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Yam languages

The Yam languages, also known as the Morehead River languages, are a family of Papuan languages. They include many of the languages south and west of the Fly River in Papua New Guinea and Indonesian West Papua.

Yam
Morehead River
Geographic
distribution
Morehead River watershed, New Guinea
Linguistic classificationA primary language family
  • Yam
Subdivisions
Glottologmore1255
Map: The Yam languages of New Guinea
Yam languages
Trans–New Guinea languages
Other Papuan languages
Austronesian languages
Australian languages
Uninhabited
Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap
Download coordinates as: KML

Contents

The name Morehead and Upper Maro River refers to the area around the Morehead and Maro rivers. Most of the languages are found between these rivers, but the Nambu subgroup are spoken east of the Morehead. Evans (2012) refers to the family instead with the more compact name Yam. This name is motivated by a number of linguistic and cultural items of significance: yam (and cognates) means "custom, tradition"; yəm (and cognates) means "is"; and yam tubers are the local staple and of central cultural importance.

Ross (2005) tentatively includes the Yam languages in the proposed Trans-Fly – Bulaka River family. More recently (Evans 2012) has argued that this is not justified and more data has to be gathered. Evans (2018) classifies the Pahoturi River languages as an independent language family.

Yam languages have also been in intensive contact with Marind and Suki speakers, who had historically expanded into Yam-speaking territories via headhunting raids and other expansionary migrations.

Internal classification of the Yam languages:

Wichmann (2013) did not find a connection between the branches in his automated comparison.

Yam languages are spoken by up to 3,000 people on both sides of the border in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. In Papua New Guinea, Yam languages are spoken in Morehead Rural LLG, Western Province. In Papua, Indonesia, Yam languages are spoken in Merauke Regency.

Yam languages and respective demographic information listed by Evans (2018) are provided below. Geographical coordinates are also provided for some villages.

