fbpx
Wikipedia

Yamuna

For other uses, see Yamuna (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Jamuna River (Bangladesh).

The Yamuna (Hindustani: pronounced ) is the second-largest tributary river of the Ganga and the longest tributary in India. Originating from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height of 6,387 metres (20,955 ft) on the southwestern slopes of Banderpooch peaks of the Lower Himalaya in Uttarakhand, it travels a total length of 1,376 kilometres (855 mi) and has a drainage system of 366,223 square kilometres (141,399 sq mi), 40.2% of the entire Ganga Basin. It merges with the Ganga at Triveni Sangam, Prayagraj, which is a site of the Kumbh Mela, a Hindu festival held every 12 years.

The Yamuna
Jamuna
Vishram Ghat, on the Yamuna at Mathura in Uttar Pradesh.
Map
Location
CountryIndia
StateUttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi
CitiesHaryana: Yamuna Nagar

Uttar Pradesh: Kairana and Baghpat

Delhi: New Delhi

Uttar Pradesh: Noida, Mathura, Agra, Firozabad, Etawah, Auraiya and Allahabad
Physical characteristics
SourceYamunotri
• locationBanderpooch peaks, Uttarkashi district, Uttarakhand, India
• coordinates31°01′0.12″N78°27′0″E /31.0167000°N 78.45000°E /31.0167000; 78.45000
• elevation3,293 m (10,804 ft)
MouthGanges
• location
Triveni Sangam, Allahabad, India
• coordinates
25°25′11.44″N81°53′5.80″E /25.4198444°N 81.8849444°E /25.4198444; 81.8849444Coordinates: 25°25′11.44″N81°53′5.80″E /25.4198444°N 81.8849444°E /25.4198444; 81.8849444
• elevation
74 m (243 ft)
Length1,376 km (855 mi)
Basin size366,223 km2 (141,399 sq mi)
Discharge
• locationAllahabad
• average2,950 m3/s (104,000 cu ft/s)
Basin features
Tributaries
• leftTons, Hindon, Hanuman Ganga, Sasur Khaderi
• rightGiri, Baghain, Chambal, Betwa, Sindh, Ken

Like the Ganga, the Yamuna is highly venerated in Hinduism and worshipped as the goddess Yamuna. In Hinduism she is the daughter of the Sun Deva, Surya, and the sister of Yama, the Deva of Death, hence also known as Yami. According to popular legends, bathing in its sacred waters frees one from the torments of death.

It crosses several states: Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, passing by Uttarakhand and later Delhi, and meeting its tributaries on the way, including Tons, Chambal, its longest tributary which has its own large basin, followed by Sindh, the Betwa, and Ken. From Uttarakhand, the river flows into the state of Himachal Pradesh. After passing Paonta Sahib, Yamuna flows along the boundary of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh and after exiting Haryana it continues to flow till it merges with the river Ganga at Sangam or Prayag in Allahbad (Uttar Pradesh). It helps create the highly fertile alluvial Yamuna-Ganga Doab region between itself and the Ganga in the Indo-Gangetic plain.

Nearly 57 million people depend on the Yamuna's waters, and the river accounts for more than 70 percent of Delhi's water supply. It has an annual flow of 97 billion cubic metres, and nearly 4 billion cubic metres are consumed every year (of which irrigation constitutes 96%). At the Hathni Kund Barrage, its waters are diverted into two large canals: the Western Yamuna Canal flowing towards Haryana and the Eastern Yamuna Canal towards Uttar Pradesh. Beyond that point the Yamuna is joined only by the Somb, a seasonal rivulet from Haryana, and by the highly polluted Hindon River near Noida, so that it continues only as a trickling sewage-bearing drain before joining the Chambal at Pachnada in the Etawah District of Uttar Pradesh.

The water quality in "Upper Yamuna", as 375 kilometres (233 mi) long stretch of Yamuna is called from its origin at Yamunotri to Okhla barrage, is of "reasonably good quality" till Wazirabad barrage in Delhi. Below this, the discharge of wastewater in Delhi through 15 drains between Wazirabad barrage and Okhla barrage renders the river severely polluted. Wazirabad barrage to Okhla Barrage, 22 km stretch of Yamuna in Delhi, is less than 2% cent of Yamuna's total length but accounts for nearly 80% of the total pollution in the river, 22 out of 35 sewage treatment plants in Delhi do not meet the wastewater standards prescribed by the Delhi Pollution Control Committee (DPCC). There are 4 main causes of Yamuna's pollution in Delhi: poor quality of water released by the affluent treatment plants, household and municipal disposal sites, soil erosion resulting from deforestation occurring to make way for agriculture, and resulting chemical wash-off from fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides and run-off from commercial activity and industrial sites. One official described the river as a "sewage drain" with biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values ranging from 14 to 28 mg/l and high coliform content.

Contents

Banderpoonch peak, the source of Yamuna, as seen from Mussoorie.
The Yamunotri temple on the river, dedicated to Goddess Yamuna.

Palaeochannels: Sarasvati's tributary

The present Sarsuti river which originates in the Shivalik hills in Himachal and Haryana border and merges with Ghaggar River near Pehowa is the palaeochannel of Yamuna. Yamuna changed its course to the east due to a shift in the slope of the earth's crust caused by plate tectonics.

Sources: Banderpoonch peak and Yamunotri glacier

The source of Yamuna lies in the Yamunotri Glacier at an elevation of 6,387 metres (20,955 ft), on the southwestern slopes of Banderpooch peaks, which lie in the Mussoorie range of the Lower Himalayas, north of Haridwar in Uttarkashi district, Uttarakhand. Yamunotri temple, a shrine dedicated to the goddess Yamuna, is one of the holiest shrines in Hinduism, and part of the Chota Char Dham Yatra circuit. Also standing close to the temple, on its 13-kilometre (8 mi) trek route that follows the right bank of the river, lies Markendeya Tirtha, where the sage Markandeya wrote the Markandeya Purana.

Current channel

The river flows southwards for about 200 kilometres (120 mi), through the Lower Himalayas and the Shivalik Hills Range. Morainic deposits are found along the steep Upper Yamuna, highlighted with geomorphic features such as interlocking spurs, steep rock benches, gorges and stream terraces. Large terraces formed over a long period of time can be seen in the lower course of the river, such as those near Naugoan. An important part of its early catchment area, totalling 2,320 square kilometres (900 sq mi), lies in Himachal Pradesh. The Tons, Yamuna's largest tributary, drains a large portion of the upper catchment area and holds more water than the main stream. It rises from the Hari-ki-dun valley and merges after Kalsi near Dehradun. The drainage system of the river stretches between Giri-Sutlej catchment in Himachal and Yamuna-Bhilangna catchment in Garhwal, also draining the ridge of Shimla. Kalanag (6,387 metres [20,955 ft]) is the highest point of the Yamuna basin. Other tributaries in the region are the Giri, Rishi Ganga, Kunta, Hanuman Ganga and Bata, which drain the upper catchment area of the Yamuna basin.

Yamuna river between Saharanpur and Yamunanagar

From the upper catchment area, the river descends onto the plains of Doon Valley, at Dak Pathar near Dehradun. Flowing through the Dakpathar Barrage, the water is diverted into a canal for power generation. Further downstream, the Assan River joins the Yamuna at the Asan Barrage, which hosts a bird sanctuary. After passing the Sikh pilgrimage town of Paonta Sahib, the Yamuna reaches Tajewala in Yamuna Nagar district (named after the river) of Haryana. A dam built here in 1873 is the origin of two important canals, the Western and Eastern Yamuna Canals, which irrigate the states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The Western Yamuna Canal (WYC) crosses Yamuna Nagar, Karnal, Panipat and Sonipat before reaching the Haiderpur treatment plant, which contributes to Delhi's municipal water supply. The Yamuna receives wastewater from Yamuna Nagar and Panipat cities; beyond this it is replenished by seasonal streams and groundwater accrual. During the dry season, the Yamuna remains dry in many stretches between the Tajewala dam and Delhi, where it enters near the Palla barrage after traversing 224 kilometres (139 mi).

The Yamuna defines the state borders between Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, and between Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh. When the Yamuna reaches the Indo-Gangetic plain, it runs almost parallel to the Ganges, the two rivers creating the Ganges-Yamuna Doab region. Spread across 69,000 square kilometres (27,000 sq mi), one-third of the alluvial plain, the region is known for its agricultural output, particularly for the cultivation of basmati rice. The plain's agriculture supports one-third of India's population.

Course of Yamuna, in the Indo-Gangetic Plain
State Catchment area (km2) % of catchment area
Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand 74,208 21.5
Himachal Pradesh 5,799 1.6
Haryana 21,265 6.5
Rajasthan 102,883 29.8
Madhya Pradesh 140,230 40.6
Delhi 1,485 0.4

Subsequently, the Yamuna flows through the states of Delhi, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh] before merging with the Ganges at a sacred spot known as Triveni Sangam in Allahabad. Pilgrims travel by boats to platforms erected in midstream to offer prayers. During the Kumbh Mela, held every 12 years, large congregations of people immerse themselves in the sacred waters of the confluence. The cities of Baghpat, Delhi, Noida, Mathura, Agra, Firozabad, Etawah, Kalpi, Hamirpur, and Prayagraj lie on its banks. At Etawah, it meets it another important tributary, Chambal, followed by a host of tributaries further down, including, Sindh, the Betwa, and Ken.

Important tributaries

Catchment boundary of the Yamuna.

