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Yaquina Bay

Coordinates:44°37′05″N124°01′49″W /44.618089°N 124.030151°W /44.618089; -124.030151Yaquina Bay ( ) is a coastal estuarine community found in Newport, Oregon, United States. Yaquina Bay is a semi-enclosed body of water, approximately 8 km² (3.2 mi²) in area, with free connection to the Pacific Ocean, but also diluted with freshwater from the Yaquina River land drainage. The Bay is traversed by the Yaquina Bay Bridge. There are three small communities that border the Yaquina River and Bay; Newport (population approx. 9,989), Toledo (population approx. 3,459) and Elk City (population approx. 25). The Yaquina Bay in Newport is a popular tourist destination along the Pacific Coast Highway. It is also an important estuary for the ecology and economy of the area.

Yaquina Bay is named after the Yaquina Tribe that occupied the territory along the Yaquina River. With the railroad addition In the late 1880s, many thought Yaquina Bay would be the commerce center for the Pacific Northwest. Wheat, lumber, and other goods were transported to Yaquina Bay as the area began to develop. Oyster companies and other merchandise organizations began to take residence in the Bay.

Exploration and settlement

American Indians had called Yaquina Bay home for years until the westward expansion. In 1856, the first vessel entered Yaquina Bay carrying supplies for Siletz Block-houses up the Yaquina River. The newfound Bay access promised a great deal of advantages, particularly open transportation and shipping to and from San Francisco Bay. Also in 1856, a doctor from the Willamette Valley was appointed surgeon to an Indian agency in Yaquina Bay. Following Indian trails through the Coast Range, the doctor, along with three other explorers, set out for the coast in quest for his new appointment.

In 1861, Captain Spencer, from the state of Washington, first settled in Yaquina Bay. Spencer, with the assistance of a local Indian guide, discovered valuable oyster beds within the Bay, which would attract future businesses, particularly firms from San Francisco.

In 1866, news spread of the promises and new life Yaquina Bay had to offer and quickly brought a surge of settlers to the area. Newport was quickly formed and oyster companies and other industries began to take resident. The growing oyster business initiated the construction of a wagon road from Corvallis to Yaquina Bay, costing approximately $20,000 and spanning 45 miles. The road was completed in 1873 and promised continued connections between Corvallis and the coast, and even helped settlers reach their new coastal home.

With the influx of residents, seasonal visitors to the area, and booming businesses, Yaquina Bay's oyster trade quickly began to decline. In 1869, a group of oystermen formed a task force with the interest of preserving oyster beds. To better the public's interest and their own, they worked diligently to restore and protect the oyster communities.

Shortly after the establishment of Newport, the Yaquina Bay lighthouse began construction in 1871. However, with the establishment of the Yaquina Head lighthouse to the north, it was decommissioned in 1874.

For a long time, Yaquina Bay was the midpoint between San Francisco and Seattle. With increased ship and navigation traffic into the area, the number of shipwrecks increased rapidly.

Past uses

Historical uses of Yaquina Bay include commercial oyster farming and fishing, recreational clamming, and shipping and navigation. Logging practices also occurred in the Yaquina Bay estuary from the 1920s to the 1980s.

Recreational boats on the Yaquina Bay

Yaquina Bay and its watershed have multiple uses, including fishing, tourism, recreation, and research. As of 2014, the highest percentage of the Newport workforce is employed in management, business, science, and arts (36.7%), while only 8.9% are employed in natural resources, construction, and maintenance. Agriculture is a small percentage of the economy in Lincoln County, but has increased in the past ten years. While timber harvesting has been a historic contributor to the economy, this industry has since decreased. Employment had declined by 82% between about 1980 and 2000.

Fisheries and aquaculture

In 2015, Pacific Whiting, or North Pacific Hake, was the largest source of fish caught by commercial fisheries from Newport, OR, while Pink Shrimp brought in the greatest dollar amount. As of 2015, the total value of commercial fisheries out of Newport totals approximately $33,221,009. Recreational fishing also occurs in Yaquina Bay, with perch, rockfish, herring, chinook salmon, clams, and crabs the popular catch. Aquaculture of oysters also occurs in Yaquina Bay, totaling 1,172 pounds in 2012.

Recreation and tourism

Yaquina Bay Harbor houses commercial and recreational fishing vessels, other recreational boats, government vessels, and research vessels. Tourism represents a substantial contributor to the county economy, accounting for $133.8 million in industry income in 2012. Some tourist destinations include South Beach State Park, Yaquina Bay State Recreation Site, the Oregon Coast Aquarium, restaurants, shops, and attractions on the Bayfront, and Hatfield Marine Science Center.

Physical characteristics

Yaquina Bay jetties

Yaquina Bay is a characteristic estuary, with freshwater input from the Yaquina River as well as open access to the Pacific Ocean introducing ocean saltwater. Yaquina Bay is maintained at 6.7 m (22 ft) deep with the help of dredging, but depth decreases upstream with the occurrence of shoals, tidal flats, and other shallow zones. The estuary is about 11.6 km2 at mean tide and can decrease to 9.1 km2 at mean low tide. The North and South Yaquina Jetties, at the junction between the Pacific Ocean and Yaquina Bay, were constructed in 1888.

