suggest that the Amenhotep III inscription may indicate that worship of Yahweh originated in an area to the southeast of Palestine 31 A later inscription from the time of Ramesses II 1279 1213 in West Amara associates the Shasu nomads with S rr interpreted as Mount Seir spoken of in some texts as where Yahweh comes from 32 33 Frank Moore Cross says It must be emphasized that the Amorite verbal form is of interest only in attempting to reconstruct the proto Hebrew or South Canaanite verbal form used in the name Yahweh We should argue vigorously against attempts to take Amorite yuhwi and yahu as divine epithets 34 According to De Troyer the short names instead of being ineffable like Yahweh seem to have been in spoken use not only as elements of personal names but also in reference to God The Samaritans thus seem to have pronounced the Name of God as Jaho or Ja She cites Theodoret c 393 c 460 as that the shorter names of God were pronounced by the Samaritans as Iabe and by the Jews as Ia She adds that the Bible also indicates that the short form Yah was spoken as in the phrase Halleluyah 29 The Patrologia Graeca texts of Theodoret differ slightly from what De Troyer says In Quaestiones in Exodum 15 he says that Samaritans pronounced the name Ἰabe and Jews the name Aia 35 The Greek term Aia is a transcription of the Exodus 3 14 phrase א ה י ה ehyeh I am 36 In Haereticarum Fabularum Compendium 5 3 he uses the spelling Ἰabai 37 Magical papyri Edit Among the Jews in the Second Temple Period magical amulets became very popular Representations of the Tetragrammaton name or combinations inspired by it in languages such as Greek and Coptic giving some indication of its pronunciation occur as names of powerful agents in Jewish magical papyri found in Egypt 38 Iabe Iave and Iaba Yaba occurs frequently 39 apparently the Samaritan enunciation of the tetragrammaton YHWH Yahweh 40 The most commonly invoked god is Iaw Iaō another vocalization of the tetragrammaton YHWH 41 There is a single instance of the heptagram iawoyhe iaōouee 42 Yawe is found in an Ethiopian Christian list of magical names of Jesus purporting to have been taught by him to his disciples 39 Hebrew Bible EditMasoretic Text Edit According to the Jewish Encyclopedia it occurs 5 410 times in the Hebrew scriptures 43 In the Hebrew Bible the Tetragrammaton occurs 6828 times 23 142 as can be seen in Kittel s Biblia Hebraica and the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia In addition the marginal notes or masorah note 1 indicate that in another 134 places where the received text has the word Adonai an earlier text had the Tetragrammaton 44 note 2 which would add up to 142 additional occurrences Even in the Dead Sea Scrolls practice varied with regard to use of the Tetragrammaton 45 According to Brown Driver Briggs י ה ו ה qere א ד נ י occurs 6 518 times and י ה ו ה qere א ל ה ים 305 times in the Masoretic Text The first appearance of the Tetragrammaton is in the Book of Genesis 2 4 46 The only books it does not appear in are Ecclesiastes the Book of Esther and Song of Songs 23 3 In the Book of Esther the Tetragrammaton does not appear but it has been distinguished acrostic wise in the initial or last letters of four consecutive words note 3 as indicated in Est 7 5 by writing the four letters in red in at least three ancient Hebrew manuscripts 47 original research The short form י ה Yah a digrammaton occurs 50 times if the phrase hallellu Yah is included 48 49 43 times in the Psalms once in Exodus 15 2 17 16 Isaiah 12 2 26 4 and twice in Isaiah 38 11 It also appears in the Greek phrase Ἁllhloyia Alleluia Hallelujah in Revelation 19 1 6 Other short forms are found as a component of theophoric Hebrew names in the Bible jo or jeho 29 names and jahu or jah 127 jnames A form of jahu jeho appears in the name Elioenai Elj eh oenai in 1Ch 3 23 24 4 36 7 8 Ezr 22 22 27 Neh 12 41 The following graph shows the absolute number of occurrences of the Tetragrammaton 6828 in all in the books in the Masoretic Text 50 without relation to the length of the books Leningrad Codex Edit Six presentations of the Tetragrammaton with some or all of the vowel points of א ד נ י Adonai or א ל ה ים Elohim are found in the Leningrad Codex of 1008 1010 as shown below The close transcriptions do not indicate that the Masoretes intended the name to be pronounced in that way see qere perpetuum Chapter and verse Masoretic Text display Close transcription of the display Ref ExplanationGenesis 2 4 י הו ה Yǝhwah 51 This is the first occurrence of the Tetragrammaton in the Hebrew Bible and shows the most common set of vowels used in the Masoretic text It is the same as the form used in Genesis 3 14 below but with the dot holam on the first he left out because it is a little redundant Genesis 3 14 י ה ו ה Yǝhōwah 52 This is a set of vowels used rarely in the Masoretic text and are essentially the vowels from Adonai with the hataf patakh reverting to its natural state as a shewa Judges 16 28 י ה ו ה Yĕhōwih 53 When the Tetragrammaton is preceded by Adonai it receives the vowels from the name Elohim instead The hataf segol does not revert to a shewa because doing so could lead to confusion with the vowels in Adonai Genesis 15 2 י הו ה Yĕhwih 54 Just as above this uses the vowels from Elohim but like the second version the dot holam on the first he is omitted as redundant 1 Kings 2 26 י ה ו ה Yǝhōwih 55 Here the dot holam on the first he is present but the hataf segol does get reverted to a shewa Ezekiel 24 24 י הו ה Yǝhwih 56 Here the dot holam on the first he is omitted and the hataf segol gets reverted to a shewa ĕ is hataf segol ǝ is the pronounced form of plain shva Dead Sea Scrolls Edit In the Dead Sea Scrolls and other Hebrew and Aramaic texts the Tetragrammaton and some other names of God in Judaism such as El or Elohim were sometimes written in paleo Hebrew script showing that they were treated specially Most of God s names were pronounced until about the 2nd century BCE Then as a tradition of non pronunciation of the names developed alternatives for the Tetragrammaton appeared such as Adonai Kurios and Theos 29 The 4Q120 a Greek fragment of Leviticus 26 2 16 discovered in the Dead Sea scrolls Qumran has iaw Iao the Greek form of the Hebrew trigrammaton YHW 57 The historian John the Lydian 6th century wrote The Roman Varo 116 27 BCE defining him that is the Jewish God says that he is called Iao in the Chaldean mysteries De Mensibus IV 53 Van Cooten mentions that Iao is one of the specifically Jewish designations for God and the Aramaic papyri from the Jews at Elephantine show that Iao is an original Jewish term 58 59 The preserved manuscripts from Qumran show the inconsistent practice of writing the Tetragrammaton mainly in biblical quotations in some manuscripts is written in paleo Hebrew script square scripts or replaced with four dots or dashes tetrapuncta The members of the Qumran community were aware of the existence of the Tetragrammaton but this was not tantamount to granting consent for its existing use and speaking This is evidenced not only by special treatment of the Tetragrammaton in the text but by the recommendation recorded in the Rule of Association VI 27 Who will remember the most glorious name which is above all 60 The