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Yahballaha III

For other people called Yahballaha, see Yahballaha (disambiguation).

Yahballaha III (c. 1245–13 November 1317), known in earlier years as Rabban Marcos (or Markos) or Yahballaha V, was Patriarch of the East from 1281 to 1317. As Patriarch, Yahballaha headed the Church of the East during the severe persecutions under the reign of khans Ghazan and his successor Öljaitü. He acknowledged the primacy of the Pope and tried to form a church union, which was rejected by the Nestorian bishops of the Church of the East.

Mar
Yahballaha III
Patriarch of the Church of the East
A 15th-century miniature depicting Riccoldo da Monte di Croce in the audience before Yahballaha III
ChurchChurch of the East
SeeSeleucia-Ctesiphon
ElectedNovember 1281
Installed21 November 1281
Term ended13 November 1317
PredecessorDenha I
SuccessorTimothy II
Other post(s)Bishop of Northern China and Ongud
Orders
Consecration1279
by Denha I
Personal details
Birth nameMarkos
Bornc. 1245
Koshang, Ongud
Died13 November 1317
Maragheh, Ilkhanate
NationalityOngud
DenominationChurch of the East
ResidenceMaragheh, Ilkhanate

A native of Koshang, Marcos traveled with Rabban Bar Sauma, an ascetic Nestorian monk from Mongol-controlled China to Jerusalem, however, due to the war between the Mongols and Mamluks they were prevented to reach the final destination. Patriarch Denha I of the Church of the East recalled them and consecrated Markos as the bishop of Katay and Ong, with the name Mar Yahballaha. However, both of them opted to remain in monasteries in Mosul.

Yahballaha's election as the new Patriarch of the Church of the East was approved by Abaqa Khan for political reasons and consecrated in 1281 as Yahballaha III. In 1282 Abaqa Khan's brother Tekuder, a convert to Islam succeeded the throne. The Old-Mongol party of Buddhists and Nestorian Christians opposed Tekuder, who started persecuting the Church of the East for siding with the Old-Mongol party and Yahballaha was imprisoned, but his life was saved by Tekuder's Christian mother Qutui Khatun. In 1284, Abaqa Khan's son Arghun became khan, and he held both Yahballaha and Bar Sauma in high esteem. Arghun sought an alliance with Christian Europe against the Muslims in Syria and Egypt and, advised by Yahballaha, sent Bar Sauma for the first East Asian diplomatic mission to Europe in history. After the fall of Acre to Muslims in 1291, the popular opinion in Ilkhanate started to incline towards Islam. The relations between the Church of the East and the khan remained well during the rule of Gaykhatu, Arghun's successor. However, with Arghun's son Ghazan ascendence to the throne, Muslims gained dominance. Ghazan started the persecution of Christians and Yahballaha was again imprisoned. He was ransomed by Hethum II of Armenia.

In 1289, Yahballaha allowed the Dominican friar Riccoldo da Monte di Croce to preach among the Nestorians and renounced their heterodoxies. He sought a church union with the Catholic Church in Rome and started negotiations in 1302 by writing to Pope Boniface VIII and Pope Benedict XI in 1304, professing the Catholic faith in the latter letter and acknowledging the pope's primacy over all of Christiandom. However, the union was rejected by the Nestorian bishops. In 1304, Öljaitü succeeded Ghazan and renewed the persecutions against Christians which Yahballaha unsuccessfully tried to end. Yahballaha died in Maragheh in 1317.

Contents

Markos was born in the city of Koshang, the capital of the Turkic Ongud tribe. His ethnic ancestry is not entirely clear. According to the contemporary source Story of Mar Yahballaha and Rabban Sauma he was an "Oriental Turk". Bar Hebraeus in his Chronography referred to him as "Uyghur, that is Turk". The Arabic Chronicle of the Nestorian Patriarch calls him "a Turk by birth from the region of Katay (i.e. Northern China)". The two lists of the patriarch of the Church of the East refer to him as "a Turk", and a Latin bull calls him "an Oriental Turk". Pier Giorgio Borbone suggests that Yahballaha probably belonged to the Ongud tribe, and dismisses Bar Hebraeus' claim about his Uyghur descent since Uyghurs at the time lived in a distant region around Turfan.

