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Yarkant County

"Yarkand" redirects here. For other meanings, see Yarkand (disambiguation).
"Shache" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Schache.
This article contains too many or overly lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry. Please help improve the article by presenting facts as a neutrally worded summary with appropriate citations. Consider transferring direct quotations to Wikiquote or, for entire works, to Wikisource.(May 2021)

Yarkant County, also Shache County, also transliterated from Uyghur as Yakan County, is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, located on the southern rim of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. It is one of 11 counties administered under Kashgar Prefecture. The county, usually referred to as Yarkand in English, was the seat of an ancient Buddhist kingdom on the southern branch of the Silk Road and the Yarkand Khanate. The county sits at an altitude of 1,189 metres (3,901 ft) and as of 2003[update] had a population of 373,492.

Yarkant County
يەكەن ناھىيىسى
莎车县
Yarkand; Shache; Soche
A street in Yarkant
Yarkant County (red) within Kashgar Prefecture (yellow) and Xinjiang
Yarkant
Location of the seat in Xinjiang
Show map of Xinjiang
Yarkant
Yarkant (China)
Show map of China
Coordinates (County government):38°23′27″N77°13′24″E /38.3909°N 77.2232°E /38.3909; 77.2232Coordinates: 38°23′27″N77°13′24″E /38.3909°N 77.2232°E /38.3909; 77.2232
CountryPeople's Republic of China
Autonomous regionXinjiang
PrefectureKashgar
Area
• Total8,969 km2 (3,463 sq mi)
Elevation
1,232 m (4,042 ft)
Population
(2015)
• Total851,374
Ethnic groups
• Major ethnic groupsUyghur
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
844700
Yarkant (Shache) County
Street scene in Yarkand in the 1870s
Uyghur name
Uyghurيەكەن ناھىيىسى
Literal meaningCliff city
Transcriptions
Latin YëziqiYeken Nahiyisi
Yengi YeziⱪYəkən Nah̡iyisi
SASM/GNCYakan Nahiyisi
Siril YëziqiЙәкән наһийиси
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese莎车
Traditional Chinese莎車
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinShāchē Xiàn
Wade–GilesSha¹-chʻê¹ Hsien⁴
Alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese叶尔羌
Traditional Chinese葉爾羌
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinYè'ěrqiāng Xiàn

The fertile oasis is fed by the Yarkand River, which flows north down from the Karakorum mountains and passes through the Kunlun Mountains, known historically as the Congling mountains (lit. 'Onion Mountains' - from the abundance of wild onions found there). The oasis now covers 3,210 square kilometres (1,240 sq mi), but was likely far more extensive before a period of desiccation affected the region from the 3rd century CE onwards.

Today, Yarkant is a predominantly Uyghur settlement. The irrigated oasis farmland produces cotton, wheat, corn, fruits (especially pomegranates, pears and apricots) and walnuts. Yak and sheep graze in the highlands. Mineral deposits include petroleum, natural gas, gold, copper, lead, bauxite, granite and coal.

Map showing the rivers of the Tarim Basin and Yarkand River

Contents

Han dynasty

The territory of Yārkand is first mentioned in the Book of Han (1st century BCE) as "Shaju" (Old Chinese, approximately, *s³a(j)-ka), which is probably related to the name of the Iranian Saka tribes. Descriptions in the Hou Hanshu ('History of the Later Han') contain insights into the complex political situation China faced in attempting to open up the "Silk Routes" to the West in the 1st century CE. According to the "Chapter on the Western Regions" in the Hou Hanshu:

