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This article is about the ancient Indian people. For the other uses, see Yadav (disambiguation).

The Yadavas (literally, descended from Yadu) were an ancient Indian people who believed to be descended from Yadu, a legendary king. The community was formed of various clans, being the Abhira, Andhaka, Vrishni, and Satvatas, who all worshipped Krishna. They are listed in ancient Indian literature as the segments of the lineage of Yadu (Yaduvamsha). At various times there have been a number of communities and royal dynasties of the Indian subcontinent that have claimed descent from the ancient Yadava clans and legendary Yadava personalities, thus describing themselves as the Yadavas.

The Vrishnis are one of the Yadava clans, located in the region of Mathura. Location of the Vrishni among other groups: the Audumbaras, the Kunindas, the Vemakas, the Yaudheyas, the Pauravas and the Arjunayanas.

Amongst the Yadava clans mentioned in ancient Indian literature, the Haihayas are believed to have descended from Sahasrajit, elder son of Yadu and all other Yadava clans, which include the Chedis, the Vidarbhas, the Satvatas, the Andhakas, the Kukuras, the Bhojas, the Vrishnis and the Surasenas are believed to have descended from Kroshtu or Kroshta, younger son of Yadu.

It can be inferred from the vamshanucharita (genealogy) sections of a number of major Puranas that, the Yadavas spread out over the Aravalli region, Gujarat, the Narmada valley, the northern Deccan and the eastern Ganges valley. The Mahabharata and the Puranas mention that the Yadus or Yadavas, a confederacy comprising numerous clans were the rulers of the Mathura region. The Mahabharata also refers to the exodus of the Yadavas from Mathura to Dvaraka owing to pressure from the Paurava rulers of Magadha, and probably also from the Kurus.

Contents

Main article: Haihayas

The Haihayas were an ancient confederacy of five ganas (clans), who were believed to have descended from a common ancestor, Yadu. These five clans are Vitihotra, Sharyata, Bhoja, Avanti and Tundikera. The five Haihaya clans called themselves the Talajanghas According to the Puranas, Haihaya was the grandson of Sahasrajit, son of Yadu. Kautilya in his Arthaśāstra mentioned about the Haihayas. In the Puranas, Arjuna Kartavirya conquered Mahishmati from Karkotaka Naga and made it his capital.

Later, the Haihayas were also known by the name of the most dominant clan amongst them — the Vitihotras. According to the Puranas, Vitihotra was the great-grandson of Arjuna Kartavirya and eldest son of Talajangha. Ripunjaya, the last Vitihotra ruler of Ujjayini was overthrown by his amatya (minister) Pulika, who placed his son, Pradyota on the throne. The Mahagovindasuttanta of the Dighanikaya mentions about an Avanti king Vessabhu (Vishvabhu) and his capital Mahissati (Mahishmati). Probably he was a Vitihotra ruler.

In the Balakanda (70.28) of the Ramayana, the Shashabindus are mentioned along with the Haihayas and the Talajanghas. The Shashabindus or Shashabindavas are believed as the descendants of Shashabindu, a Chakravartin (universal ruler) and son of Chitraratha, great-great-grandson of Kroshtu.

Main article: Chedi Kingdom

The Chedis or Chaidyas were an ancient Yadava clan, whose territory was conquered by a Kuru king Vasu, who thus obtained his epithet, Chaidyoparichara (the overcomer of the Chaidyas) or Uparichara (the overcomer). According to the Puranas, the Chedis were descendants of Chidi, son of Kaishika, grandson of Vidarbha, a descendant of Kroshta. And the son of king Chidi was Maharaja DamGoshi(Father of Shishupal in Mahabharata).And then the lineage was called Hindu Ghosis.

Main article: Vidarbha Kingdom

According to the Puranas, the Vidarbhas or Vaidarbhas were descendants of Vidarbha, son of Jyamagha, a descendant of Kroshtu. Most well known Vidarbha king was Bhishmaka, father of Rukmin and Rukmini. In the Matsya Purana and the Vayu Purana, the Vaidarbhas are described as the inhabitants of Deccan (Dakshinapatha vasinah).

According to the Aitareya Brahmana (VIII.14), the Satvatas were a southern people held in subjection by the Bhojas. The Satapatha Brahmana (XIII.5.4.21) mentions that Bharata seized the sacrificial horse of the Satvatas. Panini, in his Ashtadhyayi mentions the Satvatas also as being of the Kshatriya gotra, having a sangha (tribal oligarchy) form of government but in the Manusmriti (X.23), the Satvatas are placed in the category of the Vratya Vaishyas.

According to a tradition, found in the Harivamsa (95.5242-8), Satvata was a descendant of the Yadava king Madhu and Satvata's son Bhima was contemporary with Rama. Bhima recovered the city of Mathura from the Ikshvakus after the death of Rama and his brothers. Andhaka, son of Bhima Satvata was contemporary with Kusha, son of Rama. He succeeded his father to the throne of Mathura.

The Andhakas, the Vrishnis, the Kukuras, the Bhojas and the Surasenas are believed to have descended from Satvata, a descendant of Kroshtu. These clans were also known as the Satvata clans.

