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Yak

For the progenitor species Bos mutus, see Wild yak. For other uses, see Yak (disambiguation).

The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is a type of long-haired domesticated cattle found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern Myanmar, Yunnan, Sichuan and as far north as Mongolia and Siberia. It is descended from the wild yak (Bos mutus).

Yak
A yak in the Nepalese Himalayas.
Domesticated
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Subfamily: Bovinae
Genus: Bos
Species:
B. grunniens
Binomial name
Bos grunniens
Linnaeus, 1766

Contents

The English word "yak" originates from the Tibetan:གཡག་, Wylie: g.yag. In Tibetan and Balti it refers only to the male of the species, the female being called Tibetan: འབྲི་, Wylie: 'bri or Tibetan: གནག, Wylie: g.nag in Tibetan and Tibetan: ཧཡག་མོ་, Wylie: hYag-mo in Balti. In English, as in most other languages that have borrowed the word, "yak" is usually used for both sexes, with "bull" or "cow" referring to each sex separately.

Bronze yak, Yuan dynasty

Belonging to the genus Bos, Yaks are related to cattle (Bos primigenius). Mitochondrial DNA analyses to determine the evolutionary history of yaks have been inconclusive.

The yak may have diverged from cattle at any point between one and five million years ago, and there is some suggestion that it may be more closely related to bison than to the other members of its designated genus. Apparent close fossil relatives of the yak, such as Bos baikalensis, have been found in eastern Russia, suggesting a possible route by which yak-like ancestors of the modern American bison could have entered the Americas.

The species was originally designated as Bos grunniens ("grunting ox") by Linnaeus in 1766, but this name is now generally considered to refer only to the domesticated form of the animal, with Bos mutus ("mute ox") being the preferred name for the wild species. Although some authors still consider the wild yak to be a subspecies, Bos grunniens mutus, the ICZN made an official ruling in 2003 permitting the use of the name Bos mutus for wild yaks, and this is now the more common usage.

Except where the wild yak is considered as a subspecies of Bos grunniens, there are no recognised subspecies of yak.

A domestic yak at Yamdrok Lake.

Yaks are heavily built animals with bulky frames, sturdy legs, rounded, cloven hooves, and extremely dense, long fur that hangs down lower than the belly. While wild yaks are generally dark, blackish to brown in colouration, domestic yaks can be quite variable in colour, often having patches of rusty brown and cream. They have small ears and wide foreheads, with smooth horns that are generally dark in colour. In males (bulls), the horns sweep out from the sides of the head, and then curve forward. They typically range from 48 to 99 cm (19 to 39 in) in length. The horns of females (cows) are smaller, only 27 to 64 cm (11 to 25 in) in length, and have a more upright shape. Both sexes have a short neck with a pronounced hump over the shoulders, although this is larger and more visible in males. Males weigh 350 to 585 kg (772 to 1,290 lb), females weigh 225 to 255 kg (496 to 562 lb). Wild yaks can be substantially heavier, bulls reaching weights of up to 1,000 kilograms (2,200 lb). Depending on the breed, domestic yak males are 111–138 centimetres (44–54 in) high at the withers, while females are 105–117 centimetres (41–46 in) high at the withers.

Both sexes have long shaggy hair with a dense woolly undercoat over the chest, flanks, and thighs to insulate them from the cold. Especially in bulls, this may form a long "skirt" that can reach the ground. The tail is long and horselike rather than tufted like the tails of cattle or bison. Domesticated yaks have a wide range of coat colours, with some individuals being white, grey, brown, roan or piebald. The udder in females and the scrotum in males are small and hairy, as protection against the cold. Females have four teats.

Yaks are not known to produce the characteristic lowing (mooing) sound of cattle, but both wild and domestic yaks grunt and squeak, which inspired the scientific name of the domestic yak variant, Bos grunniens (grunting bull). Nikolay Przhevalsky named the wild variant Bos mutus (silent bull) believing that it did not make a sound at all, but it does.

Physiology

Yak rider near Tsomgo Lake, Sikkim (3700 m)

Yak physiology is well adapted to high altitudes, having larger lungs and heart than cattle found at lower altitudes, as well as greater capacity for transporting oxygen through their blood, due to the persistence of foetal haemoglobin throughout life. Conversely, yaks have trouble thriving at lower altitudes, and are prone to suffering from heat exhaustion above about 15 °C (59 °F). Further adaptations to the cold include a thick layer of subcutaneous fat, and an almost complete lack of functional sweat glands.