As a child, he became a pupil of Rabban Bar Sauma, a Nestorian monk. At first, they probably lived in the Monastery of the Cross in the present-day Fangshan District of western Beijing. In 1275/76 Markos and Bar Sauma started a journey towards Jerusalem. At the beginning of their travel, Markos was around thirty and Bar Sauma was forty-eight. They first went to Khanbaliq, Bar Sauma's birthplace, to gather more people for the journey. Then they went to Koshang, Tangut, Hotan and Kashgar. After staying in Hotan for six months and finding Kashgar empty as its population fled the "enemy", Bar Sauma and Markos went to Taraz (north of Tien Shan) in present-day Kazakhstan to pay homage to Kaidu Khan and ask for safe passage through his land, which he allowed. The two travelers probably passed through Samarkand and Bukhara, arriving in the region of Khorosan in the town of Tus, now a village near Mashhad in present-day Iran. In Maragheh in the region of Azerbaijan they met with Patriarch Denha I. From Erbil they went to Mosul and visited Nisibis and various Nestorian monasteries along the Tigris river.

Their plan to visit Jerusalem was prevented because of the war between the Mongols and Mamluks, who at the time bordered each other along the Euphrates river. They still tried to reach Palestine, traveling through Armenia and Georgia and then by the sea. However, they were recalled by the Patriarch, who wanted to give them leadership over the church in China. The Patriarch named Markos the bishop of Katay and Ong (Northern China and the Ongud tribe, respectively), giving him the name Mar Yahballaha. At the same time, he named Bar Sauma sa'ora (visiting bishop) for the Eastern countries, and general vicar. The new titles meant that the two of them would return to the east; however, both of them insisted on staying to live in a monastery, deeming themselves unworthy of the new titles. They remained in a monastery near Mosul for two years.

After the death of Patriarch Denha I, the Nestorian bishops chose Yahballaha as his successor in November 1281, with approval from Abaqa Khan, the Mongol ruler of the Ilkhanate. The reasons for his election were political, as Yahballaha was familiar with the Mongol customs, politics, and language because of his origin. His knowledge of Syriac was scarce, and he did not speak Arabic at all. In the presence of other Nestorian bishops, Yahballaha was consecrated in Kokhe church on 21 November 1281 as Yahballaha III. He received the seal given to the patriarch before him by Möngke Khan.

Abaqa died in 1282 and was succeeded by his brother Tekuder, a convert to Islam. Tekuder became unpopular among the Mongol elites, the so-called "Old-Mongol" party of Nestorian Christians and Buddhists, who now favoured his nephew Arghun, Abaqa's son. They protested to Kublai Khan, who threatened to intervene. Tekuder blamed the Church of the East for the appeals to Kublai Kahn and threw Yahballaha III into prison. His life was saved by Tekuder's mother Qutui Khatun, who was a Christian. Tekuder was succeeded by his nephew Arghun in 1284. Both Yahballaha and Bar Sauma were held in high esteem by both Abaqa and Arghun.

After succeeding Tekuder, Arghun sought an alliance with the European rulers against the Muslims in Syria and Egypt. He wrote to Pope Honorius IV that Kublai Khan commissioned him to liberate the "land of the Christians". For that purpose, he consulted with Yahballaha about who should head the embassy to Europe; Yahballaha proposed Bar Sauma, which Arghun accepted. In 1287, Bar Sauma arrived in Trabzon at the south shore of Black Sea. In June, he went to Constantinople, where he met with Emperor Andronikos of Byzantium, and then to the Kingdom of Naples, where he met with Charles II. In Rome he learned about the death of Pope Honorius IV and was greeted by the College of Cardinals instead. However, they were not able to respond to Arghun's request until the election of the new pope. Bar Sauma went to Florence and Genoa, where he met with the Captain of the People. From Genoa, Bar Sauma went to Lombardy, and onwards to Paris where he met Philip IV of France. After staying for a month in Paris, Bar Sauma met with the English king Edward in Bordeaux. Both English and French kings expressed their interest in the alliance. Before returning to Rome, Bar Sauma spent the winter in Genoa, and met Pope Nicholas IV after his election. The Pope issued a bull recognising Yahballaha as the "Patriarch of all the Christians of the East" Bar Sauma returned to Ilkhanate in the summer of 1288.

Dominican friar Riccoldo da Monte di Croce traveled to the East in 1289 and remained there for ten years. Da Monte di Croce found that the Nestorians put greater emphasis on rituals than dogma. He writes that they had a liberal conception of marriage, with divorces and remarriages being allowed at will. Nestorians occasionally practiced circumcision, even for women, and did not recognise the practice of anointing of the sick. They also abstained from meat. Yahballaha renounced these heterodoxies and allowed da Monte di Croce to preach in Baghdad in 1290. The Nestorian elite wanted to enter the union with Rome, mostly for political reasons.