The Andhakas

According to the Ashtadhyayi (IV.1.114) of Panini, the Andhakas were of the Kshatriya gotra, having a sangha (tribal oligarchy) form of government In the Drona Parva (141.15) of the Mahabharata, Andhakas were categorized as the Vratyas (deviators from orthodoxy). According to the Puranas, the Andhakas were the descendants of Bhajamana, son of Andhaka and grandson of Satvata.

According to the Mahabharata, the allied army of the Andhakas, the Bhojas, the Kukuras and the Vrishnis in the Kurukshetra War was led by Kritavarma, son of Hridika, an Andhaka. But, in the same text, he was also referred as a Bhoja of Mrittikavati.

The Bhojas

See also: Bhojas of Goa

According to the Aitareya Brahmana (VIII.14), the Bhojas were a southern people, whose princes held the Satvatas in subjection. The Vishnu Purana (IV.13.1-61) mentions the Bhojas as a branch of the Satvatas. According to this text, Bhojas of Mrittikavati were descendants of Mahabhoja, son of Satvata. But, according to a number of other Puranic texts, the Bhojas were descendants of Babhru, grandson of Satvata. In the Adi Parva of the Mahabharata (85.3533) and in a passage of the Matsya Purana (34.30) the Bhojas are mentioned as the mlecchas. But another passage of the Matsya Purana (44.69) describes them as pious and the performers of the religious rites.

The Kukuras

Kautilya in hisArthaśāstra (XI.1.5), describes the Kukuras as a clan, having sangha (tribal oligarchy) form of government, whose leader uses the title of rājā (rājaśabdopajīvinah). According to the Bhagavata Purana, the Kukuras occupied the territory around Dwarka. The Vayu Purana mentions that the Yadava ruler Ugrasena belonged to this clan (Kukurodbhava). According to the Puranas, Ahuka, an Kukura, had two sons by a Kashi princess, Ugrasena and Devaka. Ugrasena had nine sons and five daughters, Kamsa being the eldest. Devaka had four sons and seven daughters, Devaki was one of them. Kamsa usurped the throne of Mathura after imprisoning Ugrasena. But later he was killed by Krishna, son of Devaki, who re-installed Ugrasena to the throne.

The Nashik Cave Inscription of Gautami Balashri mentions that her son Gautamiputra Satakarni conquered the Kukuras. The Junagadh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman I includes the Kukuras in the list of the peoples conquered by him.

The Vrishnis

Main article: Vrishni
Images of Samkarshana and Vāsudeva, the two most celebrated Vrishni heroes, on a coin of the Indo-Greek king Agathocles (c. 190–180 BCE)

The Vrishnis are mentioned in a number of Vedic texts, which include the Taittiriya Samhita (III.2.9.3), the Taittiriya Brahmana (III.10.9.15), the Satapatha Brahmana (III.1.1.4) and the Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana (I.6.1). The Taittiriya Samhita and the Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana mention about a teacher, Gobala belonging to this clan.

Although, Panini, in his Ashtadhyayi (IV.1.114) includes the Vrishnis in the list of the clans of the Kshatriya gotra, having a sangha (tribal oligarchy) form of government, but in the Drona Parva (141.15) of the Mahabharata, the Vrishnis, like the Andhakas were categorized as the Vratyas (deviators from orthodoxy). In the Shanti Parva (81.25) of the Mahabharata, the Kukuras, the Bhojas, the Andhakas and the Vrishnis are together referred as a sangha, and Vasudeva Krishna as Sanghamukhya (seignor of the sangha) According to the Puranas, Vrishni was one of the four sons of Satvata. Vrishni had three (or four) sons, Anamitra (or Sumitra), Yudhajit and Devamidhusha. Shura was son of Devamidhusha. His son Vasudeva was father of Balarama and Krishna.

According to the Harivamsa (II.4.37-41), the Vrishnis worshipped goddess Ekanamsha, who, elsewhere in the same text (II.2.12), described as daughter of Nandagopa. The Mora Well Inscription, found from a village near Mathura and dated to the early decades of the Common era records the installation of the images of the five Vrishni viras (heroes) in a stone shrine by a person, named Tosha. These five Vrishni heroes have been identified with Samkarshana, Vasudeva, Pradyumna, Aniruddha and Samba from a passage in the Vayu Purana (97.1-2).

A Vrishni silver coin from Alexander Cunningham's Coins of Ancient India: From the Earliest Times Down to the Seventh Century (1891)

A unique silver coin of the Vrishnis was discovered from Hoshiarpur, Punjab. This coin is presently preserved in the British Museum, London. Later, a number of copper coins, clay seals and sealings issued by the Vrishnis were also discovered from Sunet, near Ludhiana.

The Shaineyas

The Shaineyas are believed to have descended from Shini, son of Anamitra, son of Vrishni. In the Mahabharata and the Puranas, the most notable Shaineya was Yuyudhana, son of Satyaka and grandson of Shini. He was a contemporary of Krishna. According to the Puranas, Asanga and Yugandhara were his son and grandson respectively.