Compared with domestic cattle, the rumen of yaks is unusually large, relative to the omasum.[citation needed] This likely allows them to consume greater quantities of low-quality food at a time, and to ferment it longer so as to extract more nutrients. Yak consume the equivalent of 1% of their body weight daily while cattle require 3% to maintain condition.[citation needed]

Ten-day-old yak.

Yaks mate in the summer, typically between July and September, depending on the local environment. For the remainder of the year, many bulls wander in small bachelor groups away from the large herds, but, as the rut approaches, they become aggressive and regularly fight among each other to establish dominance. In addition to non-violent threat displays, bellowing, and scraping the ground with their horns, bull yaks also compete more directly, repeatedly charging at each other with heads lowered or sparring with their horns. Like bison, but unlike cattle, males wallow in dry soil during the rut, often while scent-marking with urine or dung. Females enter oestrus up to four times a year, and females are receptive only for a few hours in each cycle.

Gestation lasts between 257 and 270 days, so that the young are born between May and June, and results in the birth of a single calf. The cow finds a secluded spot to give birth, but the calf is able to walk within about ten minutes of birth, and the pair soon rejoin the herd. Females of both the wild and domestic forms typically give birth only once every other year, although more frequent births are possible if the food supply is good.

Calves are weaned at one year and become independent shortly thereafter. Wild calves are initially brown in color, and only later develop the darker adult hair. Females generally give birth for the first time at three or four years of age, and reach their peak reproductive fitness at around six years. Yaks may live for more than twenty years in domestication or captivity, although it is likely that this may be somewhat shorter in the wild.

Domesticated yaks have been kept for thousands of years, primarily for their milk, fibre and meat, and as beasts of burden. Their dried droppings are an important fuel, used all over Tibet, and are often the only fuel available on the high treeless Tibetan Plateau. Yaks transport goods across mountain passes for local farmers and traders and are an attraction for climbing and trekking expeditions: "Only one thing makes it hard to use yaks for long journeys in barren regions. They will not eat grain, which could be carried on the journey. They will starve unless they can be brought to a place where there is grass." They also are used to draw ploughs. Yak's milk is often processed to a cheese called chhurpi in Tibetan and Nepali languages, and byaslag in Mongolia. Butter made from yaks' milk is an ingredient of the butter tea that Tibetans consume in large quantities, and is also used in lamps and made into butter sculptures used in religious festivities.

Yak racing

Outside the Himalayas

Small numbers of herds can be found in the United States and Canada, as well as New Zealand and some parts of Europe. Yaks have generated interest outside the Himalayas as a commercial crop and by cattle breeders. The main interest of North American yak breeders is lean meat production by "hybridizing" with other cattle, followed by yak fiber wool production.

Research

The Indian government established a dedicated centre for research into yak husbandry, the ICAR-National Research Centre on Yak, in 1989. It is located at Dirang, Arunachal Pradesh, and maintains a yak farm in the Nyukmadung area at an altitude of 2,750 metres (9,020 ft) above MSL.

Yak breeding and hybridization

In Nepal, Tibet and Mongolia, domestic cattle are crossbred with yaks. This gives rise to the infertile male dzo མཛོ། as well as fertile females known as མཛོ་མོ། dzomo or zhom, which may be crossed again with cattle. The "Dwarf Lulu" breed, "the only Bos primigenius taurus type of cattle in Nepal" has been tested for DNA markers and found to be a mixture of both taurine and zebu types of cattle (B. p. taurus and B. p. indicus) with yak. According to the International Veterinary Information Service, the low productivity of second generation cattle-yak crosses makes them suitable only as meat animals.

Crosses between yaks and domestic cattle (Bos primigenius taurus) have been recorded in Chinese literature for at least 2,000 years. Successful crosses have also been recorded between yak and American bison, gaur, and banteng, generally with similar results to those produced with domestic cattle.