The Mongols saw the fall of Acre to Muslims in 1291 as a victory of Islam over Christianity and started to incline towards Islam afterward. However, relations remained good between the Church of the East and the new khan Gaykhatu, who succeeded Arghun that year. By the time of his death in 1295, the popular opinion in the Ilkhanate favoured Muslims. Another son of Arghun, Ghazan, became khan in 1295. He brought Muslims to dominance and started persecuting Christians and destroying churches. He imprisoned Yahballaha and hung him upside down. Yahballaha's life was saved by Hethum II, who paid a ransom to free him from prison, and in 1296 Yahballaha returned to his seat in Maragheh. The next year his residence was pillaged and destroyed by Muslims, so he moved to Erbil in Iraq. Hethum persuaded Ghazan to end the persecution in 1296. He also issued countermeasures to compensate the Christians. Yahballaha returned to the monastery in Maragheh, whose reconstruction was supported by Ghazan, who in 1303 visited the monastery. However, sporadic persecution continued elsewhere. Nevertheless, Yahballaha enjoyed Ghazan's support until the end of his reign.

We believe in the holy Roman chief pontiff and universal father of all believers in Christ, and confess that he is the successor of the blessed Peter, universal vicar of Jesus Christ over all the sons of the church from east and west; love and affection for whom is fixed in our hearts; and we owe obedience to him, and ask and implore his blessing, and are ready for all his commands, humbly asking and imploring his help in our necessity and tribulations in which we have now been for a long time and still remain. And may the good father not turn away his face from us, since we are all brothers in Christ and his sons through the true catholic faith.

—Yahballaha's letter to Pope Benedict XI

In 1302, Yahballaha started negotiations with the Roman Curia regarding the union, and sent a letter to Pope Boniface VIII. On 18 May 1304, Yahballaha wrote to Pope Benedict XI making a profession of Catholic faith, accepting the Pope, and acknowledging his primacy over all of Christiandom. However, the union was rejected by the Nestorian bishops.

During the reign of the khan Öljaitü, who succeeded Ghazan in 1304, the persecution of Christians continued. Although personally on good terms with Yahballaha, he was unwilling or unable to end the persecutions, and even carried them out himself, with the persecution in 1306 being remembered as the fiercest. An outbreak of violence occurred in Erbil in 1310, with many Christians being killed and Yahballaha, who was there at the time, barely survived. Yahballaha tried to prevent the massacre of Christians who hid at the Citadel of Erbil, but when the citadel was conquered by the Muslims on 1 July 1310, they were all massacred. Öljaitü did nothing to prevent the violence. Yahballaha, discouraged by the failure, retired to Maragheh. He died there on 13 November 1317.

  1. Brock, Sebastian P. (2011a). "Thomas Christians". In Sebastian P. Brock; Aaron M. Butts; George A. Kiraz; Lucas Van Rompay (eds.). Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage: Electronic Edition. Gorgias Press. Retrieved22 September 2016. "The only pre-Portuguese Syriac document from India is a Lectionary of the Pauline Epistles, copied in Shengala (Cranganore) in June 1301, in the time of ‘the Turkish Catholicos Patriarch Yahbalaha V [!, in fact III] and Metropolitan Mar Jacob, governor of the holy throne of Mar Thomas the Apostle’ (ms. Vat. Syr. 22); the scribe identifies himself as deacon Zkarya, aged 14."
  2. Borbone 2008, p. 222.
  3. Borbone 2008, p. 239.
  4. Baum 2003, p. 94.
  5. Borbone 2008, p. 221.
  6. Borbone 2008, p. 224.
  7. Borbone 2008, p. 225.
  8. Baum 2003, p. 95.
  9. Baum 2003, pp. 95–96.
  10. Borbone 2008, p. 226.
  11. Baum 2003, p. 96.
  12. De Nicola 2017, p. 98.
  13. Grousset 1970, p. 371.
  14. Grousset 1970, p. 372.
  15. Borbone 2008, pp. 226–237.
  16. Baum 2003, p. 97.
  17. Filoni 2017, p. 32.
  18. Borbone 2008, p. 227.
  19. Baum 2003, pp. 97–100.
  20. Vine 1937, p. 153.
  21. Vine 1937, p. 154.
  22. Vine 1937, p. 155.
  23. Winkler 2020, p. 219.
  24. Baum 2003, p. 100.
  25. Dickens 2019, pp. 288–289.
  26. Outerbridge 1952, p. 61.
  27. Winkler 2020, p. 218.
  28. Vine 1937, pp. 156–157.
  29. Vine 1937, p. 157.
  30. Grousset 1970, p. 383.
  31. Browne 1933, p. 163-166.