List of Yam languages
Language Alternative names Subgroup Speakers Villages or hamlets
Anta Tokwe, Upper Morehead, Thamnga Tonda 150 Ufarua (8°38′08″S141°38′00″E /8.635484°S 141.633236°E /-8.635484; 141.633236 (Uparua)), Forzitho, Thamgakar (8°37′34″S141°36′40″E /8.626232°S 141.611057°E /-8.626232; 141.611057 (Damgar)) in central Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Komnzo Kamundjo, Upper Morehead, (Mema, Ranzér), Zókwasi, Farem Tonda 200 Rouku (8°42′06″S141°35′55″E /8.701793°S 141.598485°E /-8.701793; 141.598485 (Rouku)), Gunana, Morehead (8°42′32″S141°38′05″E /8.708915°S 141.634593°E /-8.708915; 141.634593 (Morehead Station)), Firra, Masu, Kanathér in central Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Wára Tjokwe, Upper Morehead, Wära, Mät Tonda 350 Yokwa (8°42′02″S141°31′23″E /8.700472°S 141.523053°E /-8.700472; 141.523053 (Iokwa)), (Mäwsa, Kwaikér, Zäzér Ménz) in central Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Wérè Tokwe, Upper Morehead, Wórä Tonda 100 Tokwa (8°38′36″S141°26′10″E /8.643291°S 141.436129°E /-8.643291; 141.436129 (Tokwa)), Kanfok in central Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Kémä Upper Morehead Tonda 130 Wämnefér (8°44′29″S141°24′57″E /8.74137°S 141.415826°E /-8.74137; 141.415826 (Wemnevere)) in central Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Kánchá Kunja, Lower Morehead, Peremka, Kénzä Tonda 350* Bondobol (8°55′46″S141°20′18″E /8.929521°S 141.338469°E /-8.929521; 141.338469 (Bondobol)), Bula (9°07′42″S141°20′26″E /9.128337°S 141.340513°E /-9.128337; 141.340513 (Bula)), Jarai (9°11′49″S141°35′04″E /9.196839°S 141.584426°E /-9.196839; 141.584426 (Jarai)) in southeast Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Ránmo Tonda, Renmo, Blafe Tonda 200* Yéndorodoro (8°35′31″S141°17′48″E /8.59196°S 141.29677°E /-8.59196; 141.29677 (Indorodoro)), Mengete (8°39′25″S141°17′03″E /8.657045°S 141.284029°E /-8.657045; 141.284029 (Mengete)) in west Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Mblafe Blafe, Blafe Wonana, Tonda Tonda 350* Weam (8°37′08″S141°08′05″E /8.618919°S 141.134728°E /-8.618919; 141.134728 (Weam Village)), Kandarisa (8°37′17″S141°13′10″E /8.621418°S 141.2194°E /-8.621418; 141.2194 (Kandarisa)), Wereaver (8°35′48″S141°07′25″E /8.596603°S 141.123567°E /-8.596603; 141.123567 (Wereavere)) (only recently in Wereaver) in west Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Warta Thuntai Guntai, Kan Tonda 430 Wando (8°53′09″S141°15′31″E /8.885893°S 141.258528°E /-8.885893; 141.258528 (Wando)), Bensbach (8°50′57″S141°14′59″E /8.8493°S 141.249855°E /-8.8493; 141.249855 (Bensbach Lodge)), Balamuk, Korombo 1, Korombo 2 (8°45′15″S141°15′56″E /8.754213°S 141.265672°E /-8.754213; 141.265672 (Korombo)) in mid southwest Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Arammba None Tonda 750 Fwasam, Gowi, Kiriwa (8°26′15″S141°30′57″E /8.437511°S 141.515843°E /-8.437511; 141.515843 (Kiriwo)), Meru (8°28′19″S141°27′59″E /8.471963°S 141.466349°E /-8.471963; 141.466349 (Merru)), Sedefi (8°30′53″S141°36′38″E /8.514592°S 141.610694°E /-8.514592; 141.610694 (Setavi)), Serki (8°15′02″S141°45′58″E /8.250688°S 141.766022°E /-8.250688; 141.766022 (Serki)) in north central Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Nggarna Ngar, Kanum, Sota Tonda unknown Vicinity of Sota in west Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Rema Tonda 10? (moribund or extinct) Wereaver (8°35′48″S141°07′25″E /8.596603°S 141.123567°E /-8.596603; 141.123567 (Wereavere)) in west Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Smerki Smärki, Kanum, Barkari Tonda 150 Rawu Biru, Tomer, Tomerau, Yakiw in southeast Merauke Regency, Indonesia
Tamer Smerki, Smärki, Kanum Tonda 120 Yanggandur (recently moved there) in southeast Merauke Regency, Indonesia
Ngkontar Ngkontar, Ngkolmpu Tonda 100 Yanggandur in southeast Merauke Regency, Indonesia and into PNG
Ngkolmpu Kiki, Ngkntra Kiki, Kanum, Enkelembu, Kenume, Knwne Tonda east Merauke Regency, Indonesia and into PNG
Bedi Ngkolmpu Kanum, Enkelembu, Kenume, Knwne Tonda 5 (moribund or extinct) Onggaya in south central Merauke Regency, Indonesia
Yei Yei 1278 Po, Torai, Bupul, Tanas, Kwel in east Merauke Regency, Indonesia
Nen Nambu 350 Bimadeben (8°42′06″S141°35′55″E /8.701793°S 141.598485°E /-8.701793; 141.598485 (Bimadeben Vill/ Comm. Sch)) in central Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Nama Nambu 1200 Daraia (8°36′59″S141°44′01″E /8.61637°S 141.733576°E /-8.61637; 141.733576 (Darava)), Mata (8°40′28″S141°44′35″E /8.674546°S 141.743133°E /-8.674546; 141.743133 (Mata)), Ngaraita (8°35′58″S141°42′54″E /8.599511°S 141.714869°E /-8.599511; 141.714869 (Garaita)) in central Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Namat Mibini Nambu 170* Mibini (8°50′20″S141°38′17″E /8.838849°S 141.637931°E /-8.838849; 141.637931 (Mibini)) in central Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Nambo Nmbo, Keraki; Namna, Yarne Nambu 710 Nambo variety: Gubam (8°37′10″S141°55′21″E /8.619428°S 141.922509°E /-8.619428; 141.922509 (Gubam)), Bebdeben (8°40′04″S141°55′33″E /8.667668°S 141.925772°E /-8.667668; 141.925772 (Bebdeben)), Arufi (8°45′38″S141°54′49″E /8.760576°S 141.913707°E /-8.760576; 141.913707 (Arufi)) in central Morehead Rural LLG, PNG; Namna variety: Pongarki (8°39′51″S141°49′37″E /8.664295°S 141.827064°E /-8.664295; 141.827064 (Pongariki)), Derideri (8°41′13″S141°51′22″E /8.686837°S 141.85624°E /-8.686837; 141.85624 (Derideri)) in central Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Neme Nambu 200 Keru (8°29′02″S141°47′18″E /8.483752°S 141.788348°E /-8.483752; 141.788348 (Keru)), Mitere in central Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Dre Ndre Nambu 1 Ramar in central Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Namo Nambu 374* Tais (9°10′03″S141°54′21″E /9.167526°S 141.905733°E /-9.167526; 141.905733 (Tais)), Mari (9°11′37″S141°42′09″E /9.193532°S 141.70247°E /-9.193532; 141.70247 (Mari)) in south Morehead Rural LLG, PNG
Len Nambu 8–10 Now living in Tais (9°10′03″S141°54′21″E /9.167526°S 141.905733°E /-9.167526; 141.905733 (Tais)), original village was Yaoga in south Morehead Rural LLG, PNG