Linguistic evidence for yak domestication

Jacques et al. (2021) show that most elaborate yak-related terminologies are found within Tibetic and Gyalrongic languages. Both branches also have native terms for yak-cattle hybrids, suggesting that Tibetic and Gyalrongic speakers may have independently cross-bred yaks and cattle, predating the proto-Gyalrongic split (3221 [2169-4319] BP) from Tibeto-Gyalrongic.

Blood drinking festival

In Nepal, there is an annual festival held to drink fresh blood of yak in a belief that it cures varieties of disease such as gastritis, jaundice and body sprain. The fresh blood is extracted from the neck of a yak without killing it. The cut is healed after the ceremony is over. The ritual is believed to be originated in Tibet and Mustang.

Yak sports

In parts of Tibet and Karakorum, yak racing is a form of entertainment at traditional festivals and is considered an important part of their culture. More recently, sports involving domesticated yaks, such as yak skiing or yak polo, are being marketed as tourist attractions in South Asian countries, including in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan.[citation needed]

  1. Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 691. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. Guo, S.; et al. (2006). "Taxonomic placement and origin of yaks: implications from analyses of mtDNA D-loop fragment sequences". Acta Theriologica Sinica. 26 (4): 325–330.
  3. Leslie, D.M.; Schaller, G.B. (2009). "Bos grunniens and Bos mutus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae)". Mammalian Species. 836: 1–17. doi:10.1644/836.1.
  4. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (2003). "Opinion 2027. Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are predated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved". Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 60: 81–84.
  5. Buzzard, P.; Berger, J. (2016). "Bos mutus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T2892A101293528. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T2892A101293528.en. Retrieved12 November 2021.
  6. Gentry, A.; Clutton-Brock, J.; Groves, C. P. (2004). "The naming of wild animal species and their domestic derivatives". Journal of Archaeological Science. 31 (5): 645. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2003.10.006.
  7. Buchholtz, C. (1990). True Cattle (Genus Bos). pp. 386–397 in S. Parker, ed. Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals, Volume 5. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. (quoted in Oliphant, M. (2003). Bos grunniens (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed 4 April 2009)
  8. "The Yak. Chapter 2: Yak breeds". FAO. Retrieved31 August 2017.
  9. "Origins, Domestication and Distribution of Yak". FAO. Retrieved31 August 2017.
  10. "The Yak in Relation to Its Environment". FAO.
  11. The Yak, Second Edition. Bangkok: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, ISBN 92-5-104965-3. Accessed 8 August 2008.
  12. Sarkar, M.; Das, D. N.; Mondal, D. B. (1999). "Fetal Haemoglobin in Pregnant Yaks (Poephagus grunniens L.)". The Veterinary Journal. 158 (1): 68–70. doi:10.1053/tvjl.1999.0361. PMID 10409419.
  13. Yak, Animal genetics training resources version II: Breed Information. Adopted from: Bonnemaire, J. "Yak". In: Mason, Ian L. (ed). (1984). Evolution of Domesticated Animals. London: Longman, pp. 39–45. ISBN 0-582-46046-8. Accessed 8 August 2008.
  14. Sarkar, M.; Prakash, B.S. (2005). "Timing of ovulation in relation to onset of estrus and LH peak in yak (Poephagus grunniens L.)". Animal Reproduction Science. 86 (4): 353–362. doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2004.08.005. PMID 15766812.
  15. Zi, X.D. (2003). "Reproduction in female yaks (Bos grunniens) and opportunities for improvement". Theriogenology. 59 (5–6): 1303–1312. doi:10.1016/S0093-691X(02)01172-X. PMID 12527077.
  16. Golden Book Encyclopedia, Vol. 16 p. 1505b. Rockefeller Center, NY: Golden Press (1959).
  17. Gyamtsho, Pema. "Economy of Yak Herders"(PDF).
  18. Tibet and Tibetan Foods. Flavorandfortune.com. Retrieved on 2012-12-19.
  19. Yaks, butter & lamps in Tibet, webexhibits.org
  20. "Part 3 - Yak in nontraditional environments by Gerald Wiener". FAO.
  21. "ICAR-National Research Centre on Yak".