"Going west from the kingdom of Suoju (Yarkand), and passing through the countries of Puli (Tashkurghan) and Wulei (centred on Sarhad in the Wakhan), you arrive among the Da Yuezhi (Kushans). To the east, it is 10,950 li (4,553 km) from Luoyang.
The Chanyu (Khan) of the Xiongnu took advantage of the chaos caused by Wang Mang (9-24 CE) and invaded the Western Regions. Only Yan, the king of Suoju, who was more powerful than the others, did not consent to being annexed. Previously, during the time of Emperor Yuan (48-33 BCE), he was a hostage prince and grew up in the capital. He admired and loved the Middle Kingdom and extended the rules of Chinese administration to his own country. He ordered all his sons to respectfully serve the Han dynasty generation by generation, and to never turn their backs on it. Yan died in the fifth Tianfeng year (18 CE). He was awarded the posthumous title of 'Faithful and Martial King'. His son, Kang, succeeded him on the throne.
At the beginning of Emperor Guangwu's reign (25-57 CE), Kang led the neighboring kingdoms to resist the Xiongnu. He escorted, and protected, more than a thousand people including the officers, the soldiers, the wife and children of the former Protector General. He sent a letter to Hexi (Chinese territory west of the Yellow River) to inquire about the activities of the Middle Kingdom, and personally expressed his attachment to, and admiration for, the Han dynasty.
In the fifth Jianwu year (29 CE) the General-in-Chief of Hexi, Dou Rong, following Imperial instructions, bestowed on Kang the titles of: “King of Chinese Suoju, Performer of Heroic Deeds Who Cherishes Virtue [and] Commandant-in-Chief of the Western Regions.” The fifty-five kingdoms were all made dependencies after that.
In the ninth year (33 CE) Kang died. He was awarded the posthumous title of “Greatly Accomplished King.” His younger brother, Xian, succeeded him on the throne. Xian attacked and conquered the kingdoms of Jumi (Keriya) and Xiye (Karghalik). He killed both their kings, and installed two sons of his elder brother, Kang, as the kings of Jumi and Xiye.
In the fourteenth year (38 CE), together with An, the king of Shanshan (the Lop Nor region), he sent envoys to the Imperial Palace to offer tribute. Following this, the Western Regions were (again) in communication with China. All the kingdoms to the east of the Congling (Pamirs) were dependent on Xian.
In the seventeenth year (41 CE), Xian again sent an envoy to present offerings [to the Emperor], and to ask that a Protector General be appointed. The Son of Heaven questioned the Excellency of Works, Dou Rong, about this. He was of the opinion that Xian, and his sons and brothers who had pledged to serve the Han were truly sincere. Therefore, [he suggested that] it would be appropriate to give him higher rank to maintain order and security.
Yarkand ambassador at the Chinese court of Emperor Yuan of Liang in his capital Jingzhou in 516–520 CE, with explanatory text. Portraits of Periodical Offering of Liang, 11th century Song copy.
The Emperor then, using the same envoy that Xian had sent to him, bestowed upon him the seal and ribbon of “Protector General of the Western Regions,” and gave him chariots, standards, gold, brocades and embroideries.

"Pei Zun, the Administrator of Dunhuang, wrote saying that foreigners should not be allowed to employ such great authority and that these decrees would cause the kingdoms to despair. An Imperial decree then ordered that the seal and ribbons of “Protector General” be recovered, and replaced with the seal and ribbon of “Great Han General.” Xian’s envoy refused to make the exchange, and (Pei) Zun took them by force.