Books

  • Baum, Wilhelm (2003). "The Age of the Mongols: Thirteenth and fourteenth centuries". In Baum, Wilhelm; Winkler, Dietmar W. (eds.). The Church of the East: A concise history. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415297702.
  • Browne, Laurence E. (1933). The Eclipse of Christianity in Asia: From the time of Muhammad till the Fourteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • De Nicola, Bruno (2017). Women in Mongol Iran: The Khatuns, 1206-1335. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9781474437356.
  • Dickens, Mark (2019). Echoes of a Forgotten Presence: Reconstructing the History of the Church of the East in Central Asia. Münster: LIT Verlag. ISBN 9783643911032.
  • Filoni, Fernando (2017). The Church in Iraq. Washington D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press. ISBN 9780813229652.
  • Grousset, René (1970). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. Rutgers: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 9780813513041.
  • Outerbridge, Leonard M. (1952). The Lost Churches of China. London: Westminster Press.
  • Vine, Aubrey R. (1937). The Nestorian Churches: a Concise History of Nestorian Christianity in Asia from the Persian Schism to the Modern Assyrians. London: Independent Press.
  • Winkler, Dietmar W. (2020). "Two Letters of Yahballaha III to the Popes of Rome: Historical Context and English Translation". In Tang, Li; Winkler, Dietmar W. (eds.). Artifact, Text, Context: Studies on Syriac Christianity in China and Central Asia. Münster: LIT Verlag. ISBN 9783643911957.

Journals

  • Borbone, Pier Giorgio (2008). "A 13th-Century Journey from China to Europe: the "Story of Mar Yahballaha and Rabban Sauma"". Egitto e Vicino Oriente. 31: 221–242.
Church of the East titles
Preceded by
Denha I
(1265–1281)
Catholicos-Patriarch of the East
(1281–1317)
Succeeded by
Timothy II
(1318–c.1332)