  22. Takeda, K.; Satoh, M.; Neopane, S.P.; Kuwar, B.S.; Joshi, H.D.; Shrestha, N.P.; Fujise, H.; Tasai, M.; Tagami, T.; Hanada, H. (2004). "Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Nepalese domestic dwarf cattle Lulu". Animal Science Journal. 75 (2): 103. doi:10.1111/j.1740-0929.2004.00163.x.
  23. Zhang, R.C. (14 December 2000). "Interspecies Hybridization between Yak, Bos taurus and Bos indicus and Reproduction of the Hybrids". In: Recent Advances in Yak Reproduction, Zhao, X.X.; Zhang, R.C. (eds.). International Veterinary Information Service.
  24. Jacques, G.; d'Alpoim Guedes, J.; Zhang, S. (2021). "Yak Domestication: A Review of Linguistic, Archaeological, and Genetic Evidence". Ethnobiology Letters. 12 (1): 103–114. doi:10.14237/ebl.12.1.2021.1755.
  25. Sagart, L.; Jacques, G.; Lai, Y.; Ryder, R.J.; Thouzeau, V.; Greenhill, S.J.; List, J.-M. (2019). "Dated language phylogenies shed light on the ancestry of Sino-Tibetan". Ethnobiology Letters. 116 (21): 10317–10322. doi:10.1073/pnas.1817972116.
  26. Degen, Allan A.; Kam, Michael; Pandey, Shambhu B.; Upreti, Chet R.; Pandey, Sanjeev; Regmi, Prajwal (21 October 2007). "Transhumant Pastoralism in Yak Production in the Lower Mustang District of Nepal". Nomadic Peoples. 11 (2): 57–85. doi:10.3167/np.2007.110204.
  27. "People flock to Mustang to drink yak blood". Retrieved7 June 2021.
  28. "Festival to drink Yak blood begins in Nepal". Hindustan Times. 20 July 2008. Retrieved7 June 2021.
  29. Ians (11 March 2010). "Nepal now sees blood drinking festival". The Hindu. Kathmandu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved7 June 2021.
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Yak
Yak Language Watch Edit For the progenitor species Bos mutus see Wild yak For other uses see Yak disambiguation The domestic yak Bos grunniens is a type of long haired domesticated cattle found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent the Tibetan Plateau Northern Myanmar Yunnan Sichuan and as far north as Mongolia and Siberia It is descended from the wild yak Bos mutus 1 YakA yak in the Nepalese Himalayas Conservation statusDomesticatedScientific classificationKingdom AnimaliaPhylum ChordataClass MammaliaOrder ArtiodactylaFamily BovidaeSubfamily BovinaeGenus BosSpecies B grunniensBinomial nameBos grunniens Linnaeus 1766 Contents 1 Etymology 2 Taxonomy 3 Physical characteristics 3 1 Physiology 4 Reproduction and life history 5 Husbandry 5 1 Outside the Himalayas 5 2 Research 5 3 Yak breeding and hybridization 5 4 Linguistic evidence for yak domestication 6 Customs 6 1 Blood drinking festival 6 2 Yak sports 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksEtymology EditThe English word yak originates from the Tibetan གཡག Wylie g yag In Tibetan and Balti it refers only to the male of the species the female being called Tibetan འབ Wylie bri or Tibetan གནག Wylie g nag in Tibetan and Tibetan ཧཡག མ Wylie hYag mo in Balti In English as in most other languages that have borrowed the word yak is usually used for both sexes with bull or cow referring to each sex separately Taxonomy Edit Bronze yak Yuan dynasty Belonging to the genus Bos Yaks are related to cattle Bos primigenius Mitochondrial DNA analyses to determine the evolutionary history of yaks have been inconclusive The yak may have diverged from cattle at any point between one and five million years ago and there is some suggestion that it may be more closely related to bison than to the other members of its designated genus 2 Apparent close fossil relatives of the yak such as Bos baikalensis have been found in eastern Russia suggesting a possible route by which yak like ancestors of the modern American bison could have entered the Americas 3 The species was originally designated as Bos grunniens grunting ox by Linnaeus in 1766 but this name is now generally considered to refer only to the domesticated form of the animal with Bos mutus mute ox being the preferred name for the wild species Although some authors still consider the wild yak to be a subspecies Bos grunniens mutus the ICZN made an official ruling in 2003 4 permitting the use of the name Bos mutus for wild yaks and this is now the more common usage 5 3 6 Except where the wild yak is considered as a subspecies of Bos grunniens there are no recognised subspecies of yak Physical characteristics Edit A domestic yak at Yamdrok Lake Yaks are heavily built animals with bulky frames sturdy legs rounded cloven hooves and extremely dense long fur that hangs down lower