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Wikipedia

Yao people

This article is about the Yao ethnic group in Asia. For the people of Africa, see Yao people (East Africa). For other people called Yao, see Yao (disambiguation).
"Mien" redirects here. For other uses, see Mien (disambiguation).

The Yao people (its majority branch is also known as Mien; simplified Chinese:瑶族; traditional Chinese:瑤族; pinyin: Yáozú; Vietnamese: người Dao) is a government classification for various minorities in China and Vietnam. They are one of the 55 officially recognised ethnic minorities in China and reside in the mountainous terrain of the southwest and south. They also form one of the 54 ethnic groups officially recognised by Vietnam. In China in the last census in 2000, they numbered 2,637,421 and in Vietnam census in 2019, they numbered 891,151.

Yao people
A Yao woman, Tiantouzhai, Longji Terraces, China, November 2010
Total population
3,500,000 +
Regions with significant populations
China: 2,637,421 (2000)
Vietnam: 891,151 (2019)
Languages
Mienic languages, Bunu, Pa-Hng, Lakkja, Mandarin Chinese, Shaozhou Tuhua, Vietnamese, English
Religion
Predominantly Yao folk religion, minority Buddhism
Yao people
Chinese瑶族

Contents

Early history

The origins of the Yao can be traced back 2000 years starting in Hunan. The Yao and Hmong were among the rebels during the Miao Rebellions against the Ming dynasty. As the Han Chinese expanded into South China, the Yao retreated into the highlands between Hunan and Guizhou to the north and Guangdong and Guangxi to the south, and stretching into Eastern Yunnan. Around 1890, the Guangdong government started taking action against Yao in Northwestern Guangdong.

The first Chinese exonym for "Yao people" was the graphic pejorative yao (犭"dog radical" and yao 䍃 phonetic) "jackal", with twentieth-century reforms this was changed to yao: "precious jade".

Laotian Civil War

During the Laotian Civil War, the Yao tribes of Laos had a good relationship with U.S. forces and were dubbed to be an "efficient friendly force". They fought in favour of the (South Vietnamese) government against the communists. This relationship caused the new communist Laotian government to target Yao tribal groups for revenge once the war was over. This triggered further immigration into Thailand, where the tribes would be put into camps along the Thailand-Laos border.

Immigration to the United States

After obtaining refugee status from the Thai government and with the help of the United Nations, many Yao people were able to obtain sponsorship into the United States (although many remain in Thailand). Most of the Yao who have immigrated to the United States have settled along the Western part of the U.S., mainly in Central and Northern California such as Visalia, Oakland, Oroville, Redding, Richmond, Sacramento, but also in parts of Oregon like Portland, Salem, and Beaverton as well as the state of Washington in Seattle and Renton. See Mien American for those identified as Mien.

A Yao child with traditional dress in Guangxi
A red Yao woman in Vietnam

Yao society is traditionally patrilineal, with sons inheriting from their fathers. The Yao follow patrilocal residence.

The Yao people have been farmers for over a thousand years, mostly rice cultivation through plowing, although a few practice slash-and-burn agriculture. Where the Yao live nearby forested regions, they also engage in hunting.

During the Southern Song (1127–1279), an imperial Chinese observer, Zhou Qufei, described the Yao as wearing distinctive fine blue clothing produced using indigo.

The Yao celebrate their Pan Wang (King Pan) festival annually on the sixteenth day of the tenth lunar month. The festival celebrates the mythical original story of the Yao people, and has evolved "into a happy holiday for the Yao to celebrate a good harvest and worship their ancestors."

Main article: Yao folk religion

Daoism has historically been important to the Yao. Jinag Yingliang, in a 1948 study, argued that Yao religion was characterized by (1) a process of Han Chinese-influenced Daoisation (Chinese:道教化; pinyin: Dàojiào huà); (2) the endurance of pre-Daoist folk religion; and (3) some Buddhist beliefs.

The description of Yao religion is similar to the definition of Chinese folk religion as described by Arthur Wolf and Steve Sangren. Scholar Zhang Youjun takes issue with claims of "strong Buddhist influence" on the Yao, arguing that "although Yao ritual texts contain Buddhist expression, the Yao do not believe in Buddhism at all. They are resolutely Taoist."

A Yao stilt house in Vietnam

There are several distinct groups within the Yao nationality, and they speak several different languages, The Iu Mien comprise 70% of the Yao population.[citation needed]

In addition to China, Yao also live in northern Vietnam (where they are called Dao), northern Laos, and Myanmar. There are around 60,000 Yao in northern Thailand, where they are one of the six main hill tribes. The lowland-living Lanten of Laos, who speak Kim Mun, and the highland-living Iu Mien of Laos are two different Yao groups. There are also many Iu Mien Americans, mainly refugees from the highlands of Laos. The Iu Mien do not call themselves "Yao". Not all "Yao" are Iu Mien. A group of 61,000 people on Hainan speak the Yao language Kim Mun; 139,000 speakers of Kim Mun live in other parts of China (Yunnan and Guangxi), and 174,500 live in Laos and Vietnam.

The Bunu people call themselves Nuox , Buod nuox[po43 no13], Dungb nuox[tuŋ33no13], or their official name Yaof zuf[ʑau21su21]. Only 258,000 of the 439,000 people categorised as Bunu in the 1982 census speak Bunu; 100,000 speak the Tai–Kadai Zhuang languages, and 181,000 speak Chinese and the Tai–Kadai Bouyei language.[citation needed]

Mao (2004)

Mao Zongwu (2004:7-8) gives a detailed list of various Yao endonyms (i.e., self-designated names) and the Chinese names of various groups and clans associated with them. Endonyms are written in the International Phonetic Alphabet with numerical Chao tones.

  • Autonym mjen31 or ju31 mjen31 优勉: Pangu Yao 盘古瑶, Pan Yao 盘瑶, Panhu Yao 盘瓠瑶, Trans-Mountain / Guoshan Yao 过山瑶, Large-Board / Daban Yao 大板瑶, Small-Board / Xiaoban Yao 小板瑶, Board / Ban Yao 板瑶, Top-Board / Dingban Yao 顶板瑶, Sharp-Headed / Jiantou Yao 尖头瑶, Level-Headed / Pingtou Yao 平头瑶, Red-Head / Hongtou Yao 红头瑶, Arrow-Pole / Jian'gan Yao 箭杆瑶, Cattle-Horn Yao / Niujiao 牛角瑶, Tu Yao 土瑶 (in Hezhou, Guangxi), Native / Bendi Yao 本地瑶, Flowery / Hua Yao 花瑶 (in Yangshuo County, Guangxi), Ao Yao 坳瑶, Zheng Yao 正瑶, Liang Yao 粮瑶
  • Autonym kim33 mun33 金门 or kem53 di35 mun21 甘迪门: Blue-Indigo / Landian Yao 蓝靛瑶, Shanzi Yao 山子瑶, Flowery-Headed / Huatou Yao 花头瑶, Sand / Sha Yao 沙瑶, Level-Headed / Pingtou Yao 平头瑶, Bazi Yao 坝子瑶
  • Autonym bjau31 mɔn31 标曼 or ɕi31 mun31 史门: Min Yao 民瑶, "Four Great" Min Yao 四大民瑶
  • Autonym bjau31 min31 标敏 or tɕau44 koŋ55 meŋ55 交公勉: East Mountain / Dongshan Yao 东山瑶 (in Quanzhou County, Guangxi), Dog-Headed / Goutou Yao 狗头瑶
  • Autonym dzau53 min53 藻勉: Bapai Yao 八排瑶
  • Autonym ju21 ŋjɛn25 优念, pjoŋ31 toa53 jeu31 炳多优, or ʂan33 tɕai33 珊介: Red Yao 红瑶 (in Longsheng Various Nationalities Autonomous County, Guangxi), Plains / Pingdi Yao 平地瑶
  • Autonym pu53 nu25 布努: Beilou Yao 背篓瑶, Beilong Yao 背陇瑶, West Mountain / Xishan Yao 西山瑶, East Mountain Yao / Dongshan 东山瑶 (in Bama Yao Autonomous County, Guangxi), Tudi Yao 土地瑶, Tu Yao 土瑶 (in Pingguo County and Mashan County, Guangxi), Mountain / Shan Yao 山瑶, Man Yao 蛮瑶, East Valley / Dongnong Yao 东弄瑶, West Valley / Xinong Yao 西弄瑶, Fan Yao 反瑶, Anding Yao 安定瑶, White Yao 白瑶, Black Yao 黑瑶, Black-Trouser / Heiku Yao 黑裤瑶, Long-Shirt / Changshan Yao 长衫瑶
  • Autonym nau35 klau42 瑙格劳 or pou22 nou12 包诺: Siting Yao 四亭瑶, Situan Yao 四团瑶
  • Autonym kjɔŋ33 nai33 炯奈: Hualan Yao 花蓝瑶
  • Autonym pa31 ŋ̊ŋ35 巴哼: Dog Yao 狗瑶, Eight-Surname / Baxing Yao 八姓瑶, Red Yao 红瑶 (in Liping and Congjiang Counties of Guizhou; Rongshui Miao Autonomous County and Longsheng Various Nationalities Autonomous County of Guangxi), Wood Yao 木瑶
  • Autonym m̥n33 nai33 唔奈: Flowery Yao 花瑶 (in Longhui, Dongkou, Chenxi, and Xupu County and the Tongdao Dong Autonomous County of Hunan)
  • Autonym ʑou13 nɔ13 优诺: Red Yao 红瑶
  • Autonym lak25 kja25 拉珈: Tea Mountain / Chashan Yao 茶山瑶