table below presents all the manuscripts in which the Tetragrammaton is written in paleo Hebrew script note 4 in square scripts and all the manuscripts in which the copyists have used tetrapuncta Copyists used the tetrapuncta apparently to warn against pronouncing the name of God 61 In the manuscript number 4Q248 is in the form of bars PALEO HEBREW SQUARE TETRAPUNCTA1Q11 1QPsb 2 5 3 link 1 2Q13 2QJer link 2 1QS VIII 14 link 3 1Q14 1QpMic 1 5 1 2 link 4 4Q27 4QNumb link 5 1QIsaa XXXIII 7 XXXV 15 link 6 1QpHab VI 14 X 7 14 XI 10 link 7 4Q37 4QDeutj link 8 4Q53 4QSamc 13 III 7 7 link 9 1Q15 1QpZeph 3 4 link 10 4Q78 4QXIIc link 11 4Q175 4QTest 1 192Q3 2QExodb 2 2 7 1 8 3 link 12 13 4Q96 4QPso link 14 4Q176 4QTanḥ 1 2 i 6 7 9 1 2 ii 3 8 10 6 8 10 link 15 3Q3 3QLam 1 2 link 16 4Q158 4QRPa link 17 4Q196 4QpapToba ar 17 i 5 18 15 link 18 4Q20 4QExodj 1 2 3 link 19 4Q163 4Qpap pIsac I 19 II 6 15 16 1 21 9 III 3 9 25 7 link 20 4Q248 history of the kings of Greece 5 link 21 4Q26b 4QLevg linia 8 link 22 4QpNah 4Q169 II 10 link 23 4Q306 4QMen of People Who Err 3 5 link 24 4Q38a 4QDeutk2 5 6 link 25 4Q173 4QpPsb 4 2 link 26 4Q382 4QparaKings et al 9 11 5 78 24Q57 4QIsac link 27 4Q177 4QCatena A link 28 4Q391 4Qpap Pseudo Ezechiel 36 52 55 58 65 link 29 4Q161 4QpIsaa 8 10 13 link 30 4Q215a 4QTime of Righteousness link 31 4Q462 4QNarrative C 7 12 link 32 4Q165 4QpIsae 6 4 link 33 4Q222 4QJubg link 34 4Q524 4QTb 6 13 4 5 link 35 4Q171 4QpPsa II 4 12 24 III 14 15 IV 7 10 19 link 36 4Q225 4QPsJuba link 37 XḤev SeEschat Hymn XḤev Se 6 2 711Q2 11QLevb 2 2 6 7 link 38 4Q365 4QRPc link 39 11Q5 11QPsa 62 link 40 4Q377 4QApocryphal Pentateuch B 2 ii 3 5 link 41 4Q382 4Qpap paraKings link 42 11Q6 11QPsb link 43 11Q7 11QPsc link 44 11Q19 11QTa 11Q20 11QTb link 45 11Q11 11QapocrPs link 46 Septuagint Edit Tetragrammaton written in paleo Hebrew script on Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever Editions of the Septuagint Old Testament are based on the complete or almost complete fourth century manuscripts Codex Vaticanus Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Alexandrinus and consistently use Kyrios Lord where the Masoretic Text has the Tetragrammaton in Hebrew This corresponds with the Jewish practice of replacing the Tetragrammaton with Adonai when reading the Hebrew word 63 64 65 However five of the oldest manuscripts now extant in fragmentary form render the Tetragrammaton into Greek in a different way 66 Two of these are of the first century BCE Papyrus Fouad 266 uses יהוה in the normal Hebrew alphabet in the midst of its Greek text and 4Q120 uses the Greek transcription of the name IAW Three later manuscripts use 𐤉𐤄𐤅𐤄 the name יהוה in Paleo Hebrew script the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 3522 and Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 5101 67 Other extant ancient fragments of Septuagint or Old Greek manuscripts provide no evidence on the use of the Tetragrammaton Kyrios or IAW in correspondence with the Hebrew text Tetragrammaton They include the oldest known example Papyrus Rylands 458 68 69 Scholars differ on whether in the original Septuagint translations the Tetragrammaton was represented by Kyrios 70 71 72 73 by IAW 74 by the Tetragrammaton in either normal or Paleo Hebrew form or whether different translators used different forms in different books 75 Frank Shaw argues that the Tetragrammaton continued to be articulated until the second or third century CE and that the use of Iaw was by no means limited to magical or mystical formulas but was still normal in more elevated contexts such as that exemplified by Papyrus 4Q120 Shaw considers all theories that posit in the Septuagint a single original form of the divine name as merely based on a priori assumptions 75 Accordingly he declares The matter of any especially single original form of the divine name in the LXX is too complex the evidence is too scattered and indefinite and the various approaches offered for the issue are too simplistic to account for the actual scribal practices p 158 He holds that the earliest stages of the LXX s translation were marked by diversity p 262 with the choice of certain divine names depending on the context in which they appear cf Gen 4 26 Exod 3 15 8 22 28 32 32 5 and 33 19 He treats of the related blank spaces in some Septuagint manuscripts and the setting of spaces around the divine name in 4Q120 and Papyrus Fouad 266b p 265 and repeats that there was no one original form but different translators had different feelings theological beliefs motivations and practices when it came to their handling of the name p 271 75 His view has won the support of Anthony R Meyer 75 Bob Becking 76 and commenting on Shaw s 2011 dissertation on the subject D T Runia 77 Mogens Muller says that while no clearly Jewish manuscript of the Septuagint has been found with Kyrios representing the Tetragrammaton other Jewish writings of the time show that Jews did use the term Kyrios for God and it was because Christians found it in the Septuagint that they were able to apply it to Christ 78 In fact the deuterocanonical books of the Septuagint written originally in Greek e g Wisdom 2 and 3 Maccabees do speak of God as Kyrios and thus show that the use of kyrios as a representation of יהוה must be pre Christian in origin 79 Similarly while consistent use of Kyrios to represent the Tetragrammaton has been called a distinguishing mark for any Christian LXX manuscript Eugen J Pentiuc says No definitive conclusion has been reached thus far 80 And Sean McDonough denounces as implausible the idea that Kyrios did not appear in the Septuagint before the Christian era 81 Speaking of the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever which is a kaige recension of the Septuagint a revision of the Old Greek text to bring it closer to the Hebrew text of the Bible as it existed in ca 2nd 1st century BCE and thus not necessarily the original text Kristin De Troyer remarks The problem with a recension is that one does not know what is the original form and what the recension Hence is the paleo Hebrew Tetragrammaton secondary a part of the recension or proof of the Old Greek text This debate has not yet been solved While some interpret the presence of the Tetragrammaton in Papyrus Fouad 266 the oldest Septuagint manuscript in which it appears as an indication of what was in the original text others see this manuscript as an archaizing and hebraizing revision of the earlier translation kyrios 82 Of this papyrus De Troyer asks Is it a recension or not In this regard she says that Emanuel Tov notes that in this manuscript a second scribe inserted the four letter Tetragrammaton where the first scribe left spaces large enough for the six letter word Kyrios and that Pietersma and Hanhart say the papyrus already contains some pre hexaplaric corrections towards a Hebrew text which would have had the Tetragrammaton She also mentions Septuagint manuscripts that have 8eos and one that has pantokratwr where the Hebrew text has the Tetragrammaton She concludes It suffices to say that in old Hebrew and Greek witnesses God has many names Most if not all were pronounced till about the second century BCE As slowly onwards there developed a tradition of non pronunciation alternatives