than the belly While wild yaks are generally dark blackish to brown in colouration domestic yaks can be quite variable in colour often having patches of rusty brown and cream They have small ears and wide foreheads with smooth horns that are generally dark in colour In males bulls the horns sweep out from the sides of the head and then curve forward They typically range from 48 to 99 cm 19 to 39 in in length The horns of females cows are smaller only 27 to 64 cm 11 to 25 in in length and have a more upright shape Both sexes have a short neck with a pronounced hump over the shoulders although this is larger and more visible in males 3 Males weigh 350 to 585 kg 772 to 1 290 lb females weigh 225 to 255 kg 496 to 562 lb Wild yaks can be substantially heavier bulls reaching weights of up to 1 000 kilograms 2 200 lb 7 Depending on the breed domestic yak males are 111 138 centimetres 44 54 in high at the withers while females are 105 117 centimetres 41 46 in high at the withers 8 Both sexes have long shaggy hair with a dense woolly undercoat over the chest flanks and thighs to insulate them from the cold Especially in bulls this may form a long skirt that can reach the ground The tail is long and horselike rather than tufted like the tails of cattle or bison Domesticated yaks have a wide range of coat colours with some individuals being white grey brown roan or piebald The udder in females and the scrotum in males are small and hairy as protection against the cold Females have four teats 3 Yaks are not known to produce the characteristic lowing mooing sound of cattle but both wild and domestic yaks grunt and squeak which inspired the scientific name of the domestic yak variant Bos grunniens grunting bull Nikolay Przhevalsky named the wild variant Bos mutus silent bull believing that it did not make a sound at all but it does 9 Physiology Edit Yak rider near Tsomgo Lake Sikkim 3700 m Yak physiology is well adapted to high altitudes having larger lungs and heart than cattle found at lower altitudes as well as greater capacity for transporting oxygen through their blood 10 11 due to the persistence of foetal haemoglobin throughout life 12 Conversely yaks have trouble thriving at lower altitudes 13 and are prone to suffering from heat exhaustion above about 15 C 59 F Further adaptations to the cold include a thick layer of subcutaneous fat and an almost complete lack of functional sweat glands 10 Compared with domestic cattle the rumen of yaks is unusually large relative to the omasum citation needed This likely allows them to consume greater quantities of low quality food at a time and to ferment it longer so as to extract more nutrients 10 Yak consume the equivalent of 1 of their body weight daily while cattle require 3 to maintain condition citation needed Reproduction and life history Edit Ten day old yak Yaks mate in the summer typically between July and September depending on the local environment For the remainder of the year many bulls wander in small bachelor groups away from the large herds but as the rut approaches they become aggressive and regularly fight among each other to establish dominance In addition to non violent threat displays bellowing and scraping the ground with their horns bull yaks also compete more directly repeatedly charging at each other with heads lowered or sparring with their horns Like bison but unlike cattle males wallow in dry soil during the rut often while scent marking with urine or dung 3 Females enter oestrus up to four times a year and females are receptive only for a few hours in each cycle 14 Gestation lasts between 257 and 270 days 10 so that the young are born between May and June and results in the birth of a single calf The cow finds a secluded spot to give birth but the calf is able to walk within about ten minutes of birth and the pair soon rejoin the herd 10 Females of both the wild and domestic forms typically give birth only once every other year 3 although more frequent births are possible if the food supply is good Calves are weaned at one year and become independent shortly thereafter Wild calves are initially brown in color and only later develop the darker adult hair Females generally give birth for the first time at three or four years of age 15 and reach their peak reproductive fitness at around six years Yaks may live for more than twenty years in domestication or captivity 3 although it is likely that