Predictions of tidal height and times are based on National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data with respect to Hatfield Marine Science Center's Center Dock. Yaquina Bay high and low tidal range is approximately 2.4 m (7.9 ft). Tidal flux is typically vigorous and allows intense mixing near the mouth of the Bay. However, there is seasonal variation on mixing within the estuary. During the summer and early months, June to October, the estuary is well-mixed contrasted to the winter months, November to May, when the estuary is more stratified. Due to the variation in tides and mixing, the salinity changes drastically depending on location within the Bay. Average salinity at the mouth of the Bay is 34 psu, whereas the salinity upriver is 0.

The Yaquina River is 95 km (59 mi) long, beginning at the Central Oregon Coast Range, rounding past multiple bordered cities, and eventually opening up into Yaquina Bay. The river provides nutrients for the Bay and supports a variety of biology.

Sediments and deposition

Sediments that are found within Yaquina Bay are derived from tertiary rocks from the Central Oregon Coast Range, Pleistocene marine sediments and estuarine deposits. These sediments have three realms of deposition; marine deposition, fluviatile, and an intermediate transition state called marine-fluviatile. Marine deposition is found within the initial 2.4 km (1.5 mi) of the estuary and is associated with average ocean salinity and turbulent mixing. The sediment is similar in texture to sand and other fine grains. Fluviatile deposition extends from the point of freshwater input up to 9.7 km (6 mi) into the Bay, with its sediments more coarse. The transition stage between these two realms contains sediment mixes from the marine and fluviatile areas.

The last recorded rate of sediment deposition was in 1936, with a recorded estimate of 23 cm (9.1 in) annually. However, deposition is subject to seasonal variations. Maximum deposition takes place in the winter and early spring when river runoff is highest due to increased rain, when the longshore drift is coming from the south, and when winds are from the southwest. In the summer, deposition is low because of lower runoff, southward longshore drift and northwest winds.

Turbulent mixing within the estuary increases the amount of suspended sediment and therefore increases the turbidity within Yaquina Bay. Turbidity has been found to be most prominent when river runoff is low, typically during the summer. Chlorophyll concentrations and other measurements of water chemistry (see Chemistry section below) verify these observations.

Geology

Yaquina Bay was formed roughly 2.2 million years ago in the Oligocene Epoch of the Cenozoic Era. Increased sedimentation and subsidence contributed to formation of Yaquina Bay. Sedimentary rocks in this area are mainly "sandstone, siltstone and clay-containing mudstone", as indicated in geological samples from the sediments. The oldest rocks found in the Coast Range and in Yaquina Bay date back to Paleocene and Eocene Epochs, about 40-60 million years ago. The seafloor to the west of Oregon is continually spreading and there is evidence of subduction taking place along the coast of Washington and Oregon.

Yaquina Bay comprises several different habitats that provide resources for many species. These habitats include intertidal eelgrass beds, mudflats, and sandflats, and subtidal areas. Mudflats and sandflats are typically covered by water during high tide and exposed to air during low tide, while subtidal areas are covered by water almost all of the time.

Life in Yaquina Bay

Male California sea lions in Yaquina Bay

Beds of native eelgrass (Zostera marina) and beds of invasive eelgrass (Zostera japonica) grow separately and provide a distinct habitat for certain organisms. Birds, including gulls, ducks, shorebirds, crows, geese, egrets, rails, pelicans and cormorants are present in Yaquina Bay using the eelgrass and mudflats as habitats. Mud shrimp also live in mudflats, and they play an important role in nutrient cycling within the estuary. Burrows in the mud made by mud shrimp pump oxygen deeper into the sediment, which makes it available for microbes to use. Mud shrimp activity has also been shown to increase the movement of carbon and dissolved inorganic nitrogen in and out of the mud. Some species of diatoms, a type of phytoplankton, can be found on the sediments of Yaquina Bay wetlands. These diatoms are also important in nutrient cycling within the estuary.

Another type of estuary habitat is formed by native Olympia oysters (Ostrea lurida). These are historically abundant in Yaquina Bay, and in addition to creating hard surfaces in the estuary, oysters also filter the bay water and provide food for local people. In fact, settlement on the mouth of Yaquina Bay is attributed in part to the oyster fishery.

In subtidal areas, marine mammals such as harbor seals and California sea lions are sometimes present in Yaquina Bay. Sea lions in the estuary are mostly male. They move through the estuary, but spend a lot of time near the Bayfront or hauled out on docks, perhaps due to the additional food or safety. Some fish species present in Yaquina Bay include English sole and sculpin, in addition to river lamprey, lingcod, anchovies, Pacific herring, sturgeon, flounder, and salmon. Clams and Dungeness crabs are also present within the bay and make up a resource for recreational fishers.

The estuary as a nursery

Yaquina Bay has been shown to be a site for spawning and development of many species. Pacific Herring and bay goby larvae are abundant, but other larval fishes such as sculpin, anchovy, smelt, clingfishes, cod, stickleback, pipefish, prickleback, gunnels, sandlance, rockfish, greenlings, lumpfish, and flounder are present in the estuary. Although there are larval fish present in the estuary, the Pacific herring was found to be the only commercial species that relies on the estuary for spawning and development. Yaquina Bay also provides a nursery environment for English sole. Multiple species of juvenile salmon, including chum, coho, and chinook, also pass through Yaquina Bay during their life cycle, often transitioning from shallower to deeper waters as they grow.

The Yaquina Bay estuarine chemistry is influenced by daily tides, river sediment input, summer upwelling along the coast, and biological processes.