Plains Yao

Groups considered to be "Plains Yao" (Pingdi Yao 平地瑶) include:[citation needed]

  • Autonym Bingduoyou 炳多尤 (Pingdi Yao 平地瑶, Dainaijiang 代奈江): in Jianghua Yao Autonomous County 江华 of Hunan; Gongcheng 恭城, Fuchuan 富川, Zhongshan 钟山, and Lingui 临桂 counties of Guangxi
  • Autonym Yeheni 爷贺尼 (Pingdi Yao 平地瑶): in Jianghua Yao Autonomous County 江华, Hunan (Jianghua County Almanac). The Yeheni speak a divergent Chinese dialect. It is spoken in Taoxu Town 涛圩镇 and Helukou Town 河路口镇 in Jianghua County, Hunan.
  • Autonym Younian 优念 (Pinghua-speaking Red Yao 平话红瑶; ʑou13 ȵen13): in Longsheng 龙胜 and Guanyang 灌阳 counties of Guangxi. According to Chen Qiguang (2013:30), the ʑəu21 ȵien21 number about 10,000 speakers in Sishui 泗水, Madi 马堤, Mengshan 孟山, Jiangliu 江柳, and other locations of Longsheng County.
  • Autonym Shanjie 珊介 (Shanzi Yao 山仔瑶): in Fangcheng 防城, Guangxi
  • Autonym Youjia 优嘉 (Yaojia 瑶家): in Guanyang County 灌阳, Guangxi
  • Jingdong Yao 景东县瑶族 (autonym: Lewu people 乐舞人): Jingdong County 景东彝族自治县, Yunnan. According to the Jingdong County Almanac (1994:519), ethnic Yao numbered 3,889 individuals in 1990, and lived mainly in Chaqing 岔箐 and Dasongshu 大松树 of Taizhong 太忠乡.

Vietnam

Tim Doling (2010:82-83) lists the following Yao (spelled Dao in the Vietnamese alphabet) subgroups in northern Vietnam.

  • Mienic groups
    • Iu Mien: Black Dao of Dien Bien and Lai Chau; Red Dao of southern Lao Cai, Yen Bai, and Son La
    • Kim Mien: Dao Tà Pán 大板瑶 (Dao Đại Bản, Dao Coóc Ngáng, Dao Sừng) of Ha Giang, Cao Bang, and Yen Bai; Red Dao of northern and eastern Lao Cai; Hongtou Red Dao 红头瑶 in northern Lai Chau
    • Kiem Mien: Red Dao of Sa Pa
    • Kam Mien: Coin Dao of Ha Giang, Cao Bang, Tuyen Quang, Thai Nguyen, and Bac Can
    • Kem Mien: Coin Dao of Hoa Binh and Son La
    • Quần Chẹt Mien: Hoa Binh, Son La, Tuyen Quang, Bac Can (also called the Dao Nga Hoàng, Dao Sơn Đầu)
    • Lô Gang Mien: Dao Lô Gang and Dao Đầu Trọc of Ha Giang, Cao Bang, Lang Son, and Mong Cai
  • Kim Mun groups
    • Kim Mun: Dao Làn Tiển 蓝靛瑶 (including the Dao Tuyển, Dao Áo Dài, and Dao Đầu Bằng)
    • Kim Meun: Dao Quần Trắng 白裤瑶 and Dao Thanh Y 青衣瑶

According to Doling (2010), only Kim Mun, Kim Mien, and Lô Gang may be found outside Vietnam.

Nguyen (2004:14-15, 128) lists Đại Bản, Tiểu Bản, Khố Bạch, and Làn Tiẻn as the 4 primary subdivisions of ethnic Yao in Vietnam.

  • Đại Bản
    • Dao Đỏ (Hùng Thầu Dào, Dao Coóc Ngáng, Dao Quý Lâm): located in Yen Bai, Lao Cai, Lai Chau, Tuyen Quang, Ha Giang, Cao Bang, Bac Kan, Thai Nguyen
    • Dao Quần Chẹt (Dao Sơn Đầu, Dao Tam Đảo, Dao Nga Hoàng): located in Hoa Binh, Ha Tay, Phu Tho, Vinh Yen, Son La, Yen Bai
    • Dao Thanh Phán (Dao Coóc Mùn, Dao Đội Ván, Dao Lô Gang, Dao Dụ Kiùn, Dao Thêu): located in Tuyen Quang, Bac Kan, Thai Nguyen, Lang Son, Quang Ninh, Bac Giang
  • Tiểu Bản
    • Dao Tiền (Dao Đeo Tiền): located in Hoa Binh, Phu Tho, Son La, Tuyen Quang, Cao Bang, Bac Kan
  • Khố Bạch
    • Dao Quần Trắng: located in Yen Bai, Lao Cai, Tuyen Quang, Ha Giang (known as Dao Họ in Yen Bai, Lao Cai)
  • Làn Tiẻn
    • Dao Thanh Y: located in Tuyen Quang, Bac Giang, Quang Ninh
    • Dao Áo Dài (Dao Tuyển, Dao Chàm, Dao Slán Chỉ): located in Yen Bai, Lao Cai, Tuyen Quang, Ha Giang, Bac Kan

In China, Yao peoples are distributed primarily in the provinces Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan. Ethnic groups derived from the Yao of China are found in Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand.

Guizhou

The Yao of Guizhou are found in the following locations (Guizhou Province Almanac 贵州志 2002).

  • Libo County: townships of Yaoshan 瑶山, Yaolu 瑶麓, and Yao'ai 瑶埃
  • Shiqian County (2,522 people): 9 Yao villages including Leijiatun 雷家屯 and Wurongguan 乌荣关 of Beita Township 北塔乡, and Shuiwei Village of Huaqiao Township 花桥乡水尾村
  • Wangmo County: the 4 villages of Shangyoumai 上油迈, Xiaoyoumai 下油迈, Xinzhai 新寨, and Jiaxian 加现 in Youmai Township 油迈瑶族乡
  • Majiang County: 23 Yao villages in Longshan Township 龙山乡, including Heba 河坝 (with 6,474 people)
  • Liping County
    • Shunhua Township 顺化瑶族乡 (1,316 people in 1992): Gongcun 贡村, Gaoka 高卡, Yibuwan 已补晚, Yishu 已树; Gaozizhai of Gaoshu Village 高抒村高仔寨
    • Leidong Township 雷洞瑶族水族乡 (1,576 people in 1992): Jinchengzhai 金城寨 and Yibizhai 已毕寨 of Jincheng Village 金城村, Sanshanzhai of Xilao Village 戏劳村三山寨; Cenpangzhai 岑胖寨, Nongbozhai 弄播寨, Yunnanzhai 云南寨
  • Congjiang County: 2 subgroups of Red Yao 红瑶 and Pan Yao 盘瑶
    • Red Yao 红瑶
      • Cuili Township 翠里瑶族壮族乡: Gaomang 高忙, Xinzhai 新寨, Shujiawan 舒家湾, Wucai 乌菜, Jiage 架格, Baiyanchong 白岩冲, Raojia 饶家
      • Jiabang Township 加榜乡: Dazhou 达州村
    • Pan Yao 盘瑶
      • Xishan Township 西山镇: Cengang 岑杠, Gaojiao 高脚, Qiuka 秋卡
      • Douli Township 斗里乡: Dengmian 登面, Changka 长卡, Gaoliu 高柳, Beitong 碑痛
      • Xiutang Township 秀塘壮族乡: Dage 打格, Yusha 雨沙, Jiujia 九甲, Baidao 摆倒, Wubu 乌布, Xilin 细林
      • Zaibian Township 宰便镇: Zezhui 怎追
      • Xiajiang Township 下江镇: Huanglang 黄郎
      • Yongli Township 拥里乡: Dashan 大山, Laozhai 老寨, Gangbian 刚边, Huangnijing 黄泥井
      • Donglang Township 东郎乡: Baidui 摆堆
  • Rongjiang County
    • Tashi Township 塔石瑶族水族乡 (2,979 people): Zedong 怎东村, Zaiyong 宰勇村, Dangxiang 党相村, Tashi 塔石村, Dangdiao 党调村, Zeba 怎贝村, Qiaoyang 乔央村.
    • Pingjiang Township 平江乡: Jijiaoba 鸡脚坝, Balu 巴鲁
    • Pingyong Township 平永镇: Sanbuqiao 三步桥, Qiaohai 乔亥
    • Sanjiang Township 三江乡: Wuhong 乌洪
    • Liangwang Township 两汪乡: Cen'ao 岑熬
    • Pingyou Township 平尤乡: Shuangxikou 双溪口, Bakai 八开
  • Leishan County
    • Dadi Township 达地镇: Longtanggou 龙塘沟, Paisong 排松, Pingzhai 平寨, Laozhai 老寨, Beilue 背略, Pangjia 庞家, Jieli 皆力, Gaolue 高略, Tongwu 同乌, Yeliao 也辽, Xiaowu 小巫, Baimizhai 白米寨, Hebian 河边
    • Liuwu Township 柳乌乡: Liuwu 柳乌
    • Qiaosang Township 乔桑乡: Xiagaojian 下高枧
    • Gulu Township 固鲁乡: Nanping 南屏
  • Danzhai County: Pailu 排路, Yangwu 杨武, Jiapei 加配
  • Jianhe County: Zhandi Village, Taiyong Township 太拥乡展迪村
  • Sandu County: Wuxia 巫不, Pu'an 普安, Jiaxiong 甲雄, Shangjiang 上江, Niuchang 牛场
  • Luodian County: Ankang 安抗 of Luotuo 罗妥; Naji 纳吉, Nakao 纳考, Nanao 纳闹, Luoyang 罗羊, Longping 龙坪, Bianyang 边阳 of Fengting 风亭
  • Ziyun County (297 people): Tangguan Village, Maoping Township 茅坪塘贯村
  • Guanling County (189 people)