Akrura and the Syamantaka

A number of Puranas mention Akrura, a Vrishni, as the ruler of Dvaraka. His name is found in the Nirukta (2.2) as the holder of the jewel. In the Puranas, Akrura is mentioned as the son of Shvaphalka, who was great-grandson of Vrishni and Gandini. In the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata Purana and the Brahma Purana, he was mentioned as the keeper of the Syamantaka, the most well-known jewel of the Yadavas. According to the Puranas Akrura had two sons, Devavant and Upadeva.

The fratricidal war and its aftermath

Arjuna tells Vasudeva about the destruction of Yadavas and Krishna's message

According to the Mausala Parva (7.185-253) of the Mahabharata a few years after the Kurukshetra War, Andhaka-Vrsni Yadava clans of Dvaraka were destroyed due to a fratricidal war. Both Balarama and Krishna died soon after this war. Later, son of Kritavarma became ruler of Mrittikavati and grandson of Yuyudhana became ruler of the territory near the Sarasvati River. The rest of the surviving Yadavas took refuge in Indraprastha. Vajra, great-grandson of Krishna was installed as their king.

Vajra is mentioned as the great-grandson of Krishna in the Vishnu Purana. According to a section of this text (IV.15.34-42), he was the son of Aniruddha and Subhadra. But according or another section (V.32.6-7), he was the son of Aniruddha and Usha, daughter of Bana and granddaughter of Bali. Bahu (or Pratibahu) was his son and Sucharu was his grandson. Elsewhere in this text (V.38.34), he was mentioned as installed as king in Mathura instead of Indraprastha.

The narrative of the Yadava fratricidal war is also found in two Jataka tales of the Pali Buddhist canon: the Ghata Jataka and the Samkicca Jataka. According to the Ghata Jataka, Vasudeva, Baladeva and eight other Andhaka-Venhu (probably, a corrupt form of Andhaka-Venhi, Pali equivalent to Sanskrit Andhaka-Vrishni) brothers seized Dvaravati and killed its king Kamsa. Later, these brothers fought amongst themselves and except Vasudeva and Baladeva everybody died. Vasudeva and Baladeva also died soon after. The Samkicca Jataka mentions that the Andhaka-Venhus killed each other. Kautilya also in hisArthaśāstra (I.6.10) mentioned about the destruction of Vrishni clan because of their foolhardiness.

According to a modern historian, Romila Thapar, the kinship system of the Yadavas shows traces of matrilineal structure, which is found from the mention of their cross-cousin marriages. This is particularly prohibited in the Indo Aryan kinship system. The Vishnu Purana mentions that Krishna married Rukmini, a Vidarbha princess. His son Pradyumna married Kakudvati, daughter of Rukmin, brother of Rukmini. Pradyumna's son Aniruddha married Subhadra, granddaughter of Rukmin.

Main articles: Surasena and Krishna

The Buddhist and Jaina texts list 16 powerful states (shodasha mahajanapada), which flourished in the early 6th century BCE. Shurasena was one of such states mentioned in the Anguttara Nikaya, a Buddhist text. The capital of the Shurasenas was Mathura, which was also known as Madura. Megasthenes (c. 350 – 290 BCE) mentions that the Sourasenoi (Shurasenas), who lived in the Mathura region, worshipped Herakles, by which he may have meant Vasudeva Krishna, the Indian god bearing the closest resemblance to Herakles. The worship of Vasudeva Krishna seems to have originated in the Mathura region.

A number of traditions exist regarding the origin of the Shurasenas. According to a tradition, found in the Linga Purana (I.68.19), Shurasenas were descendants of Shurasena, son of Arjuna Kartavirya. According to another tradition found in the Ramayana (VII.62.6) and the Vishnu Purana (IV.4.46), the Shurasenas were descendants of Shurasena, son of Shatrughna, brother of Rama. According to the Devibhagavata Purana (IV.1.2), Shurasena was father of Vasudeva, father of Krishna. Alexander Cunningham in his Ancient Geography of India states that because of Surasena, his grandfather, Krishna and his descendants were known as the Surasenas. Bhasa, in his Balacharita mentions that the mother of Kamsa was a Shurasena (Shaurasenimata).

Besides chiefdoms and jagirs, the peethams (seats) granted to them by virtue of their religious powers. For instance, there were fourteen seats (peethams) among the Warangal according to a sanad granted in 1425 (Shaka Samvat), by Sree Pratapa Rudra, Maharaja of Warangal, to Sree Kondiah Guru, as the head of the fourteen seats. Subsequently when Bhagyanagar was founded by Sultan Abdulla of Qutub Shahi in AD 1560 the rights of the were acknowledged and recognized, and the name Golkonda was substituted for Manugal. According to the charter awarded by the Sultan Abdullah of Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1071 Hijri, Kondiah built the fort for the sultan by using his charisma in resolving the mystery of the site, and also discovered for him gold coins buried underground. In return, the sultan gave him the Charter conferring upon Kondiah the rights and privileges due to the head of the fourteen seats, and of twelve classes of and two classes of Kondiah, although a follower of, was the head of the Peethams. Perhaps the at this time were under the influence of although they were incorporated into the category.