Along its 1,376-kilometre (855 mi) length, the Yamuna has many notable tributaries:

Vasudev carrying baby Lord Krishna across the Yamuna, an important legend of Bhagavata Purana, mid-18th century.

Etymology

The name Yamuna seems to be derived from the Sanskrit word "yama", meaning 'twin', and it may have been applied to the river because it runs parallel to the Ganges.

History

Earliest mention of Yamuna is found at many places in the Rig Veda (c. 1500–1000 BCE), which was composed during the Vedic period c. 1700–1100 BCE, and also in the later Atharvaveda, and the Brahmanas including Aitareya Brahmana and Shatapatha Brahmana. In the Rigveda, the story of the Yamuna describes her "excessive love" for her twin, Yama, who in turn asks her to find a suitable match for herself, which she does in Krishna.

Yamuna is mentioned as Iomanes (Ioames) in the surveys of Seleucus I Nicator, an officer of Alexander the Great and one of the Diadochi, who visited India in 305 BCE. Greek traveller and geographer Megasthenes visited India sometime before 288 BCE (the date of Chandragupta's death) and mentioned the river in his Indica, where he described the region around it as the land of Surasena. In Mahabharata, the Pandava capital of Indraprastha was situated on the banks of Yamuna, considered to be the site of modern Delhi.

Geological evidence indicates that in the distant past the Yamuna was a tributary of the Ghaggar River (identified by some as the Vedic Sarasvati River). It later changed its course eastward, becoming a tributary of the Ganges. While some have argued that this was due to a tectonic event, and may have led to the Sarasvati River drying up, the end of many Harappan civilisation settlements, and creation of the Thar desert, recent geological research suggests that the diversion of the Yamuna to the Ganges may have occurred during the Pleistocene, and thus could not be connected to the decline of the Harappan civilisation in the region.

Most of the great empires which ruled over a majority of India were based in the highly fertile Ganges–Yamuna basin, including the Magadha (c. 600 BCE), Maurya Empire (321–185 BCE), Shunga Empire (185–73 BCE), Kushan Empire (1st–3rd centuries CE), and Gupta Empire (280–550 CE), and many had their capitals here, in cities like Pataliputra or Mathura. These rivers were revered throughout these kingdoms that flourished on their banks; since the period of Chandragupta II (r. 375–415 CE), statues both the Ganges and Yamuna became common throughout the Gupta Empire. Further to the South, images of the Ganges and Yamuna are found amidst shrines of the Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas (753–982), and on their royal seals; prior to them, the Chola Empire also added the river into their architectural motifs. The Three River Goddess shrine, next to the Kailash rock-cut Temple at Ellora, shows the Ganges flanked by the Yamuna and Saraswati.

1994 water sharing agreement

The stretch of the river from its origin at Yamunotri to Okhla barrage in Delhi is called "Upper Yamuna". A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed amongst the five basin states (Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Delhi) on 12 May 1994 for sharing of its waters. This led to the formation of Upper Yamuna River Board under India's Ministry of Water Resources, whose primary functions are: regulation of the available flows amongst the beneficiary states and monitoring the return flows; monitoring conservation and upgrading the quality of surface and groundwater; maintaining hydro-meteorological data for the basin; overviewing plans for watershed management; and monitoring and reviewing the progress of all projects up to and including Okhla barrage.

Flood forecasting systems are established at Poanta Sahib, where Tons, Pawar and Giri tributaries meet. The river take 60 hours to travel from Tajewala to Delhi, thus allowing a two-day advance flood warning period. The Central Water Commission started flood-forecasting services in 1958 with its first forecasting station on Yamuna at Delhi Railway Bridge.

Barrages

Yamuna has the following six functional barrages (eight including old replaced barrages, nine including a new proposed barrage), from north-west to southeast:[needs update]

  • Dakpathar Barrage in Uttarakhand, managed by the Uttarakhand govt.
  • Hathni Kund Barrage in Haryana, 172 km (107 mi) from the source of Yamuna, built in 1999 and managed by Haryana govt.
  • Wazirabad barrage in north Delhi, 244 km (152 mi) from Hathni Kund barrage, managed by the Delhi govt.
    • "New Wazirabad barrage", proposed in 2013, to be built 8 km north of the Wazirabad barrage.
  • ITO barrage (Indraparstha barrage) in central Delhi, managed by the Haryana govt.
  • Okhla barrage is 22 km from Wazirabad to south Delhi, managed by the Uttar Pradesh (UP) government.
    • New Okhla Barrage, a new barrage, managed by the UP govt.
    • Palla barrage downstream on "Delhi-Faridabad canal" in Haryana, managed by the Haryana govt.
  • Gokul barrage (a.k.a. Mathura barrage) is at Gokul in Uttar Pradesh, managed by the UP govt.

Irrigation

Agra Canal headworks at Okhla barrage, Delhi, 1871.

Use of the Yamuna's waters for irrigation in the Indo-Gangetic Plains is enhanced by its many canals, some dating to the 14th century Tughlaq dynasty, which built the Nahr-i-Bahisht (Paradise) parallel to the river. The Nahr-i-Bahisht was restored and extended by the Mughals in the first half of the 17th century, by engineer Ali Mardan Khan, starting from Benawas where the river enters the plains and terminating near the Mughal capital of Shahjahanabad, the present city of Delhi.

Eastern Yamuna Canal

As the Yamuna enters the Northern Plains near Dakpathar at an elevation of 790 metres (2,590 ft), the Eastern Yamuna Canal commences at the Dakpathar Barrage and pauses at the Asan and Hathnikund Barrages before continuing south.

Western Yamuna Canal

Main article: Western Yamuna Canal

The Western Yamuna Canal (WYC) was built in 1335 CE by Firuz Shah Tughlaq. Excessive silting caused it to stop flowing c. 1750, when the British Raj undertook a three-year renovation in 1817 by Bengal Engineer Group. The Tajewala Barrage dam was built in 1832–33[timeframe?] to regulate the flow of water, and was replaced by the modern Hathni Kund Barrage in 1999.

The main canal is 86 kilometres (53 mi) long. When including its branches and many major and minor irrigation channels, it has a total length of 325 km (202 mi) The WYC begins at the Hathni Kund Barrage about 38 kilometres (24 mi) from Dakpathar and south of Doon Valley. The canals irrigate vast tracts of land in the region in Ambala, Karnal, Sonepat, Rohtak, Jind, Hisar and Bhiwani districts.

The major branch canals are:

  • Agra Canal, built in 1874, which starts from the Okhla barrage beyond the Nizamuddin bridge, joining the Banganga river about 32 kilometres (20 mi) below Agra. During the dry summer season, the stretch above Agra resembles a minor stream.
  • Munak canal, built in 1819 and renovated in 2008, originates at Munak in Karnal district and extends 22 km to Delhi, carrying 20 m3/s (700 cu ft/s) of water.
    • Delhi Branch
      • Bhalaut Branch, originating at Khubru village, flows through Jhajjar district.
        • Jhajjar Branch, flows through Jhajjar district.
  • Sirsa Branch, the largest branch of the WYC, constructed in 1889–1895. It originates at Indri and meanders through Jind district, Fatehabad district and Sirsa district.
  • Hansi Branch, built in 1825 and remodelled in 1959. It originates at Munak and meanders through Hansi tehsil of Hisar district.
    • Butana Branch
      • Sunder Branch, which passes Kanwari in Hisar district.
  • Rohtak Branch

Sutlej–Yamuna Link Canal

A proposed heavy freight canal, the Sutlej–Yamuna Link (SYL), is being built westwards from near the Yamuna's headwaters through the Punjab region near an ancient caravan route and highlands pass to the navigable parts of the SutlejIndus watershed. This will connect the Ganges, which flows to the east coast of the subcontinent, with points west (via Pakistan). When completed, the SYL will allow shipping from India's east coast to the west coast and the Arabian sea, shortening important commercial links for north-central India's large population. The canal starts near Delhi, and is designed to transfer Haryana's share of 4.3 km3 (3,500,000 acre⋅ft) from the Indus Basin.

National Waterway

Yamuna is one of the National Waterways of India, designated as NW110 in Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh. Some of its sections are being developed for navigation:

The goddess Yamuna.

Significance in Indian-origin religions

Rigveda

Main article: Yamuna in Hinduism

In the Rigveda, the story of the Yamuna describes her "excessive love" for her twin, Yama, who in turn asks her to find a suitable match for herself, which she does in Krishna.

The tale is further detailed in the 16th century Sanskrit hymn, Yamunashtakam, an ode by the philosopher Vallabhacharya. Here the story of her descent to meet her beloved Krishna and to purify the world has been put into verse. The hymn also praises her for being the source of all spiritual abilities. And while the Ganges is considered an epitome of asceticism and higher knowledge and can grant Moksha or liberation, it is Yamuna, who, being a holder of infinite love and compassion, can grant freedom, even from death, the realm of her elder brother. Vallabhacharya writes that she rushes down the Kalinda Mountain, and describes her as the daughter of Kalinda, giving her the name Kalindi, the backdrop of Krishna Leela. The text also talks about her water being of the colour of Lord Krishna, which is dark (Shyam). The river is referred to as Asita in some historical texts.

Puranas

Yami, the goddess of the river Yamuna sister to Yama, the god of death, is the daughter of the Sun-god Surya and his wife Saranyu.