The Yao of Guizhou have various autonyms, such as:

  • toŋ55 mo55 (董蒙), in Yaoshan 瑶山, Libo County. The Buyi people call them ʑou21.
  • nu55 hou33 (努侯), in Yaolu 瑶麓, Libo County. The Shui people call them miou35 lo55.
  • tuŋ33 muŋ33 (东蒙), in Yao'ai 瑶埃, Libo County. The Buyi people call them ʑou21.
  • maŋ55 (满), in Youmai 油迈, Wangmo County.
  • ʑoŋ21 min21 (容棉), in Rongjiang, Leishan, Danzhai, Jianhe, Congjiang, and Sandu Counties.
Yao autonomous prefectures and counties in China.

Hunan

Some subgroups of ethnic Yao in Hunan include:

  • Pan Yao 盘瑶 (Mian 勉): in Jianghua, Chenxian, Lanshan, Ningyuan, Daoxian, Guiyang, Lingling, Chengbu, Chenxi, Xinning; speak a Mienic language.
  • Guoshan Yao 过山瑶: in Jianghua, Lanshan, Ningyuan; speak a Mienic language.
  • Huajiao Yao 花脚瑶 (Wunai 唔奈): in Longhui, Tongdao, Xupu, Chenxi; speak a Hmongic language.
  • Badong Yao 八峒瑶 (Batong Yao 八垌瑶): in Xinning. The Badong Yao speak an endangered Sinitic language. It is spoken in the villages of Huangyandong 黄岩峒, Malindong 麻林峒, and Dazhendong 大圳峒 in Huangjin Ethnic Yao Township 黄金瑶族乡, Xinning County.
  • Pingdi Yao 平地瑶 (Bingduoyou 炳多尤): in Jianghua, Jiangyong, and speak a Chinese dialect.
  • Qixing Yao 七姓瑶: in Chenxi, and speak a Chinese dialect.

The Hunan Province Gazetteer (1997) gives the following autonyms for various peoples classified by the Chinese government as Yao.

  • ju21 mien21 尤棉: in much of Xiangxi Prefecture
  • tom21pen21 ju21 董本尤: in Xintian County, Yizhang County, Changning County
  • ku21goŋ55 ju21 谷岗尤: in Lanshan County, Jianghua County
  • thou21 ju21 土尤
  • dzau21 min21 藻敏: in Shuangpai County, Dao County, Ningyuan County
  • Donglixiao 洞里销: in Xinning County; also called Bunu 布努, Donglixiao 峒里俏, or Dong Yao 峒瑶 (Xinning County Gazetteer 2009). Their language is called Donghua 峒话.
  • mm21 nai33 唔奈: in Longhui County, Xupu County
  • piŋ21 toa52 jeu21 炳多尤 (also called Dainaijiang 代奈江): in Jianghua County, Jiangyong County

Tan Xiaoping (2012) also gives the following autonyms for Yao subgroups of Jiangyong County.

  • mjəŋ31
  • jəu31 mjən31 优勉
  • i31 mjəŋ31 壹勉
  • iou231 ȵie231 优尼
  • piu42tau42 iou42 炳多优

The Yao of Shaoyang Prefecture are found in the following locations (Shaoyang Prefecture Gazetteer 1997). Population statistics are from 1990.

  • Xinning County (12,756 Yao persons): Malin 麻林乡, Huangjin 黄金乡, Jingwei 靖位乡 (in Yuanshui 源水瑶族村)
  • Dongkou County (8,473 Yao persons): Naxi 𦰡溪乡 (那溪乡), Changtang 长塘乡, Dawu 大屋乡; Yuexi 月溪, Zhaping 渣坪, Tongshan 桐山
  • Longhui County (6,151 Yao persons): Huxingshan 虎形山乡, Mao'ao 茅坳乡, Xiaoshajiang 小沙江镇, Qingshan 青山, Matangshan 麻塘山
  • Chengbu County (2,276 Yao persons): Lanrong 兰蓉, Qingyuan 清源, Dayang 大阳, Tingping 汀坪, Pengdong 蓬洞, Yangmei 杨梅
  • Suining County (1,641 Yao persons): Jinta 金趿, Shuikou 水口

The Shaoyang Prefecture Gazetteer (1997) reports that the Yao of Shaoyang Prefecture, Hunan speak the following languages.

The following population statistics of ethnic Yao in Hunan are from the 1990 Chinese census, as given in the Hunan Province Gazetteer (1997).

Population of
ethnic Yao in Hunan
County Population (1990)
Jianghua 210,944
Jiangyong 62,647
Dao 26,771
Ningyuan 16,361
Lanshan 16,123
Shuangpai 7,206
Xintian 6,295
Qiyang 3,209
Chenxi 26,132
Xupu 13,989
Qianyang 3,264
Huaihua 2,066
Tongdao 1,657
Xinning 12,756
Dongkou 8,473
Longhui 6,151
Chenzhou 5,872
Yizhang 4,145
Zixing 3,999
Guiyang 2,323
Changning 1,085
Total 460,667

By county

County-level distribution of the Yao 2000 census

(Only counties or county equivalents with more than.1% of county population are shown.)