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  • Yadav, J. N. Singh (1992). Yādavas Through The Ages (From Ancient Period to Date) (in 2 Vol.), Delhi: Sharada Publishing House, ISBN 978-81-85616-03-2.

Yadava Article Talk Language Watch Edit This article is about the ancient Indian people For the other uses see Yadav disambiguation The Yadavas literally descended from Yadu 1 2 were an ancient Indian people who believed to be descended from Yadu a legendary king The community was formed of various clans being the Abhira Andhaka Vrishni and Satvatas who all worshipped Krishna 3 4 5 6 7 They are listed in ancient Indian literature as the segments of the lineage of Yadu Yaduvamsha 8 At various times there have been a number of communities and royal dynasties of the Indian subcontinent that have claimed descent from the ancient Yadava clans and legendary Yadava personalities thus describing themselves as the Yadavas 9 10 The Vrishnis are one of the Yadava clans located in the region of Mathura Location of the Vrishni among other groups the Audumbaras the Kunindas the Vemakas the Yaudheyas the Pauravas and the Arjunayanas Amongst the Yadava clans mentioned in ancient Indian literature the Haihayas are believed to have descended from Sahasrajit elder son of Yadu 11 and all other Yadava clans which include the Chedis the Vidarbhas the Satvatas the Andhakas the Kukuras the Bhojas the Vrishnis and the Surasenas are believed to have descended from Kroshtu or Kroshta younger son of Yadu 12 It can be inferred from the vamshanucharita genealogy sections of a number of major Puranas that the Yadavas spread out over the Aravalli region Gujarat the Narmada valley the northern Deccan and the eastern Ganges valley 13 The Mahabharata and the Puranas mention that the Yadus or Yadavas a confederacy comprising numerous clans were the rulers of the Mathura region 14 The Mahabharata also refers to the exodus of the Yadavas from Mathura to Dvaraka owing to pressure from the Paurava rulers of Magadha and probably also from the Kurus 15 Contents 1 The Haihayas 2 The Shashabindus 3 The Chedis 4 The Vidarbhas 5 The Satvatas 5 1 The Andhakas 5 2 The Bhojas 5 3 The Kukuras 5 4 The Vrishnis 5 4 1 The Shaineyas 5 4 2 Akrura and the Syamantaka 5 5 The fratricidal war and its aftermath 6 Yadava kinship system 7 The Shurasenas and Krishna 8 Religious seats 9 See also 10 References 11 Further readingThe Haihayas EditMain article Haihayas The Haihayas were an ancient confederacy of five ganas clans who were believed to have descended from a common ancestor Yadu These five clans are Vitihotra Sharyata Bhoja Avanti and Tundikera The five Haihaya clans called themselves the Talajanghas 12 According to the Puranas Haihaya was the grandson of Sahasrajit son of Yadu 11 Kautilya in his Arthasastra mentioned about the Haihayas 16 In the Puranas Arjuna Kartavirya conquered Mahishmati from Karkotaka Naga and made it his capital 17 Later the Haihayas were also known by the name of the most dominant clan amongst them the Vitihotras According to the Puranas Vitihotra was the great grandson of Arjuna Kartavirya and eldest son of Talajangha 12 Ripunjaya the last Vitihotra ruler of Ujjayini was overthrown by his amatya minister Pulika who placed his son Pradyota on the throne 16 18 The Mahagovindasuttanta of the Dighanikaya mentions about an Avanti king Vessabhu Vishvabhu and his capital Mahissati Mahishmati Probably he was a Vitihotra ruler 19 The Shashabindus EditIn the Balakanda 70 28 of the Ramayana the Shashabindus are mentioned along with the Haihayas and the Talajanghas 20 The Shashabindus or Shashabindavas are believed as the descendants of Shashabindu a Chakravartin universal ruler 21 and son of Chitraratha great great grandson of Kroshtu 20 The Chedis EditMain article Chedi Kingdom The Chedis or Chaidyas were an ancient Yadava clan whose territory was conquered by a Kuru king Vasu who thus obtained his epithet Chaidyoparichara the overcomer of the Chaidyas 22 or Uparichara the overcomer According to the Puranas the Chedis were descendants of Chidi son of Kaishika grandson of Vidarbha a descendant of Kroshta And the son of king Chidi was Maharaja DamGoshi Father of Shishupal in Mahabharata And then the lineage was called Hindu Ghosis The Vidarbhas EditMain article Vidarbha Kingdom According to the Puranas the Vidarbhas or Vaidarbhas were descendants of Vidarbha son of Jyamagha a descendant of Kroshtu 12 Most well known Vidarbha king was Bhishmaka father of Rukmin and Rukmini 23 In the Matsya Purana and the Vayu Purana the Vaidarbhas are described as the inhabitants of Deccan Dakshinapatha vasinah 24 The Satvatas EditAccording to the Aitareya Brahmana VIII 14 the Satvatas were a southern people held in subjection by the Bhojas 25 The Satapatha Brahmana XIII 5 4 21 mentions that Bharata seized the sacrificial horse of the Satvatas 26 Panini in his Ashtadhyayi mentions the Satvatas also