The river Yamuna and its surrounding is connected to the legends of the Avatar Krishna, especially the Puranas. One such story is of Kaliya Daman, the subduing of Kaliya, a Nāga which had inhabited the river and terrorised the people of Braja. Yamuna as Kalindi is also considered as a consort of Krishna.

Yamuna holds a very important position in Pushti Marga, a large sect of Hinduism based on the ShuddhAdvaita, in which Krishna is the main deity, propagated by Vallabhacharya.

Shlokas on Yamuna

Numerous Hindu texts have shlokas (hymns) on Yamuna as follows:

  • "Simply by bathing in the Yamuna, anyone can diminish the reactions of his sinful activities." (Krishna Book, Chap 38)
  • "By taking bath in the Yamuna River people are liberated and become Krishna conscious." (Chaitanya Charitamrita Antya 4.98 purport)
  • "There are many devotees in Vrindavana who regularly bathe in the Yamuna, and this cleanses all the contamination of the material world." (Srimad Bhagavatam 5.8.31)
  • "One should not give up the process of austerity. If possible, one should bathe in the water of the Yamuna. This is an item of austerity. Therefore, our Krishna consciousness movement has established a center in Vrindavana so that one may bathe in the Yamuna, chant the Hare Krishna mantra and then become perfect and return back to Godhead." (Srimad Bhagavatam 6.5.28 purport)
  • "The Yamuna River washed Krishna's lotus feet when the Lord appeared in Vrindavana five thousand years ago. Lord Krishna sported daily with His boys and girlfriends in the Yamuna River and consequently, that river is also caranamrita." (Srimad Bhagavatam 11.6.19)
  • "According to the Varaha Purana as quoted by Srila Jiva Gosvami, there is no difference between the water of the Ganges and the Yamuna, but when the water of the Ganges is sanctified one hundred times, it is called the Yamuna. Similarly, it is said in the scriptures that one thousand names of Vishnu are equal to one name of Rama and three names of Lord Rama are equal to one name of Krishna." (Srimad Bhagavatam 1.19.6 purport)

Ecological conservation zone

Taj Mahal is situated on the banks of river Yamuna.

On 25 April 2014, the National Green Tribunal Act (NGA) recommended the government to declare a 52-kilometre (32 mi) stretch of the Yamuna in Delhi and Uttar Pradesh as a conservation zone. A report prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) panel was submitted to the NGA on the same day. Under the Yamuna Action Plan (YAP-I and YAP-II), pollution cleanup of Yamuna was conducted in line with the biological oxygen demand of Yamuna. Under these two phases, 286 schemes, including 39 sewage treatment plants, were completed in 21 towns of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana at a cost of1,453.17 crore (14.5 billion rupees). Sewage treatment capacity of 767.25 million litres per day was created through these efforts.

The High Court in the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand ordered in March 2017 that the Ganges and its main tributary, the Yamuna, be assigned the status of legal entities, making the rivers "legal and living entities having the status of a legal person with all corresponding rights, duties and liabilities". This decision meant that polluting or damaging the rivers is equivalent to harming a person. The court cited the example of the New Zealand Whanganui River, which was also declared to possess full rights of a legal person.

This development of environmental personhood has been met with scepticism as merely announcing that the Ganges and Yamuna are living entities will not save them from significant, ongoing pollution.

Wildlife and plants

The Yamuna from the source to its culmination in Ganges is a habitat for fish for approximately 1400 km stretch and supports a rich diversity of species. Fish from the family Cyprinidae dominate the variety of fish species found in the river. This includes Indian carp and also invasive species from the family.In a study, 93 species of fish were found in the river including catfish. Species of non-native Tilapia have become established in the river.They have been implicated in the decline of the Ghariyal (Indian crocodile) population in the river Large turtles used to be a common sight on the river a few decades ago but they have mostly disappeared.

The Yamuna near the Himalayas, just as it reaches the plains, beyond Dehradun in Uttarakhand

In 1909, the waters of the Yamuna were distinguishable as clear blue, when compared to the silt-laden yellow of the Ganges. However, due to high-density population growth and fast industrialisation, Yamuna has become one of the most polluted rivers in the world. The Yamuna is particularly polluted downstream of New Delhi, the capital of India, which dumps about 58% of its waste into the river. A 2016 study shows that there is 100% urban metabolism of River Yamuna as it passes through the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi. The most pollution comes from Wazirabad, from where Yamuna enters Delhi

Causes

Wazirabad barrage to New Okhla Barrage, "22 km stretch of Yamuna in Delhi, is less than 2% cent of Yamuna's total length but accounts for nearly 80% of the total pollution in the river", 22 out of 35 sewage treatment plants in Delhi do not meet the wastewater standards prescribed by the Delhi Pollution Control Committee (DPCC), thus untreated wastewater and poor quality of water discharged from the wastewater treatment plants are the major reasons. As of 2019, the river receives 800 million litres of largely untreated sewage and additional 44 million litres of industrial effluents each day, of which only 35 percent of the sewage released into the river are believed to be treated. In 1994, the states of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan and Delhi made a water sharing agreement that is due for revision in 2025. To achieve a water quality suitable for bathing (BOD<3 mg/l and DO>5 mg/l) would require a greater rate of water flow in the river. A study has recommended that 23 cubic metres (23,000 l; 5,100 imp gal) per second of water should be released from Hathni Kund Barrage during the lean season to provide a minimum environmental flow in the Yamuna.

To address river pollution, measures have been taken by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) in 12 towns of Haryana, 8 towns of Uttar Pradesh, and Delhi, under the Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) which has been implemented since 1993 by the MoEF's National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD). The Japan Bank for International Cooperation is participating in the YAP in 15 of the towns (excluding 6 towns of Haryana included later on the direction of the Supreme Court of India) with soft loan assistance of 17.773 billion Japanese yen (equivalent to about700 crore [7 billion rupees]) while the government of India is providing the funds for the remaining 6 towns. In 2007, the Indian government's plans to repair sewage lines were predicted to improve the water quality of the river 90% by the year 2010.[needs update]

Under the YAP- III scheme, a new sewage treatment plant is being built at the largest such facility in India by the Delhi Jal Board (DJB). The plant is predicted to be able to treat 124 million gallons of wastewater per day, amounting to a daily removal of 41,200 kg of organic pollutants as well as 61,600 kg of solids.

The last barrage across the Yamuna river is the Mathura barrage at Gokul for supply of drinking water to that city. Downstream of this barrage, many pumping stations are constructed to feed the river water for irrigation needs. These pumping stations are near Pateora Danda 25°55′09″N80°13′27″E /25.91917°N 80.22417°E /25.91917; 80.22417, Samgara 25°41′13″N80°46′27″E /25.68694°N 80.77417°E /25.68694; 80.77417, Ainjhi 25°43′35″N80°49′33″E /25.72639°N 80.82583°E /25.72639; 80.82583, Bilas Khadar 25°31′35″N81°02′43″E /25.52639°N 81.04528°E /25.52639; 81.04528, and Samari 25°27′19″N81°11′43″E /25.45528°N 81.19528°E /25.45528; 81.19528. Depletion of the base flows available in the river during the non-monsoon months by these pump houses is exacerbating river pollution from Mathura to Allahabad in the absence of adequate fresh water to dilute the polluted drainage from habitations and industries.

In 2009, the Union government announced to the Lok Sabha (Indian Parliament), the failure of the Ganga Action Plan and the YAP, saying that "rivers Ganga and Yamuna are no cleaner now than two decades ago" despite spending over1,700 crore (17 billion rupees) to control pollution. According to a Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) official, these plans adopted the Thames model, based on a centralised sewage treatment system. This meant that a huge sum of money and a 24-hour power supply were needed to manage the treatment plants, while only an 8-hour power supply was available, contributing to the failure.

In August 2009, the Delhi Jal Board (DJB) initiated its plan for resuscitating the Yamuna's 22-kilometre (14 mi) stretch in Delhi by constructing interceptor sewers, at the cost of about1,800 crore (18 billion rupees).