County/City Yao % Yao Total
Hu'nan province 1.11 704,564 63,274,173
Dongkou county 1,55 11,639 752,581
Xinning county 2,59 14,438 557,120
Chenzhou city 1,63 70,513 4,324,812
Beihu district 1,25 3,921 314,477
Rucheng county 15,45 52,955 342,861
Zixing city 1,22 4,284 351,581
Yongzhou city 9,57 513,831 5,367,106
Shuangpai county 4,90 7,916 161,510
Dao county 5,92 36,938 624,199
Jiangyong county 62,39 147,164 235,893
Ningyuan county 2,16 15,943 738,259
Lanshan county 5,29 17,608 332937
Xintian county 1,82 6,541 358831
Jihua Yao autonomous county 61,87 270,889 437835
Huaihua city 1,55 71,952 4639738
Zhongfang county 1,33 3,147 236675
Chenxi county 6,77 32,405 478708
Xupu county 3,18 25,398 798983
Hongjiang city 1,47 7,137 485061
Guangdong province 0,24 202,667 85225007
Shaoguan city 1,13 31,042 2735433
Shixing county 2,00 4,115 205684
Ruyuan Yao autonomous county 10,75 19,121 177894
Longmen county 2,51 6,726 267949
Qingyuan city 3,05 96,043 3146713
Lianshan Zhuang Yao autonomous county 14,33 14,195 99070
Liannan Yao autonomous county 52,29 69,968 133814
Lianzhou city 1,31 5,366 409360
Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region 3,36 1,471,946 43854538
Xincheng district 1,30 5,560 426346
Chengbei district 1,50 5,901 392726
Shijiao district 1,15 2,949 256730
Guilin city 8,15 375,902 4614670
Xiufeng district 1,63 2,050 125924
Diecai district 1,72 2,312 134401
Xiangshan district 1,42 3,527 249135
Qixing district 1,76 4,003 227278
Lingui county 3,53 14,957 424182
Lingchuan county 3,20 10,169 318036
Quanzhou county 4,29 27,984 652963
Xing'an county 2,35 8,317 353920
Yongfu county 3,48 8,202 235368
Guanyang county 7,77 17,971 231288
Longshenggezu autonomous county 17,56 28,237 160796
Ziyuan county 3,19 5,014 156946
Pingle county 14,08 55,553 394575
Lipu county 7,48 25,893 346169
Gongcheng Yao autonomous county 58,60 158,937 271216
Wuzhou city 1,15 32,021 2796087
Mengshan county 12,02 22,587 187918
Fangchenggang city 4,63 34,074 735952
Gangkou district 1,37 1,462 106403
Fangcheng district 6,59 20,840 316111
Shangsi county 4,22 8,666 205307
Dongxing city 2,87 3,106 108131
Guigang city 1,86 71,063 3827945
Pingnan county 6,29 66,391 1055782
Nanning prefecture 1,43 68,975 4839536
Shanglin county 6,50 24,697 379986
Mashan county 8,48 33,873 399439
Liuzhou prefecture 3,57 125,839 3522322
Heshan city 1,87 2,452 131,249
Luzhai county 2,01 8,424 418665
Laibin county 1,25 10,475 839790
Rong'an county 1,88 5,313 283029
Sanjiang Dong autonomous county 3,88 11,798 304,149
Rongshui Miao autonomous county 6,48 27,560 425,608
Jinxiu Yao autonomous county 37,45 50,532 134,934
Xincheng county 2,05 7,051 343,556
Hezhou prefecture 12,49 241,822 1,936,849
Hezhou city 4,84 41,130 850,023
Zhaoping county 4,46 15,746 353,298
Zhongshan county 8,75 40241 460021
Fuchuan Yao autonomous county 52,91 144,705 273,507
Baise prefecture 3,82 127,351 3,332,096
Baise city 3,29 11,211 340,483
Tiandong county 4,63 16,674 360,123
Pingguo county 4,16 16,344 392,800
Debao county 1,84 5,085 276,335
Napo county 2,74 4,661 170,158
Lingyun county 21,05 36,954 175,573
Leye county 1,97 2,857 144,816
Tianlin county 11,64 27,559 236,799
Xilin county 3,54 4,934 139,282
Hechi prefecture 9,93 349,819 3,523,693
Hechi city 2,31 7,355 318,348
Yizhou city 5,54 30,436 549,434
Luocheng Mulao autonomous county 1,21 3,903 322,116
Huanjiang Maonan autonomous county 5,36 17,807 332,067
Nandan county 9,18 29,284 318,844
Tian'e county 2,44 3,461 141,649
Fengshan county 7,71 12,714 164,807
Donglan county 4,29 10,581 246,715
Bama Yao autonomous county 17,24 37,706 218,724
Du'an Yao autonomous county 21,66 117,609 543,019
Dahua Yao autonomous county 21,46 78,963 367,970
Guizhou province 0,13 44,392 35,247,695
Liping county 1,10 5,046 458,533
Rongjiang county 1,70 5,101 300,369
Congjiang county 2,04 6,158 301,513
Majiang county 3,35 6,807 203,481
Libo county 3,45 5,915 171,366
Yunnan province 0,45 190,610 42,360,089
Honghe Hani Yi autonomous prefecture 1,86 76,947 4,130,463
Yuanyang county 2,18 7,922 362,950
Jinping Miao Yao Dai autonomous county 12,00 37,937 316,171
Lüchun county 3,46 6,968 201,256
Hekou Yao autonomous county 22,10 21,097 95,451
Wenshan Zhuang Miao autonomous prefecture 2,50 81,774 3,268,553
Malipo county 7,06 18,926 267,986
Guangnan county 2,16 15,781 730,376
Funing county 10,35 39,646 382,913
Jingdong Yi autonomous county 1,15 4,063 352,089
Jiangcheng Hani Yi autonomous county 3,94 3,946 100,243
Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture 1,88 18,679 993,397
Mengla county 6,77 15,944 235,657

After 1982, the Guangxi Nationality Institute and the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences together created a new Yao writing system which was unified with the research results of the Yao-American scholar Yuēsè Hòu (Traditional Chinese: 約瑟·候/Simplified Chinese: 约瑟·候). The writing system was finalized in 1984 in Ruyuan County( Chinese characters: 乳源瑤族自治縣), Guangdong, which included Chinese professors Pan Chengqian (盤承乾/盘承乾), Deng Fanggui (鄧方貴/邓方贵), Liu Baoyuan (劉保元/刘保元), Su Defu (蘇德富/苏德富) and Yauz Mengh Borngh; Chinese government officials; Mien Americans Sengfo Chao (Zhao Fuming), Kao Chiem Chao (Zhao Youcai), and Chua Meng Chao; David T. Lee.

American linguist Herbert C. Purnell developed a curriculum and workshop presentations on language learning in East and Southeast Asia, as well as Yao Seng Deng from Thailand. The US delegation took the new writing system to the Iu Mien community in the United States where it was adopted with a vote of 78 to 7 by a conference of Mien American community leaders.[6] This writing system based on the Latin alphabet was designed to be pan-dialectal; it distinguishes 30 syllable initials, 121 syllable finals and eight tones.

For an example of how the unified alphabet is used to write Iu Mien, a common Yao language, see Iu Mien language.

There is a separate written standard for Bunu, since it is from the Hmong/Miao side, rather than the Mien/Yao side, of the Miao–Yao language family.

Some people think that a variety of Yao is, or was, written in Nüshu, an indigenous script in Southern part of Hunan Province in China. But this connection between Yao language and Nüshu is disputed, because Nüshu more likely recorded local Chinese dialect which might be also known by Yao people in Hunan.

Officially illiteracy and semi-literacy among the Yao in China still stood at 40.6% in 2002.

  • This article incorporates text from The Chinese times, Volume 4, a publication from 1890, now in the public domain in the United States.
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Films

Wikimedia Commons has media related toYao people.