Consequently, Xian became resentful. Furthermore, he falsely named himself “Great Protector General,” and sent letters to all the kingdoms. They all submitted to him, and bestowed the title of Chanyu on him. Xian gradually became arrogant making heavy demands for duties and taxes. Several times he attacked Qiuci (Kucha) and the other kingdoms. All the kingdoms were anxious and fearful.
In the winter of the twenty-first year (45 CE), eighteen kings, including the king of Nearer Jushi (Turpan), Shanshan, Yanqi (Karashahr), and others, sent their sons to enter the service of the Emperor and offered treasure. As a result, they were granted audience when they circulated weeping, prostrating with their foreheads to the ground, in the hope of obtaining a Protector General. The Son of Heaven, considering that the Middle Kingdom was just beginning to return to peace and that the northern frontier regions were still unsettled, returned all the hostage princes with generous gifts.
At the same time, Xian, infatuated with his military power, wanted to annex the Western Regions, and greatly increased his attacks. The kingdoms, informed that no Protector General would be sent, and that the hostage princes were all returning, were very worried and frightened. Therefore, they sent a letter to the Administrator of Dunhuang to ask him to detain their hostage sons with him, so that they could point this out to the [king of] Suoju (Yarkand), and tell him that their young hostage sons were detained because a Protector General was to be sent. Then he [the king of Yarkand] would stop his hostilities. Pei Zun sent an official report informing the Emperor [of this proposal], which he approved.
In the twenty-second year (46 CE Xian, aware that no Protector General was coming, sent a letter to An, king of Shanshan, ordering him to cut the route to the Han. An did not accept [this order], and killed the envoy. Xian was furious and sent soldiers to attack Shanshan. An gave battle but was defeated and fled into the mountains. Xian killed or captured more than a thousand men, and then withdrew.
Yarkand (周古柯 Zhouguke) in Wanghuitu, circa 650 CE
That winter (46 CE), Xian returned and attacked Qiuci (Kucha), killed the king, and annexed the kingdom. The hostage princes of Shanshan, and then Yanqi (Karashahr) and the other kingdoms, were detained a long time at Dunhuang and became worried, so they fled and returned [to their kingdoms].
The king of Shanshan wrote a letter to the Emperor expressing his desire to return his son to enter the service of the Emperor, and again pleaded for a Protector General, saying that if a Protector General were not sent, he would be forced to obey the Xiongnu. The Son of Heaven replied:
“We are not able, at the moment, to send out envoys and Imperial troops so, in spite of their good wishes, each kingdom [should seek help], as they please, wherever they can, to the east, west, south, or north.”
Following this, Shanshan, and Jushi (Turpan/Jimasa) again submitted to the Xiongnu. Meanwhile, Xian became increasingly violent.
The king of Guisai, reckoning that his kingdom was far enough away, killed Xian’s envoy. Xian then attacked and killed him. He appointed a nobleman from that country, Sijian, king of Guisai. Furthermore, Xian appointed his own son, Zeluo, to be king of Qiuci (Kucha). Xian, taking account of the youth of Zeluo, detached a part of the territory from Qiuci (Kucha) from which he made the kingdom of Wulei (Yengisar). He transferred Sijian to the post of king of Wulei, and appointed another noble to the post of king of Guisai.
Several years later, the people of the kingdom of Qiuci (Kucha), killed Zeluo and Sijian, and sent envoys to the Xiongnu to ask them to appoint a king to replace them. The Xiongnu established a nobleman of Qiuci (Kucha), Shendu, to be king of Qiuci (Kucha), making it dependent on the Xiongnu.
Because Dayuan (Ferghana) had reduced their tribute and taxes, Xian personally took command of several tens of thousands of men taken from several kingdoms, and attacked Dayuan (Ferghana). Yanliu, the king of Dayuan, came before him to submit. Xian took advantage of this to take him back to his own kingdom. Then he transferred Qiaosaiti, the king of Jumi (Keriya), to the post of king of Dayuan (Ferghana). Then Kangju (Tashkent plus the Chu, Talas, and middle Jaxartes basins) attacked him there several times and Qiaosaiti fled home [to Keriya] more than a year later. Xian appointed him king of Jumi (Keriya) and sent Yanliu back to Dayuan again, ordering him to bring the customary tribute and offerings.