Citations

  1. Jain, Sharad K.; Agarwal, Pushpendra K.; Singh, Vijay P. (2007). Hydrology and water resources of India. Springer. p. 341. Bibcode:2007hwri.book.....J. ISBN 978-1-4020-5179-1. Retrieved26 April 2011.
  2. Jain, Sharad K.; Pushpendra K. Agarwal; Vijay P. Singh (2007). Hydrology and water resources of India—Volume 57 of Water science and technology library. Springer. pp. 344–354. ISBN 978-1-4020-5179-1.
  3. Hoiberg, Dale (2000). Students' Britannica India, Volumes 1-5. Popular Prakashan. pp. 290–291. ISBN 0-85229-760-2.
  4. Sharma, Vibha (18 November 2007). "And filthy flows the Yamuna". The Tribune (Chandigarh).
  5. 2015, INDIA 2015, New Media Wing.
  6. "Yamuna not fit for bathing, says govt report". The New Indian Express. 27 July 2021. Retrieved27 July 2021.
  7. Parsai, Gargi (23 November 2003). "'Ganga is the most polluted river'". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008. Retrieved12 February 2009.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  8. PALAEOCHANNELS OF NORTH WEST INDIA, Central Ground Water Board, last page of prefce.
  9. Yamunotri Temple Uttarkashi district website. Archived 31 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  10. Nand, Nitya; Kamlesh Kumar (1989). The holy Himalaya: a geographical interpretation of Garhwal - Yamuna Drainage System. Daya Books. p. 49. ISBN 81-7035-055-7.
  11. General outline of rivers in Himachal @ webindia123
  12. Sharma, Deo Prakash (2006). Archaeology of Lower Ganga-Yamuna Doab (circa 1200 B.C. to 1200 A.D.). Bharatiya Kala Prakashan. pp. 10, 214. ISBN 81-8090-033-9. "Doab is a Persian word, from Do-Ab, literally meaning 'two rivers', or land between two rivers".
  13. At the Three Rivers TIME, 23 February 1948.
  14. State of River Yamuna
  15. Sharad K., Jain; Pushpendra K., Agarwal; Vijay P., Singh (16 May 2007). Hydrology and Water Resources of India Volume 57 of Water Science and Technology Library. Springer Science & Business Media, 2007. p. 349. ISBN 9781402051807.
  16. MacDonell, Arthur Anthony; Keith, Arthur Berriedale (1995). Vedic Index of Names and Subjects (V-208-1333-2. p. 186. ISBN 9788120813335.
  17. Gary, Chamberlain (2008). Troubled Waters: Religion, Ethics, and the Global Water Crisis. Rowman & Littlefield, 2008. p. 18. ISBN 9780742552456.
  18. Dahlaquist, Allan (1996). Megasthenes and Indian Religion- Volume 11 of History and Culture Series. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 386. ISBN 81-208-1323-5.
  19. Ghosh, A. (1991). Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology. BRILL. p. 214. ISBN 90-04-09264-1.
  20. Feuerstein, Georg; Subhash Kak; David Frawley (2001). In Search of the Cradle of Civilization. Quest Books. p. 89. ISBN 0-8356-0741-0.
  21. Frawley, David (2000). Gods, Sages and Kings: Vedic Secrets of Ancient Civilization. Lotus Press. p. 95. ISBN 0-910261-37-7.
  22. Clift et al. 2012. "U-Pb zircon dating evidence for a Pleistocene Sarasvati River and capture of the Yamuna River." Geology, v. 40. [1]
  23. Davis, Richard H. (1999). Lives of Indian images. Princeton University Press. pp. 74–76. ISBN 0-691-00520-6.
  24. Upper Yamuna River Board Official website.
  25. Rao, K.L. (1979). India's Water Wealth - Flood Forecasting system of Yamuna. Orient Blackswan. p. 163. ISBN 81-250-0704-0.
  26. Negi, Sharad Singh (1991). Himalayan rivers, lakes, and glaciers. Indus Publishing. pp. 141–142. ISBN 81-85182-61-2.
  27. Flood Forecasting Network in India Ministry of Water Resources website.
  28. Bharati Chaturvedi, 2010, Finding Delhi: Loss and Renewal in the Megacity
  29. Regional plan
  30. Bharati Chaturvedi, 2010, Finding Delhi: Loss and Renewal in the Megacity, Page 78.
  31. ML Ahmed, Analysis of Discharge and Gauge-Level Data at Old Railway Bridge, Int'l Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Energy and Manufacturing Engineering (ICAEME’2014), 9–10 June 2014, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).
  32. Tak, Prakash C.; Jagdish P. Sati; Anjum N. Rizvi (April 2010). "Status of waterbirds at Hathnikund Barrage wetland, Yamunanagar District, Haryana, India"(PDF). p. 841. Archived from the original(PDF) on 17 March 2012. Retrieved10 July 2011.
  33. Haberman, David L. (2006). River of love in an age of pollution: the Yamuna River of northern India. University of California Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-520-24789-5. Retrieved2 June 2011.
  34. Too many cooks spoil the broth , The Hindu, 29 March 2016.
  35. Woodward, David; John Brian Harley (1987). The History of cartography, Volume 2, Part 1. Oxford University Press US. p. 438. ISBN 0-226-31635-1.
  36. Western yaumna Canal Project
  37. India Water Portal
  38. Planning Commission of India: Western Yaumna Canal
  39. Moudgil, Rajesh (9 April 2016). "Munak water supply fully restored to Delhi". Hindustan Times.
  40. Jind district profile
  41. Delhibird.com
  42. "Yamuna water link may get govt nod". Times of India. 6 April 2016.
  43. Sultan, Parvez (1 February 2017). "Steamer service to revive navigation in Agra Canal after 143 years". Hindustan Times.
  44. Gary, Chamberlain (2008). Troubled Waters: Religion, Ethics, and the Global Water Crisis. Rowman & Littlefield, 2008. p. 18. ISBN 9780742552456.
  45. Shiva, Vandana (2006). Earth democracy: justice, sustainability and peace-G - Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. Zed Books. pp. 172–173. ISBN 1-84277-777-7.
  46. Chamberlain, Gary (2008). Troubled waters: religion, ethics, and the global water crisis. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-7425-5245-6.
  47. Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam (ed.). India through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 72.
  48. Bhagavata Purana 8.13.9
  49. Dimmitt, Cornelia (1978). Classical Hindu mythology: a reader in the Sanskrit Purānas. Temple University Press. p. 329. ISBN 0-87722-122-7.
  50. Yamunashtakam Text and Translation Archived 25 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  51. "Yamuna River", Mathura-Vrindavan
  52. "Panel: Scrap Yamuna riverfront project". Delhi Daily News. 26 April 2014. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014.
  53. Safi, Michael; Agencies (21 March 2017). "Ganges and Yamuna rivers granted same legal rights as human beings". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved25 March 2019.
  54. Sharma, H.S., 2007. Freshwater Fishes. Fauna of Madhya Pradesh (including Chhattisgarh), State Fauna Series, 15(1), pp.147-244.[2]
  55. Sharma, A.P., Das, M.K., Samanta, S., Paul, S.K. and Bhowmick, S., 2014. The ecology and fishery status of river Yamuna. Bulletin, (184), pp.1-32.http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.709.760&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  56. Lang, J.W., Chowfin, S. and Ross, J.P., 2019. Gavialis gangeficus
  57. David Haberman (10 September 2006). River of Love in an Age of Pollution: The Yamuna River of Northern India. University of California Press. pp. 9, 91. ISBN 978-0-520-93962-2.
  58. The Ganges and the Jumna The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909 v. 1, p. 23.
  59. Chaudhary, Meenakshi; Walker, Tony R. (2019). "River Ganga pollution: Causes and failed management plans (correspondence on Dwivedi et al. 2018. Ganga water pollution: A potential health threat to inhabitants of Ganga basin. Environment International 117, 327–338)". Environment International. 126: 202–206. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2019.02.033. PMID 30802637.
  60. "Urban Metabolism of River Yamuna in the National Capital Territory of Delhi, India". ResearchGate. Retrieved25 November 2020.
  61. Sharma, Manju & Chaudhry, Smita. (2015). Impact of Industrial Pollution on Yamuna River: A Review. 10.13140/RG.2.1.3632.8401.
  62. Sukanan, Darunee (26 November 2019). "A 'sacred' river in India has become polluted beyond belief". Sustainability Times. Retrieved28 November 2019.
  63. Pepper, Daniel (27 July 2007). "India's "flush-and-forget" mindset". SFGate.com. San Francisco Chronicle. pp. A17–A18. Retrieved27 July 2007.
  64. "CAG castigates Delhi Govt over Yamuna river pollution". Indian Express. 8 April 2000.
  65. Daniel Pepper (4 June 2007). "India's rivers are drowning in pollution". Fortune.
  66. "India's largest sewage treatment plant to come up at Okhla: DJB". The Economic Times. 29 May 2019. Retrieved28 November 2019.
  67. "list of head works (Dams,_Barrages, Weirs, Anicuts, Lifts) on Yamuna/Ganga river". Retrieved14 May 2015.
  68. Karthikeyan, Ajitha (4 September 2009). "Failure of Ganga, Yamuna projects, no deterrence for TN govt". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012.
  69. Gupta, Geeta (31 August 2009). "Inflow to Yamuna to be cleaned up at last". Indian Express. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012.

Bibliography

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related toYamuna River.