Tides

Yaquina Bay experiences mixed semidiurnal tides, ranging from 1.9-2.5 m (6.2-8.2 ft) daily. The influx of water from the ocean changes the salinity of the estuary, creating a salt intrusion that has been estimated to reach as far as 21.8 km (13.5 mi) upriver. Daily tidal changes affect estuary mixing and stratification. Flood tides coming from the ocean bring coastal nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus into the estuary. During mixing events, the Yaquina Bay estuary experiences changes in gradients for salinity, concentration of chemical species, and suspended sediment, which in turn influences biological productivity. The Yaquina Bay estuary has high primary productivity throughout the year due to high dissolved oxygen concentrations and cool water temperature from tidal flushing.

Nutrients

Silicon

Sediment input from the Yaquina River contributes to the Yaquina Bay estuary chemistry, varying with seasonal rainfall. In the winter when there is higher rainfall and therefore more input from the River, siliceous diatoms are more abundant and have higher species diversity. This is contrasted with fewer diatom species in seasons when there is less rainfall.

Rocks are mostly made of silica and when land weathering takes place, rocks are broken down into their smaller silica components. With increased rainfall and sediment transport, this weathering provides a source of silica for diatoms in Yaquina Bay.

In general, the upstream Yaquina River source material is more quartz dominated (more silica) than downstream source material. Some of the heavy minerals upstream include micas (biotite and muscovite made of potassium, aluminum, and silica), hematite (iron), and limonite (iron oxides). Near the coastal shoreline and mouth of the Yaquina Bay estuary, the sand grains are mostly feldspars and chert (silica), and volcanic fragments (most likely high in silica, potassium, aluminum, sodium, and calcium). In nearshore marine deposit sediment, the source material is less quartz (less silica) compared to upriver sources; heavy minerals include pyroxene (a group of silicate minerals), hypersthene (magnesium iron silica), and diopside (magnesium calcium silica).

Carbon

Organic carbon concentrations of the Yaquina Bay estuary vary depending on depth. Concentrations are lowest in the channel (<0.2%) and highest in shallower sediments, particularly from samples collected at tidal flats (2.7%). About 1-7% of sand in the Yaquina Bay estuary is made of carbonates like mollusk shell fragments and foraminfera. Carbonate concentrations are higher in the bay channel (5%) and decrease towards the bay margin (3%).

Nitrogen

Major nitrogen sources for the Yaquina Bay estuary change with season. During drier seasons, the ocean is the major nitrogen source while the river is the major source in wetter seasons, where river discharge can be up to five times higher than drier seasons. Samples taken at the surface with varying salinities showed dissolved inorganic nitrogen is found mostly at the two salinity extremes; the mouth of the estuary and up the Yaquina River. The input at the mouth of Yaquina Bay indicates input from upwelled waters during the summer season. The nutrient flux into the estuary is enough to sustain primary productivity during the summer months.

Phosphorus

Phosphorus is generally a limiting nutrient in the ocean. In Pacific Northwest estuaries, an important source of phosphorus comes from ocean upwelling in the summer (see below). Samples taken at the surface with varying salinities showed dissolved inorganic phosphorus more prevalent in areas with higher salinities compared to lower, thus indicating the ocean as the source for this system.

Oxygen

Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is an important water quality parameter because of its close relationship with biological activity. In the Yaquina Bay estuary, DO levels may be lower and almost hypoxic due to low DO levels with coastal upwelled water imported into the estuary. DO levels of imported ocean water are dependent on physical factors (wind stress and cool water temperature) and biological factors (association with chlorophyll a and respiration). Ocean influence of DO levels in the estuary extends to about 10 km (6.2 mi) upriver. In the upper estuary beyond ocean influence, DO levels decrease with increasing temperature.

Chlorophyll a

Upwelling along the western coast

Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations vary seasonally with ocean water import, particularly during summer upwelling. Variation of Chl a also depends on the timing of summer upwelling each year, where upwelling could occur earlier or be delayed. Oregon estuaries typically have low median Chl a levels, about less than 5 micrograms per liter of water. When high concentrations of Chl a are advected into the estuary, there is also an increase in flood tide DO levels.

Upwelling

Summer upwelling along the Oregon coast brings nutrients from deep waters up into the Yaquina Bay estuary. This event, along with decreased rain and river input, and increased light, all contribute to the seasonal chemistry variability in the Bay.

Coastal hazards of Yaquina Bay

As with any coastal zone, there are inherent hazards present. Especially in the Pacific Northwest, coastlines are impacted by large waves, storm surge, strong currents, wind, and rain. Yaquina Bay is seasonally affected by these impacts, with winter typically the most intense period. Storms and rain increase, which leads to more land runoff and also causes waves and currents to reshape the coastline.

Erosion is a problem not only for the Yaquina Bay, but for the entire Oregon Coast. Yaquina Bay's sediments are made up of sandstone, siltstone and clay-containing mudstone and these soft sediments contribute to the annual erosion rates. Waves, however, are the main proponent of erosion. Waves are parallel to the beach and as wind increases, energy is enhanced and height grows, causing a devastating effect on beaches. Also, as currents run along the coast, they move sand causing either addition or depletion of sand in some areas. This has been particularly evident around the Yaquina Jetty. With longshore drift increased during the winter, sand is deposited and dramatically built up in this area.