for the Tetragrammaton appeared The reading Adonai was one of them Finally before Kurios became a standard rendering Adonai the Name of God was rendered with Theos 29 In the Book of Exodus alone 8eos represents the Tetragrammaton 41 times 83 Robert J Wilkinson says that the Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever is also a kaige recension and thus not strictly a Septuagint text 84 Origen Commentary on Psalms 2 2 said that in the most accurate manuscripts the name was written in an older form of the Hebrew characters the paleo Hebrew letters not the square In the more accurate exemplars the divine name is written in Hebrew characters not however in the current script but in the most ancient While Pietersma interprets this statement as referring to the Septuagint 70 Wilkinson says one might assume that Origen refers specifically to the version of Aquila of Sinope which follows the Hebrew text very closely but he may perhaps refer to Greek versions in general 85 86 Manuscripts of the Septuagint and later Greek renderings Edit The great majority of extant manuscripts of the Old Testament in Greek complete or fragmentary dated to the ninth century CE or earlier employ Kyrios to represent the Tetragrammaton of the Hebrew text The following do not They include the oldest now extant Manuscripts of the Septuagint or recensions thereof 1st century BCE 4QpapLXXLevb fragments of the Book of Leviticus chapters 1 to 5 In two verses 3 12 4 27 the Tetragrammaton of the Hebrew Bible is represented by Greek IAW Papyrus Fouad 266b 848 fragments of Deuteronomy chapters 10 to 33 87 The Tetragrammaton appears in square Hebrew Aramaic script According to a disputed view the first copyist left a blank space marked with a dot and another inscribed the letters 1st century CE Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 3522 contains parts of two verses of chapter 42 of the Book of Job and has the Tetragrammaton in paleo Hebrew letters Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever in three fragments whose contents were published separately Se2grXII LXXIEJ 12 has the Tetragrammaton in 1 place 8HevXII a LXXVTS 10a in 24 places in whole or part 8HevXII b LXXVTS 10b in 4 places 1st to 2nd century Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 5101 contains fragments of the Book of Psalms It has YHWH in Paleo Hebrew script 88 89 90 3rd century CE Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1007 contains Genesis 2 and 3 The divine name is written with a double yodh Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 656 fragments of the Book of Genesis chapters 14 to 27 Has Kyrios where the first copyist left blank spaces Papyrus Berlin 17213 fragments of the Book of Genesis chapter 19 One space is left blank Emanuel Tov thinks it indicated the end of a paragraph 89 It has been dated to 3rd century CE Manuscripts of Greek translations made by Symmachus and Aquila of Sinope 2nd century CE 3rd century CE Papyrus Vindobonensis Greek 39777 Has the Tetragrammaton in archaic Hebrew script 91 92 93 5th century CE AqTaylor this manuscript of the Aquila version is dated after the middle of the 5th century but not later than the beginning of the 6th century AqBurkitt a palimpsest manuscript of the Aquila version dated late 5th century or early 6th century Manuscripts with Hexaplaric elements 6th century CE Codex Marchalianus In addition to the Septuagint text of the prophets with ks the manuscript contains marginal notes from a hand not much later than the original scribe indicating Hexaplaric variations each identified as from Aquila Symmachus or Theodotion Marginal notes on some of the prophets contain pipi to indicate that ks in the text corresponds to the Tetragrammaton Two marginal notes at Ezekiel 1 2 and 11 1 use the form iaw with reference to the Tetragrammaton 94 7th century CE Taylor Schechter 12 182 a Hexapla manuscript with Tetragrammaton in Greek letters PIPI It has Hebrew text transliterated into Greek Aquila Symmachus and the Septuagint 9th century CE Ambrosiano O 39 sup the latest Greek manuscript containing the name of God is Origen sHexapla transmitting among other translations the text of the Septuagint Aquila Symmachus and Theodotion and in three other unidentified Greek translations Quinta Sextus and Septima This codex copied from a much earlier original comes from the late 9th century and is stored in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana Patristic writings Edit Petrus Alphonsi s early 12th century Tetragrammaton Trinity diagram rendering the name as IEVE Tetragrammaton at the Fifth Chapel of the Palace of Versailles France According to the Catholic Encyclopedia 1910 and B D Eerdmans 95 96 Diodorus Siculus 1st century BCE writes 97 Ἰaῶ Iao Irenaeus d c 202 reports 98 that the Gnostics formed a compound Ἰaw8 Iaoth with the last syllable of Sabaoth He also reports 99 that the Valentinian heretics use Ἰaῶ Iao Clement of Alexandria d c 215 reports the mystic name of four letters which was affixed to those alone to whom the adytum was accessible is called Ἰaoὺ Iaou manuscript variants also have the forms ἰaoῦe Iaoue and ἰὰ oὐὲ 100 Origen d c 254 Ἰaw Iao 101 Porphyry d c 305 according to Eusebius died 339 102 Ἰeyw Ieuo Epiphanius died 404 who was born in Palestine and spent a considerable part of his life there gives Ἰa Ia and Ἰabe pronounced at that time ja ve and explains Ἰabe as meaning He who was and is and always exists 103 Jerome died 420 104 speaks of certain Greek writers who misunderstood the Hebrew letters יהוה read right to left as the Greek letters PIPI read left to right thus changing YHWH to pipi Theodoret d c 457 writes Ἰaw Iao 105 he also reports 106 that the Samaritans say Ἰabe or Ἰabai both pronounced at that time ja ve while the Jews say Ἀia Aia 39 The latter is probably not יהוה but אהיה Ehyeh I am or I will be Exod 3 14 which the Jews counted among the names of God Pseudo Jerome 4th 5th or 9th century 107 IAHO This work was traditionally attributed to Jerome and in spite of the view of one modern writer who in 1936 said it is now believed to be genuine and to be dated before CE 392 108 is still generally attributed to the 9th century 109 and to be non authentic 110 111 Peshitta EditThe Peshitta Syriac translation probably in the second century 112 uses the word Lord ܡ ܪܝ ܐ pronounced moryo for the Tetragrammaton 113 Vulgate EditThe Vulgate Latin translation made from the Hebrew in the 4th century CE 114 uses the word Dominus Lord a translation of the Hebrew word Adonai for the Tetragrammaton 113 The Vulgate translation though made not from the Septuagint but from the Hebrew text did not depart from the practice used in the Septuagint Thus for most of its history Christianity s translations of the Scriptures have used equivalents of Adonai to represent the Tetragrammaton Only at about the beginning of the 16th century did Christian translations of the Bible appear combining the vowels of Adonai with the four consonantal letters of the Tetragrammaton 115 116 Usage in religious traditions EditJudaism Edit Main article Genizah Especially due to the existence of the Mesha Stele the Jahwist tradition found in Exod 3 15 and ancient Hebrew and Greek texts biblical scholars widely hold that the Tetragrammaton