See also: Districts of Papua (Indonesian Wikipedia)

The pronouns Ross (2005) reconstructs for the family are,

Proto-Yam (Proto–Morehead – Upper Maro)
I/we *ni
you *bu
s/he/they *be

Many Yam languages display vowel harmony, including in Nambu and Tonda languages.

Basic vocabulary

The following basic vocabulary words are from McElhanon & Voorhoeve (1970) and Voorhoeve (1975), as cited in the Trans-New Guinea database:

gloss Kanum Yei
head mel kilpel
hair mel-kata peab
eye si cur
tooth tor ter
leg tegu cere
louse neːmpin nim
dog krar jeu
pig kwer becek
bird sento yarmaker
egg bel mekur
blood mbel gul
bone mbaːr gor
skin keikei paːr
tree per per
man ire el-lu
sun koŋko mir
water ataka kao
fire mens benj
stone melle mejer
name iu ore
eat anaŋ cenye
one namper nampei
two yempoka yetapae

Fauna names

Below are some turtle names in Yam languages, along with names in Suki:: 378

Turtle species Arammba (Serki) Neme (Keru) Nama Wat (Daraia) Nama Was (Mibini) Guntai (Wando) Blafe (Wereave) Rema (Metafa) Suki (Suki, Puka-duka)
Elseya branderhorsti M’bay Fisor Fisor Fifi Rawk Rawk Sutafnarr Chelba Nthelon Forr Medepka
Elseya novaeguineae Fisor
Emydura subglobosa Maro Kani Ngani Fisor Mani Fisor Mare Sutafnarr Mare Chelba Ntharase; Mari Nthelon Mari Forr Tegma; i Anki Kan
Chelodina parkeri Kunkakta Kunkakta
Chelodina rugosa Tomba Kofe Fisor Mbuirr Weya Sutafnarr Mbroyer Fisuwar Tanfer Marr Forr
Chelodina novaeguineae Fasar Kani Mboro arr Mbro arr Magipinini
Carettochelys insculpta Budu Susa Garr Budu Susa
Pelochelys bibroni Sokrere Kiye Eise
Emydura sp. aff. worrelli Riskap Kani

All species are consumed by humans except for Chelodina novaeguineae, which is avoided due to its pungent odor. Carettochelys insculpta and Elseya branderhorsti are prized for their large sizes, with E. branderhorsti particularly valued for its plastron.