as being of the Kshatriya gotra having a sangha tribal oligarchy form of government 27 but in the Manusmriti X 23 the Satvatas are placed in the category of the Vratya Vaishyas 28 According to a tradition found in the Harivamsa 95 5242 8 Satvata was a descendant of the Yadava king Madhu and Satvata s son Bhima was contemporary with Rama Bhima recovered the city of Mathura from the Ikshvakus after the death of Rama and his brothers Andhaka son of Bhima Satvata was contemporary with Kusha son of Rama He succeeded his father to the throne of Mathura 29 The Andhakas the Vrishnis the Kukuras the Bhojas and the Surasenas are believed to have descended from Satvata 30 a descendant of Kroshtu 12 These clans were also known as the Satvata clans The Andhakas Edit According to the Ashtadhyayi IV 1 114 of Panini the Andhakas were of the Kshatriya gotra having a sangha tribal oligarchy form of government 27 In the Drona Parva 141 15 of the Mahabharata Andhakas were categorized as the Vratyas deviators from orthodoxy 15 According to the Puranas the Andhakas were the descendants of Bhajamana son of Andhaka and grandson of Satvata 12 According to the Mahabharata the allied army of the Andhakas the Bhojas the Kukuras and the Vrishnis in the Kurukshetra War was led by Kritavarma son of Hridika an Andhaka 30 But in the same text he was also referred as a Bhoja of Mrittikavati 25 The Bhojas Edit See also Bhojas of Goa According to the Aitareya Brahmana VIII 14 the Bhojas were a southern people whose princes held the Satvatas in subjection The Vishnu Purana IV 13 1 61 mentions the Bhojas as a branch of the Satvatas 25 According to this text Bhojas of Mrittikavati were descendants of Mahabhoja son of Satvata 31 But according to a number of other Puranic texts the Bhojas were descendants of Babhru grandson of Satvata 12 In the Adi Parva of the Mahabharata 85 3533 and in a passage of the Matsya Purana 34 30 the Bhojas are mentioned as the mlecchas But another passage of the Matsya Purana 44 69 describes them as pious and the performers of the religious rites 25 The Kukuras Edit Kautilya in his Arthasastra XI 1 5 describes the Kukuras as a clan having sangha tribal oligarchy form of government whose leader uses the title of raja rajasabdopajivinah 32 According to the Bhagavata Purana the Kukuras occupied the territory around Dwarka The Vayu Purana mentions that the Yadava ruler Ugrasena belonged to this clan Kukurodbhava 33 According to the Puranas Ahuka an Kukura had two sons by a Kashi princess Ugrasena and Devaka Ugrasena had nine sons and five daughters Kamsa being the eldest Devaka had four sons and seven daughters Devaki was one of them Kamsa usurped the throne of Mathura after imprisoning Ugrasena But later he was killed by Krishna son of Devaki who re installed Ugrasena to the throne 34 The Nashik Cave Inscription of Gautami Balashri mentions that her son Gautamiputra Satakarni conquered the Kukuras The Junagadh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman I includes the Kukuras in the list of the peoples conquered by him 33 The Vrishnis Edit Main article Vrishni Images of Samkarshana and Vasudeva the two most celebrated Vrishni heroes on a coin of the Indo Greek king Agathocles c 190 180 BCE The Vrishnis are mentioned in a number of Vedic texts which include the Taittiriya Samhita III 2 9 3 the Taittiriya Brahmana III 10 9 15 the Satapatha Brahmana III 1 1 4 and the Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana I 6 1 14 The Taittiriya Samhita and the Jaiminiya Upanishad Brahmana mention about a teacher Gobala belonging to this clan 35 Although Panini in his Ashtadhyayi IV 1 114 includes the Vrishnis in the list of the clans of the Kshatriya gotra having a sangha tribal oligarchy form of government 27 but in the Drona Parva 141 15 of the Mahabharata the Vrishnis like the Andhakas were categorized as the Vratyas deviators from orthodoxy In the Shanti Parva 81 25 of the Mahabharata the Kukuras the Bhojas the Andhakas and the Vrishnis are together referred as a sangha and Vasudeva Krishna as Sanghamukhya seignor of the sangha 15 According to the Puranas Vrishni was one of the four sons of Satvata 12 Vrishni had three or four sons Anamitra or Sumitra Yudhajit and Devamidhusha Shura was son of Devamidhusha His son Vasudeva was father of Balarama and Krishna 30 According to the Harivamsa II 4 37 41 the Vrishnis worshipped goddess Ekanamsha who elsewhere in the same text II 2 12 described as daughter of Nandagopa 36 The Mora Well Inscription found from a village near Mathura and dated to the early decades of the Common era records the installation of the images of the five Vrishni viras heroes in a stone shrine by a person named Tosha These five Vrishni heroes have been identified with Samkarshana Vasudeva Pradyumna Aniruddha and Samba from a passage in the Vayu Purana 97 1 2 37 A Vrishni silver coin from Alexander Cunningham s Coins of Ancient