and other names of God were spoken by the ancient Israelites and their neighbours 117 29 118 40 Some time after the destruction of Solomon s Temple the spoken use of God s name as it was written ceased among the people even though knowledge of the pronunciation was perpetuated in rabbinic schools 39 The Talmud relays this occurred after the death of Simeon the Just either Simon I or his great great grandson Simon II 119 Philo calls it ineffable and says that it is lawful for those only whose ears and tongues are purified by wisdom to hear and utter it in a holy place that is for priests in the Temple In another passage commenting on Lev xxiv 15 seq If any one I do not say should blaspheme against the Lord of men and gods but should even dare to utter his name unseasonably let him expect the penalty of death 39 Rabbinic sources suggest that the name of God was pronounced only once a year by the high priest on the Day of Atonement 120 Others including Maimonides 121 claim that the name was pronounced daily in the liturgy of the Temple in the priestly benediction of worshippers Num vi 27 after the daily sacrifice in the synagogues though a substitute probably Adonai was used 39 According to the Talmud in the last generations before the fall of Jerusalem the name was pronounced in a low tone so that the sounds were lost in the chant of the priests 39 Since the destruction of Second Temple of Jerusalem in 70 CE the Tetragrammaton has no longer been pronounced in the liturgy However the pronunciation was still known in Babylonia in the latter part of the 4th century 39 Spoken prohibitions Edit The vehemence with which the utterance of the name is denounced in the Mishnah suggests that use of Yahweh was unacceptable in rabbinical Judaism He who pronounces the Name with its own letters has no part in the world to come 39 Such is the prohibition of pronouncing the Name as written that it is sometimes called the Ineffable Unutterable or Distinctive Name or Explicit Name Shem HaMephorash in Hebrew 122 123 124 Halakha prescribes that whereas the Name is written yodh he waw he it is only to be pronounced Adonai and the latter name too is regarded as a holy name and is only to be pronounced in prayer 125 126 Thus when someone wants to refer in third person to either the written or spoken Name the term HaShem the Name is used 127 128 and this handle itself can also be used in prayer note 5 The Masoretes added vowel points niqqud and cantillation marks to the manuscripts to indicate vowel usage and for use in ritual chanting of readings from the Bible in Jewish prayer in synagogues To יהוה they added the vowels for Adonai My Lord the word to use when the text was read While HaShem is the most common way to reference the Name the terms HaMaqom lit The Place i e The Omnipresent and Raḥmana Aramaic Merciful are used in the mishna and gemara still used in the phrases HaMaqom y naḥem ethḥem may The Omnipresent console you the traditional phrase used in sitting Shiva and Raḥmana l tzlan may the Merciful save us i e God forbid Written prohibitions Edit The written Tetragrammaton 129 as well as six other names of God must be treated with special sanctity They cannot be disposed of regularly lest they be desecrated but are usually put in long term storage or buried in Jewish cemeteries in order to retire them from use 130 Similarly writing the Tetragrammaton or these other names unnecessarily is prohibited so as to avoid having them treated disrespectfully an action that is forbidden To guard the sanctity of the Name sometimes a letter is substituted by a different letter in writing e g יקוק or the letters are separated by one or more hyphens a practice applied also to the English name God which Jews commonly write as G d 131 132 Most Jewish authorities say that this practice is not obligatory for the English name 133 Kabbalah Edit See also Kabbalah and Hasidic philosophy Kabbalistic tradition holds that the correct pronunciation is known to a select few people in each generation it is not generally known what this pronunciation is There are two main schools of Kabbalah arising in 13th century Spain These are called Theosophic Kabbalah represented by Rabbi Moshe De leon and the Zohar and the Kabbalah of Names or Prophetic Kabbalah whose main representative is Rabbi Abraham Abulafia of Saragossa Rabbi Abulafia wrote many wisdom books and prophetic books where the name is used for meditation purposes from 1271 onwards Abulafia put a lot of attention on Exodus 15 and the Songs of Moses In this song it says Yehovah is a Man of War Yehovah is his name For Abulafia the goal of prophecy was for a man to come to the level of prophecy and be called Yehovah a man of war Abulafia also used the tetragrammaton in a spiritual war against his spiritual enemies For example he prophesied in his book The Sign Therefore thus said YHWH the God of Israel Have no fear of the enemy See Hylton A The Prophetic Jew Abraham Abulafia 2015 Moshe Chaim Luzzatto 134 says that the tree of the Tetragrammaton unfolds in accordance with the intrinsic nature of its letters in the same order in which they appear in the Name in the mystery of ten and the mystery of four Namely the upper cusp of the Yod is Arich Anpin and the main body of Yod is and Abba the first Hei is Imma the Vav is Ze ir Anpin and the second Hei is Nukvah It unfolds in this aforementioned order and in the mystery of the four expansions that are constituted by the following various spellings of the letters ע ב AV יו ד ה י וי ו ה י so called AV according to its gematria value ע ב 70 2 72 ס ג SaG יו ד ה י וא ו ה י gematria 63 מ ה MaH יו ד ה א וא ו ה א gematria 45 ב ן BaN יו ד ה ה ו ו ה ה gematria 52 Luzzatto summarises In sum all that exists is founded on the mystery of this Name and upon the mystery of these letters of which it consists This means that all the different orders and laws are all drawn after and come under the order of these four letters This is not one particular pathway but rather the general path which includes everything that exists in the Sefirot in all their details and which brings everything under its order 134 Another parallel is drawn by whom between the four letters of the Tetragrammaton and the Four Worlds the י is associated with Atziluth the first ה with Beri ah the ו with Yetzirah and final ה with Assiah A tetractys of the letters of the Tetragrammaton adds up to 72 by gematria There are some who who believe that the tetractys and its mysteries influenced the early kabbalists A Hebrew tetractys in a similar way has the letters of the Tetragrammaton the four lettered name of God in Hebrew scripture inscribed on the ten positions of the tetractys from right to left It has been argued that the Kabbalistic Tree of Life with its ten spheres of emanation is in some way connected to the tetractys but its form is not that of a triangle The occult writer Dion Fortune says The point is assigned to Kether the line to Chokmah the two dimensional plane to Binah consequently the three dimensional solid naturally falls to Chesed 135 The first three dimensional solid is the tetrahedron The relationship between geometrical shapes and the first four Sephirot is analogous to the geometrical correlations in tetractys shown above under Pythagorean