  • Carroll, Matthew J., Nicholas Evans, I Wayan Arka, Christian Döhler, Eri Kashima, Volker Gast, Tina Gregor, Julia Miller, Emil Mittag, Bruno Olsson, Dineke Schokkin, Jeff Siegel, Charlotte van Tongeren & Kyla Quinn. 2016. Yamfinder: Southern New Guinea Lexical Database.
  • Döhler, Christian (2018) A grammar of Komnzo. (Studies in Diversity Linguistics 22). Berlin: Language Science Press. doi:10.5281/zenodo.1477799. ISBN 978-3-96110-125-2. Accessed on 2019-11-12.
  • Evans, Nicholas, I Wayan Arka, Matthew Carroll, Christian Döhler, Eri Kashima, Emil Mittag, Kyla Quinn, Jeff Siegel, Philip Tama & Charlotte van Tongeren. 2017. The languages of Southern New Guinea. In Bill Palmer (ed.), The languages and linguistics of the New Guinea area, 641–774. Berlin; Boston: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-029525-2. Accessed on 2019-11-12.
  • Kaiping, Gereon A. & Edwards, Owen & Klamer, Marian (eds.). 2019. LexiRumah 2.2.3. Leiden: Leiden University Centre for Linguistics. Available online at https://lexirumah.model-ling.eu/lexirumah/. Accessed on 2019-09-14.
  • Greenhill et al., 2008. In: Kaiping, Gereon A. & Edwards, Owen & Klamer, Marian (eds.). 2019. LexiRumah 2.2.3. Leiden: Leiden University Centre for Linguistics. Available online at https://lexirumah.model-ling.eu/lexirumah/. Accessed on 2019-09-14.
  1. Evans, Nicholas (2018). "The languages of Southern New Guinea". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 641–774. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.
  2. Timothy Usher, New Guinea World, Morehead River
  3. Wichmann, Søren. 2013. A classification of Papuan languages. In: Hammarström, Harald and Wilco van den Heuvel (eds.), History, contact and classification of Papuan languages (Language and Linguistics in Melanesia, Special Issue 2012), 313-386. Port Moresby: Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea.
  4. United Nations in Papua New Guinea (2018). "Papua New Guinea Village Coordinates Lookup". Humanitarian Data Exchange. 1.31.9.
  5. McElhanon, K.A. and Voorhoeve, C.L. The Trans-New Guinea Phylum: Explorations in deep-level genetic relationships. B-16, vi + 112 pages. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1970. doi:10.15144/PL-B16
  6. Voorhoeve, C.L. Languages of Irian Jaya: Checklist. Preliminary classification, language maps, wordlists. B-31, iv + 133 pages. Pacific Linguistics, The Australian National University, 1975. doi:10.15144/PL-B31
  7. Greenhill, Simon (2016). "TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved2020-11-05.
  8. Georges, A., Guarino, F., & Bito, B. (2006). Freshwater turtles of the TransFly region of Papua New Guinea – notes on diversity, distribution, reproduction, harvest and trade. Wildlife Research, 33(5), 373. doi:10.1071/wr05087