In 2002, researchers, stakeholders, and policy makers organized a vulnerability assessment to assess the current state of the coast in respect to future hazards occurring. They included Yaquina Bay in their case study, as this area is heavily influenced by tourism, businesses, industries, vessels, to name a few. The assessment was able to address areas of concern and helped businesses and industries by highlighting ways to adapt to the changing conditions to prevent future damage.

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Yaquina Bay
Yaquina Bay Language Watch Edit Coordinates 44 37 05 N 124 01 49 W 44 618089 N 124 030151 W 44 618089 124 030151 Yaquina Bay j e ˈ k w ɪ n e ye KWIN e is a coastal estuarine community found in Newport Oregon United States Yaquina Bay is a semi enclosed body of water approximately 8 km 3 2 mi in area with free connection to the Pacific Ocean but also diluted with freshwater from the Yaquina River land drainage The Bay is traversed by the Yaquina Bay Bridge There are three small communities that border the Yaquina River and Bay Newport population approx 9 989 1 Toledo population approx 3 459 and Elk City population approx 25 The Yaquina Bay in Newport is a popular tourist destination along the Pacific Coast Highway It is also an important estuary for the ecology and economy of the area Contents 1 History of Yaquina Bay 1 1 Exploration and settlement 1 2 Past uses 2 Economy 2 1 Fisheries and aquaculture 2 2 Recreation and tourism 3 Physical geography 3 1 Physical characteristics 3 2 Sediments and deposition 3 3 Geology 4 Biology of Yaquina Bay 4 1 Life in Yaquina Bay 4 2 The estuary as a nursery 5 Chemistry of Yaquina Bay 5 1 Tides 5 2 Nutrients 5 2 1 Silicon 5 2 2 Carbon 5 2 3 Nitrogen 5 2 4 Phosphorus 5 2 5 Oxygen 5 2 6 Chlorophyll a 5 3 Upwelling 6 Environmental concerns 6 1 Coastal hazards of Yaquina Bay 7 See also 8 ReferencesHistory of Yaquina Bay EditYaquina Bay is named after the Yaquina Tribe that occupied the territory along the Yaquina River 2 With the railroad addition In the late 1880s many thought Yaquina Bay would be the commerce center for the Pacific Northwest Wheat lumber and other goods were transported to Yaquina Bay as the area began to develop Oyster companies and other merchandise organizations began to take residence in the Bay Exploration and settlement Edit American Indians had called Yaquina Bay home for years until the westward expansion In 1856 the first vessel entered Yaquina Bay carrying supplies for Siletz Block houses up the Yaquina River 3 The newfound Bay access promised a great deal of advantages particularly open transportation and shipping to and from San Francisco Bay Also in 1856 a doctor from the Willamette Valley was appointed surgeon to an Indian agency in Yaquina Bay 3 Following Indian trails through the Coast Range the doctor along with three other explorers set out for the coast in quest for his new appointment 3 In 1861 Captain Spencer from the state of Washington first settled in Yaquina Bay 3 Spencer with the assistance of a local Indian guide discovered valuable oyster beds within the Bay which would attract future businesses particularly firms from San Francisco 3 In 1866 news spread of the promises and new life Yaquina Bay had to offer and quickly brought a surge of settlers to the area 3 Newport was quickly formed and oyster companies and other industries began to take resident The growing oyster business initiated the construction of a wagon road from Corvallis to Yaquina Bay costing approximately 20 000 and spanning 45 miles The road was completed in 1873 and promised continued connections between Corvallis and the coast and even helped settlers reach their new coastal home With the influx of residents seasonal visitors to the area and booming businesses Yaquina Bay s oyster trade quickly began to decline In 1869 a group of oystermen formed a task force with the interest of preserving oyster beds 3 To better the public s interest and their own they worked diligently to restore and protect the oyster communities Shortly after the establishment of Newport the Yaquina Bay lighthouse began construction in 1871 However with the establishment of the Yaquina Head lighthouse to the north it was decommissioned in 1874 For a long time Yaquina Bay was the midpoint between San Francisco and Seattle With increased ship and navigation traffic into the area the number of shipwrecks increased rapidly Past uses Edit Historical uses of Yaquina Bay include commercial oyster farming and fishing recreational clamming and shipping and navigation 4 Logging practices also occurred in the Yaquina Bay estuary from the 1920s to the 1980s 5 Economy Edit Recreational boats on the Yaquina Bay Yaquina Bay and its watershed have multiple uses including fishing tourism recreation and research As of 2014 the highest percentage of the Newport workforce is employed in management business science and arts 36 7 while only 8 9 are employed in natural resources construction and maintenance 6 Agriculture is a small percentage of the economy in Lincoln County but has increased in the past ten years While timber harvesting has been a historic contributor to the economy this industry has since decreased Employment had declined by 82 between about 1980 and 2000 7 Fisheries and aquaculture Edit In 2015 Pacific Whiting or North Pacific Hake was the largest source of fish caught by commercial fisheries from Newport OR while Pink Shrimp brought in the greatest dollar amount As of 2015 the total value of commercial fisheries out of Newport totals approximately 33 221 009 8 Recreational fishing also occurs in Yaquina Bay with perch rockfish herring chinook salmon clams and crabs the popular catch 9 Aquaculture of oysters also occurs in Yaquina Bay totaling 1 172 pounds in 2012 10 