Yao people
Yao people Language Watch Edit This article is about the Yao ethnic group in Asia For the people of Africa see Yao people East Africa For other people called Yao see Yao disambiguation Mien redirects here For other uses see Mien disambiguation The Yao people its majority branch is also known as Mien simplified Chinese 瑶族 traditional Chinese 瑤族 pinyin Yaozu Vietnamese người Dao is a government classification for various minorities in China and Vietnam They are one of the 55 officially recognised ethnic minorities in China and reside in the mountainous terrain of the southwest and south They also form one of the 54 ethnic groups officially recognised by Vietnam In China in the last census in 2000 they numbered 2 637 421 and in Vietnam census in 2019 they numbered 891 151 1 Yao people瑶族A Yao woman Tiantouzhai Longji Terraces China November 2010Total population3 500 000 Regions with significant populations China 2 637 421 2000 Vietnam 891 151 2019 1 LanguagesMienic languages Bunu Pa Hng Lakkja Mandarin Chinese Shaozhou Tuhua Vietnamese EnglishReligionPredominantly Yao folk religion minority BuddhismYao peopleChinese瑶族TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinYao zuIPA ja u tsu WuRomanizationyau zohHakkaRomanizationYau tshu kYue CantoneseYale Romanizationyiuh juhkJyutpingjiu4 zuk6Southern MinHokkien POJIau cho kTeochew Peng imIeu tsokEastern MinFuzhou BUCIeu cŭk Contents 1 History 1 1 Early history 1 2 Laotian Civil War 1 3 Immigration to the United States 2 Culture society and economy 3 Religion 4 Groups and languages 4 1 Mao 2004 4 2 Plains Yao 4 3 Vietnam 5 Distribution 5 1 Guizhou 5 2 Hunan 5 3 By county 6 Written languages 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 9 1 Films 10 External linksHistory EditEarly history Edit The origins of the Yao can be traced back 2000 years starting in Hunan The Yao and Hmong were among the rebels during the Miao Rebellions against the Ming dynasty As the Han Chinese expanded into South China the Yao retreated into the highlands between Hunan and Guizhou to the north and Guangdong and Guangxi to the south and stretching into Eastern Yunnan 2 Around 1890 the Guangdong government started taking action against Yao in Northwestern Guangdong 3 The first Chinese exonym for Yao people was the graphic pejorative yao 猺 犭 dog radical and yao 䍃 phonetic jackal with twentieth century reforms this was changed to yao precious jade Laotian Civil War Edit During the Laotian Civil War the Yao tribes of Laos had a good relationship with U S forces and were dubbed to be an efficient friendly force They fought in favour of the South Vietnamese government against the communists 4 This relationship caused the new communist Laotian government to target Yao tribal groups for revenge once the war was over This triggered further immigration into Thailand where the tribes would be put into camps along the Thailand Laos border Immigration to the United States Edit After obtaining refugee status from the Thai government and with the help of the United Nations many Yao people were able to obtain sponsorship into the United States although many remain in Thailand Most of the Yao who have immigrated to the United States have settled along the Western part of the U S mainly in Central and Northern California such as Visalia Oakland Oroville Redding Richmond Sacramento but also in parts of Oregon like Portland Salem and Beaverton as well as the state of Washington in Seattle and Renton See Mien American for those identified as Mien Culture society and economy Edit A Yao child with traditional dress in Guangxi A red Yao woman in Vietnam Yao society is traditionally patrilineal with sons inheriting from their fathers The Yao follow patrilocal residence 5 The Yao people have been farmers for over a thousand years mostly rice cultivation through plowing although a few practice slash and burn agriculture Where the Yao live nearby forested regions they also engage in hunting 5 During the Southern Song 1127 1279 an imperial Chinese observer Zhou Qufei described the Yao as wearing distinctive fine blue clothing produced using indigo 6 The Yao celebrate their Pan Wang King Pan festival annually on the sixteenth day of the tenth lunar month The festival celebrates the mythical original story of the Yao people and has evolved into a happy holiday for the Yao to celebrate a good harvest and worship their ancestors 7 Religion EditMain article Yao folk religion Daoism has historically been important to the Yao 8 Jinag Yingliang in a 1948 study argued that Yao religion was characterized by 1 a process of Han Chinese influenced Daoisation Chinese 道教化 pinyin Daojiao hua 2 the endurance of pre Daoist folk religion and 3 some Buddhist beliefs The description of Yao religion is similar to the definition of Chinese folk religion as described by Arthur Wolf and Steve Sangren 9 Scholar Zhang Youjun takes issue with claims of strong Buddhist influence on the Yao arguing that although Yao ritual texts contain Buddhist expression the Yao do not believe in Buddhism at all They are resolutely Taoist 9 Groups and languages Edit A Yao stilt house in Vietnam There are several distinct groups within the Yao nationality and they speak several different languages The Iu Mien comprise 70 of the Yao population citation needed Hmong Mien languages Red Yao Village ChiefThe Mien speak Mienic languages simplified Chinese 勉语 traditional Chinese 勉語 pinyin Miǎnyǔ including Mian Jin languages Iu Mien 2 172 000 speakers 1 699 750 in China 350 000 in Vietnam 40 000 in Thailand 20 250 in Laos 60 000 in the United States 2 000 in France 1 Kim Mun also known as Lanten more than 300 000 Yao people 2 Biao Mon 20 000 speakers 3 Dzao Min 60 000 speakers 4 Biao Min 43 000 speakers 5 Hmongic languages Bunu languages Pa Hng Younuo Kiong Nai Lakkja language a Tai Kadai language Chinese about 500 000 Yao speak Chinese dialects In addition to China Yao also live in northern Vietnam where they are called Dao northern Laos and Myanmar There are around 60 000 Yao in northern Thailand where they are one of the six main hill tribes The lowland living Lanten of Laos who speak Kim Mun and the highland living Iu Mien of Laos are two different Yao groups There are also many Iu Mien Americans mainly refugees from the highlands of Laos The Iu Mien do not call themselves Yao Not all Yao are Iu Mien A group of 61 000 people on Hainan speak the Yao language Kim Mun 139 000 speakers of Kim Mun live in other parts of China Yunnan and Guangxi and 174 500 live in Laos and Vietnam 10 The Bunu people call themselves Nuox no13 Buod nuox po43 no13 Dungb nuox tuŋ33no13 or their official name Yaof zuf ʑau21su21 Only 258 000 of the 439 000 people categorised as Bunu in the 1982 census speak Bunu 100 000 speak the Tai Kadai Zhuang languages and 181 000 speak Chinese and the Tai Kadai Bouyei language citation needed Mao 2004 Edit Mao Zongwu 2004 7 8 11 gives a detailed list of various Yao endonyms i e self designated names and the Chinese names of various groups and clans associated with them Endonyms are written in the International Phonetic Alphabet with numerical Chao tones Autonym mjen31 勉 or ju31 mjen31 优勉 Pangu Yao 盘古瑶 Pan Yao 盘瑶 Panhu Yao 盘瓠瑶 Trans Mountain Guoshan Yao 过山瑶 Large Board Daban Yao 大板瑶 Small Board Xiaoban Yao 小板瑶 Board Ban Yao 板瑶 Top Board