Yamuna
Yamuna Article Talk Language Watch Edit For other uses see Yamuna disambiguation Not to be confused with Jamuna River Bangladesh The Yamuna Hindustani pronounced jemunaː is the second largest tributary river of the Ganga and the longest tributary in India Originating from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height of 6 387 metres 20 955 ft on the southwestern slopes of Banderpooch peaks of the Lower Himalaya in Uttarakhand it travels a total length of 1 376 kilometres 855 mi and has a drainage system of 366 223 square kilometres 141 399 sq mi 40 2 of the entire Ganga Basin It merges with the Ganga at Triveni Sangam Prayagraj which is a site of the Kumbh Mela a Hindu festival held every 12 years The Yamuna JamunaVishram Ghat on the Yamuna at Mathura in Uttar Pradesh MapLocationCountryIndiaStateUttarakhand Himachal Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Haryana DelhiCitiesHaryana Yamuna Nagar Uttar Pradesh Kairana and Baghpat Delhi New Delhi Uttar Pradesh Noida Mathura Agra Firozabad Etawah Auraiya and AllahabadPhysical characteristicsSourceYamunotri locationBanderpooch peaks Uttarkashi district Uttarakhand India coordinates31 01 0 12 N 78 27 0 E 31 0167000 N 78 45000 E 31 0167000 78 45000 elevation3 293 m 10 804 ft MouthGanges locationTriveni Sangam Allahabad India coordinates25 25 11 44 N 81 53 5 80 E 25 4198444 N 81 8849444 E 25 4198444 81 8849444 Coordinates 25 25 11 44 N 81 53 5 80 E 25 4198444 N 81 8849444 E 25 4198444 81 8849444 elevation74 m 243 ft Length1 376 km 855 mi Basin size366 223 km2 141 399 sq mi Discharge locationAllahabad 1 average2 950 m3 s 104 000 cu ft s Basin featuresTributaries leftTons Hindon Hanuman Ganga Sasur Khaderi rightGiri Baghain Chambal Betwa Sindh Ken Like the Ganga the Yamuna is highly venerated in Hinduism and worshipped as the goddess Yamuna In Hinduism she is the daughter of the Sun Deva Surya and the sister of Yama the Deva of Death hence also known as Yami According to popular legends bathing in its sacred waters frees one from the torments of death 2 3 It crosses several states Haryana and Uttar Pradesh passing by Uttarakhand and later Delhi and meeting its tributaries on the way including Tons Chambal its longest tributary which has its own large basin followed by Sindh the Betwa and Ken From Uttarakhand the river flows into the state of Himachal Pradesh After passing Paonta Sahib Yamuna flows along the boundary of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh and after exiting Haryana it continues to flow till it merges with the river Ganga at Sangam or Prayag in Allahbad Uttar Pradesh It helps create the highly fertile alluvial Yamuna Ganga Doab region between itself and the Ganga in the Indo Gangetic plain 2 3 Nearly 57 million people depend on the Yamuna s waters and the river accounts for more than 70 percent of Delhi s water supply It has an annual flow of 97 billion cubic metres and nearly 4 billion cubic metres are consumed every year of which irrigation constitutes 96 2 3 At the Hathni Kund Barrage its waters are diverted into two large canals the Western Yamuna Canal flowing towards Haryana and the Eastern Yamuna Canal towards Uttar Pradesh Beyond that point the Yamuna is joined only by the Somb a seasonal rivulet from Haryana and by the highly polluted Hindon River near Noida so that it continues only as a trickling sewage bearing drain before joining the Chambal at Pachnada in the Etawah District of Uttar Pradesh 4 The water quality in Upper Yamuna as 375 kilometres 233 mi long stretch of Yamuna is called from its origin at Yamunotri to Okhla barrage 5 is of reasonably good quality till Wazirabad barrage in Delhi Below this the discharge of wastewater in Delhi through 15 drains between Wazirabad barrage and Okhla barrage renders the river severely polluted Wazirabad barrage to Okhla Barrage 22 km stretch of Yamuna in Delhi is less than 2 cent of Yamuna s total length but accounts for nearly 80 of the total pollution in the river 22 out of 35 sewage treatment plants in Delhi do not meet the wastewater standards prescribed by the Delhi Pollution Control Committee DPCC 6 There are 4 main causes of Yamuna s pollution in Delhi poor quality of water released by the affluent treatment plants household and municipal disposal sites soil erosion resulting from deforestation occurring to make way for agriculture and resulting chemical wash off from fertilizers herbicides and pesticides and run off from commercial activity and industrial sites 5 6 One official described the river as a sewage drain with biochemical oxygen demand BOD values ranging from 14 to 28 mg l and high coliform content 7 Contents 1 Basin 1 1 Palaeochannels Sarasvati s tributary 1 2 Sources Banderpoonch peak and Yamunotri glacier 1 3 Current channel 1 4 Important tributaries 2 Background 2 1 Etymology 2 2 History 3 Use of water 3 1 1994 water sharing agreement 3 2 Barrages 3 3 Irrigation 3 3 1 Eastern Yamuna Canal 3 3 2 Western Yamuna Canal 3 4 Sutlej Yamuna Link Canal 3 5 National Waterway 4 Significance 4 1 Significance in Indian origin religions 4 1 1 Rigveda 4 1 2 Puranas 4 1 3 Shlokas on Yamuna 4 2 Ecological conservation zone 4 3 Wildlife and plants 5 Pollution 5 1 Causes 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 References 8 1 Citations 8 2 Bibliography 8 3 External linksBasin Edit Banderpoonch peak the source of Yamuna as seen from Mussoorie The Yamunotri temple on the river dedicated to Goddess Yamuna The Doab United Provinces 1908 Palaeochannels Sarasvati s tributary Edit The present Sarsuti river which originates in the Shivalik hills in Himachal and Haryana border and merges with Ghaggar River near Pehowa is the palaeochannel of Yamuna 8 Yamuna changed its course to the east due to a shift in the slope of the earth s crust caused by plate tectonics 8 Sources Banderpoonch peak and Yamunotri glacier Edit The source of Yamuna lies in the Yamunotri Glacier at an elevation of 6 387 metres 20 955 ft on the southwestern slopes of Banderpooch peaks which lie in the Mussoorie range of the Lower Himalayas north of Haridwar in Uttarkashi district Uttarakhand 2 Yamunotri temple a shrine dedicated to the goddess Yamuna is one of the holiest shrines in Hinduism and part of the Chota Char Dham Yatra circuit Also standing close to the temple on its 13 kilometre 8 mi trek route that follows the right bank of the river lies Markendeya Tirtha where the sage Markandeya wrote the Markandeya Purana 9 10 Current channel Edit The river flows southwards for about 200 kilometres 120 mi through the Lower Himalayas and the Shivalik Hills Range Morainic deposits are found along the steep Upper Yamuna highlighted with geomorphic features such as interlocking spurs steep rock benches gorges and stream terraces Large terraces formed over a long period of time can be seen in the lower course of the river such as those near Naugoan An important part of its early catchment area totalling 2 320 square kilometres 900 sq mi lies in Himachal Pradesh The Tons Yamuna s largest tributary drains a large portion of the upper catchment area and holds more water than the main stream It rises from the Hari ki dun valley and merges after Kalsi near Dehradun The drainage system of the river stretches between Giri Sutlej catchment in Himachal and Yamuna Bhilangna catchment in Garhwal also draining the ridge of Shimla Kalanag 6 387 metres 20 955 ft is the highest point of the Yamuna basin Other tributaries in the region are the Giri Rishi Ganga Kunta Hanuman Ganga and Bata which drain the upper catchment area of the Yamuna basin 11 Yamuna river between Saharanpur and Yamunanagar From the upper catchment area the river descends onto the plains of Doon Valley at Dak Pathar near Dehradun Flowing through the Dakpathar Barrage the water is diverted into a canal for power generation Further downstream the Assan River joins the Yamuna at the Asan Barrage which hosts a bird sanctuary After passing the Sikh pilgrimage town of Paonta Sahib the Yamuna reaches Tajewala in Yamuna Nagar district named after the river of Haryana A dam built here in 1873 is the origin of two important canals the Western and Eastern Yamuna Canals which irrigate the states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh The Western Yamuna Canal WYC crosses Yamuna Nagar Karnal Panipat and Sonipat before reaching the Haiderpur treatment plant which contributes to Delhi s municipal water supply The Yamuna receives wastewater from Yamuna Nagar and Panipat cities beyond this it is replenished by seasonal streams and groundwater accrual During the dry season the Yamuna remains dry in many stretches between the Tajewala dam and Delhi where it enters near the Palla barrage after traversing 224 kilometres 139 mi The Yamuna defines the state borders between Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand and between Haryana Delhi and Uttar Pradesh When the Yamuna reaches the Indo Gangetic plain it runs almost parallel to the Ganges the two rivers creating the Ganges Yamuna Doab region Spread across 69 000 square kilometres 27 000 sq mi one third of the alluvial plain the region is known for its agricultural output particularly for the cultivation of basmati rice The plain s agriculture supports one third of India s population 12 Course of Yamuna in the Indo Gangetic Plain State Catchment area km2 of catchment areaUttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand 74 208 21 5Himachal Pradesh 5 799 1 6Haryana 21 265 6 5Rajasthan 102 883 29 8Madhya Pradesh 140 230 40 6Delhi 1 485 0 4 Subsequently the Yamuna flows through the states of Delhi Haryana and Uttar Pradesh before merging with the Ganges at a sacred spot known as Triveni Sangam in Allahabad Pilgrims travel by boats to platforms erected in midstream to offer prayers During the Kumbh Mela held every 12 years large congregations of people immerse themselves in the sacred waters of the confluence 13 The cities of Baghpat Delhi Noida Mathura Agra Firozabad Etawah Kalpi Hamirpur and Prayagraj lie on its banks At Etawah it meets it another important tributary Chambal followed by a host of tributaries further down including Sindh the Betwa and Ken 3 14 Important tributaries Edit Catchment boundary of the