Recreation and tourism Edit Yaquina Bay Harbor houses commercial and recreational fishing vessels other recreational boats government vessels and research vessels Tourism represents a substantial contributor to the county economy accounting for 133 8 million in industry income in 2012 10 Some tourist destinations include South Beach State Park Yaquina Bay State Recreation Site the Oregon Coast Aquarium restaurants shops and attractions on the Bayfront and Hatfield Marine Science Center Physical geography EditPhysical characteristics Edit Yaquina Bay jetties Yaquina Bay is a characteristic estuary with freshwater input from the Yaquina River as well as open access to the Pacific Ocean introducing ocean saltwater Yaquina Bay is maintained at 6 7 m 22 ft deep with the help of dredging but depth decreases upstream with the occurrence of shoals tidal flats and other shallow zones 11 The estuary is about 11 6 km2 at mean tide and can decrease to 9 1 km2 at mean low tide The North and South Yaquina Jetties at the junction between the Pacific Ocean and Yaquina Bay were constructed in 1888 Predictions of tidal height and times are based on National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration NOAA data with respect to Hatfield Marine Science Center s Center Dock 12 Yaquina Bay high and low tidal range is approximately 2 4 m 7 9 ft Tidal flux is typically vigorous and allows intense mixing near the mouth of the Bay However there is seasonal variation on mixing within the estuary During the summer and early months June to October the estuary is well mixed contrasted to the winter months November to May when the estuary is more stratified Due to the variation in tides and mixing the salinity changes drastically depending on location within the Bay Average salinity at the mouth of the Bay is 34 psu whereas the salinity upriver is 0 13 14 The Yaquina River is 95 km 59 mi long beginning at the Central Oregon Coast Range rounding past multiple bordered cities and eventually opening up into Yaquina Bay The river provides nutrients for the Bay and supports a variety of biology Sediments and deposition Edit Sediments that are found within Yaquina Bay are derived from tertiary rocks from the Central Oregon Coast Range Pleistocene marine sediments and estuarine deposits 15 These sediments have three realms of deposition marine deposition fluviatile and an intermediate transition state called marine fluviatile 16 Marine deposition is found within the initial 2 4 km 1 5 mi of the estuary and is associated with average ocean salinity and turbulent mixing The sediment is similar in texture to sand and other fine grains Fluviatile deposition extends from the point of freshwater input up to 9 7 km 6 mi into the Bay with its sediments more coarse The transition stage between these two realms contains sediment mixes from the marine and fluviatile areas 15 The last recorded rate of sediment deposition was in 1936 with a recorded estimate of 23 cm 9 1 in annually However deposition is subject to seasonal variations Maximum deposition takes place in the winter and early spring when river runoff is highest due to increased rain when the longshore drift is coming from the south and when winds are from the southwest In the summer deposition is low because of lower runoff southward longshore drift and northwest winds 15 Turbulent mixing within the estuary increases the amount of suspended sediment and therefore increases the turbidity within Yaquina Bay 17 Turbidity has been found to be most prominent when river runoff is low typically during the summer Chlorophyll concentrations and other measurements of water chemistry see Chemistry section below verify these observations Geology Edit Yaquina Bay was formed roughly 2 2 million years ago in the Oligocene Epoch of the Cenozoic Era Increased sedimentation and subsidence contributed to formation of Yaquina Bay Sedimentary rocks in this area are mainly sandstone siltstone and clay containing mudstone as indicated in geological samples from the sediments 18 19 The oldest rocks found in the Coast Range and in Yaquina Bay date back to Paleocene and Eocene Epochs about 40 60 million years ago 20 The seafloor to the west of Oregon is continually spreading and there is evidence of subduction taking place along the coast of Washington and Oregon Biology of Yaquina Bay EditYaquina Bay comprises several different habitats that provide resources for many species These habitats include intertidal eelgrass beds mudflats and sandflats and subtidal areas Mudflats and sandflats are typically covered by water during high tide and exposed to air during low tide while subtidal areas are covered by water almost all of the time Life in Yaquina Bay Edit Male California sea lions in Yaquina Bay Beds of native eelgrass Zostera marina and beds of invasive eelgrass Zostera japonica grow separately 21 and provide a distinct habitat for certain organisms Birds including gulls ducks shorebirds crows geese egrets rails pelicans and cormorants are present in Yaquina Bay using the eelgrass and mudflats as habitats 22 Mud shrimp also live in mudflats and they play an important role in nutrient cycling within the estuary 23 Burrows in the mud made by mud shrimp pump oxygen deeper into the sediment which makes it available for microbes to use Mud shrimp activity has also been shown to increase the movement of carbon and dissolved inorganic nitrogen in and out of the mud Some species of diatoms a type of phytoplankton can be found on the sediments of Yaquina Bay wetlands These diatoms are also important in nutrient cycling 24 within the estuary Another type of estuary habitat is formed by native Olympia oysters Ostrea lurida These are historically abundant in Yaquina Bay and in addition to creating hard surfaces in the estuary oysters