India From the Earliest Times Down to the Seventh Century 1891 A unique silver coin of the Vrishnis was discovered from Hoshiarpur Punjab This coin is presently preserved in the British Museum London 38 Later a number of copper coins clay seals and sealings issued by the Vrishnis were also discovered from Sunet near Ludhiana 39 The Shaineyas Edit The Shaineyas are believed to have descended from Shini son of Anamitra son of Vrishni In the Mahabharata and the Puranas the most notable Shaineya was Yuyudhana son of Satyaka and grandson of Shini He was a contemporary of Krishna According to the Puranas Asanga and Yugandhara were his son and grandson respectively 30 Akrura and the Syamantaka Edit A number of Puranas mention Akrura a Vrishni as the ruler of Dvaraka 40 His name is found in the Nirukta 2 2 as the holder of the jewel 41 In the Puranas Akrura is mentioned as the son of Shvaphalka who was great grandson of Vrishni 30 and Gandini In the Mahabharata the Bhagavata Purana and the Brahma Purana he was mentioned as the keeper of the Syamantaka the most well known jewel of the Yadavas 41 42 According to the Puranas Akrura had two sons Devavant and Upadeva 30 The fratricidal war and its aftermath Edit Arjuna tells Vasudeva about the destruction of Yadavas and Krishna s message According to the Mausala Parva 7 185 253 of the Mahabharata a few years after the Kurukshetra War Andhaka Vrsni Yadava clans of Dvaraka were destroyed due to a fratricidal war 43 Both Balarama and Krishna died soon after this war Later son of Kritavarma became ruler of Mrittikavati and grandson of Yuyudhana became ruler of the territory near the Sarasvati River The rest of the surviving Yadavas took refuge in Indraprastha Vajra great grandson of Krishna was installed as their king 44 Vajra is mentioned as the great grandson of Krishna in the Vishnu Purana According to a section of this text IV 15 34 42 he was the son of Aniruddha and Subhadra 45 But according or another section V 32 6 7 he was the son of Aniruddha and Usha daughter of Bana and granddaughter of Bali 46 Bahu or Pratibahu was his son and Sucharu was his grandson 45 Elsewhere in this text V 38 34 he was mentioned as installed as king in Mathura instead of Indraprastha 47 The narrative of the Yadava fratricidal war is also found in two Jataka tales of the Pali Buddhist canon the Ghata Jataka and the Samkicca Jataka According to the Ghata Jataka Vasudeva Baladeva and eight other Andhaka Venhu probably a corrupt form of Andhaka Venhi Pali equivalent to Sanskrit Andhaka Vrishni brothers seized Dvaravati and killed its king Kamsa Later these brothers fought amongst themselves and except Vasudeva and Baladeva everybody died Vasudeva and Baladeva also died soon after The Samkicca Jataka mentions that the Andhaka Venhus killed each other 48 Kautilya also in his Arthasastra I 6 10 mentioned about the destruction of Vrishni clan because of their foolhardiness 49 Yadava kinship system EditAccording to a modern historian Romila Thapar the kinship system of the Yadavas shows traces of matrilineal structure which is found from the mention of their cross cousin marriages This is particularly prohibited in the Indo Aryan kinship system 50 The Vishnu Purana mentions that Krishna married Rukmini a Vidarbha princess His son Pradyumna married Kakudvati daughter of Rukmin brother of Rukmini Pradyumna s son Aniruddha married Subhadra granddaughter of Rukmin 45 The Shurasenas and Krishna EditMain articles Surasena and Krishna The Buddhist and Jaina texts list 16 powerful states shodasha mahajanapada which flourished in the early 6th century BCE Shurasena was one of such states mentioned in the Anguttara Nikaya a Buddhist text The capital of the Shurasenas was Mathura which was also known as Madura 51 Megasthenes c 350 290 BCE mentions that the Sourasenoi Shurasenas who lived in the Mathura region worshipped Herakles by which he may have meant Vasudeva Krishna the Indian god bearing the closest resemblance to Herakles The worship of Vasudeva Krishna seems to have originated in the Mathura region 52 A number of traditions exist regarding the origin of the Shurasenas According to a tradition found in the Linga Purana I 68 19 Shurasenas were descendants of Shurasena son of Arjuna Kartavirya According to another tradition found in the Ramayana VII 62 6 and the Vishnu Purana IV 4 46 the Shurasenas were descendants of Shurasena son of Shatrughna brother of Rama 29 According to the Devibhagavata Purana IV 1 2 Shurasena was father of Vasudeva father of Krishna 53 Alexander Cunningham in his Ancient Geography of India states that because of Surasena his grandfather Krishna and his descendants were known as the Surasenas 54 Bhasa in his Balacharita mentions that the mother of Kamsa was a Shurasena Shaurasenimata 55 Religious seats EditBesides chiefdoms and jagirs the peethams seats granted to them by virtue of their religious powers For instance