this may be somewhat shorter in the wild Husbandry EditDomesticated yaks have been kept for thousands of years primarily for their milk fibre and meat and as beasts of burden Their dried droppings are an important fuel used all over Tibet and are often the only fuel available on the high treeless Tibetan Plateau Yaks transport goods across mountain passes for local farmers and traders and are an attraction for climbing and trekking expeditions Only one thing makes it hard to use yaks for long journeys in barren regions They will not eat grain which could be carried on the journey They will starve unless they can be brought to a place where there is grass 16 They also are used to draw ploughs 17 Yak s milk is often processed to a cheese called chhurpi in Tibetan and Nepali languages and byaslag in Mongolia Butter made from yaks milk is an ingredient of the butter tea that Tibetans consume in large quantities 18 and is also used in lamps and made into butter sculptures used in religious festivities 19 Yak racing Outside the Himalayas Edit Small numbers of herds can be found in the United States and Canada as well as New Zealand and some parts of Europe Yaks have generated interest outside the Himalayas as a commercial crop and by cattle breeders The main interest of North American yak breeders is lean meat production by hybridizing with other cattle followed by yak fiber wool production 20 Research Edit The Indian government established a dedicated centre for research into yak husbandry the ICAR National Research Centre on Yak in 1989 It is located at Dirang Arunachal Pradesh and maintains a yak farm in the Nyukmadung area at an altitude of 2 750 metres 9 020 ft above MSL 21 Yak breeding and hybridization Edit In Nepal Tibet and Mongolia domestic cattle are crossbred with yaks This gives rise to the infertile male dzo མཛ as well as fertile females known as མཛ མ dzomo or zhom which may be crossed again with cattle The Dwarf Lulu breed the only Bos primigenius taurus type of cattle in Nepal has been tested for DNA markers and found to be a mixture of both taurine and zebu types of cattle B p taurus and B p indicus with yak 22 According to the International Veterinary Information Service the low productivity of second generation cattle yak crosses makes them suitable only as meat animals 23 Crosses between yaks and domestic cattle Bos primigenius taurus have been recorded in Chinese literature for at least 2 000 years 3 Successful crosses have also been recorded between yak and American bison 23 gaur and banteng generally with similar results to those produced with domestic cattle 3 Linguistic evidence for yak domestication Edit Jacques et al 2021 24 show that most elaborate yak related terminologies are found within Tibetic and Gyalrongic languages Both branches also have native terms for yak cattle hybrids suggesting that Tibetic and Gyalrongic speakers may have independently cross bred yaks and cattle predating the proto Gyalrongic split 3221 2169 4319 BP 25 from Tibeto Gyalrongic Customs EditBlood drinking festival Edit In Nepal there is an annual festival held to drink fresh blood of yak in a belief that it cures varieties of disease such as gastritis jaundice and body sprain 26 27 The fresh blood is extracted from the neck of a yak without killing it The cut is healed after the ceremony is over 28 The ritual is believed to be originated in Tibet and Mustang 29 Yak sports Edit In parts of Tibet and Karakorum yak racing is a form of entertainment at traditional festivals and is considered an important part of their culture More recently sports involving domesticated yaks such as yak skiing or yak polo are being marketed as tourist attractions in South Asian countries including in Gilgit Baltistan Pakistan citation needed Gallery Edit Yaks in Manali Himachal Pradesh India saddled for riding Train of pack yaks at Litang monastery in Garze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Sichuan China Yaks plowing fields in Tibet Domestic yak in Nepal Yaks in Gilgit Baltistan Pakistan Domestic yak in Mao County China Girl On Yak In Yunnan Province ChinaSee also EditYakaloReferences Edit Grubb P 2005 Order Artiodactyla In Wilson D E Reeder D M eds Mammal Species of the World A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed Johns Hopkins University Press p 691 ISBN 978 0 8018 8221 0 OCLC 62265494 Guo S et al 2006 Taxonomic placement and origin of