Yam languages
Yam languages Language Watch Edit The Yam languages also known as the Morehead River languages are a family of Papuan languages They include many of the languages south and west of the Fly River in Papua New Guinea and Indonesian West Papua YamMorehead RiverGeographic distributionMorehead River watershed New GuineaLinguistic classificationA primary language familyYamSubdivisionsYey Nambu TondaGlottologmore1255Map The Yam languages of New Guinea Yam languages Trans New Guinea languages Other Papuan languages Austronesian languages Australian languages UninhabitedMap all coordinates using OpenStreetMap Download coordinates as KML Contents 1 Name 2 External relationships 3 Classification 4 Languages 5 Pronouns 6 Typology 7 Vocabulary comparison 7 1 Basic vocabulary 7 2 Fauna names 8 Further reading 9 References 10 External linksName EditThe name Morehead and Upper Maro River refers to the area around the Morehead and Maro rivers Most of the languages are found between these rivers but the Nambu subgroup are spoken east of the Morehead Evans 2012 refers to the family instead with the more compact name Yam This name is motivated by a number of linguistic and cultural items of significance yam and cognates means custom tradition yem and cognates means is and yam tubers are the local staple and of central cultural importance External relationships EditRoss 2005 tentatively includes the Yam languages in the proposed Trans Fly Bulaka River family More recently Evans 2012 has argued that this is not justified and more data has to be gathered Evans 2018 classifies the Pahoturi River languages as an independent language family 1 Yam languages have also been in intensive contact with Marind and Suki speakers who had historically expanded into Yam speaking territories via headhunting raids and other expansionary migrations 1 Classification EditInternal classification of the Yam languages 2 Yei Tonda languages a dialect chain Nambu languages a dialect chain Wichmann 2013 did not find a connection between the branches in his automated comparison 3 Languages EditYam languages are spoken by up to 3 000 people on both sides of the border in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia In Papua New Guinea Yam languages are spoken in Morehead Rural LLG Western Province In Papua Indonesia Yam languages are spoken in Merauke Regency 1 Yam languages and respective demographic information listed by Evans 2018 are provided below 1 Geographical coordinates are also provided for some villages 4 List of Yam languages Language Alternative names Subgroup Speakers Villages or hamletsAnta Tokwe Upper Morehead Thamnga Tonda 150 Ufarua 8 38 08 S 141 38 00 E 8 635484 S 141 633236 E 8 635484 141 633236 Uparua Forzitho Thamgakar 8 37 34 S 141 36 40 E 8 626232 S 141 611057 E 8 626232 141 611057 Damgar in central Morehead Rural LLG PNGKomnzo Kamundjo Upper Morehead Mema Ranzer Zokwasi Farem Tonda 200 Rouku 8 42 06 S 141 35 55 E 8 701793 S 141 598485 E 8 701793 141 598485 Rouku Gunana Morehead 8 42 32 S 141 38 05 E 8 708915 S 141 634593 E 8 708915 141 634593 Morehead Station Firra Masu Kanather in central Morehead Rural LLG PNGWara Tjokwe Upper Morehead Wara Mat Tonda 350 Yokwa 8 42 02 S 141 31 23 E 8 700472 S 141 523053 E 8 700472 141 523053 Iokwa Mawsa Kwaiker Zazer Menz in central Morehead Rural LLG PNGWere Tokwe Upper Morehead Wora Tonda 100 Tokwa 8 38 36 S 141 26 10 E 8 643291 S 141 436129 E 8 643291 141 436129 Tokwa Kanfok in central Morehead Rural LLG PNGKema Upper Morehead Tonda 130 Wamnefer 8 44 29 S 141 24 57 E 8 74137 S 141 415826 E 8 74137 141 415826 Wemnevere in central Morehead Rural LLG PNGKancha Kunja Lower Morehead Peremka Kenza Tonda 350 Bondobol 8 55 46 S 141 20 18 E 8 929521 S 141 338469 E 8 929521 141 338469 Bondobol Bula 9 07 42 S 141 20 26 E 9 128337 S 141 340513 E 9 128337 141 340513 Bula Jarai 9 11 49 S 141 35 04 E 9 196839 S 141 584426 E 9 196839 141 584426 Jarai in southeast Morehead Rural LLG PNGRanmo Tonda Renmo Blafe Tonda 200 Yendorodoro 8 35 31 S 141 17 48 E 8 59196 S 141 29677 E 8 59196 141 29677 Indorodoro Mengete 8 39 25 S 141 17 03 E 8 657045 S 141 284029 E 8 657045 141 284029 Mengete in west Morehead Rural LLG PNGMblafe Blafe Blafe Wonana Tonda Tonda 350 Weam 8 37 08 S 141 08 05 E 8 618919 S 141 134728 E 8 618919 141 134728 Weam Village Kandarisa 8 37 17 S 