Dingban Yao 顶板瑶 Sharp Headed Jiantou Yao 尖头瑶 Level Headed Pingtou Yao 平头瑶 Red Head Hongtou Yao 红头瑶 Arrow Pole Jian gan Yao 箭杆瑶 Cattle Horn Yao Niujiao 牛角瑶 Tu Yao 土瑶 in Hezhou Guangxi Native Bendi Yao 本地瑶 Flowery Hua Yao 花瑶 in Yangshuo County Guangxi Ao Yao 坳瑶 Zheng Yao 正瑶 Liang Yao 粮瑶 Autonym kim33 mun33 金门 or kem53 di35 mun21 甘迪门 Blue Indigo Landian Yao 蓝靛瑶 Shanzi Yao 山子瑶 Flowery Headed Huatou Yao 花头瑶 Sand Sha Yao 沙瑶 Level Headed Pingtou Yao 平头瑶 Bazi Yao 坝子瑶 Autonym bjau31 mɔn31 标曼 or ɕi31 mun31 史门 Min Yao 民瑶 Four Great Min Yao 四大民瑶 Autonym bjau31 min31 标敏 or tɕau44 koŋ55 meŋ55 交公勉 East Mountain Dongshan Yao 东山瑶 in Quanzhou County Guangxi Dog Headed Goutou Yao 狗头瑶 Autonym dzau53 min53 藻勉 Bapai Yao 八排瑶 Autonym ju21 ŋjɛn25 优念 pjoŋ31 toa53 jeu31 炳多优 or ʂan33 tɕai33 珊介 Red Yao 红瑶 in Longsheng Various Nationalities Autonomous County Guangxi Plains Pingdi Yao 平地瑶 Autonym pu53 nu25 布努 Beilou Yao 背篓瑶 Beilong Yao 背陇瑶 West Mountain Xishan Yao 西山瑶 East Mountain Yao Dongshan 东山瑶 in Bama Yao Autonomous County Guangxi Tudi Yao 土地瑶 Tu Yao 土瑶 in Pingguo County and Mashan County Guangxi Mountain Shan Yao 山瑶 Man Yao 蛮瑶 East Valley Dongnong Yao 东弄瑶 West Valley Xinong Yao 西弄瑶 Fan Yao 反瑶 Anding Yao 安定瑶 White Yao 白瑶 Black Yao 黑瑶 Black Trouser Heiku Yao 黑裤瑶 Long Shirt Changshan Yao 长衫瑶 Autonym nau35 klau42 瑙格劳 or pou22 nou12 包诺 Siting Yao 四亭瑶 Situan Yao 四团瑶 Autonym kjɔŋ33 nai33 炯奈 Hualan Yao 花蓝瑶 Autonym pa31 ŋ ŋ35 巴哼 Dog Yao 狗瑶 Eight Surname Baxing Yao 八姓瑶 Red Yao 红瑶 in Liping and Congjiang Counties of Guizhou Rongshui Miao Autonomous County and Longsheng Various Nationalities Autonomous County of Guangxi Wood Yao 木瑶 Autonym m n33 nai33 唔奈 Flowery Yao 花瑶 in Longhui Dongkou Chenxi and Xupu County and the Tongdao Dong Autonomous County of Hunan Autonym ʑou13 nɔ13 优诺 Red Yao 红瑶 Autonym lak25 kja25 拉珈 Tea Mountain Chashan Yao 茶山瑶Plains Yao Edit Groups considered to be Plains Yao Pingdi Yao 平地瑶 include citation needed Autonym Bingduoyou 炳多尤 Pingdi Yao 平地瑶 Dainaijiang 代奈江 in Jianghua Yao Autonomous County 江华 of Hunan Gongcheng 恭城 Fuchuan 富川 Zhongshan 钟山 and Lingui 临桂 counties of Guangxi Autonym Yeheni 爷贺尼 Pingdi Yao 平地瑶 in Jianghua Yao Autonomous County 江华 Hunan Jianghua County Almanac The Yeheni speak a divergent Chinese dialect It is spoken in Taoxu Town 涛圩镇 and Helukou Town 河路口镇 in Jianghua County Hunan 12 Autonym Younian 优念 Pinghua speaking Red Yao 平话红瑶 ʑou13 ȵen13 in Longsheng 龙胜 and Guanyang 灌阳 counties of Guangxi According to Chen Qiguang 2013 30 13 the ʑeu21 ȵien21 number about 10 000 speakers in Sishui 泗水 Madi 马堤 Mengshan 孟山 Jiangliu 江柳 and other locations of Longsheng County Autonym Shanjie 珊介 Shanzi Yao 山仔瑶 in Fangcheng 防城 Guangxi Autonym Youjia 优嘉 Yaojia 瑶家 in Guanyang County 灌阳 Guangxi Jingdong Yao 景东县瑶族 autonym Lewu people 乐舞人 Jingdong County 景东彝族自治县 Yunnan According to the Jingdong County Almanac 1994 519 ethnic Yao numbered 3 889 individuals in 1990 and lived mainly in Chaqing 岔箐 14 and Dasongshu 大松树 15 of Taizhong 太忠乡 Vietnam Edit Tim Doling 2010 82 83 lists the following Yao spelled Dao in the Vietnamese alphabet subgroups in northern Vietnam 16 Mienic groups Iu Mien Black Dao of Dien Bien and Lai Chau Red Dao of southern Lao Cai Yen Bai and Son La Kim Mien Dao Ta Pan 大板瑶 Dao Đại Bản Dao Cooc Ngang 17 Dao Sừng 18 of Ha Giang Cao Bang and Yen Bai Red Dao of northern and eastern Lao Cai Hongtou Red Dao 红头瑶 in northern Lai Chau Kiem Mien Red Dao of Sa Pa Kam Mien Coin Dao of Ha Giang Cao Bang Tuyen Quang Thai Nguyen and Bac Can Kem Mien Coin Dao of Hoa Binh and Son La Quần Chẹt Mien Hoa Binh Son La Tuyen Quang Bac Can also called the Dao Nga Hoang Dao Sơn Đầu 18 Lo Gang Mien Dao Lo Gang and Dao Đầu Trọc of Ha Giang Cao Bang Lang Son and Mong Cai Kim Mun groups Kim Mun Dao Lan Tiển 蓝靛瑶 including the Dao Tuyển Dao Ao Dai and Dao Đầu Bằng Kim Meun Dao Quần Trắng 白裤瑶 and Dao Thanh Y 青衣瑶 According to Doling 2010 only Kim Mun Kim Mien and Lo Gang may be found outside Vietnam Nguyen 2004 14 15 128 lists Đại Bản Tiểu Bản Khố Bạch and Lan Tiẻn as the 4 primary subdivisions of ethnic Yao in Vietnam 19 Đại Bản Dao Đỏ Hung Thầu Dao Dao Cooc Ngang Dao Quy Lam located in Yen Bai Lao Cai Lai Chau Tuyen Quang Ha Giang Cao Bang Bac Kan Thai Nguyen Dao Quần Chẹt Dao Sơn Đầu Dao Tam Đảo Dao Nga Hoang located in Hoa Binh Ha Tay Phu Tho Vinh Yen Son La Yen Bai Dao Thanh Phan Dao Cooc Mun Dao Đội Van Dao Lo Gang Dao Dụ Kiun Dao Theu located in Tuyen Quang Bac Kan Thai Nguyen Lang Son Quang Ninh Bac Giang Tiểu Bản Dao Tiền Dao Đeo Tiền located in Hoa Binh Phu Tho Son La Tuyen Quang Cao Bang Bac Kan Khố Bạch Dao Quần Trắng located in Yen Bai Lao Cai Tuyen Quang Ha Giang known as Dao Họ in Yen Bai Lao Cai Lan Tiẻn Dao Thanh Y located in Tuyen Quang Bac Giang Quang Ninh Dao Ao Dai Dao Tuyển Dao Cham Dao Slan Chỉ located in Yen Bai Lao Cai Tuyen Quang Ha Giang Bac KanDistribution EditIn China Yao peoples are distributed primarily in the provinces Hunan Guangdong Guangxi Guizhou and Yunnan Ethnic groups derived from the Yao of China are found in Vietnam Laos and Thailand Guizhou Edit The Yao of Guizhou are found in the following locations Guizhou Province Almanac 贵州志 2002 20 Libo County townships of Yaoshan 瑶山 Yaolu 瑶麓 and Yao ai 瑶埃 Shiqian County 2 522 people 9 Yao villages including Leijiatun 雷家屯 and Wurongguan 乌荣关 of Beita Township 北塔乡 and Shuiwei Village of Huaqiao Township 花桥乡水尾村 Wangmo County the 4 villages of Shangyoumai 上油迈 Xiaoyoumai 下油迈 Xinzhai 新寨 and Jiaxian 加现 in Youmai Township 油迈瑶族乡 Majiang County 23 Yao villages in Longshan Township 龙山乡 including Heba 河坝 with 6 474 people Liping County Shunhua Township 顺化瑶族乡 1 316 people in 1992 Gongcun 贡村 Gaoka 高卡 Yibuwan 已补晚 Yishu 已树 Gaozizhai of Gaoshu Village 高抒村高仔寨 Leidong Township 雷洞瑶族水族乡 1 576 people in 1992 Jinchengzhai 金城寨 and Yibizhai 已毕寨 of Jincheng Village 金城村 Sanshanzhai of Xilao Village 戏劳村三山寨 Cenpangzhai 岑胖寨 Nongbozhai 弄播寨 Yunnanzhai 云南寨 Congjiang County 2 subgroups of Red Yao 红瑶 and Pan Yao 盘瑶 Red Yao 红瑶 Cuili Township 翠里瑶族壮族乡 Gaomang 高忙 Xinzhai 新寨 Shujiawan 舒家湾 Wucai 乌菜 Jiage 架格 Baiyanchong 白岩冲 Raojia 饶家 Jiabang Township 加榜乡 Dazhou 达州村 Pan Yao 盘瑶 Xishan Township 西山镇 Cengang 岑杠 Gaojiao 高脚 Qiuka 秋卡 Douli Township 斗里乡 Dengmian 登面 Changka 长卡 Gaoliu 高柳 Beitong 碑痛 Xiutang Township 秀塘壮族乡 Dage 打格 Yusha 雨沙 Jiujia 九甲 Baidao 摆倒 Wubu 乌布 Xilin 细林 Zaibian Township 宰便镇 Zezhui 怎追 Xiajiang Township 下江镇 Huanglang 黄郎 Yongli Township 拥里乡 Dashan 大山 Laozhai 老寨 Gangbian 刚边 Huangnijing 黄泥井 Donglang Township 东郎乡 Baidui 摆堆 Rongjiang County Tashi Township 塔石瑶族水族乡 2 979 people Zedong 怎东村 Zaiyong 宰勇村 Dangxiang 党相村 Tashi 塔石村 Dangdiao 党调村 Zeba 怎贝村 Qiaoyang 乔央村 Pingjiang Township 平江乡 Jijiaoba 鸡脚坝 Balu 巴鲁 Pingyong Township 平永镇 Sanbuqiao 三步桥 Qiaohai 乔亥 Sanjiang Township 三江乡 Wuhong 乌洪 Liangwang Township 两汪乡 Cen ao 岑熬 Pingyou Township 平尤乡 Shuangxikou 双溪口 Bakai 八开 Leishan County Dadi Township 达地镇 Longtanggou 龙塘沟 Paisong 排松 Pingzhai 平寨 Laozhai 老寨 Beilue 背略 Pangjia 庞家 Jieli 皆力 Gaolue 高略 Tongwu 同乌 Yeliao 也辽 Xiaowu 小巫 Baimizhai 白米寨 Hebian 河边 Liuwu Township 柳乌乡 Liuwu 柳乌 Qiaosang Township 乔桑乡 Xiagaojian 下高枧 Gulu Township 固鲁乡 Nanping 南屏 Danzhai County Pailu 排路 Yangwu 杨武 Jiapei 加配 Jianhe County Zhandi Village Taiyong Township 太拥乡展迪村 Sandu County Wuxia 巫不 Pu an 普安 Jiaxiong 甲雄 Shangjiang 上江 Niuchang 牛场 Luodian County Ankang 安抗 of Luotuo 罗妥 Naji 纳吉 Nakao 纳考 Nanao 纳闹 Luoyang 罗羊 Longping 龙坪 Bianyang 边阳 of Fengting 风亭 Ziyun County 297 people