yaks implications from analyses of mtDNA D loop fragment sequences Acta Theriologica Sinica 26 4 325 330 a b c d e f g h i Leslie D M Schaller G B 2009 Bos grunniens and Bos mutus Artiodactyla Bovidae Mammalian Species 836 1 17 doi 10 1644 836 1 International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 2003 Opinion 2027 Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are predated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals Lepidoptera Osteichthyes Mammalia conserved Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 60 81 84 Buzzard P Berger J 2016 Bos mutus IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016 e T2892A101293528 doi 10 2305 IUCN UK 2016 2 RLTS T2892A101293528 en Retrieved 12 November 2021 Gentry A Clutton Brock J Groves C P 2004 The naming of wild animal species and their domestic derivatives Journal of Archaeological Science 31 5 645 doi 10 1016 j jas 2003 10 006 Buchholtz C 1990 True Cattle Genus Bos pp 386 397 in S Parker ed Grzimek s Encyclopedia of Mammals Volume 5 New York McGraw Hill Publishing Company quoted in Oliphant M 2003 Bos grunniens On line Animal Diversity Web Accessed 4 April 2009 The Yak Chapter 2 Yak breeds FAO Retrieved 31 August 2017 Origins Domestication and Distribution of Yak FAO Retrieved 31 August 2017 a b c d e The Yak in Relation to Its Environment FAO The Yak Second Edition Bangkok Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ISBN 92 5 104965 3 Accessed 8 August 2008 Sarkar M Das D N Mondal D B 1999 Fetal Haemoglobin in Pregnant Yaks Poephagus grunniens L The Veterinary Journal 158 1 68 70 doi 10 1053 tvjl 1999 0361 PMID 10409419 Yak Animal genetics training resources version II Breed Information Adopted from Bonnemaire J Yak In Mason Ian L ed 1984 Evolution of Domesticated Animals London Longman pp 39 45 ISBN 0 582 46046 8 Accessed 8 August 2008 Sarkar M Prakash B S 2005 Timing of ovulation in relation to onset of estrus and LH peak in yak Poephagus grunniens L Animal Reproduction Science 86 4 353 362 doi 10 1016 j anireprosci 2004 08 005 PMID 15766812 Zi X D 2003 Reproduction in female yaks Bos grunniens and opportunities for improvement Theriogenology 59 5 6 1303 1312 doi 10 1016 S0093 691X 02 01172 X PMID 12527077 Golden Book Encyclopedia Vol 16 p 1505b Rockefeller Center NY Golden Press 1959 Gyamtsho Pema Economy of Yak Herders PDF Tibet and Tibetan Foods Flavorandfortune com Retrieved on 2012 12 19 Yaks butter amp lamps in Tibet webexhibits org Part 3 Yak in nontraditional environments by Gerald Wiener FAO ICAR National Research Centre on Yak Takeda K Satoh M Neopane S P Kuwar B S Joshi H D Shrestha N P Fujise H Tasai M Tagami T Hanada H 2004 Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Nepalese domestic dwarf cattle Lulu Animal Science Journal 75 2 103 doi 10 1111 j 1740 0929 2004 00163 x a b Zhang R C 14 December 2000 Interspecies Hybridization between Yak Bos taurus and Bos indicus and Reproduction of the Hybrids In Recent Advances in Yak Reproduction Zhao X X Zhang R C eds International Veterinary Information Service Jacques G d Alpoim Guedes J Zhang S 2021 Yak Domestication A Review of Linguistic Archaeological and Genetic Evidence Ethnobiology Letters 12 1 103 114 doi 10 14237 ebl 12 1 2021 1755 Sagart L Jacques G Lai Y Ryder R J Thouzeau V Greenhill S J List J M 2019 Dated language phylogenies shed light on the ancestry of Sino Tibetan Ethnobiology Letters 116 21 10317 10322 doi 10 1073 pnas 1817972116 Degen Allan A Kam Michael Pandey Shambhu B Upreti Chet R Pandey Sanjeev Regmi Prajwal 21 October 2007 Transhumant Pastoralism in Yak Production in the Lower Mustang District of Nepal Nomadic Peoples 11 2 57 85 doi 10 3167 np 2007 110204 People flock to Mustang to drink yak blood Retrieved 7 June 2021 Festival to drink Yak blood begins in Nepal Hindustan Times 20 July 2008 Retrieved 7 June 2021 Ians 11 March 2010 Nepal now sees blood drinking festival The Hindu Kathmandu ISSN 0971 751X Retrieved 7 June 2021 External links EditWikispecies has information related to Yak Wikimedia Commons has media related to Domestic yak International Yak Association IYAK European Yak Association EYAK Article on Yak breeds in FAO archives Yaks The Official Animal of Tibet Yak Genome Database Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yak amp oldid 1054921429, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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