Yahballaha III
Yahballaha III Article Talk Language Watch Edit For other people called Yahballaha see Yahballaha disambiguation Yahballaha III c 1245 13 November 1317 known in earlier years as Rabban Marcos or Markos or Yahballaha V 1 was Patriarch of the East from 1281 to 1317 As Patriarch Yahballaha headed the Church of the East during the severe persecutions under the reign of khans Ghazan and his successor Oljaitu He acknowledged the primacy of the Pope and tried to form a church union which was rejected by the Nestorian bishops of the Church of the East Mar Yahballaha IIIPatriarch of the Church of the EastA 15th century miniature depicting Riccoldo da Monte di Croce in the audience before Yahballaha IIIChurchChurch of the EastSeeSeleucia CtesiphonElectedNovember 1281Installed21 November 1281Term ended13 November 1317PredecessorDenha ISuccessorTimothy IIOther post s Bishop of Northern China and OngudOrdersConsecration1279 by Denha IPersonal detailsBirth nameMarkosBornc 1245 Koshang OngudDied13 November 1317 Maragheh IlkhanateNationalityOngudDenominationChurch of the EastResidenceMaragheh Ilkhanate A native of Koshang Marcos traveled with Rabban Bar Sauma an ascetic Nestorian monk from Mongol controlled China to Jerusalem however due to the war between the Mongols and Mamluks they were prevented to reach the final destination Patriarch Denha I of the Church of the East recalled them and consecrated Markos as the bishop of Katay and Ong with the name Mar Yahballaha However both of them opted to remain in monasteries in Mosul Yahballaha s election as the new Patriarch of the Church of the East was approved by Abaqa Khan for political reasons and consecrated in 1281 as Yahballaha III In 1282 Abaqa Khan s brother Tekuder a convert to Islam succeeded the throne The Old Mongol party of Buddhists and Nestorian Christians opposed Tekuder who started persecuting the Church of the East for siding with the Old Mongol party and Yahballaha was imprisoned but his life was saved by Tekuder s Christian mother Qutui Khatun In 1284 Abaqa Khan s son Arghun became khan and he held both Yahballaha and Bar Sauma in high esteem Arghun sought an alliance with Christian Europe against the Muslims in Syria and Egypt and advised by Yahballaha sent Bar Sauma for the first East Asian diplomatic mission to Europe in history After the fall of Acre to Muslims in 1291 the popular opinion in Ilkhanate started to incline towards Islam The relations between the Church of the East and the khan remained well during the rule of Gaykhatu Arghun s successor However with Arghun s son Ghazan ascendence to the throne Muslims gained dominance Ghazan started the persecution of Christians and Yahballaha was again imprisoned He was ransomed by Hethum II of Armenia In 1289 Yahballaha allowed the Dominican friar Riccoldo da Monte di Croce to preach among the Nestorians and renounced their heterodoxies He sought a church union with the Catholic Church in Rome and started negotiations in 1302 by writing to Pope Boniface VIII and Pope Benedict XI in 1304 professing the Catholic faith in the latter letter and acknowledging the pope s primacy over all of Christiandom However the union was rejected by the Nestorian bishops In 1304 Oljaitu succeeded Ghazan and renewed the persecutions against Christians which Yahballaha unsuccessfully tried to end Yahballaha died in Maragheh in 1317 Contents 1 Early life 2 Patriarchate 3 Notes 4 References 4 1 Books 4 2 JournalsEarly life EditMarkos was born in the city of Koshang the capital of the Turkic Ongud tribe 2 His ethnic ancestry is not entirely clear According to the contemporary source Story of Mar Yahballaha and Rabban Sauma he was an Oriental Turk Bar Hebraeus in his Chronography referred to him as Uyghur that is Turk The Arabic Chronicle of the Nestorian Patriarch calls him a Turk by birth from the region of Katay i e Northern China The two lists of the patriarch of the Church of the East refer to him as a Turk and a Latin bull calls him an Oriental Turk Pier Giorgio Borbone suggests that Yahballaha probably belonged to the Ongud tribe and dismisses Bar Hebraeus claim about his Uyghur descent since Uyghurs at the time lived in a distant region around Turfan 3 As a child he became a pupil of Rabban Bar Sauma a Nestorian monk 2 At first they probably lived in the Monastery of the Cross in the present day Fangshan District of western Beijing 4 In 1275 76 Markos and Bar Sauma started a journey towards Jerusalem 4 At the beginning of their travel Markos was around thirty and Bar Sauma was forty eight 2 They first went to Khanbaliq 2 Bar Sauma s birthplace 5 to gather more people for the journey Then they went to Koshang Tangut Hotan and Kashgar After staying in Hotan for six months and finding Kashgar empty as its population fled the enemy Bar Sauma and Markos went to Taraz north of Tien Shan in present day Kazakhstan to pay homage to Kaidu Khan and ask for safe passage through his land which he allowed 6 The two travelers probably passed through Samarkand and Bukhara arriving in the region of Khorosan in the town of Tus now a village near Mashhad in present day Iran 7 In Maragheh in the region of Azerbaijan