Xian also banished the king of Yutian (Khotan), Yulin, to be king of Ligui and set up his younger brother, Weishi, as king of Yutian.
More than a year later Xian became suspicious that the kingdoms wanted to rebel against him. He summoned Weishi, and the kings of Jumi (Keriya), Gumo (Aksu), and Zihe (Shahidulla), and killed them all. He didn’t set up any more kings, he just sent generals to maintain order and guard these kingdoms. Rong, the son of Weishi, fled and made submission to the Han, who named him: “Marquis Who Maintains Virtue.” A general from Suoju (Yarkand), named Junde, had been posted to Yutian (Khotan), and tyrannised the people there who became indignant.
Yarkand official, 1870s
In the third Yongping year (60 CE), during the reign of Emperor Ming, a high official of this country, called Dumo, had left town when he saw a wild pig. He wanted to shoot it, but the pig said to him: “Do not shoot me, I will undertake to kill Junde for you.” Following this, Dumo plotted with his brothers and killed Junde. However, another high official, Xiumo Ba, plotted, in his turn, with a Chinese man, Han Rong, and others, to kill Dumo and his brothers, then he named himself king of Yutian (Khotan). Together with men from the kingdom of Jumi (Keriya), he attacked and killed the Suoju (Yarkand) general who was at Pishan (modern Pishan or Guma). He then returned with the soldiers.
Then Xian sent his Heir Apparent, and his State Chancellor, leading 20,000 soldiers from several kingdoms, to attack Xiumo Ba. [Xiumo] Ba came to meet them and gave battle, defeating the soldiers of Suoju (Yarkand) who fled, and more than 10,000 of them were killed.
Xian again fielded several tens of thousands of men from several kingdoms, and personally led them to attack Xiumo Ba. [Xiumo] Ba was again victorious and beheaded more than half of the enemy. Xian escaped and fled, returning to his kingdom. Xiumo Ba advanced and encircled Suoju (Yarkand), but he was hit and killed by an arrow, and his soldiers retreated to Yutian (Khotan).
Suyule, State Chancellor [of Khotan], and others, appointed Guangde, the son of Xiumo Ba’s elder brother, king. The Xiongnu, with Qiuci (Kucha) and the other kingdoms, attacked Suoju (Yarkand), but were unable to take it.
Later, Guangde recognising of the exhaustion of Suoju (Yarkand), sent his younger brother, the Marquis who Supports the State, Ren, commanding an army, to attack Xian. As he had suffered war continuously, Xian sent an envoy to make peace with Guangde. Guangde's father had previously been detained for several years in Suoju (Yarkand). Xian returned Guangde's father and also gave one of his daughters in marriage and swore brotherhood to Guangde, so the soldiers withdrew and left.
Andijani Taifurghis of the Yarkand Governor's Guard. 1870s
In the following year (61 CE), Qieyun, the Chancellor of Suoju (Yarkand), and others, worried by Xian's arrogance, plotted to get the town to submit to Yutian (Khotan). Guangde, the king of Yutian (Khotan), then led 30,000 men from several kingdoms to attack Suoju (Yarkand). Xian stayed in the town to defend it and sent a messenger to say to Guangde: “I have given you your father and a wife. Why are you attacking me?” Guangde replied to him: “O king, you are the father of my wife. It has been a long time since we met. I want us to meet, each of us escorted by only two men, outside the town wall to make an alliance.”
Xian consulted Qieyun about this. Qieyun said to him: “Guangde, your son-in-law is a very close relation; you should go out to see him.” Xian then rashly went out. Guangde advanced and captured him. In addition, Qieyun and his colleagues let the soldiers of Yutian (Khotan) into the town to capture Xian’s wife and children. (Guangde) annexed his kingdom. He put Xian in chains, and took him home with him. More than a year later, he killed him.
When the Xiongnu heard that Guangde had defeated Suoju (Yarkand), they sent five generals leading more than 30,000 men from fifteen kingdoms including Yanqi (Karashahr), Weili (Korla), and Qiuci (Kucha), to besiege Yutian (Khotan). Guangde asked to submit. He sent his Heir Apparent as a hostage and promised to give felt carpets each year. In winter, the Xiongnu ordered soldiers to take Xian’s son, Bujuzheng, who was a hostage with them, to appoint him king of Suoju (Yarkand).
Guangde then attacked and killed [Bujuzheng], and put his younger brother, Qili, on the throne. This was in the third Yuanhe year (86 CE) of Emperor Zhang.
At this time Chief Clerk Ban Chao brought the troops of several kingdoms to attack Suoju (Yarkand). He soundly defeated Suoju (Yarkand) so it submitted to Han."