Symbol and unveils the relevance of the Tree of Life with the tetractys Samaritans Edit The Samaritans shared the taboo of the Jews about the utterance of the name and there is no evidence that its pronunciation was common Samaritan practice 39 136 However Sanhedrin 10 1 includes the comment of Rabbi Mana II for example those Kutim who take an oath would also have no share in the world to come which suggests that Mana thought some Samaritans used the name in making oaths Their priests have preserved a liturgical pronunciation Yahwe or Yahwa to the present day 39 As with Jews the use of Shema שמא the Name remains the everyday usage of the name among Samaritans akin to Hebrew the Name Hebrew השם HaShem 127 Christianity Edit Tetragrammaton by Francisco Goya The Name of God YHWH in triangle detail from fresco Adoration of the Name of God 1772 The Tetragrammaton as represented in stained glass in an 1868 Episcopal Church in Iowa It is assumed that early Jewish Christians inherited from Jews the practice of reading Lord where the Tetragrammaton appears in the Hebrew text and where a few Greek manuscripts use it in the midst of their Greek translation Gentile Christians primarily non Hebrew speaking and using Greek Scripture texts may have read Kyrios Lord as in the Greek text of the New Testament and in their copies of the Greek Old Testament This practice continued into the Latin Vulgate where Dominus Lord represented the Tetragrammaton in the Latin text At the Reformation the Luther Bible used capitalized Herr Lord in the German text of the Old Testament to represent the Tetragrammaton 137 Christian translations Edit The Septuagint Greek translation the Vulgate Latin translation and the Peshitta Syriac translation 113 use the word Lord kyrios kyrios dominus and ܡ ܪܝ ܐ moryo respectively Use of the Septuagint by Christians in polemics with Jews led to its abandonment by the latter making it a specifically Christian text From it Christians made translations into Coptic Arabic Slavonic and other languages used in Oriental Orthodoxy and the Eastern Orthodox Church 86 138 whose liturgies and doctrinal declarations are largely a cento of texts from the Septuagint which they consider to be inspired at least as much as the Masoretic Text 86 139 Within the Eastern Orthodox Church the Greek text remains the norm for texts in all languages with particular reference to the wording used in prayers 140 141 The Septuagint with its use of Kyrios to represent the Tetragrammaton was the basis also for Christian translations associated with the West in particular the Vetus Itala which survives in some parts of the liturgy of the Latin Church and the Gothic Bible Christian translations of the Bible into English commonly use LORD in place of the Tetragrammaton in most passages often in small capitals or in all caps so as to distinguish it from other words translated as Lord Eastern Orthodoxy Edit The Eastern Orthodox Church considers the Septuagint text which uses Kyrios Lord to be the authoritative text of the Old Testament 86 and in its liturgical books and prayers it uses Kyrios in place of the Tetragrammaton in texts derived from the Bible 142 143 247 248 Catholicism Edit The Tetragrammaton on the Tympanum of the Roman Catholic Basilica of St Louis King of France in Missouri In the Catholic Church the first edition of the official Vatican Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio editio typica published in 1979 used the traditional Dominus when rendering the Tetragrammaton in the overwhelming majority of places where it appears however it also used the form Iahveh for rendering the Tetragrammaton in three known places Exodus 3 15 144 Exodus 15 3 145 Exodus 17 15 146 In the second edition of the Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio editio typica altera published in 1986 these few occurrences of the form Iahveh were replaced with Dominus 147 148 149 in keeping with the long standing Catholic tradition of avoiding direct usage of the Ineffable Name On 29 June 2008 the Holy See reacted to the then still recent practice of pronouncing within Catholic liturgy the name of God represented by the Tetragrammaton As examples of such vocalisation it mentioned Yahweh and Yehovah The early Christians it said followed the example of the Septuagint in replacing the name of God with the Lord a practice with important theological implications for their use of the Lord in reference to Jesus as in Philippians 2 9 11 and other New Testament texts It therefore directed that in liturgical celebrations in songs and prayers the name of God in the form of the Tetragrammaton YHWH is neither to be used or pronounced and that translations of Biblical texts for liturgical use are to follow the practice of the Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate replacing the divine name with the Lord or in some contexts God 150 The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops welcomed this instruction adding that it provides also an opportunity to offer catechesis for the faithful as an encouragement to show reverence for the Name of God in daily life emphasizing the power of language as an act of devotion and worship 151 See also EditAllah Arabic word for God I Am that I Am Names of God Names and titles of God in the New TestamentReferences EditNotes Edit masora parva small or masora marginalis notes to the Masoretic text written in the margins of the left right and between the columns and the comments on the top and bottom margins to masora magna large C D Ginsburg in The Massorah Compiled from manuscripts London 1880 vol I p 25 26 115 lists the 134 places where this practice is observed and likewise in 8 places where the received text has Elohim C D Ginsburg Introduction to the Massoretico Critical Edition of the Hebrew Bible London 1897 s 368 369 These places are listed in C D Ginsburg The Massorah Compiled from manuscripts vol I p 26 116 These are Est 1 20 5 4 13 and 7 7 The same acrostic has been seen in Exodus 3 14 and in the first four words of Psalm 96 11 Bible Gateway passage 96 11 תהילים The Westminster Leningrad Codex In some manuscripts the Tetragrammaton was replaced by the word El or Elohim written in Paleo Hebrew script they are 1QpMic 1Q14 12 3 1QMyst 1Q27 II 11 1QHa I Suk Puech IX 26 II X 34 VII XV 5 XV VII 25 1QHb 1Q35 1 5 3QUnclassified fragments 3Q14 18 2 4QpPsb 4Q173 5 4 4QAges of Creation A 4Q180 1 1 4QMidrEschate 4Q183 2 1 3 1 fr 1 kol II 3 4QSd 4Q258 IX 8 4QDb 4Q267 fr 9 kol i 2 kol iv 4 kol v 4 4QDc 4Q268 1 9 4QComposition Concerning Divine Providence 4Q413 fr 1 2 2 4 6QD 6Q15 3 5 6QpapHymn 6Q18 6 5 8 5 10 3 W 4QShirShabbg 4Q406 1 2 3 2 wystepuje Elohim For example in the common utterance and praise Barukh Hashem Blessed i e the source of all is Hashem or Hashem yishmor God protect us Citations Edit The word tetragrammaton originates from tetra four gramma gramma gen grammatos letter Online Etymology Dictionary Botterweck G Johannes Ringgren Helmer eds 1986 Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament 5 Translated by Green David E William B Eerdmans Publishing Company p 500 ISBN 0 8028 2329 7 a b c Geoffrey William Bromiley Erwin Fahlbusch Jan Milic Lochman John Mbiti Jaroslav Pelikan Lukas Vischer eds 15 February 2008 Yahweh