141 13 10 E 8 621418 S 141 2194 E 8 621418 141 2194 Kandarisa Wereaver 8 35 48 S 141 07 25 E 8 596603 S 141 123567 E 8 596603 141 123567 Wereavere only recently in Wereaver in west Morehead Rural LLG PNGWarta Thuntai Guntai Kan Tonda 430 Wando 8 53 09 S 141 15 31 E 8 885893 S 141 258528 E 8 885893 141 258528 Wando Bensbach 8 50 57 S 141 14 59 E 8 8493 S 141 249855 E 8 8493 141 249855 Bensbach Lodge Balamuk Korombo 1 Korombo 2 8 45 15 S 141 15 56 E 8 754213 S 141 265672 E 8 754213 141 265672 Korombo in mid southwest Morehead Rural LLG PNGArammba None Tonda 750 Fwasam Gowi Kiriwa 8 26 15 S 141 30 57 E 8 437511 S 141 515843 E 8 437511 141 515843 Kiriwo Meru 8 28 19 S 141 27 59 E 8 471963 S 141 466349 E 8 471963 141 466349 Merru Sedefi 8 30 53 S 141 36 38 E 8 514592 S 141 610694 E 8 514592 141 610694 Setavi Serki 8 15 02 S 141 45 58 E 8 250688 S 141 766022 E 8 250688 141 766022 Serki in north central Morehead Rural LLG PNGNggarna Ngar Kanum Sota Tonda unknown Vicinity of Sota in west Morehead Rural LLG PNGRema Tonda 10 moribund or extinct Wereaver 8 35 48 S 141 07 25 E 8 596603 S 141 123567 E 8 596603 141 123567 Wereavere in west Morehead Rural LLG PNGSmerki Smarki Kanum Barkari Tonda 150 Rawu Biru Tomer Tomerau Yakiw in southeast Merauke Regency IndonesiaTamer Smerki Smarki Kanum Tonda 120 Yanggandur recently moved there in southeast Merauke Regency IndonesiaNgkontar Ngkontar Ngkolmpu Tonda 100 Yanggandur in southeast Merauke Regency Indonesia and into PNGNgkolmpu Kiki Ngkntra Kiki Kanum Enkelembu Kenume Knwne Tonda east Merauke Regency Indonesia and into PNGBedi Ngkolmpu Kanum Enkelembu Kenume Knwne Tonda 5 moribund or extinct Onggaya in south central Merauke Regency IndonesiaYei Yei 1278 Po Torai Bupul Tanas Kwel in east Merauke Regency IndonesiaNen Nambu 350 Bimadeben 8 42 06 S 141 35 55 E 8 701793 S 141 598485 E 8 701793 141 598485 Bimadeben Vill Comm Sch in central Morehead Rural LLG PNGNama Nambu 1200 Daraia 8 36 59 S 141 44 01 E 8 61637 S 141 733576 E 8 61637 141 733576 Darava Mata 8 40 28 S 141 44 35 E 8 674546 S 141 743133 E 8 674546 141 743133 Mata Ngaraita 8 35 58 S 141 42 54 E 8 599511 S 141 714869 E 8 599511 141 714869 Garaita in central Morehead Rural LLG PNGNamat Mibini Nambu 170 Mibini 8 50 20 S 141 38 17 E 8 838849 S 141 637931 E 8 838849 141 637931 Mibini in central Morehead Rural LLG PNGNambo Nmbo Keraki Namna Yarne Nambu 710 Nambo variety Gubam 8 37 10 S 141 55 21 E 8 619428 S 141 922509 E 8 619428 141 922509 Gubam Bebdeben 8 40 04 S 141 55 33 E 8 667668 S 141 925772 E 8 667668 141 925772 Bebdeben Arufi 8 45 38 S 141 54 49 E 8 760576 S 141 913707 E 8 760576 141 913707 Arufi in central Morehead Rural LLG PNG Namna variety Pongarki 8 39 51 S 141 49 37 E 8 664295 S 141 827064 E 8 664295 141 827064 Pongariki Derideri 8 41 13 S 141 51 22 E 8 686837 S 141 85624 E 8 686837 141 85624 Derideri in central Morehead Rural LLG PNGNeme Nambu 200 Keru 8 29 02 S 141 47 18 E 8 483752 S 141 788348 E 8 483752 141 788348 Keru Mitere in central Morehead Rural LLG PNGDre Ndre Nambu 1 Ramar in central Morehead Rural LLG PNGNamo Na Nambu 374 Tais 9 10 03 S 141 54 21 E 9 167526 S 141 905733 E 9 167526 141 905733 Tais Mari 9 11 37 S 141 42 09 E 9 193532 S 141 70247 E 9 193532 141 70247 Mari in south Morehead Rural LLG PNGLen La Nambu 8 10 Now living in Tais 9 10 03 S 141 54 21 E 9 167526 S 141 905733 E 9 167526 141 905733 Tais original village was Yaoga in south Morehead Rural LLG PNG See also Districts of Papua Indonesian Wikipedia Pronouns EditThe pronouns Ross 2005 reconstructs for the family are Proto Yam Proto Morehead Upper Maro I we niyou bus he they beTypology EditMany Yam languages display vowel harmony including in Nambu and Tonda languages 1 Vocabulary comparison EditBasic vocabulary Edit The following basic vocabulary words are from McElhanon amp Voorhoeve 1970 5 and Voorhoeve 1975 6 as cited in the Trans New Guinea database 7 gloss Kanum Yeihead mel kilpelhair mel kata peabeye si curtooth tor terleg tegu cerelouse neːmpin nimdog krar jeupig kwer becekbird sento yarmakeregg bel mekurblood mbel gulbone mbaːr gorskin keikei paːrtree per perman ire el lusun koŋko mirwater ataka kaofire mens benjstone melle mejername iu oreeat anaŋ cenyeone namper nampeitwo yempoka yetapaeFauna names Edit Below are some turtle names in Yam languages along with names in Suki 8 378 Turtle species