In 90 CE the Yuezhi or Kushans invaded the region with an army of reportedly 70,000 men, under their Viceroy, Xian, but they were forced to withdraw without a battle after Ban Chao instigated a "burnt earth" policy.

After the Yuanchu period (114-120 CE), when the Yuezhi or Kushans placed a hostage prince on the throne of Kashgar:

"... Suoju [Yarkand] followed by resisting Yutian [Khotan], and put themselves under Shule [Kashgar]. Thus Shule [Kashgar], became powerful and a rival to Qiuci [Kucha] and Yutian [Khotan]."
"In the second Yongjian year [127 CE] of the reign of Emperor Shun, [Ban] Yong once again attacked and subdued Yanqi [Karashahr]; and then Qiuci [Kucha], Shule [Kashgar], Yutian [Khotan], Suoju [Yarkand], and other kingdoms, seventeen altogether, came to submit. Following this, the Wusun [Ili River Basin and Issyk Kul], and the countries of the Congling [Pamir Mountains], put an end to their disruptions to communications with the west."

In 130 CE, Yarkand, along with Ferghana and Kashgar, sent tribute and offerings to the Chinese Emperor.

Later history

Kanishka's Empire (2nd century AD) including Yarkand
Yarkand, 1868, showing city walls and gallows
The towers in Yakka-Arik

There is very little information on Yarkant's history for many centuries, apart from a couple of brief references in Tang dynasty (618-907) histories and it appears to have been of less note than the oasis of Kharghalik (see Yecheng and Yecheng County) to its south.

It was possibly captured by the Muslims soon after they subdued Kashgar in the early 10/11th century.[citation needed]

The area became the main base in the region for Chagatai Khan (died 1241), who inherited Kashgaria (and also much of the land between the Oxus (Amu Darya) and Jaxartes (Syr Darya) rivers) after his father, Genghis Khan, died in 1227.

Marco Polo described Yarkant in 1273, but said only that this "province" (of Kublai Khan's nephew, Kaidu, d. 1301) was, "five days' journey in extent. The inhabitants follow the law of Mahomet, and there are also some Nestorian Christians. They are subject to the Great Khan's nephew. It is amply stocked with the means of life, especially cotton."

Tombs of Yarkand Khans (near the Altyn Mosque)

At the end of the 16th century Yarkant was incorporated into the Khanate of Kashgar and became its capital. The Jesuit Benedict Göez, who sought a route from the Mughal Empire to Cathay (which, according to his superiors, may or may not have been the same place as China), arrived in Yarkant with a caravan from Kabul in late 1603. He remained there for about a year, making a short trip to Khotan during that time. He reported:

"Hiarchan [Yarkant], the capital of the kingdom of Cascar, is a mart of much note, both for the great concourse of merchants, and for the variety of wares. At this capital the caravan of Kabul merchants reaches its terminus; and a new one is formed for the journey to Cathay. The command of this caravan is sold by the king, who invests the chiefs with a kind of royal authority over the merchants for the whole journey. A twelvemonth passed away however before the new company was formed, for the way is long and perilous, and the caravan is not formed every year, but only when a large number arrange to join it, and when it is known that they will be allowed to enter Cathay."

During his journey, Göez also noted the presence of large marble quarries in the area, leading him to write that amongst native travellers from Yarkant to Cathay:

"no article of traffic is more valuable or more generally adopted as an investment for this journey than lumps of a certain transparent kind of marble called by the Chinese "jusce" (jade). They carry these to the Emperor of Cathay, attracted by the high prices which he deems it obligatory on his dignity to give ; and such pieces as the Emperor does not fancy they are free to dispose of to private individuals."

Yarkent Khanate

Yarkent served as capital for the Yarkent Khanate, also known as Yarkent State, from the establishment of Yarkent Khanate to its fall (1514–1713).