The Encyclopedia of Christianity 5 Translated by Geoffrey William Bromiley Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Brill pp 823 824 ISBN 978 90 04 14596 2 G Johannes Botterweck Helmer Ringgren eds 1979 Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament Volume 3 Wm B Eerdmans Publishing ISBN 978 0 8028 2327 4 Norbert Samuelson 2006 Jewish Philosophy An Historical Introduction A amp C Black ISBN 978 0 8264 9244 9 Alter Robert 2018 The Hebrew Bible A Translation with Commentary W W Norton amp Company ISBN 9780393292503 Reno R R 2010 Genesis Brazos Press ISBN 9781587430916 Paul Jouon and T Muraoka A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew Subsidia Biblica Part One Orthography and Phonetics Rome Editrice Pontificio Istituto Biblio 1996 ISBN 978 8876535956 William Smith 1872 Dictionary of the Bible 2 p 1239 Arnold Mark P 2015 Revealing the Name An Investigation of the Divine Character through a Conversation Analysis of the Dialogues between God and Moses in the Book of Exodus PhD thesis University of Gloucestershire p 28 Thomas Romer 2015 The Invention of God Translated by Raymond Geuss Harvard University Press pp 32 33 ISBN 9780674504974 Reeland 1707 Reeland 1707 p 392 Gesenius Wilhelm 1839 Thesaurus Philologicus Criticus Linguae Hebraeae et Chaldaeae veteris testamenti Vol 2 pp 575 577 volume has extra text help Johann Heinrich Kurtz History of the Old Covenant tr annotated and prefaced by a condensed abstract of Kurtz s Bible and astronomy by A Edersheim 1859 p 214 Wilhelm Gesenius A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament Including the Biblical Chaldee Crocker and Brewster 1844 p 389 Lemaire Andre May June 1994 House of David Restored in Moabite Inscription PDF Biblical Archaeology Review Biblical Archaeology Society 20 3 Archived from the original PDF on 31 March 2012 Bonanno Anthony 23 February 1986 Archaeology and Fertility Cult in the Ancient Mediterranean Papers Presented at the First International Conference on Archaeology of the Ancient Mediterranean University of Malta 2 5 September 1985 John Benjamins ISBN 9060322886 Keel Othmar Uehlinger Christoph 1998 Gods Goddesses And Images of God Bloomsbury Academic ISBN 9780567085917 Becking Bob 1 January 2001 Only One God Monotheism in Ancient Israel and the Veneration of the Goddess Asherah A amp C Black ISBN 9781841271996 Cross 1997 p 61 J M Lindenberger 2003 Ancient Aramaic and Hebrew Letters Atlanta pp 110 111 a b c Knight Douglas A Levine Amy Jill 2011 The Meaning of the Bible What the Jewish Scriptures and Christian Old Testament Can Teach Us 1st ed New York HarperOne ISBN 978 0062098597 Joseph Naveh 1963 Old Hebrew Inscriptions in a Burial Cave Israel Exploration Journal 13 2 74 92 G Davis 2004 Ancient Hebrew inscriptions corpus and concordance 2 Cambridge p 18 A Vincent 1937 La religion des judeo arameens d Elephantine in French Paris B Porten 1968 Archives from Elephantine The Life of an Ancient Jewish Military Colony Berkeley Los Angeles University of California Press pp 105 106 D N Freedman 1974 YHWH Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament 5 Eerdmans p 504 ISBN 0802823297 a b c d e De Troyer 2005 Becchio amp Schade 2006 p 463 James D G Dunn John William Rogerson 2003 Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible Wm B Eerdmans Publishing p 3 ISBN 9780802837110 Coogan Michael David Coogan Michael D 23 February 2001 The Oxford History of the Biblical World Oxford University Press ISBN 9780195139372 Smith Mark S 9 August 2001 The Origins of Biblical Monotheism Israel s Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts Oxford University Press ISBN 9780199881178 Cross 1997 pp 61 63 Jacques Paul Migne 1860 Patrologiae cursus completus series graeca 80 pp col 244 English translation Walter Woodburn Hyde Paganism to Christianity in the Roman Empire Wipf and Stock 2008 p 80 Toy Crawford Howell Blau Ludwig Tetragrammaton Jewish Encyclopedia Archived from the original on 26 February 2020 Jacques Paul Migne 1864 Patrologiae cursus completus series graeca 83 pp col 460 B Alfrink La prononciation Jehova du tetragramme O T S V 1948 43 62 a b c d e f g h i j k Moore George Foot 1911 Jehovah In Chisholm Hugh ed Encyclopaedia Britannica 15 11th ed Cambridge University Press pp 311 314 Hans Dieter Betz editor The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation The University of Chicago Press 1986 p 335 Evans Luke Aaron Ralph Recipes for Love A Semiotic Analysis of the Tools in the Erotic Magical Papyri Durham University 2015 p 26 K Preisendanz Papyri Graecae Magicae Leipzig Berlin I 1928 and II 1931 http www jewishencyclopedia com articles 14346 tetragrammaton C D Ginsburg The Massorah Translated into English with a critical and exegetical commentary IV p 28 115 Steven Ortlepp 2010 Pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton A Historico Linguistic Approach p 60 ISBN 978 1 4452 7220 7 The Bible translator 56 United Bible Societies 2005 p 71 Nelson s expository dictionary of the Old Testament Merrill Frederick Unger William White 1980 p 229 The Name of Jehovah in the Book of Esther appendix 60 Companion Bible G H Parke Taylor 2006 Yahweh The Divine Name in the Bible Waterloo Ontario Wilfrid Laurier University Press ISBN 9780889206526 G Lisowsky Konkordanz zum hebraischen Alten Testament Stuttgart 1958 p 1612 Basic information about the form Jah see L Koehler W Baumgartner J J Stamm Wielki slownik hebrajsko polski i aramejsko polski Starego Testamentu Great Dictionary of the Hebrew Aramaic Polish and Polish Old Testament Warszawa 2008 vol 1 p 327 code No 3514 E Jenni C Westermann Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament Hendrickson Publishers 1997 page 685 Genesis 2 4 in the Unicode XML Leningrad Codex Tanach us Retrieved 18 November 2011 Genesis 3 14 in the Unicode XML Leningrad Codex Tanach us Retrieved 18 November 2011 Judges 16 28 in the Unicode XML Leningrad Codex Tanach us Retrieved 18 November 2011 Genesis 15 2 in the Unicode XML Leningrad Codex Tanach us Retrieved 18 November 2011 1 Kings 2 26 in the Unicode XML Leningrad Codex Tanach us Retrieved 18 November 2011 Ezekiel 24 24 in the Unicode XML Leningrad Codex Tanach us Retrieved 18 November 2011 Bezalel Porten Archives from Elephantine The life of an ancient Jewish military colony 1968 University of California Press pp 105 106 Stern M Greek and Latin Authors on Jews and Judaism 1974 84 1 172 Schafer P Judeophobia Attitudes toward the Jews in the Ancient World 1997 232 Cowley A Aramaic Papyri of the 5th century 1923 Kraeling E G The Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri New Documents of the 5th century BCE from the Jewish Colony at Elephantine 1953 Sufficient examination of the subject is available at Sean McDonough s YHWH at Patmos 1999 pp 116 to 122 and George van Kooten s The Revelation of the Name YHWH to Moses 2006 pp 114 115 126 136 It is worth mentioning a fundamental though aged source about the subject Adolf Deissmann s Bible studies Contributions chiefly from papyri and inscriptions to the history of the language the literature and the religion of Hellenistic Judaism and primitive Christianity 1909 at chapter Greek transcriptions of the Tetragrammaton Translated by P Muchowski Rekopisy znad Morza Martwego Qumran