Arammba Serki Neme Keru Nama Wat Daraia Nama Was Mibini Guntai Wando Blafe Wereave Rema Metafa Suki Suki Puka duka Elseya branderhorsti M bay Fisor Fisor Fifi Rawk Rawk Sutafnarr Chelba Nthelon Forr MedepkaElseya novaeguineae FisorEmydura subglobosa Maro Kani Ngani Fisor Mani Fisor Mare Sutafnarr Mare Chelba Ntharase Mari Nthelon Mari Forr Tegma i Anki KanChelodina parkeri Kunkakta KunkaktaChelodina rugosa Tomba Kofe Fisor Mbuirr Weya Sutafnarr Mbroyer Fisuwar Tanfer Marr ForrChelodina novaeguineae Fasar Kani Mboro arr Mbro arr MagipininiCarettochelys insculpta Budu Susa Garr Budu SusaPelochelys bibroni Sokrere Kiye EiseEmydura sp aff worrelli Riskap Kani All species are consumed by humans except for Chelodina novaeguineae which is avoided due to its pungent odor Carettochelys insculpta and Elseya branderhorsti are prized for their large sizes with E branderhorsti particularly valued for its plastron 8 See also Turama Kikorian languages Fauna namesFurther reading EditCarroll Matthew J Nicholas Evans I Wayan Arka Christian Dohler Eri Kashima Volker Gast Tina Gregor Julia Miller Emil Mittag Bruno Olsson Dineke Schokkin Jeff Siegel Charlotte van Tongeren amp Kyla Quinn 2016 Yamfinder Southern New Guinea Lexical Database Dohler Christian 2018 A grammar of Komnzo Studies in Diversity Linguistics 22 Berlin Language Science Press doi 10 5281 zenodo 1477799 ISBN 978 3 96110 125 2 Accessed on 2019 11 12 Evans Nicholas I Wayan Arka Matthew Carroll Christian Dohler Eri Kashima Emil Mittag Kyla Quinn Jeff Siegel Philip Tama amp Charlotte van Tongeren 2017 The languages of Southern New Guinea In Bill Palmer ed The languages and linguistics of the New Guinea area 641 774 Berlin Boston Walter de Gruyter ISBN 978 3 11 029525 2 Accessed on 2019 11 12 Kaiping Gereon A amp Edwards Owen amp Klamer Marian eds 2019 LexiRumah 2 2 3 Leiden Leiden University Centre for Linguistics Available online at https lexirumah model ling eu lexirumah Accessed on 2019 09 14 Greenhill et al 2008 In Kaiping Gereon A amp Edwards Owen amp Klamer Marian eds 2019 LexiRumah 2 2 3 Leiden Leiden University Centre for Linguistics Available online at https lexirumah model ling eu lexirumah Accessed on 2019 09 14 References Edit a b c d e Evans Nicholas 2018 The languages of Southern New Guinea In Palmer Bill ed The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area A Comprehensive Guide The World of Linguistics 4 Berlin De Gruyter Mouton pp 641 774 ISBN 978 3 11 028642 7 Timothy Usher New Guinea World Morehead River Wichmann Soren 2013 A classification of Papuan languages In Hammarstrom Harald and Wilco van den Heuvel eds History contact and classification of Papuan languages Language and Linguistics in Melanesia Special Issue 2012 313 386 Port Moresby Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea United Nations in Papua New Guinea 2018 Papua New Guinea Village Coordinates Lookup Humanitarian Data Exchange 1 31 9 McElhanon K A and Voorhoeve C L The Trans New Guinea Phylum Explorations in deep level genetic relationships B 16 vi 112 pages Pacific Linguistics The Australian National University 1970 doi 10 15144 PL B16 Voorhoeve C L Languages of Irian Jaya Checklist Preliminary classification language maps wordlists B 31 iv 133 pages Pacific Linguistics The Australian National University 1975 doi 10 15144 PL B31 Greenhill Simon 2016 TransNewGuinea org database of the languages of New Guinea Retrieved 2020 11 05 a b Georges A Guarino F amp Bito B 2006 Freshwater turtles of the TransFly region of Papua New Guinea notes on diversity distribution reproduction harvest and trade Wildlife Research 33 5 373 doi 10 1071 wr05087 Ross Malcolm 2005 Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages In Andrew Pawley Robert Attenborough Robin Hide Jack Golson eds Papuan pasts cultural linguistic and biological histories of Papuan speaking peoples Canberra Pacific Linguistics pp 15 66 ISBN 0858835622 OCLC 67292782 Evans Nicholas 2012 Even more diverse than we had thought The multiplicity of Trans Fly languages LD amp C Special Publication University of Hawai i Press 5 109 149 External links EditYamfinder Morehead languages documentation project DOBES Timothy Usher New Guinea World East Morehead River under construction 2020 ibid West Morehead River under construction 2020 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