Tangguan Village Maoping Township 茅坪塘贯村 Guanling County 189 people The Yao of Guizhou have various autonyms such as 20 toŋ55 mo55 董蒙 in Yaoshan 瑶山 Libo County The Buyi people call them ʑou21 nu55 hou33 努侯 in Yaolu 瑶麓 Libo County The Shui people call them miou35 lo55 tuŋ33 muŋ33 东蒙 in Yao ai 瑶埃 Libo County The Buyi people call them ʑou21 maŋ55 满 in Youmai 油迈 Wangmo County ʑoŋ21 min21 容棉 in Rongjiang Leishan Danzhai Jianhe Congjiang and Sandu Counties Yao autonomous prefectures and counties in China Hunan Edit Some subgroups of ethnic Yao in Hunan include 21 Pan Yao 盘瑶 Mian 勉 in Jianghua Chenxian Lanshan Ningyuan Daoxian Guiyang Lingling Chengbu Chenxi Xinning speak a Mienic language Guoshan Yao 过山瑶 in Jianghua Lanshan Ningyuan speak a Mienic language Huajiao Yao 花脚瑶 Wunai 唔奈 in Longhui Tongdao Xupu Chenxi speak a Hmongic language Badong Yao 八峒瑶 Batong Yao 八垌瑶 in Xinning The Badong Yao speak an endangered Sinitic language It is spoken in the villages of Huangyandong 黄岩峒 Malindong 麻林峒 and Dazhendong 大圳峒 in Huangjin Ethnic Yao Township 黄金瑶族乡 Xinning County 22 Pingdi Yao 平地瑶 Bingduoyou 炳多尤 in Jianghua Jiangyong and speak a Chinese dialect Qixing Yao 七姓瑶 in Chenxi and speak a Chinese dialect The Hunan Province Gazetteer 1997 gives the following autonyms for various peoples classified by the Chinese government as Yao ju21 mien21 尤棉 in much of Xiangxi Prefecture tom21pen21 ju21 董本尤 in Xintian County Yizhang County Changning County ku21goŋ55 ju21 谷岗尤 in Lanshan County Jianghua County thou21 ju21 土尤 dzau21 min21 藻敏 in Shuangpai County Dao County Ningyuan County Donglixiao 洞里销 in Xinning County also called Bunu 布努 Donglixiao 峒里俏 or Dong Yao 峒瑶 Xinning County Gazetteer 2009 Their language is called Donghua 峒话 23 24 25 mm21 nai33 唔奈 in Longhui County Xupu County piŋ21 toa52 jeu21 炳多尤 also called Dainaijiang 代奈江 in Jianghua County Jiangyong County Tan Xiaoping 2012 26 also gives the following autonyms for Yao subgroups of Jiangyong County mjeŋ31 勉 jeu31 mjen31 优勉 i31 mjeŋ31 壹勉 iou231 ȵie231 优尼 piu42tau42 iou42 炳多优 The Yao of Shaoyang Prefecture are found in the following locations Shaoyang Prefecture Gazetteer 1997 Population statistics are from 1990 Xinning County 12 756 Yao persons Malin 麻林乡 Huangjin 黄金乡 Jingwei 靖位乡 in Yuanshui 源水瑶族村 Dongkou County 8 473 Yao persons Naxi 𦰡溪乡 那溪乡 Changtang 长塘乡 Dawu 大屋乡 Yuexi 月溪 Zhaping 渣坪 Tongshan 桐山 Longhui County 6 151 Yao persons Huxingshan 虎形山乡 Mao ao 茅坳乡 Xiaoshajiang 小沙江镇 Qingshan 青山 Matangshan 麻塘山 Chengbu County 2 276 Yao persons Lanrong 兰蓉 Qingyuan 清源 Dayang 大阳 Tingping 汀坪 Pengdong 蓬洞 Yangmei 杨梅 Suining County 1 641 Yao persons Jinta 金趿 Shuikou 水口 The Shaoyang Prefecture Gazetteer 1997 reports that the Yao of Shaoyang Prefecture Hunan speak the following languages Mienic languages Longhui County 隆回 Huxingshan 虎形山 Mao ao 茅坳 Xiaoshajiang 小沙江 Dongkou County 洞口 Dawu 大屋 Changtang 长塘 Chengbu County 城步 Qingyuan 清源 Lanrong 兰蓉 Hmongic languages Huangjin 黄金 and Malin 麻林 of Xinning County Southern Dong dialect Naxi 𦰡溪 那溪 Dongkou County and Lianmin 联民 Suining County The following population statistics of ethnic Yao in Hunan are from the 1990 Chinese census as given in the Hunan Province Gazetteer 1997 Population of ethnic Yao in Hunan County Population 1990 Jianghua 210 944Jiangyong 62 647Dao 26 771Ningyuan 16 361Lanshan 16 123Shuangpai 7 206Xintian 6 295Qiyang 3 209Chenxi 26 132Xupu 13 989Qianyang 3 264Huaihua 2 066Tongdao 1 657Xinning 12 756Dongkou 8 473Longhui 6 151Chenzhou 5 872Yizhang 4 145Zixing 3 999Guiyang 2 323Changning 1 085Total 460 667By county Edit County level distribution of the Yao 2000 census Only counties or county equivalents with more than 1 of county population are shown County City Yao Yao TotalHu nan province 1 11 704 564 63 274 173Dongkou county 1 55 11 639 752 581Xinning county 2 59 14 438 557 120Chenzhou city 1 63 70 513 4 324 812Beihu district 1 25 3 921 314 477Rucheng county 15 45 52 955 342 861Zixing city 1 22 4 284 351 581Yongzhou city 9 57 513 831 5 367 106Shuangpai county 4 90 7 916 161 510Dao county 5 92 36 938 624 199Jiangyong county 62 39 147 164 235 893Ningyuan county 2 16 15 943 738 259Lanshan county 5 29 17 608 332937Xintian county 1 82 6 541 358831Jihua Yao autonomous county 61 87 270 889 437835Huaihua city 1 55 71 952 4639738Zhongfang county 1 33 3 147 236675Chenxi county 6 77 32 405 478708Xupu county 3 18 25 398 798983Hongjiang city 1 47 7 137 485061Guangdong province 0 24 202 667 85225007Shaoguan city 1 13 31 042 2735433Shixing county 2 00 4 115 205684Ruyuan Yao autonomous county 10 75 19 121 177894Longmen county 2 51 6 726 267949Qingyuan city 3 05 96 043 3146713Lianshan Zhuang Yao autonomous county 14 33 14 195 99070Liannan Yao autonomous county 52 29 69 968 133814Lianzhou city 1 31 5 366 409360Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region 3 36 1 471 946 43854538Xincheng district 1 30 5 560 426346Chengbei district 1 50 5 901 392726Shijiao district 1 15 2 949 256730Guilin city 8 15 375 902 4614670Xiufeng district 1 63 2 050 125924Diecai district 1 72 2 312 134401Xiangshan district 1 42 3 527 249135Qixing district 1 76 4 003 227278Lingui county 3 53 14 957 424182Lingchuan county 3 20 10 169 318036Quanzhou county 4 29 27 984 652963Xing an county 2 35 8 317 353920Yongfu county 3 48 8 202 235368Guanyang county 7 77 17 971 231288Longshenggezu autonomous county 17 56 28 237 160796Ziyuan county 3 19 5 014 156946Pingle county 14 08 55 553 394575Lipu county 7 48 25 893 346169Gongcheng Yao autonomous county 58 60 158 937 271216Wuzhou city 1 15 32 021 2796087Mengshan county 12 02 22 587 187918Fangchenggang city 4 63 34 074 735952Gangkou district 1 37 1 462 106403Fangcheng district 6 59 20 840 316111Shangsi county 4 22 8 666 205307Dongxing city 2 87 3 106 108131Guigang city 1 86 71 063 3827945Pingnan county 6 29 66 391 1055782Nanning prefecture 1 43 68 975 4839536Shanglin county 6 50 24 697 379986Mashan county 8 48 33 873 399439Liuzhou prefecture 3 57 125 839 3522322Heshan city 1 87 2 452 131 249Luzhai county 2 01 8 424 418665Laibin county 1 25 10 475 839790Rong an county 1 88 5 313 283029Sanjiang Dong autonomous county 3 88 11 798 304 149Rongshui Miao autonomous county 6 48 27 560 425 608Jinxiu Yao autonomous county 37 45 50 532 134 934Xincheng county 2 05 7 051 343 556Hezhou prefecture 12 49 241 822 1 936 849Hezhou city 4 84 41 130 850 023Zhaoping county 4 46 15 746 353 298Zhongshan county 8 75 40241 460021Fuchuan Yao autonomous county 52 91 144 705 273 507Baise prefecture 3 82 127 351 3 332 096Baise city 3 29 11 211 340 483Tiandong county 4 63 16 674 360 123Pingguo county 4 16 16 344 392 800Debao county 1 84 5 085 276 335Napo county 2 74 4 661 170 158Lingyun county 21 05 36 954 175 573Leye county 1 97 2 857 144 816Tianlin county 11 64 27 559 236 799Xilin county 3 54 4 934 139 282Hechi prefecture 9 93 349 819 3 523 693Hechi city 2 31 7 355 318 348Yizhou city 5 54 30 436 549 434Luocheng Mulao autonomous county 1 21 3 903 322 116Huanjiang Maonan autonomous county 5 36 17 807 332 067Nandan county 9 18 29 284 318 844Tian e county 2 44 3 461 141 649Fengshan county 7 71 12 714 164 807Donglan county 4 29 10 581 246 715Bama Yao autonomous county 17 24 37 706 218 724Du an Yao autonomous county 21 66 117 609 543 019Dahua Yao autonomous county 21 46 78 963 367 970Guizhou province 0 13 44 392 35 247 695Liping county 1 10 5 046 458 533Rongjiang county 1 70 5 101 300 