Wadi Murabba at Masada Krakow 1996 pp 31 Tov 2018 p 206 A complete list A Sanders The Psalms Scroll of Qumran Cave 11 11QPsa serie Discoveries of the Judaean Desert of Jordan IV pp 9 T Muraoka A Greek Hebrew Aramaic Two way Index to the Septuagint Peeters Publishers 2010 p 72 T Muraoka A Greek Hebrew Aramaic Two way Index to the Septuagint Peeters Publishers 2010 p 56 E Hatch H A Redpath 1975 A Concordance to the Septuagint And the Other Greek Versions of the Old Testament Including the Apocryphal Books I pp 630 648 H Bietenhard Lord in the New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology C Brown gen ed Grand Rapids MI Zondervan 1986 Vol 2 p 512 ISBN 0310256208 Metzger Bruce M 17 September 1981 Manuscripts of the Greek Bible An Introduction to Palaeography Oxford University Press ISBN 9780195365320 Hiebert Cox amp Gentry 2001 p 125 Tov 2018 p 304 a b Pietersma 1984 p 90 Rosel Martin June 2007 The Reading and Translation of the Divine Name in the Masoretic Tradition and the Greek Pentateuch Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 31 4 411 doi 10 1177 0309089207080558 ISSN 0309 0892 S2CID 170886081 Larry Perkins KYRIOS Articulation and Non articulation in Greek Exodus in Bulletin of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies volume 41 2008 p 23 Larry Perkins KYRIOS Proper Name or Title in Greek Exodus p 6 Skehan 1957 pp 148 160 a b c d F Shaw The Earliest Non Mystical Jewish Use of Iaw www jhsonline org ThLZ 2016 Nr 11 Shaw Frank The Earliest Non Mystical Jewish Use of IAO Bob Becking Theologische Literaturzeitung 241 2016 1203 1205 Runia D T 28 October 2011 Philo of Alexandria An Annotated Bibliography 1997 2006 BRILL pp 229 230 ISBN 978 9004210806 David T Runia Philo of Alexandria An Annotated Bibliography 1997 2006 BRILL 2012 pp 229 230 Mogens Muller 1996 The First Bible of the Church The First Bible of the Church A Plea for the Septuagint Volume 1 of Copenhagen International Seminar Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement series Issue 206 of Supplement series A amp C Black p 118 ISBN 978 1 85075571 5 Rosel Martin June 2007 The Reading and Translation of the Divine Name in the Masoretic Tradition and the Greek Pentateuch Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 31 4 425 doi 10 1177 0309089207080558 ISSN 0309 0892 S2CID 170886081 Eugen J Pentiuc 2014 Septuagint Manuscripts and Printed Editions The Old Testament in Eastern Orthodox Tradition Oxford University Press USA pp 77 78 ISBN 978 0 19533123 3 Sean M McDonough 1999 2 The Use of the Name YHWH YHWH at Patmos Rev 1 4 in Its Hellenistic and Early Jewish Setting Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament Mohr Siebeck p 60 ISBN 978 31 6147055 4 Wurthwein amp Fischer 2014 p 264 Pietersma amp Wright 2007 p 46 Wilkinson 2015 p 55 Wilkinson 2015 p 70 a b c d Andrew Phillips The Septuagint Orthodox England journal Z Aly L Koenen Three Rolls of the Early Septuagint Genesis and Deuteronomy Bonn 1980 s 5 6 Meron Piotrkowski Geoffrey Herman Saskia Doenitz eds 2018 Sources and Interpretation in Ancient Judaism Studies for Tal Ilan at Sixty BRILL p 149 ISBN 9789004366985 a b Tov 2018 p 231 Michael P Theophilos Recently Discovered Greek Papyri and Parchment of the Psalter from the Oxford Oxyrhynchus Manuscripts Implications for Scribal Practice and Textual Transmission Australian Catholic University Thomas J Kraus 2007 Ad Fontes Original Manuscripts and Their Significance for Studying Early Christianity Selected Essays Texts and Editions for New Testament Study 3 BRILL p 3 ISBN 9789004161825 Larry W Hurtado 2006 The Earliest Christian Artifacts Manuscripts and Christian Origins Wm B Eerdmans Publishing p 214 ISBN 9780802828958 Carl Wessely 1911 Studien zur Palaeographie und Papyruskunde XI Leipzig p 171 Bruce M Metzger Manuscripts of the Greek Bible An Introduction to Palaeography Oxford University Press 17 September 1981 ISBN 978 0 19 536532 0 pp 94 95 commentary on p 94 image of a page from the manuscript on p 95 cited also on p 35 fn 66 Eerdmans 1948 pp 1 29 Maas 1910 Among the Jews Moses referred his laws to the god who is invoked as Iao Gr Iaw Diodorus Siculus Bibliotheca Historica I 94 2 Irenaeus Against Heresies II xxxv 3 in P G VII col 840 Irenaeus Against Heresies I iv 1 in P G VII col 481 Stromata v 6 34 see Karl Wilhelm Dindorf ed 1869 Clementis Alexandrini Opera in Greek III Oxford Clarendon Press p 27 ἀtὰr kaὶ tὸ tetragrammon ὄnoma tὸ mystikon ὃ periekeinto oἷs monois tὸ ἄdyton basimon ἦn legetai dὲ Ἰaoὺ also ἰaoῦe ἰὰ oὐὲ Origen In Joh II 1 in P G XIV col 105 where a footnote says that the last part of the name of Jeremiah refers to what the Samaritans expressed as Ἰabai Eusebius as Ἰeyw Theodoretus as Ἀia and the ancient Greeks as Ἰaw Eusebius Praeparatio evangelica I ix in P G XXI col 72 A and also ibid X ix in P G XXI col 808 B Epiphanius Panarion I iii 40 in P G XLI col 685 Jerome Ep xxv ad Marcell in P L XXII col 429 the word Nethinim means in Hebrew gift of Iao that is of the God who is Theodoret Quaest in I Paral cap ix in P G LXXX col 805 C Theodoret Ex quaest xv in P G LXXX col 244 and Haeret Fab V iii in P G LXXXIII col 460 nomen Domini apud Hebraeos quatuor litterarum est jod he vau he quod proprie Dei vocabulum sonat et legi potest JAHO et Hebraei ἄῤῥhton id est ineffabile opinatur Breviarium in Psalmos Psalm viii in P L XXVI col 838 A ZATW W de Gruyter 1936 page 266 British Library Martin J McNamara The Psalms in the Early Irish Church Bloomsbury Publishing 1 February 2000 ISBN 978 0 567 54034 8 p 49 Manuscrits de Citeaux Sebastian P Brock The Bible in the Syriac Tradition St Ephrem Ecumenical Research Institute 1988 Quote Page 17 The Peshitta Old Testament was translated directly from the original Hebrew text and most Biblical scholars believe that the Peshitta New Testament directly from the original Greek The so called deuterocanonical books or Apocrypha were all translated from Greek with a b c Joshua Bloch The Authorship of the Peshitta The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures Vol 35 No 4 July 1919 Adam Kamesar Jerome Greek Scholarship and the Hebrew Bible A Study of the Quaestiones Hebraicae in Genesim Clarendon Press Oxford 1993 ISBN 9780198147275 page 97 In the 7th paragraph of Introduction to the Old Testament of the New English Bible Sir Godfry Driver wrote The early translators generally substituted Lord for YHWH The Reformers preferred Jehovah which first appeared as Iehouah in 1530 A D in Tyndale s translation of the Pentateuch Exodus 6 3 from which it passed into other Protestant Bibles Clifford Hubert Durousseau Yah A Name of God in Jewish Bible Quarterly Vol 42 No 1 January March 2014 Names Of God JewishEncyclopedia com Retrieved 18 November 2011 Miller Patrick D 2000 The Religion of Ancient Israel Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 978 0664221454 Yoma Tosef Soṭah xiii The Cambridge History of Judaism The Late Roman Rabbinic Period p 779 William David Davies Louis Finkelstein Steven T Katz 2006 BT Kidd 7ia The historical picture described above is probably wrong because the Divine Names were a priestly Name was one of the climaxes of the Sacred Service it was entrusted exclusively to the High Priest once a year on the Mishneh Torah Maimonides Laws of Prayer and