there were fourteen seats peethams among the Warangal according to a sanad granted in 1425 Shaka Samvat by Sree Pratapa Rudra Maharaja of Warangal to Sree Kondiah Guru as the head of the fourteen seats Subsequently when Bhagyanagar was founded by Sultan Abdulla of Qutub Shahi in AD 1560 the rights of the were acknowledged and recognized and the name Golkonda was substituted for Manugal 56 According to the charter awarded by the Sultan Abdullah of Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1071 Hijri Kondiah built the fort for the sultan by using his charisma in resolving the mystery of the site and also discovered for him gold coins buried underground In return the sultan gave him the Charter conferring upon Kondiah the rights and privileges due to the head of the fourteen seats and of twelve classes of and two classes of Kondiah although a follower of was the head of the Peethams Perhaps the at this time were under the influence of although they were incorporated into the category 57 See also EditLunar dynasty History of India History of HinduismReferences Edit Williams Monier 2005 1899 Sanskrit English Dictionary Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo European Languages Delhi Motilal Banrsidass p 851 ISBN 978 81 208 3105 6 Franklin C Southworth considers the word Yadava to be possibly Dravidian meaning herder as it has no known Indo European etymology Southworth Franklin C 1995 Reconstructing social context from language Indo Aryan and Dravidian prehistory in George Erdosy ed The Indo Aryans of Ancient South Asia Language Material Culture and Ethnicity Indian Philology and South Asian Studies Vol I Berlin Walter de Gruyter amp Co ISBN 978 3 11 014447 5 p 266n Society and religion from Rugveda to Puranas By Jayant Gadkari URL https books google com books id Zst 7qaatp8C amp pg PA184 K p Jayaswal Hindu Polity A Constitutional History Of India In Hindu Times Delhi University House p 141 In the time of Periplus C 80 AD the very area called by Ptolemy Larike was called Abiria It seems that the Abhiras of Gujurat were the Rastrikas of Asoka and the Yadavas of Mahabharatha Roy Sarat Chandra 24 January 1974 Man in India Volume 54 A K Bose p 40 In the Harivamsa the Yadava kingdom called Anaratta is described as mostly inhabited by the Abhiras Abhira praya manusyam Bhattacharya Sunil Kumar 24 October 1978 Kṛṣṇa cult Associated Publishing House p 182 surrounding territories round about Mathura mainly consist of Abhiras Abhira praya Later it is said that all the races of Anhdakas Vrisnis etc belonged to this race of Yadu If this be so it is evident that Krshna belonged to a race which included the race of Abhiras While discussing about the Puranic accounts Hem Chandra Raychaudhuri used the term Yadava clans for the Andhakas the Vrishnis and the Kukuras Raychaudhuri Hemchandra 1972 Political History of Ancient India Calcutta University of Calcutta p 447fn3 But Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar used the term Yadava tribes for the Satvatas the Andhakas and the Vrishnis Bhandarkar R G 1995 Vaisnavism Saivism and Minor Religious Systems Delhi Asian Educational Service ISBN 978 81 206 0122 2 p 11 Thapar Romila 1978 reprint 1996 Ancient Indian Social History Some Interpretations New Delhi Orient Longman ISBN 978 81 250 0808 8 p 223 Forlong John G R 2008 Encyclopedia of Religions Vol III N Z New York Cosimo Classics p 504 ISBN 978 1 60520 488 8 Kosambi D D 1988 The Culture and Civilization of Ancient India in Historical Outline New Delhi Vikas Publishing House ISBN 978 0 7069 4200 2 p 116 a b Pargiter F E 1972 1922 Ancient Indian Historical Tradition Delhi Motilal Banarsidass p 87 a b c d e f g h Pargiter F E 1972 1922 Ancient Indian Historical Tradition Delhi Motilal Banarsidass pp 102 4 Thapar Romila 1978 reprint 1996 Ancient Indian Social History Some Interpretations New Delhi Orient Longman ISBN 978 81 250 0808 8 pp 216 7 a b Sircar D C 2008 Studies in the Religious Life of Ancient and Medieval India Delhi Motilal Banarsidass p 16 ISBN 978 81 208 2790 5 a b c Raychaudhuri Hemchandra 1972 Political History of Ancient India Calcutta University of Calcutta pp 127 8 a b Raychaudhuri Hemchandra 1972 Political History of Ancient India Calcutta University of Calcutta pp 130 1 Pargiter F E 1972 1922 Ancient Indian Historical Tradition Delhi Motilal Banarsidass p 266 Raizada Ajit 1992 Ujjayini in Hindi Bhopal Directorate of Archaeology amp Museums Government of Madhya Pradesh p 21 Bhattacharyya P K 1977 Historical Geography of Madhya Pradesh from Early Records Delhi Motilal Banarsidass pp 118 9 ISBN 978 81 208 3394 4 LCCN 78900527 OCLC 3864981 a b Wilson Horace Hayman 1868 Fitzedward Hall ed The Vishnu Purana A System of Hindu Mythology and Tradition Vol IV London Trubner amp Co pp 61 61n Pargiter F E 1972 1922 Ancient Indian Historical Tradition Delhi Motilal Banarsidass p 261 Pargiter F E 1972 1922 Ancient Indian Historical