also filter the bay water and provide food for local people 25 In fact settlement on the mouth of Yaquina Bay is attributed in part to the oyster fishery In subtidal areas marine mammals such as harbor seals 26 and California sea lions are sometimes present in Yaquina Bay Sea lions in the estuary are mostly male They move through the estuary but spend a lot of time near the Bayfront or hauled out on docks 27 perhaps due to the additional food or safety 28 Some fish species present in Yaquina Bay include English sole and sculpin 29 in addition to river lamprey 30 lingcod 31 anchovies Pacific herring sturgeon flounder and salmon Clams and Dungeness crabs are also present within the bay and make up a resource for recreational fishers 26 The estuary as a nursery Edit Yaquina Bay has been shown to be a site for spawning and development of many species Pacific Herring and bay goby larvae are abundant but other larval fishes such as sculpin anchovy smelt clingfishes cod stickleback pipefish prickleback gunnels sandlance rockfish greenlings lumpfish and flounder are present in the estuary 32 Although there are larval fish present in the estuary the Pacific herring was found to be the only commercial species that relies on the estuary for spawning and development Yaquina Bay also provides a nursery environment for English sole 33 Multiple species of juvenile salmon including chum coho and chinook also pass through Yaquina Bay during their life cycle often transitioning from shallower to deeper waters as they grow 34 Chemistry of Yaquina Bay EditThe Yaquina Bay estuarine chemistry is influenced by daily tides river sediment input summer upwelling along the coast and biological processes Tides Edit Yaquina Bay experiences mixed semidiurnal tides ranging from 1 9 2 5 m 6 2 8 2 ft daily 35 The influx of water from the ocean changes the salinity of the estuary creating a salt intrusion that has been estimated to reach as far as 21 8 km 13 5 mi upriver 36 Daily tidal changes affect estuary mixing and stratification Flood tides coming from the ocean bring coastal nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus into the estuary During mixing events the Yaquina Bay estuary experiences changes in gradients for salinity concentration of chemical species and suspended sediment which in turn influences biological productivity 37 The Yaquina Bay estuary has high primary productivity throughout the year due to high dissolved oxygen concentrations and cool water temperature from tidal flushing 4 Nutrients Edit Silicon Edit Sediment input from the Yaquina River contributes to the Yaquina Bay estuary chemistry varying with seasonal rainfall In the winter when there is higher rainfall and therefore more input from the River siliceous diatoms are more abundant and have higher species diversity This is contrasted with fewer diatom species in seasons when there is less rainfall 37 Rocks are mostly made of silica and when land weathering takes place rocks are broken down into their smaller silica components With increased rainfall and sediment transport this weathering provides a source of silica for diatoms in Yaquina Bay In general the upstream Yaquina River source material is more quartz dominated more silica than downstream source material Some of the heavy minerals upstream include micas biotite and muscovite made of potassium aluminum and silica hematite iron and limonite iron oxides 38 Near the coastal shoreline and mouth of the Yaquina Bay estuary the sand grains are mostly feldspars and chert silica and volcanic fragments most likely high in silica potassium aluminum sodium and calcium 38 In nearshore marine deposit sediment the source material is less quartz less silica compared to upriver sources heavy minerals include pyroxene a group of silicate minerals hypersthene magnesium iron silica and diopside magnesium calcium silica 38 Carbon Edit Organic carbon concentrations of the Yaquina Bay estuary vary depending on depth Concentrations are lowest in the channel lt 0 2 and highest in shallower sediments particularly from samples collected at tidal flats 2 7 38 About 1 7 of sand in the Yaquina Bay estuary is made of carbonates like mollusk shell fragments and foraminfera Carbonate concentrations are higher in the bay channel 5 and decrease towards the bay margin 3 38 Nitrogen Edit Major nitrogen sources for the Yaquina Bay estuary change with season During drier seasons the ocean is the major nitrogen source while the river is the major source in wetter seasons 39 where river discharge can be up to five times higher than drier seasons 40 Samples taken at the surface with varying salinities showed dissolved inorganic nitrogen is found mostly at the two salinity extremes the mouth of the estuary and up the Yaquina River 40 The input at the mouth of Yaquina Bay indicates input from upwelled waters during the summer season 40 The nutrient flux into the estuary is enough to sustain primary productivity during the summer months 40 Phosphorus Edit Phosphorus is generally a limiting nutrient in the ocean In Pacific Northwest estuaries an important source of phosphorus comes from ocean upwelling in the summer 40 see below Samples taken at the surface with varying salinities showed dissolved inorganic phosphorus more prevalent in areas with higher salinities compared to lower thus indicating the ocean as the source for this system 40 Oxygen Edit Dissolved oxygen DO concentration is an important water quality parameter because of its close relationship with biological activity In the Yaquina Bay estuary DO levels may be lower and almost hypoxic due to low DO levels with coastal upwelled water imported into the estuary 41 DO levels of imported ocean water are dependent on physical factors wind stress and cool water temperature and biological factors