Yamuna Along its 1 376 kilometre 855 mi length the Yamuna has many notable tributaries Tons River Yamuna s largest tributary 15 which rises in the 6 315 metre high 20 719 ft Bandarpoonch mountain and has a large basin in Himachal Pradesh It meets Yamuna below Kalsi near Dehradun Uttarakhand Hindon River which originates in the Saharanpur District from Upper Shivalik in the Lower Himalayan Range It is entirely rainfed and has a catchment area of 7 083 square kilometres 2 735 sq mi traverses 400 kilometres 250 mi through Muzaffarnagar District Meerut District Baghpat District Ghaziabad Noida and Greater Noida before joining Yamuna just outside Delhi Ken River which flows through the Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh It originates near Ahirgawan village in Jabalpur district and travels a distance of 427 kilometres 265 mi before merging with the Yamuna at Chilla village near Fatehpur in Uttar Pradesh It has an overall drainage basin of 28 058 square kilometres 10 833 sq mi Chambal River known as Charmanvati in ancient texts which is Yamuna s longest tributary It flows through Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh and traverses a total distance of 960 kilometres 600 mi from its source in Vindhya Range near Mhow With a drainage basin of 143 219 square kilometres 55 297 sq mi it supports hydro power generation at Gandhi Sagar dam Rana Pratap Sagar dam and Jawahar Sagar dam before merging into the Yamuna south east of Sohan Goan in Etawah district Sindh River which joins the Yamuna shortly after the Chambal Sasur Khaderi River a k a Sasur Khaderi which is a tributary in Fatehpur district Betwa River or Betravati rises from Vindhya range and flows to North East via Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh The confluence of both rivers Yamuna and Betwa is Hamirpur district Uttar Pradesh One of the Indian Navy frigates INS BETWA is named in honour of the river Betwa Background Edit Vasudev carrying baby Lord Krishna across the Yamuna an important legend of Bhagavata Purana mid 18th century Etymology Edit The name Yamuna seems to be derived from the Sanskrit word yama meaning twin and it may have been applied to the river because it runs parallel to the Ganges 16 History Edit Earliest mention of Yamuna is found at many places in the Rig Veda c 1500 1000 BCE which was composed during the Vedic period c 1700 1100 BCE and also in the later Atharvaveda and the Brahmanas including Aitareya Brahmana and Shatapatha Brahmana 16 In the Rigveda the story of the Yamuna describes her excessive love for her twin Yama who in turn asks her to find a suitable match for herself which she does in Krishna 17 Yamuna is mentioned as Iomanes Ioames in the surveys of Seleucus I Nicator an officer of Alexander the Great and one of the Diadochi who visited India in 305 BCE Greek traveller and geographer Megasthenes visited India sometime before 288 BCE the date of Chandragupta s death and mentioned the river in his Indica where he described the region around it as the land of Surasena 18 In Mahabharata the Pandava capital of Indraprastha was situated on the banks of Yamuna considered to be the site of modern Delhi Geological evidence indicates that in the distant past the Yamuna was a tributary of the Ghaggar River identified by some as the Vedic Sarasvati River It later changed its course eastward becoming a tributary of the Ganges While some have argued that this was due to a tectonic event and may have led to the Sarasvati River drying up the end of many Harappan civilisation settlements and creation of the Thar desert 19 20 21 recent geological research suggests that the diversion of the Yamuna to the Ganges may have occurred during the Pleistocene and thus could not be connected to the decline of the Harappan civilisation in the region 22 Most of the great empires which ruled over a majority of India were based in the highly fertile Ganges Yamuna basin including the Magadha c 600 BCE Maurya Empire 321 185 BCE Shunga Empire 185 73 BCE Kushan Empire 1st 3rd centuries CE and Gupta Empire 280 550 CE and many had their capitals here in cities like Pataliputra or Mathura These rivers were revered throughout these kingdoms that flourished on their banks since the period of Chandragupta II r 375 415 CE statues both the Ganges and Yamuna became common throughout the Gupta Empire Further to the South images of the Ganges and Yamuna are found amidst shrines of the Chalukyas Rashtrakutas 753 982 and on their royal seals prior to them the Chola Empire also added the river into their architectural motifs The Three River Goddess shrine next to the Kailash rock cut Temple at Ellora shows the Ganges flanked by the Yamuna and Saraswati 23 Use of water Edit1994 water sharing agreement Edit The stretch of the river from its origin at Yamunotri to Okhla barrage in Delhi is called Upper Yamuna A Memorandum of Understanding MoU was signed amongst the five basin states Himachal Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand Haryana Rajasthan and Delhi on 12 May 1994 for sharing of its waters This led to the formation of Upper Yamuna River Board under India s Ministry of Water Resources whose primary functions are regulation of the available flows amongst the beneficiary states and monitoring the return flows monitoring conservation and upgrading the quality of surface and groundwater maintaining hydro meteorological data for the basin overviewing plans for watershed management and monitoring and reviewing the progress of all projects up to and including Okhla barrage 24 Flood forecasting systems are established at Poanta Sahib where Tons Pawar and Giri tributaries meet The river take 60 hours to travel from Tajewala to Delhi thus allowing a two day advance flood warning period 2 25 26 The Central Water Commission started flood forecasting services in 1958 with its first forecasting station on Yamuna at Delhi Railway Bridge 27 Barrages Edit Yamuna has the following six functional barrages eight including old replaced barrages nine including a new proposed barrage from north west to southeast 28 29 30 31 needs update Dakpathar Barrage in Uttarakhand managed by the Uttarakhand govt Hathni Kund Barrage in Haryana 172 km 107 mi from the source of Yamuna built in 1999 and managed by Haryana govt 32 33 Tajewala Barrage was built in 1873 and replaced by the Hathni Kund 32 33 Wazirabad barrage in north Delhi 244 km 152 mi from Hathni Kund barrage managed by the Delhi govt 34 New Wazirabad barrage proposed in 2013 to be built 8 km north of the Wazirabad barrage ITO barrage Indraparstha barrage in central Delhi managed by the Haryana govt 34 Okhla barrage is 22 km from Wazirabad to south Delhi managed by the Uttar Pradesh UP government 34 New Okhla Barrage a new barrage managed by the UP govt 34 Palla barrage downstream on Delhi Faridabad canal in Haryana managed by the Haryana govt Gokul barrage a k a Mathura barrage is at Gokul in Uttar Pradesh managed by the UP govt Irrigation Edit Agra Canal headworks at Okhla barrage Delhi 1871 Use of the Yamuna s waters for irrigation in the Indo Gangetic Plains is enhanced by its many canals some dating to the 14th century Tughlaq dynasty which built the Nahr i Bahisht Paradise parallel to the river The Nahr i Bahisht was restored and extended by the Mughals in the first half of the 17th century by engineer Ali Mardan Khan starting from Benawas where the river enters the plains and terminating near the Mughal capital of Shahjahanabad the present city of Delhi 35 Eastern Yamuna Canal Edit As the Yamuna enters the Northern Plains near Dakpathar at an elevation of 790 metres 2 590 ft the Eastern Yamuna Canal commences at the Dakpathar Barrage and pauses at the Asan and Hathnikund Barrages before continuing south 32 33 Western Yamuna Canal Edit Main article Western Yamuna Canal The Western Yamuna Canal WYC was built in 1335 CE by Firuz Shah Tughlaq Excessive silting caused it to stop flowing c 1750 when the British Raj undertook a three year renovation in 1817 by Bengal Engineer Group The Tajewala Barrage dam was built in 1832 33 timeframe to regulate the flow of water and was replaced by the modern Hathni Kund Barrage in 1999 36 The main canal is 86 kilometres 53 mi long 36 When including its branches and many major and minor irrigation channels it has a total length of 325 km 202 mi 37 The WYC begins at the Hathni Kund Barrage about 38 kilometres 24 mi from Dakpathar and south of Doon Valley The canals irrigate vast tracts of land in the region in Ambala Karnal Sonepat Rohtak Jind Hisar and Bhiwani districts 36 The major branch canals are Agra Canal built in 1874 which starts from the Okhla barrage beyond the Nizamuddin bridge joining the Banganga river about 32 kilometres 20 mi below Agra During the dry summer season the stretch above Agra resembles a minor stream 3 Munak canal built in 1819 38 and renovated in 2008 39 originates at Munak in Karnal district 40 and extends 22 km 39 to Delhi carrying 20 m3 s 700 cu ft s of water 36 41 Delhi Branch Bhalaut Branch originating at Khubru village 37 flows through Jhajjar district 36 41 Jhajjar Branch flows through Jhajjar district 36 41 Sirsa Branch the largest branch of the WYC constructed in 1889 1895 36 It originates at Indri and meanders through Jind district Fatehabad district and Sirsa district 36 41 Jind Branch 36 41 Bhiwani Branch which meanders through Bhiwani district and passes Bidhwan 36 41 Barwala Branch Hansi Branch built in 1825 38 and remodelled in 1959 38 It originates at Munak 40 and meanders through Hansi tehsil of Hisar district 36 41 Butana Branch 36 41 Sunder Branch which passes Kanwari in Hisar district Rohtak Branch 36 41 Sutlej Yamuna Link Canal Edit Main article Sutlej Yamuna link canal A proposed heavy freight canal the Sutlej Yamuna Link SYL is being built westwards from near the Yamuna s headwaters through the Punjab region near an ancient caravan route and highlands pass to the navigable parts of the Sutlej Indus watershed This will connect the Ganges which flows to the east coast of the subcontinent with points west via Pakistan When completed the SYL will allow shipping from India s east coast to the west coast and the Arabian sea shortening important