369Congjiang county 2 04 6 158 301 513Majiang county 3 35 6 807 203 481Libo county 3 45 5 915 171 366Yunnan province 0 45 190 610 42 360 089Honghe Hani Yi autonomous prefecture 1 86 76 947 4 130 463Yuanyang county 2 18 7 922 362 950Jinping Miao Yao Dai autonomous county 12 00 37 937 316 171Luchun county 3 46 6 968 201 256Hekou Yao autonomous county 22 10 21 097 95 451Wenshan Zhuang Miao autonomous prefecture 2 50 81 774 3 268 553Malipo county 7 06 18 926 267 986Guangnan county 2 16 15 781 730 376Funing county 10 35 39 646 382 913Jingdong Yi autonomous county 1 15 4 063 352 089Jiangcheng Hani Yi autonomous county 3 94 3 946 100 243Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture 1 88 18 679 993 397Mengla county 6 77 15 944 235 657Written languages EditAfter 1982 the Guangxi Nationality Institute and the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences together created a new Yao writing system which was unified with the research results of the Yao American scholar Yuese Hou Traditional Chinese 約瑟 候 Simplified Chinese 约瑟 候 The writing system was finalized in 1984 in Ruyuan County Chinese characters 乳源瑤族自治縣 Guangdong which included Chinese professors Pan Chengqian 盤承乾 盘承乾 Deng Fanggui 鄧方貴 邓方贵 Liu Baoyuan 劉保元 刘保元 Su Defu 蘇德富 苏德富 and Yauz Mengh Borngh Chinese government officials Mien Americans Sengfo Chao Zhao Fuming Kao Chiem Chao Zhao Youcai and Chua Meng Chao David T Lee American linguist Herbert C Purnell developed a curriculum and workshop presentations on language learning in East and Southeast Asia as well as Yao Seng Deng from Thailand The US delegation took the new writing system to the Iu Mien community in the United States where it was adopted with a vote of 78 to 7 by a conference of Mien American community leaders 6 This writing system based on the Latin alphabet was designed to be pan dialectal it distinguishes 30 syllable initials 121 syllable finals and eight tones For an example of how the unified alphabet is used to write Iu Mien a common Yao language see Iu Mien language There is a separate written standard for Bunu since it is from the Hmong Miao side rather than the Mien Yao side of the Miao Yao language family Some people think that a variety of Yao is or was written in Nushu an indigenous script in Southern part of Hunan Province in China But this connection between Yao language and Nushu is disputed because Nushu more likely recorded local Chinese dialect which might be also known by Yao people in Hunan Officially illiteracy and semi literacy among the Yao in China still stood at 40 6 in 2002 27 See also EditDance of the Yao people PanhuReferences Edit This article incorporates text fromThe Chinese times Volume 4 a publication from 1890 now in the public domain in the United States a b Census 01 04 2019 p 44 General Directorate for Statistics of Vietnam 19 12 2019 accessdate 1 09 2020 Wiens Herold Jacob 1967 Han Chinese expansion in South China Shoe String Press p 276 The Chinese times Volume 4 TIENTSIN THE TIENTSIN PRINTING CO 1890 p 24 Independent Lens DEATH OF A SHAMAN The Mien PBS www pbs org Archived from the original on 14 February 2018 Retrieved 3 May 2018 a b Yao in Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China ed James Stuart Olson Greenwood Press 1998 p 374 Sean Marsh Imperial China and Its Southern Neighbours eds Victor H Mair amp Liam Kelley Institute of Southeast Asian Studies 2015 p 96 Liming Wei Chinese Festivals Cambridge University Press 2011 pp 106 07 Deborah A Sommer Taoism and the Arts in The Oxford Handbook of Religion and the Arts ed Frank Burch Brown Oxford University Press 2014 p 384 a b Litzinger Ralph A 2000 Other Chinas The Yao and the Politics of National Belonging Duke University Press pp 289 90 ISBN 0 8223 2549 7 Kim Mun ethnologue com Archived from the original on 3 February 2013 Retrieved 3 May 2018 毛宗武 Mao Zongwu 2004 瑤族勉语方言研究 Yao zu Mian yu fang yan yan jiu A Study of Mien Dialects Beijing 民族出版社 Min zu chu ban she 江华瑶族自治县的汉语方言和民族语言分布 欢迎补充 江华县吧 百度贴吧 Archived from the original on 2017 03 14 Retrieved 2017 03 13 Chen Qiguang 陈其光 2013 Miao and Yao language 苗瑶语文 Beijing China Minzu University Press Archived copy Archived from the original on 2013 12 30 Retrieved 2013 12 30 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Archived copy Archived from the original on 2013 12 30 Retrieved 2013 12 30 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Doling Tim 2010 Mountains and Ethnic Minorities North West Việt Nam Thế Giới Publishers Chảo Văn Lam 2013 Thơ ca hon lễ người Dao Đỏ ở Lao Cai Ha Nội Nha xuất bản văn hoa thong tin a b Nguyễn Mạnh Hung 2013 Lễ cưới người Dao Nga Hoang Ha Nội Nha xuất bản văn hoa thong tin PGS TS Nguyễn Khắc Tụng TS Nguyễn Anh Cường 2004 Trang phục cổ truyền của người Dao ở Việt Nam Ha Nội Nha xuất bản khoa học xa hội viện khoa học xa hội Việt Nam a b Guizhou Province Gazetteer Ethnic Gazetteer 贵州省志 民族志 2002 Guiyang Guizhou Ethnic Publishing House 貴州民族出版社 湖南瑶族社会历史调查 2009 Lei Biying Zheng Linguang 雷碧英 郑林光 新宁县民族宗教事务局 新宁县黄金瑶族乡中心学校 2012 Badong Yao language 八峒瑶语 Xinning Xinning County Ethnic and Religious Affairs Bureau 新宁县民族宗教事务局 道客巴巴 7 June 2012 新宁县瑶族乡濒危方言峒话调查 www doc88 com Archived from the original on 3 May 2018 Retrieved 3 May 2018 吴萍 3 May 2018 湖南新宁瑶族 峒话 音系 现代语文 下旬 语言研究 10 Archived from the original on 31 July 2013 Retrieved 3 May 2018 许阳 胡萍 3 May 2018 新宁县瑶族乡峒话的语音系统 文教资料 32 Archived from the original on 30 July 2013 Retrieved 3 May 2018 Tan Xiaoping 谭晓平 2012 Language contact and evolution the Mien language of the Yao people of Jiangyong County southern Hunan 语言接触与语言演变 湘南瑶族江永勉语个案研究 Wuhan Central China Normal University Press 华中师范大学出版社 ISBN 978 7 5622 5409 6 您访问的页面丢失了 中国红河网 官方网站 www hh cn Archived from the original on 3 March 2016 Retrieved 3 May 2018 Sources EditAsiaHarvest org Ethnic group profiles of China Forbes Andrew and Henley David Chiang Mai s Hill Peoples in Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 3 Chiang Mai Cognoscenti Books 2012 ASIN B006IN1RNW Mao Zōngwǔ 毛宗武 Yaozu Miǎnyǔ fangyan yanjiu 瑶族勉语方言研究 Studies in Mien dialects of the Miao nationality Beijing 北京 Minzu chubǎnshe 民族出版社 2004 ISBN 7 105 06669 5 Meng Chaoji 蒙朝吉 Han Yao cidiǎn Bunǔyǔ 汉瑶词典 布努语 Chinese Yao Dictionary Bunu Chengdu 成都 Sichuan minzu chubǎnshe 四川民族出版社 1996 ISBN 7 5409 1745 8 Barker Judith C and Saechao Kaochoy A Household Survey of Older Iu Mien Refugees in Rural California Journal of Cross Cultural Gerontology 12 2 1997 121 143 Barker Judith C amp Saechao Kaochoy 2000 A demographic survey of Iu Mien in West Coast States of the U S 1993 Journal of Immigrant Health 2 1 31 42 Phan Ngọc Khue 2003 Lễ cấp sắc của người Dao Lo Gang ở Lạng Sơn Ha Nội Nha xuất bản văn hoa thong tin Films Edit 2003 Death of a Shaman Directed by Richard Hall produced by Fahm Fong Saeyang 1989 Moving Mountains The Story of the Yiu Mien Directed and produced by Elaine VelazquezExternal links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Yao people The Virtual Hilltribe Museum The Yao ethnic minority on a Chinese government website Yao religious culture bibliography by Barend ter Haar Yao People On line in Chinese The Mien The Yao of Thailand LearnMien com Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yao people amp oldid 1052696037, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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