association with chlorophyll a and respiration 41 Ocean influence of DO levels in the estuary extends to about 10 km 6 2 mi upriver 41 In the upper estuary beyond ocean influence DO levels decrease with increasing temperature 41 Chlorophyll a Edit Upwelling along the western coast Chlorophyll a Chl a concentrations vary seasonally with ocean water import particularly during summer upwelling Variation of Chl a also depends on the timing of summer upwelling each year where upwelling could occur earlier or be delayed 40 42 Oregon estuaries typically have low median Chl a levels about less than 5 micrograms per liter of water 40 When high concentrations of Chl a are advected into the estuary there is also an increase in flood tide DO levels 41 Upwelling Edit Summer upwelling along the Oregon coast brings nutrients from deep waters up into the Yaquina Bay estuary This event along with decreased rain and river input and increased light all contribute to the seasonal chemistry variability in the Bay Environmental concerns EditCoastal hazards of Yaquina Bay Edit As with any coastal zone there are inherent hazards present Especially in the Pacific Northwest coastlines are impacted by large waves storm surge strong currents wind and rain Yaquina Bay is seasonally affected by these impacts with winter typically the most intense period Storms and rain increase which leads to more land runoff and also causes waves and currents to reshape the coastline Erosion is a problem not only for the Yaquina Bay but for the entire Oregon Coast Yaquina Bay s sediments are made up of sandstone siltstone and clay containing mudstone and these soft sediments contribute to the annual erosion rates 20 Waves however are the main proponent of erosion Waves are parallel to the beach and as wind increases energy is enhanced and height grows causing a devastating effect on beaches 43 Also as currents run along the coast they move sand causing either addition or depletion of sand in some areas This has been particularly evident around the Yaquina Jetty With longshore drift increased during the winter sand is deposited and dramatically built up in this area In 2002 researchers stakeholders and policy makers organized a vulnerability assessment to assess the current state of the coast in respect to future hazards occurring They included Yaquina Bay in their case study as this area is heavily influenced by tourism businesses industries vessels to name a few The assessment was able to address areas of concern and helped businesses and industries by highlighting ways to adapt to the changing conditions to prevent future damage 44 See also EditYaquina Bay State Recreation Site on the north side of the bay Steamboats of Yaquina Bay and Yaquina River Yaquina Bay Bridge Hatfield Marine Science CenterReferences Edit Population estimates July 1 2015 V2015 www census gov Retrieved 2016 03 15 M D Dr Robert H Ruby Brown John A Collins Cary C Trafzer Clifford E 2010 10 25 A Guide to the Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest Third ed Norman University of Oklahoma Press ISBN 9780806140247 a b c d e f g History of Benton County Oregon Including Its Geology Topography Soil and Productions Together with the Early History of the Pacific Coast Compiled from the Most Authentic Sources a Full Political History Incidents of Pioneer Life and Biographical Sketches of Early and Prominent Citizens Also Containing the History of the Cities Towns Churches Schools Secret Societies Etc D D Fagan 1885 01 01 a b Brophy L 1999 Final Report Yaquina and Alsea River Basins Estuarine Wetland Site Prioritization Project Corvallis OR Green Point Consulting 67 pp http www psmfc org habitat YAestreport full pdf J R Sedell W S Duval 1985 Influence of Forest and Rangeland Management on Anadromous Fish Habitat in Western North America Water Transportation and Storage of Logs United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific NorthwestForest and Range Experiment Station General Tech Report PNW 186 Bureau U S Census U S Census website United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016 02 25 Huppert Daniel D Johnson Rebecca L Leahy Jessica Bell Kathleen 2003 Interactions between human communities and estuaries in the Pacific Northwest Trends and implications for management Estuaries 26 4 994 1009 doi 10 1007 bf02803359 S2CID 84048167 Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife 2015 Pounds and values of commercially caught fish and shellfish landed in Oregon in Newport Retrieved from http www dfw state or us fish commercial landing stats 2015 NEWPORT pdf Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife 2014 ODFW Resources Fishing in Oregon Yaquina Bay Retrieved from http www dfw state or us resources fishing easy angling northwest asp Yaquina a b Lincoln County Board of Commissioners 2014 Lincoln County economic analysis main report Retrieved from http www newportchamber org pdfs Lincoln 20Co 20Ec 20Analysis 20main 20report 20Aug 2015 202014 pdf Oregon Coastal Management Program Estuaries www oregon gov Retrieved 2016 02 29 Hatfield Marine Science Center s Center Dock LOBO 0019 Yaquina Bay yaquina loboviz com Retrieved 2016 02 29 Callaway R J Ditsworth G R Cutchin D L 1970 Salinity runoff and wind measurements Yaquina Estuary Oregon April 1967 October 1968 PDF Cite journal requires journal help a b c Kulm L D Byrne John V 1966 04 01 Sedimentary response to hydrography in an Oregon estuary Marine Geology 4 2 85 118 doi 10 1016 0025 3227 66 90001 6 Kulm LaVerne Duane 1964 Sediments of Yaquina Bay Oregon Oregon State University Scholars Archive Callaway Richard J Specht David T Ditsworth George R 1988 12 01 Manganese and suspended matter in the Yaquina Estuary Oregon Estuaries 11 4 217 225 doi 10 2307 1352007 ISSN 0160 8347 JSTOR 1352007 S2CID 85234188 