commercial links for north central India s large population The canal starts near Delhi and is designed to transfer Haryana s share of 4 3 km3 3 500 000 acre ft from the Indus Basin National Waterway Edit Yamuna is one of the National Waterways of India designated as NW110 in Haryana Delhi and Uttar Pradesh Some of its sections are being developed for navigation 42 43 Delhi Faridabad Wazirabad barrage to Palla barrage via ITO barrage is being developed for passenger and cargo ferry service 42 Delhi Agra Okhla barrage to Agra Canal is planned for steamer service by the end of June 2017 with the help of the Netherlands 43 needs update Significance Edit The goddess Yamuna Significance in Indian origin religions Edit See also Indian origin religions Hinduism Buddhism Jainism Sikhism Rigveda Edit Main article Yamuna in Hinduism In the Rigveda the story of the Yamuna describes her excessive love for her twin Yama who in turn asks her to find a suitable match for herself which she does in Krishna 44 The tale is further detailed in the 16th century Sanskrit hymn Yamunashtakam an ode by the philosopher Vallabhacharya Here the story of her descent to meet her beloved Krishna and to purify the world has been put into verse The hymn also praises her for being the source of all spiritual abilities And while the Ganges is considered an epitome of asceticism and higher knowledge and can grant Moksha or liberation it is Yamuna who being a holder of infinite love and compassion can grant freedom even from death the realm of her elder brother Vallabhacharya writes that she rushes down the Kalinda Mountain and describes her as the daughter of Kalinda giving her the name Kalindi the backdrop of Krishna Leela The text also talks about her water being of the colour of Lord Krishna which is dark Shyam 45 46 The river is referred to as Asita in some historical texts 47 Puranas Edit Yami the goddess of the river Yamuna sister to Yama the god of death is the daughter of the Sun god Surya and his wife Saranyu 48 The river Yamuna and its surrounding is connected to the legends of the Avatar Krishna especially the Puranas One such story is of Kaliya Daman the subduing of Kaliya a Naga which had inhabited the river and terrorised the people of Braja 49 50 Yamuna as Kalindi is also considered as a consort of Krishna Yamuna holds a very important position in Pushti Marga a large sect of Hinduism based on the ShuddhAdvaita in which Krishna is the main deity propagated by Vallabhacharya Shlokas on Yamuna Edit Numerous Hindu texts have shlokas hymns on Yamuna as follows Simply by bathing in the Yamuna anyone can diminish the reactions of his sinful activities Krishna Book Chap 38 By taking bath in the Yamuna River people are liberated and become Krishna conscious Chaitanya Charitamrita Antya 4 98 purport There are many devotees in Vrindavana who regularly bathe in the Yamuna and this cleanses all the contamination of the material world Srimad Bhagavatam 5 8 31 One should not give up the process of austerity If possible one should bathe in the water of the Yamuna This is an item of austerity Therefore our Krishna consciousness movement has established a center in Vrindavana so that one may bathe in the Yamuna chant the Hare Krishna mantra and then become perfect and return back to Godhead Srimad Bhagavatam 6 5 28 purport 51 The Yamuna River washed Krishna s lotus feet when the Lord appeared in Vrindavana five thousand years ago Lord Krishna sported daily with His boys and girlfriends in the Yamuna River and consequently that river is also caranamrita Srimad Bhagavatam 11 6 19 According to the Varaha Purana as quoted by Srila Jiva Gosvami there is no difference between the water of the Ganges and the Yamuna but when the water of the Ganges is sanctified one hundred times it is called the Yamuna Similarly it is said in the scriptures that one thousand names of Vishnu are equal to one name of Rama and three names of Lord Rama are equal to one name of Krishna Srimad Bhagavatam 1 19 6 purport Ecological conservation zone Edit Taj Mahal is situated on the banks of river Yamuna On 25 April 2014 the National Green Tribunal Act NGA recommended the government to declare a 52 kilometre 32 mi stretch of the Yamuna in Delhi and Uttar Pradesh as a conservation zone A report prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Forests MoEF panel was submitted to the NGA on the same day 52 Under the Yamuna Action Plan YAP I and YAP II pollution cleanup of Yamuna was conducted in line with the biological oxygen demand of Yamuna Under these two phases 286 schemes including 39 sewage treatment plants were completed in 21 towns of Delhi Uttar Pradesh and Haryana at a cost of 1 453 17 crore 14 5 billion rupees Sewage treatment capacity of 767 25 million litres per day was created through these efforts The High Court in the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand ordered in March 2017 that the Ganges and its main tributary the Yamuna be assigned the status of legal entities making the rivers legal and living entities having the status of a legal person with all corresponding rights duties and liabilities 53 This decision meant that polluting or damaging the rivers is equivalent to harming a person The court cited the example of the New Zealand Whanganui River which was also declared to possess full rights of a legal person This development of environmental personhood has been met with scepticism as merely announcing that the Ganges and Yamuna are living entities will not save them from significant ongoing pollution 53 Wildlife and plants Edit The Yamuna from the source to its culmination in Ganges is a habitat for fish for approximately 1400 km stretch and supports a rich diversity of species Fish from the family Cyprinidae dominate the variety of fish species found in the river This includes Indian carp and also invasive species from the family In a study 93 species of fish were found in the river including catfish 54 55 Species of non native Tilapia have become established in the river They have been implicated in the decline of the Ghariyal Indian crocodile population in the river 56 Large turtles used to be a common sight on the river a few decades ago but they have mostly disappeared 57 Pollution Edit The Yamuna near the Himalayas just as it reaches the plains beyond Dehradun in Uttarakhand In 1909 the waters of the Yamuna were distinguishable as clear blue when compared to the silt laden yellow of the Ganges 58 However due to high density population growth and fast industrialisation Yamuna has become one of the most polluted rivers in the world 59 The Yamuna is particularly polluted downstream of New Delhi the capital of India which dumps about 58 of its waste into the river A 2016 study shows that there is 100 urban metabolism of River Yamuna as it passes through the National Capital Territory NCT of Delhi 60 The most pollution comes from Wazirabad from where Yamuna enters Delhi 61 Causes Edit Wazirabad barrage to New Okhla Barrage 22 km stretch of Yamuna in Delhi is less than 2 cent of Yamuna s total length but accounts for nearly 80 of the total pollution in the river 6 22 out of 35 sewage treatment plants in Delhi do not meet the wastewater standards prescribed by the Delhi Pollution Control Committee DPCC thus untreated wastewater and poor quality of water discharged from the wastewater treatment plants are the major reasons 6 As of 2019 the river receives 800 million litres of largely untreated sewage and additional 44 million litres of industrial effluents each day of which only 35 percent of the sewage released into the river are believed to be treated 62 In 1994 the states of Uttarakhand Himachal Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Haryana Rajasthan and Delhi made a water sharing agreement that is due for revision in 2025 To achieve a water quality suitable for bathing BOD lt 3 mg l and DO gt 5 mg l would require a greater rate of water flow in the river A study has recommended that 23 cubic metres 23 000 l 5 100 imp gal per second of water should be released from Hathni Kund Barrage during the lean season to provide a minimum environmental flow in the Yamuna 6 To address river pollution measures have been taken by the Ministry of Environment and Forests MoEF in 12 towns of Haryana 8 towns of Uttar Pradesh and Delhi under the Yamuna Action Plan YAP which has been implemented since 1993 by the MoEF s National River Conservation Directorate NRCD The Japan Bank for International Cooperation is participating in the YAP in 15 of the towns excluding 6 towns of Haryana included later on the direction of the Supreme Court of India with soft loan assistance of 17 773 billion Japanese yen equivalent to about 700 crore 7 billion rupees while the government of India is providing the funds for the remaining 6 towns In 2007 the Indian government s plans to repair sewage lines were predicted to improve the water quality of the river 90 by the year 2010 63 64 65 needs update Under the YAP III scheme a new sewage treatment plant is being built at the largest such facility in India by the Delhi Jal Board DJB The plant is predicted to be able to treat 124 million gallons of wastewater per day amounting to a daily removal of 41 200 kg of organic pollutants as well as 61 600 kg of solids 66 The last barrage across the Yamuna river is the Mathura barrage at Gokul for supply of drinking water to that city Downstream of this barrage many pumping stations are constructed to feed the river water for irrigation needs 67 These pumping stations are near Pateora Danda 25 55 09 N 80 13 27 E 25 91917 N 80 22417 E 25 91917 80 22417 Samgara 25 41 13 N 80 46 27 E 25 68694 N 80 77417 E 25 68694 80 77417 Ainjhi 25 43 35 N 80 49 33 E 25 72639 N 80 82583 E 25 72639 80 82583 Bilas Khadar 25 31 35 N 81 02 43 E 25 52639 N 81 04528 E 25 52639 81 04528 and Samari 25 27 19 N 81 11 43 E 25 45528 N 81 19528 E 25 45528 81 19528 Depletion of the base flows available in the river during the non monsoon months by these pump houses is exacerbating river pollution from Mathura to Allahabad in the absence of adequate fresh water to dilute the polluted drainage from habitations and industries In 2009 the Union government announced