they met with Patriarch Denha I From Erbil they went to Mosul and visited Nisibis and various Nestorian monasteries along the Tigris river 4 Their plan to visit Jerusalem was prevented because of the war between the Mongols and Mamluks who at the time bordered each other along the Euphrates river 7 They still tried to reach Palestine traveling through Armenia and Georgia and then by the sea However they were recalled by the Patriarch who wanted to give them leadership over the church in China 8 The Patriarch named Markos the bishop of Katay and Ong Northern China and the Ongud tribe respectively giving him the name Mar Yahballaha At the same time he named Bar Sauma sa ora visiting bishop for the Eastern countries 7 and general vicar 8 The new titles meant that the two of them would return to the east however both of them insisted on staying to live in a monastery deeming themselves unworthy of the new titles 7 They remained in a monastery near Mosul for two years 9 Patriarchate EditAfter the death of Patriarch Denha I the Nestorian bishops chose Yahballaha as his successor in November 1281 with approval from Abaqa Khan the Mongol ruler of the Ilkhanate The reasons for his election were political as Yahballaha was familiar with the Mongol customs politics and language because of his origin 10 His knowledge of Syriac was scarce and he did not speak Arabic at all 11 In the presence of other Nestorian bishops Yahballaha was consecrated in Kokhe church on 21 November 1281 as Yahballaha III He received the seal given to the patriarch before him by Mongke Khan 11 Abaqa died in 1282 and was succeeded by his brother Tekuder a convert to Islam Tekuder became unpopular among the Mongol elites 12 the so called Old Mongol party of Nestorian Christians and Buddhists 13 who now favoured his nephew Arghun Abaqa s son 12 14 They protested to Kublai Khan who threatened to intervene Tekuder blamed the Church of the East for the appeals to Kublai Kahn and threw Yahballaha III into prison 14 His life was saved by Tekuder s mother Qutui Khatun who was a Christian Tekuder was succeeded by his nephew Arghun in 1284 11 Both Yahballaha and Bar Sauma were held in high esteem by both Abaqa and Arghun 10 After succeeding Tekuder Arghun sought an alliance with the European rulers against the Muslims in Syria and Egypt 15 He wrote to Pope Honorius IV that Kublai Khan commissioned him to liberate the land of the Christians 16 For that purpose he consulted with Yahballaha about who should head the embassy to Europe Yahballaha proposed Bar Sauma which Arghun accepted In 1287 Bar Sauma arrived in Trabzon at the south shore of Black Sea In June he went to Constantinople where he met with Emperor Andronikos of Byzantium and then to the Kingdom of Naples where he met with Charles II In Rome he learned about the death of Pope Honorius IV and was greeted by the College of Cardinals instead However they were not able to respond to Arghun s request until the election of the new pope Bar Sauma went to Florence and Genoa where he met with the Captain of the People From Genoa Bar Sauma went to Lombardy and onwards to Paris where he met Philip IV of France After staying for a month in Paris Bar Sauma met with the English king Edward in Bordeaux Both English and French kings expressed their interest in the alliance Before returning to Rome Bar Sauma spent the winter in Genoa and met Pope Nicholas IV after his election 15 16 The Pope issued a bull recognising Yahballaha as the Patriarch of all the Christians of the East 17 Bar Sauma returned to Ilkhanate in the summer of 1288 18 Dominican friar Riccoldo da Monte di Croce traveled to the East in 1289 and remained there for ten years Da Monte di Croce found that the Nestorians put greater emphasis on rituals than dogma He writes that they had a liberal conception of marriage with divorces and remarriages being allowed at will Nestorians occasionally practiced circumcision even for women and did not recognise the practice of anointing of the sick They also abstained from meat Yahballaha renounced these heterodoxies and allowed da Monte di Croce to preach in Baghdad in 1290 The Nestorian elite wanted to enter the union with Rome mostly for political reasons 19 The Mongols saw the fall of Acre to Muslims in 1291 as a victory of Islam over Christianity and started to incline towards Islam afterward 20 However relations remained good between the Church of the East and the new khan Gaykhatu who succeeded Arghun that year 16 By the time of his death in 1295 the popular opinion in the Ilkhanate favoured Muslims 21 Another son of Arghun Ghazan became khan in 1295 He brought Muslims to dominance 16 and started persecuting Christians 21 and destroying churches 16 He imprisoned Yahballaha and hung him upside down 16 Yahballaha s life was saved by Hethum II who paid a ransom to free him from prison 16 22 and in 1296 Yahballaha returned to his seat in Maragheh 16 The next year his residence was pillaged and destroyed by Muslims so he moved to Erbil in Iraq 16 Hethum persuaded Ghazan to end the persecution in 1296 He also issued countermeasures to compensate the Christians 22 Yahballaha returned to the monastery in