Snavely Jr Parke D MacLeod Norman S 1971 Visitor s guide to the geology of the coastal area near Beverly Beach State Park Oregon PDF The Ore Bin State of Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries 33 5 Centala Maxine 2013 Geology of the Seal Rock Area 89 pp https geologyofsealrock files wordpress com 2013 11 final geology of the seal rock area2 pdf a b Komar Paul 1992 Ocean processes and hazards along the Oregon coast PDF Oregon Geology 54 1 Young David Clinton Patrick Specht David Collura T Chris Mochon 2015 Comparison of non native dwarf eelgrass Zostera japonica and native eelgrass Zostera marina distributions in a northeast Pacific estuary 1997 2014 Botanica Marina 58 4 doi 10 1515 bot 2014 0088 Frazier Melanie R Lamberson Janet O Nelson Walter G 2014 Intertidal habitat utilization patterns of birds in a Northeast Pacific estuary Wetlands Ecology and Management 22 4 451 466 doi 10 1007 s11273 014 9346 6 S2CID 17952267 D Andrea Anthony F DeWitt Theodore H 2009 Geochemical ecosystem engineering by the mud shrimp Upogebia pugettensis Crustacea Thalassinidae in Yaquina Bay Oregon Density dependent effects on organic matter remineralization and nutrient cycling Limnology and Oceanography 54 6 1911 1932 doi 10 4319 lo 2009 54 6 1911 Hankin Shanon L Weilhoefer Christine L Kaldy James E DeWitt Theodore H 2012 Sediment Diatom Species and Community Response to Nitrogen Addition in Oregon USA Estuarine Tidal Wetlands Wetlands 32 6 1023 1031 doi 10 1007 s13157 012 0332 6 S2CID 14444440 Groth Scott Rumrill Steve 2009 History of Olympia Oysters Ostrea lurida Carpenter 1864 in Oregon Estuaries and a Description of Recovering Populations in Coos Bay Journal of Shellfish Research 28 1 51 58 doi 10 2983 035 028 0111 S2CID 55511421 a b United States Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife 1968 Preliminary survey of fish and wildlife in relation to the ecological and biological aspects of Yaquina Bay Oregon Cite journal requires journal help National Marine Fisheries Service 1997 Impacts of California Sea Lions and Pacific Harbor Seals on Salmonids and on the coastal ecosystems of Washington Oregon and California Cite journal requires journal help Bayer Range D 1981 California Sea Lions in the Yaquina River Estuary Oregon The Murrelet 62 2 56 59 doi 10 2307 3534178 JSTOR 3534178 Olson Robert E Pierce Jack R Jacobson Kym C Burreson Eugene M 2004 Temporal Changes in the Prevalence of Parasites in Two Oregon Estuary Dwelling Fishes The Journal of Parasitology 90 3 564 571 doi 10 1645 ge 3057 PMID 15270100 S2CID 11178058 National Marine Fisheries Service 1983 Notes on the marine life of the river lamprey Lampetra ayresi in Yaquina Bay Oregon and the Columbia River Estuary Fishery Bulletin 81 1 165 167 Petrie Megan E Ryer Clifford H 2006 Laboratory and Field Evidence for Structural Habitat Affinity of Young of the Year Lingcod Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135 6 1622 1630 doi 10 1577 t05 164 1 Pearcy W G Myers S S 1974 Larval fishes of Yaquina Bay Oregon A nursery ground for marine fishes Fishery Bulletin 72 1 201 213 Krygier E E Pearcy W G 1986 The role of estuarine and offshore nursery areas for youn English Sole Parophrys vetulus girard of Oregon Fishery Bulletin 84 1 Thorpe J E 1994 Salmonid Fishes and the Estuarine Environment Estuaries 17 1 76 93 doi 10 2307 1352336 JSTOR 1352336 S2CID 84598192 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration U S Department of Commerce 2012 Tide Tables 2012 West Coast of North and South America Including the Hawaiian Islands 400 pp Lemagie Emily P Lerczak James A 2014 12 03 A Comparison of Bulk Estuarine Turnover Timescales to Particle Tracking Timescales Using a Model of the Yaquina Bay Estuary Estuaries and Coasts 38 5 1797 1814 doi 10 1007 s12237 014 9915 1 ISSN 1559 2723 a b Callaway Richard J Specht David T 1982 11 01 Dissolved silicon in the Yaquina Estuary Oregon Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 15 5 561 567 doi 10 1016 0272 7714 82 90007 5 a b c d e Folger D W 1972 Characteristics of Estuarine Sediments of The United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 742 Washington D C United States Government Printing Office 101 pp http pubs usgs gov pp 0742 report pdf Brown Cheryl A Ozretich Robert J 2009 01 16 Coupling Between the Coastal Ocean and Yaquina Bay Oregon Importance of Oceanic Inputs Relative to Other Nitrogen Sources Estuaries and Coasts 32 2 219 237 doi 10 1007 s12237 008 9128 6 ISSN 1559 2723 a b c d e f g h Nelson W G Brown C A 2008 Use of probability based sampling of water quality indicators in supporting development of quality criteria PDF ICES Journal of Marine Science 65 8 1421 1427 doi 10 1093 icesjms fsn158 a b c d e Brown Cheryl A Power James H 2011 05 01 Historic and recent patterns of dissolved oxygen in the Yaquina Estuary Oregon USA Importance of anthropogenic activities and oceanic conditions Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 92 3 446 455 doi 10 1016 j ecss 2011 01 018 Steve Pierce upwelling data http damp coas oregonstate edu windstress Fox William T Davis Richard A 1978 10 01 Seasonal variation in beach erosion and sedimentation on the Oregon coast Geological Society of America Bulletin 89 10 1541 1549 doi 10 1130 0016 7606 1978 89 lt 1541 svibea gt 2 0 co 2 ISSN 0016 7606 Wood Nathan J Good James W Goodwin Robert F 2002 01 01 Vulnerability Assessment of a Port and Harbor Community to Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards Integrating Technical Expert and Stakeholder Input Natural Hazards Review 3 4 148 157 doi 10 1061 ASCE 1527 6988 2002 3 4 148 ISSN 1527 6988 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yaquina Bay amp oldid 1049043829, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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