to the Lok Sabha Indian Parliament the failure of the Ganga Action Plan and the YAP saying that rivers Ganga and Yamuna are no cleaner now than two decades ago despite spending over 1 700 crore 17 billion rupees to control pollution According to a Centre for Science and Environment CSE official these plans adopted the Thames model based on a centralised sewage treatment system This meant that a huge sum of money and a 24 hour power supply were needed to manage the treatment plants while only an 8 hour power supply was available contributing to the failure 68 In August 2009 the Delhi Jal Board DJB initiated its plan for resuscitating the Yamuna s 22 kilometre 14 mi stretch in Delhi by constructing interceptor sewers at the cost of about 1 800 crore 18 billion rupees 69 Gallery Edit The Yamuna seen from the Taj Mahal at Agra in Uttar Pradesh Madan Mohan temple on the Yamuna at Vrindavan in Uttar Pradesh 1789 the river has since shifted further away Keshi Ghat on the Yamuna at Vrindavan in Uttar Pradesh The Yamuna near Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh just a few kilometres before it meets the Ganges The Yamuna near Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh during the monsoon View of Yamuna from Okhla Sanctuary View of Yamuna from Kesi Ghata The Yamuna view from Hathni Kund BarrageSee also EditEnvironmental personhood List of rivers of India Western Jamuna Canal Link Yamuna in Hinduism Yamuna Pushkaram Yamuna Pushta Yamuna MissionReferences EditCitations Edit Jain Sharad K Agarwal Pushpendra K Singh Vijay P 2007 Hydrology and water resources of India Springer p 341 Bibcode 2007hwri book J ISBN 978 1 4020 5179 1 Retrieved 26 April 2011 a b c d e Jain Sharad K Pushpendra K Agarwal Vijay P Singh 2007 Hydrology and water resources of India Volume 57 of Water science and technology library Springer pp 344 354 ISBN 978 1 4020 5179 1 a b c d e Hoiberg Dale 2000 Students Britannica India Volumes 1 5 Popular Prakashan pp 290 291 ISBN 0 85229 760 2 Sharma Vibha 18 November 2007 And filthy flows the Yamuna The Tribune Chandigarh a b 2015 INDIA 2015 New Media Wing a b c d e Yamuna not fit for bathing says govt report The New Indian Express 27 July 2021 Retrieved 27 July 2021 Parsai Gargi 23 November 2003 Ganga is the most polluted river The Hindu Archived from the original on 15 September 2008 Retrieved 12 February 2009 CS1 maint unfit URL link a b PALAEOCHANNELS OF NORTH WEST INDIA Central Ground Water Board last page of prefce Yamunotri Temple Uttarkashi district website Archived 31 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine Nand Nitya Kamlesh Kumar 1989 The holy Himalaya a geographical interpretation of Garhwal Yamuna Drainage System Daya Books p 49 ISBN 81 7035 055 7 General outline of rivers in Himachal webindia123 Sharma Deo Prakash 2006 Archaeology of Lower Ganga Yamuna Doab circa 1200 B C to 1200 A D Bharatiya Kala Prakashan pp 10 214 ISBN 81 8090 033 9 Doab is a Persian word from Do Ab literally meaning two rivers or land between two rivers At the Three Rivers TIME 23 February 1948 State of River Yamuna Sharad K Jain Pushpendra K Agarwal Vijay P Singh 16 May 2007 Hydrology and Water Resources of India Volume 57 of Water Science and Technology Library Springer Science amp Business Media 2007 p 349 ISBN 9781402051807 a b MacDonell Arthur Anthony Keith Arthur Berriedale 1995 Vedic Index of Names and Subjects V 208 1333 2 p 186 ISBN 9788120813335 Gary Chamberlain 2008 Troubled Waters Religion Ethics and the Global Water Crisis Rowman amp Littlefield 2008 p 18 ISBN 9780742552456 Dahlaquist Allan 1996 Megasthenes and Indian Religion Volume 11 of History and Culture Series Motilal Banarsidass Publ p 386 ISBN 81 208 1323 5 Ghosh A 1991 Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology BRILL p 214 ISBN 90 04 09264 1 Feuerstein Georg Subhash Kak David Frawley 2001 In Search of the Cradle of Civilization Quest Books p 89 ISBN 0 8356 0741 0 Frawley David 2000 Gods Sages and Kings Vedic Secrets of Ancient Civilization Lotus Press p 95 ISBN 0 910261 37 7 Clift et al 2012 U Pb zircon dating evidence for a Pleistocene Sarasvati River and capture of the Yamuna River Geology v 40 1 Davis Richard H 1999 Lives of Indian images Princeton University Press pp 74 76 ISBN 0 691 00520 6 Upper Yamuna River Board Official website Rao K L 1979 India s Water Wealth Flood Forecasting system of Yamuna Orient Blackswan p 163 ISBN 81 250 0704 0 Negi Sharad Singh 1991 Himalayan rivers lakes and glaciers Indus Publishing pp 141 142 ISBN 81 85182 61 2 Flood Forecasting Network in India Ministry of Water Resources website Bharati Chaturvedi 2010 Finding Delhi Loss and Renewal in the Megacity Regional plan Bharati Chaturvedi 2010 Finding Delhi Loss and Renewal in the Megacity Page 78 ML Ahmed Analysis of Discharge and Gauge Level Data at Old Railway Bridge Int l Conference on Artificial Intelligence Energy and Manufacturing Engineering ICAEME 2014 9 10 June 2014 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia a b c Tak Prakash C Jagdish P Sati Anjum N Rizvi April 2010 Status of waterbirds at Hathnikund Barrage wetland Yamunanagar District Haryana India PDF p 841 Archived from the original PDF on 17 March 2012 Retrieved 10 July 2011 a b c Haberman David L 2006 River of love in an age of pollution the Yamuna River of northern India University of California Press p 78 ISBN 978 0 520 24789 5 Retrieved 2 June 2011 a b c d Too many cooks spoil the broth The Hindu 29 March 2016 Woodward David John Brian Harley 1987 The History of cartography Volume 2 Part 1 Oxford University Press US p 438 ISBN 0 226 31635 1 a b c d e f g h i j k l m Western yaumna Canal Project a b India Water Portal a b c Planning Commission of India Western Yaumna Canal a b Moudgil Rajesh 9 April 2016 Munak water supply fully restored to Delhi Hindustan Times a b Jind district profile a b c d e f g h i Delhibird com a b Yamuna water link may get govt nod Times of India 6 April 2016 a b Sultan Parvez 1 February 2017 Steamer service to revive navigation in Agra Canal after 143 years Hindustan Times Gary Chamberlain 2008 Troubled Waters Religion Ethics and the Global Water Crisis Rowman amp Littlefield 2008 p 18 ISBN 9780742552456 Shiva Vandana 2006 Earth democracy justice sustainability and peace G Reference Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series Zed Books pp 172 173 ISBN 1 84277 777 7 Chamberlain Gary 2008 Troubled waters religion ethics and the global water crisis Rowman amp Littlefield p 18 ISBN 978 0 7425 5245 6 Gopal Madan 1990 K S Gautam ed India through the ages Publication Division Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Government of India p 72 Bhagavata Purana 8 13 9 Dimmitt Cornelia 1978 Classical Hindu mythology a reader in the Sanskrit Puranas Temple University Press p 329 ISBN 0 87722 122 7 Yamunashtakam Text and Translation Archived 25 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine Yamuna River Mathura Vrindavan Panel Scrap Yamuna riverfront project Delhi Daily News 26 April 2014 Archived from the original on 16 July 2014 a b Safi Michael Agencies 21 March 2017 Ganges and Yamuna rivers granted same legal rights as human beings The Guardian ISSN 0261 3077 Retrieved 25 March 2019 Sharma H S 2007 Freshwater Fishes Fauna of Madhya Pradesh including Chhattisgarh State Fauna Series 15 1 pp 147 244 2 Sharma A P Das M K Samanta S Paul S K and Bhowmick S 2014 The ecology and fishery status of river Yamuna Bulletin 184 pp 1 32 http citeseerx ist psu edu viewdoc download doi 10 1 1 709 760 amp rep rep1 amp type pdf Lang J W Chowfin S and Ross J P 2019 Gavialis gangeficus David Haberman 10 September 2006 River of Love in an Age of Pollution The Yamuna River of Northern India University of California Press pp 9 91 ISBN 978 0 520 93962 2 The Ganges and the Jumna The Imperial Gazetteer of India 1909 v 1 p 23 Chaudhary Meenakshi Walker Tony R 2019 River Ganga pollution Causes and failed management plans correspondence on Dwivedi et al 2018 Ganga water pollution A potential health threat to inhabitants of Ganga basin Environment International 117 327 338 Environment International 126 202 206 doi 10 1016 j envint 2019 02 033 PMID 30802637 Urban Metabolism of River Yamuna in the National Capital Territory of Delhi India ResearchGate Retrieved 25 November 2020 Sharma Manju amp Chaudhry Smita 2015 Impact of Industrial Pollution on Yamuna River A Review 10 13140 RG 2 1 3632 8401 Sukanan Darunee 26 November 2019 A sacred river in India has become polluted beyond belief Sustainability Times Retrieved 28 November 2019 Pepper Daniel 27 July 2007 India s flush and forget mindset SFGate com San Francisco Chronicle pp A17 A18 Retrieved 27 July 2007 CAG castigates Delhi Govt over Yamuna river pollution Indian Express 8 April 2000 Daniel Pepper 4 June 2007 India s rivers are drowning in pollution Fortune India s largest sewage treatment plant to come up at Okhla DJB The Economic Times 29 May 2019 Retrieved 28 November 2019 list of head works Dams Barrages Weirs Anicuts Lifts on Yamuna Ganga river Retrieved 14 May 2015 Karthikeyan Ajitha 4 September 2009 Failure of Ganga Yamuna projects no deterrence for TN govt The Times of India Archived from the original on 3 November 2012 Gupta Geeta 31 August 2009 Inflow to Yamuna to be cleaned up at last Indian Express Archived from the original on 14 January 2012 Bibliography Edit Fraser James Baillie 1820 Journal of a tour through part of the snowy range of the Himala Mountains and to the sources of the rivers Jumna and Ganges Rodwell and Martin London Haberman David L 2006 River of love in an age of pollution the Yamuna River of northern India University of California Press ISBN 0 520 24790 6 Schumann A H 2001 Sustainable regional water management of Yamuna river basin A case study International Association of Hydrological Sciences IAHS pp 25 32 ISBN 1 901502 51 1 External links Edit Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yamuna River The Geography of the RigvedaYamuna Action PlanThe Yamuna India s most polluted river on YouTube The Guardian 7 July 2017 Yamuna Mission Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yamuna amp oldid 1054907097, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.