Priestly Blessings Chapter 14 http www chabad org dailystudy rambam asp tDate 28 March 2012 amp rambamChapters 3 Judaism 101 on the Name of God jewfaq org For example see Saul Weiss and Joseph Dov Soloveitchik February 2005 Insights of Rabbi Joseph B Soloveitchik p 9 ISBN 978 0 7425 4469 7 and Minna Rozen 1992 Jewish Identity and Society in the 17th century p 67 ISBN 978 3 16 145770 8 Rosel Martin June 2007 The Reading and Translation of the Divine Name in the Masoretic Tradition and the Greek Pentateuch Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 31 4 418 doi 10 1177 0309089207080558 ISSN 0309 0892 S2CID 170886081 It is in this book that we find the strictest prohibition against pronouncing the name of the Lord The Hebrew of 24 16 which may be translated as And he that blasphemes curses 3B the name of the Lord 9H9J he shall surely be put to death in the LXX is subjected to a They the Priests when reciting the Priestly Blessing when the Temple stood recite God s name i e the name yod hei vav hei as it is written This is what is referred to as the explicit name in all sources In the country that is outside the Temple it is read using another one of God s names א ד נ י Adonai for only in the Temple is this name of God recited as it is written Mishneh Torah Maimonides Laws of Prayer and Priestly Blessings 14 10 Kiddushin 71a states I am not referred to as My name is written My name is written yod hei vav hei and it is pronounced Adonai a b Stanley S Seidner HaShem Uses through the Ages Unpublished paper Rabbinical Society Seminar Los Angeles CA 1987 For example two common prayer books are titled Tehillat Hashem and Avodat Hashem Or a person may tell a friend Hashem helped me to perform a great mitzvah today See Deut 12 2 4 You must destroy all the sites at which the nations you are to dispossess worshiped their gods tear down their altars and cut down the images of their gods obliterating their name from that site Do not do the same thing to Hashem YHWH your God Based on the Talmud Shavuot 35a b Maimonides Hilkhot Yesodei HaTorah Chapter 6 and the Shulchan Arukh Yoreh Deah 276 9 it is prohibited to erase or obliterate the seven Hebrew names for God found in the Torah in addition to the above there is E l E loha Tzeva ot Sha dai Judaism 101 The Name of G d www jewfaq org Why Don t You Spell Out G d s Name Aron Moss Chabad org Why do some Jews write G d instead of God ReformJudaism org 19 February 2014 a b In קל ח פתחי חכמה by Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzato Opening 31 English translation in book 138 Openings of Wisdom by Rabbi Avraham Greenbaum 2008 also viewable at http www breslev co il articles spirituality and faith kabbalah and mysticism the name of havayah aspx id 10847 amp language english accessed 12 March 2012 The Mystical Qabalah Dion Fortune Chapter XVIII 25 The Talmud Yerushalmi and Graeco Roman culture Volume 3 Page 152 Peter Schafer Catherine Hezser 2002 In fact there is no proof in any other rabbinic writing that Samaritans used to pronounce the Divine Name when they took an oath The only evidence for Sarmaritans uttering the Tetragrammaton at that Euan Cameron The Annotated Luther Volume 6 The Interpretation of Scripture Fortress Press 1 April 2019 ISBN 978 1 5064 6043 7 pp 62 63 BibliaHebraica org The Septuagint Archived from the original on 4 May 2010 HTC An Orthodox Critique of Bible Translations orthodoxresearchinstitute org Fairbarn Donald 2002 Eastern Orthodoxy through Western Eyes Westminister John Knox Press p 34 ISBN 978 0 66422497 4 Eugen J Pentiuc The Old Testament in Eastern Orthodox Tradition p 77 Oxford University Press 6 February 2014 ISBN 978 0195331233 Fatherhood of God in The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity 2 Volume Set Editor John Anthony McGuckin Wiley 2010 ISBN 9781444392548 Dixitque iterum Deus ad Moysen Haec dices filiis Israel Iahveh Qui est Deus patrum vestrorum Deus Abraham Deus Isaac et Deus Iacob misit me ad vos hoc nomen mihi est in aeternum et hoc memoriale meum in generationem et generationem Exodus 3 15 Dominus quasi vir pugnator Iahveh nomen eius Exodus 15 3 Aedificavitque Moyses altare et vocavit nomen eius Iahveh Nissi Dominus vexillum meum Exodus 17 15 Exodus 3 15 Dixitque iterum Deus ad Moysen Haec dices filiis Israel Dominus Deus patrum vestrorum Deus Abraham Deus Isaac et Deus Iacob misit me ad vos hoc nomen mihi est in aeternum et hoc memoriale meum in generationem et generationem Exodus 15 3 Dominus quasi vir pugnator Dominus nomen eius Exodus 17 15 Aedificavitque Moyses altare et vocavit nomen eius Dominus Nissi Dominus vexillum meum Letter of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments PDF PDF Retrieved 17 May 2016 United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Committee on Divine Worship PDF PDF Retrieved 15 May 2014 Sources Edit Becchio Bruno Schade Schade 2006 Encyclopedia of World Religions Foreign Media Group ISBN 978 1 60136 000 7 Cross Frank Moore 1997 Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic reprint ed Harvard University Press pp 61 63 ISBN 0674091760 De Troyer Kristin 2005 The Names of God Their Pronunciation and Their Translation A Digital Tour of Some of the Main Witnesses Lectio Difficilior European Electronic Journal for Feminist Exegesis Theol Fakultat der Universitat Bern 2 ISSN 1661 3317 OCLC 174649029 Eerdmans Bernardus D 1948 The Name Jahu The Name Jahu Brill Hiebert Robert J V Cox Claude E Gentry Peter J 2001 The Old Greek Psalter Studies in Honour of Albert Pietersma Bloomsbury ISBN 978 0 567 37628 2 Maas Anthony John 1910 Jehovah In Herbermann Charles ed Catholic Encyclopedia 8 New York Robert Appleton Company Pietersma Albert 1984 Albert Pietersma Claude Cox eds Kyrios or Tetragram A Renewed Quest for the Original LXX PDF De Septuaginta Studies in Honour of John William Wevers on his sixty fifth birthday Mississauga Benben Pietersma Albert Wright Benjamin G 2007 A New English Translation of the Septuagint Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 972394 2 Reeland Adrian 1707 Decas exercitationum philologicarum de vera pronuntiatione nominis Jehova quarum quinque priores lectionem Jehova impugnant posteriores tuentur Cum praefatione Adriani Relandi Johannis Coster Skehan Patrick W 1957 The Qumran Manuscripts and Textual Criticism Vatus Testamentum supp 4 148 160 reprinted in Frank Moore Cross Semaryahu Ṭalmōn 1975 Qumran and the History of the Biblical Text Harvard University Press p 221 ISBN 978 0 674 74362 5 Tov Emanuel 2018 Scribal Practices and Approaches Reflected in the Texts Found in the Judean Desert BRILL ISBN 978 90 474 1434 6 Wilkinson Robert J 2015 Tetragrammaton Western Christians and the Hebrew Name of God From the Beginnings to the Seventeenth Century BRILL ISBN 978 90 04 28817 1 Wurthwein Ernst Fischer Alexander Achilles 2014 The Text of the Old Testament An Introduction to the Biblia Hebraica Wm B Eerdmans ISBN 978 0 8028 6680 6 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tetragrammaton Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica article Tetragrammaton Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Tetragrammaton amp oldid 1053207568, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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