Tradition Delhi Motilal Banarsidass p 118 Dowson John 1984 1879 A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and Religion Geography History Calcutta Rupa amp Co p 54 Raychaudhuri Hemchandra 1972 Political History of Ancient India Calcutta University of Calcutta p 83 a b c d Law B C 1973 Tribes in Ancient India Bhandarkar Oriental Series No 4 Poona Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute pp 366 73 Pargiter F E 1972 1922 Ancient Indian Historical Tradition Delhi Motilal Banarsidass p 65 a b c Thapar Romila 1978 reprint 1996 Ancient Indian Social History Some Interpretations New Delhi Orient Longman ISBN 978 81 250 0808 8 pp 303 4 Buhler G 2004 The Laws of Manu Delhi Cosmo Publications p 279 ISBN 978 81 7755 876 0 a b Pargiter F E 1972 1922 Ancient Indian Historical Tradition Delhi Motilal Banarsidass pp 170 1 171fn2 a b c d e f Pargiter F E 1972 1922 Ancient Indian Historical Tradition Delhi Motilal Banarsidass pp 105 107 Wilson Horace Hayman tr 1840 The Vishnu Purana London John Murray p 424 Rangarajan L N ed amp tr 1992 The Arthashastra New Delhi Penguin ISBN 978 0 14 044603 6 p 822 a b Law B C 1973 Tribes in Ancient India Bhandarkar Oriental Series No 4 Poona Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute p 389 Garg Ganga Ram ed 1992 Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World Vol I A Aj New Delhi Concept Publishing p 21 ISBN 978 81 7022 374 0 Sircar D C 2008 Studies in the Religious Life of Ancient and Medieval India Delhi Motilal Banarsidass p 29 29fn4 ISBN 978 81 208 2790 5 Bhattacharji Sukumari 2000 The Indian Theogony Brahma Viṣṇu and Siva New Delhi Penguin ISBN 978 0 14 029570 2 p 173 Srinivasan Doris Meth 1997 Many Heads Arms and Eyes Origin Meaning and Form of Multiplicity in Indian Art New York Brill p 211 ISBN 978 90 04 10758 8 Lahiri Bela 1974 Indigenous States of Northern India Circa 200 B C to 320 A D Calcutta University of Calcutta pp 242 3 Handa Devendra 2006 Sculptures from Haryana Iconography and Style Shimla Indian Institute of Advanced Study p 86 ISBN 978 81 7305 307 8 Pargiter F E 1972 1922 Ancient Indian Historical Tradition Delhi Motilal Banarsidass p 280 a b Sarup Lakshman 1920 27 reprint 1998 The Nighantu and the Nirukta of Sri Yaskacarya The Oldest Indian Treatise on Etymology Philology And Semantics Part II Delhi Motilal Banarsidass pp 23 23fn1 ISBN 978 81 208 1381 6 a href wiki Template Cite book title Template Cite book cite book a Check date values in date help Dowson John 1984 1879 A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and Religion Geography History Calcutta Rupa amp Co p 10 Sullivan Bruce M 1999 Seer of the Fifth Veda Kr ṣṇa Dvaipayana Vyasa in the Mahabharata Motilal p 103 ISBN 9788120816763 Pargiter F E 1972 1922 Ancient Indian Historical Tradition Delhi Motilal Banarsidass p 284 a b c Wilson Horace Hayman tr 1840 The Vishnu Purana London John Murray p 440 Wilson Horace Hayman tr 1840 The Vishnu Purana London John Murray p 591 Wilson Horace Hayman tr 1840 The Vishnu Purana London John Murray p 615 Sullivan Bruce M 1990 Kṛṣṇa Dvaipayana Vyasa and the Mahabharata A New Interpretation New York E J Brill pp 103 4 ISBN 978 90 04 08898 6 Rangarajan L N ed amp tr 1992 The Arthashastra New Delhi Penguin ISBN 978 0 14 044603 6 p 144 Thapar Romila 1978 reprint 1996 Ancient Indian Social History Some Interpretations New Delhi Orient Longman ISBN 978 81 250 0808 8 pp 231 236 Singh Upinder 2008 A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India From the Stone Age to the 12th Century Delhi Pearson Education pp 260 264 ISBN 978 81 317 1677 9 Singh Upinder 2008 A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India From the Stone Age to the 12th Century Delhi Pearson Education p 436 ISBN 978 81 317 1677 9 Swami Vijnanananda 2008 1921 The S rimad Devi Bhagawatam Vol I BiblioBazaar LLC p 334 ISBN 978 1 4375 3059 9 Cunningham Alexander 1871 The ancient geography of India London Trubner amp Co p 374 Sircar D C 2008 Studies in the Religious Life of Ancient and Medieval India Delhi Motilal Banarsidass pp 29 29fn4 ISBN 978 81 208 2790 5 J N Singh 1992 through the ages from ancient period to date Sharada Pub House p 181 ISBN 978 81 85616 03 2 M S A Rao 1 May 1979 Social movements and social transformation a study of two backward classes movements in India Macmillan pp 128 129 ISBN 9780333902554 Retrieved 1 June 2011 Further reading EditSingh G P 1994 Early Indian Historical Tradition and Archaeology Puraṇic Kingdoms and Dynasties with Genealogies Relative Chronology and Date of Mahabharata War Delhi D K Printworld ISBN 978 81 246 0005 4 Yadav J N Singh 1992 Yadavas Through The Ages From Ancient Period to Date in 2 Vol Delhi Sharada Publishing House ISBN 978 81 85616 03 2 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yadava amp oldid 1093315156, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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