Maragheh 16 whose reconstruction was supported by Ghazan who in 1303 visited the monastery 16 However sporadic persecution continued elsewhere Nevertheless Yahballaha enjoyed Ghazan s support until the end of his reign 22 We believe in the holy Roman chief pontiff and universal father of all believers in Christ and confess that he is the successor of the blessed Peter universal vicar of Jesus Christ over all the sons of the church from east and west love and affection for whom is fixed in our hearts and we owe obedience to him and ask and implore his blessing and are ready for all his commands humbly asking and imploring his help in our necessity and tribulations in which we have now been for a long time and still remain And may the good father not turn away his face from us since we are all brothers in Christ and his sons through the true catholic faith Yahballaha s letter to Pope Benedict XI 23 In 1302 Yahballaha started negotiations with the Roman Curia regarding the union 24 and sent a letter to Pope Boniface VIII 25 On 18 May 1304 Yahballaha wrote to Pope Benedict XI 24 making a profession of Catholic faith 25 accepting the Pope 26 and acknowledging his primacy over all of Christiandom 27 However the union was rejected by the Nestorian bishops 17 During the reign of the khan Oljaitu who succeeded Ghazan in 1304 the persecution of Christians continued 24 Although personally on good terms with Yahballaha he was unwilling or unable to end the persecutions and even carried them out himself with the persecution in 1306 being remembered as the fiercest 28 An outbreak of violence occurred in Erbil in 1310 with many Christians being killed and Yahballaha who was there at the time barely survived 29 Yahballaha tried to prevent the massacre of Christians who hid at the Citadel of Erbil but when the citadel was conquered by the Muslims on 1 July 1310 they were all massacred 30 Oljaitu did nothing to prevent the violence 29 Yahballaha discouraged by the failure retired to Maragheh 31 He died there on 13 November 1317 24 30 Notes Edit Brock Sebastian P 2011a Thomas Christians In Sebastian P Brock Aaron M Butts George A Kiraz Lucas Van Rompay eds Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage Electronic Edition Gorgias Press Retrieved 22 September 2016 The only pre Portuguese Syriac document from India is a Lectionary of the Pauline Epistles copied in Shengala Cranganore in June 1301 in the time of the Turkish Catholicos Patriarch Yahbalaha V in fact III and Metropolitan Mar Jacob governor of the holy throne of Mar Thomas the Apostle ms Vat Syr 22 the scribe identifies himself as deacon Zkarya aged 14 a b c d Borbone 2008 p 222 Borbone 2008 p 239 a b c Baum 2003 p 94 Borbone 2008 p 221 Borbone 2008 p 224 a b c d Borbone 2008 p 225 a b Baum 2003 p 95 Baum 2003 pp 95 96 a b Borbone 2008 p 226 a b c Baum 2003 p 96 a b De Nicola 2017 p 98 Grousset 1970 p 371 a b Grousset 1970 p 372 a b Borbone 2008 pp 226 237 a b c d e f g h i j k Baum 2003 p 97 a b Filoni 2017 p 32 Borbone 2008 p 227 Baum 2003 pp 97 100 Vine 1937 p 153 a b Vine 1937 p 154 a b c Vine 1937 p 155 Winkler 2020 p 219 a b c d Baum 2003 p 100 a b Dickens 2019 pp 288 289 Outerbridge 1952 p 61 Winkler 2020 p 218 Vine 1937 pp 156 157 a b Vine 1937 p 157 a b Grousset 1970 p 383 Browne 1933 p 163 166 References EditBooks Edit Baum Wilhelm 2003 The Age of the Mongols Thirteenth and fourteenth centuries In Baum Wilhelm Winkler Dietmar W eds The Church of the East A concise history London Routledge ISBN 0415297702 Browne Laurence E 1933 The Eclipse of Christianity in Asia From the time of Muhammad till the Fourteenth Century Cambridge Cambridge University Press De Nicola Bruno 2017 Women in Mongol Iran The Khatuns 1206 1335 Edinburgh Edinburgh University Press ISBN 9781474437356 Dickens Mark 2019 Echoes of a Forgotten Presence Reconstructing the History of the Church of the East in Central Asia Munster LIT Verlag ISBN 9783643911032 Filoni Fernando 2017 The Church in Iraq Washington D C The Catholic University of America Press ISBN 9780813229652 Grousset Rene 1970 The Empire of the Steppes A History of Central Asia Rutgers Rutgers University Press ISBN 9780813513041 Outerbridge Leonard M 1952 The Lost Churches of China London Westminster Press Vine Aubrey R 1937 The Nestorian Churches a Concise History of Nestorian Christianity in Asia from the Persian Schism to the Modern Assyrians London Independent Press Winkler Dietmar W 2020 Two Letters of Yahballaha III to the Popes of Rome Historical Context and English Translation In Tang Li Winkler Dietmar W eds Artifact Text Context Studies on Syriac Christianity in China and Central Asia Munster LIT Verlag ISBN 9783643911957 Journals Edit Borbone Pier Giorgio 2008 A 13th Century Journey from China to Europe the Story of Mar Yahballaha and Rabban Sauma Egitto e Vicino Oriente 31 221 242 Church of the East titlesPreceded byDenha I 1265 1281 Catholicos Patriarch of the East 1281 1317 Succeeded byTimothy II 1318 c 1332 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yahballaha III amp oldid 1041879542, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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