Qing dynasty

Yarkand (c. 1759)

The Qing dynasty gained control of the region in the middle of the 18th century.

The Begs of Yarkand, 1915

By the 19th century, due to its active trade with Ladakh, and an influx of foreign merchants, it became "the largest and most populous of all the States of Káshghar."(Kashgar). Yakub Beg (1820–1877) conquered Khotan, Aksu, Kashgar, and neighbouring towns with the help of the Russians in the 1860s. He made Yarkant the capital of the newly founded Turkic state of Yettishar, where he received embassies from England in 1870 and 1873. The Qing dynasty defeated Yakub at Turpan in 1877 after which he committed suicide. Thus ended the Yettishar kingdom, and the region returned to Qing Chinese control.

Chinese merchants and soldiers, foreigners like Russians, foreign Muslims, and other Turki merchants all engaged in temporary marriages with Turki (Uyghur) women, since a lot of foreigners lived in Yarkand, temporary marriage flourished there more than it did towards areas with fewer foreigners like areas towards Kucha's east. The Earl of Dunmore wrote in 1894:

Almost every Chinaman in Yarkand, soldier or civilian, takes unto himself a temporary wife, dispensing entirely with the services of the clergy, as being superfluous, and most of the high officials also give way to the same amiable weakness, their mistresses being in almost all cases natives of Khotan, which city enjoys the unenviable distinction of supplying every large city in Turkestan with courtesans.

When a Chinaman is called back to his own home in China proper, or a Chinese soldier has served his time in Turkestan and has to return to his native city of Pekin or Shanghai, he either leaves his temporary wife behind to shift for herself, or he sells her to a friend. If he has a family he takes the boys with him~—if he can afford it—failing that, the sons are left alone and unprotected to fight the battle of life, While in the case of daughters, he sells them to one of his former companions for a trifling sum.

The natives, although all Mahammadans, have a strong predilection for the Chinese, and seem to like their manners and customs, and never seem to resent this behaviour to their womankind, their own manners, customs, and morals (?) being of the very loosest description.

Twentieth century

Uyghur meshrep in Yarkand
Hardware store. Yarkand.
This article or section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.(May 2016) ()

The Battle of Yarkand took place in Yarkant county, in April 1934. Ma Zhancang's Chinese Muslim army defeated the Turkic Uighur and Kirghiz army, and the Afghan volunteers sent by king Mohammed Zahir Shah, and exterminated them all. The emir Abdullah Bughra was killed and beheaded, his head was sent to Idgah mosque.

Almost all the ancient buildings of the old city were destroyed during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1968) with only the central mosque, the main gate of the old palace and the royal cemetery surviving.

Following riots around Yarkant in summer 2014, many scores of people, including Hans and Uyghurs, died, with estimates ranging from the state media total of 96 to over 1,000 according to some residents and Rebiya Kadeer, president of the Germany-based World Uyghur Congress (WUC). In August 2015, it was reported by Chinese media that the amount of farmland per capita was increased from 2.6 mu per person to 3.5 mu after clearing up more arable lands.

Yarkant is strategically located about half way between Kashgar and Khotan, at the junction of a branch road north to Aksu. It also was the terminus for caravans coming from Kashmir via Ladakh and then over the Karakoram Pass to the oasis of Niya in the Tarim Basin. The Xinjiang-Tibet Highway China National Highway 219, built in 1956 commences in Yecheng/Yarkant and heads south and west, across the Ladakh plateau and into central Tibet.

From Yarkant another important route headed southwest via Tashkurgan Town to the Wakhan corridor from where travellers could cross the relatively easy Baroghil Pass and Badakshan.

Climate

As with much of southern Xinjiang, Yarkant has a temperate zone, continental (Köppen BWk), with a mean total of only 61 mm (2.40 in) of precipitation per annum. As spring and autumn are short, winter and summer are the main seasons. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from −5.2 °C (22.6 °F) in January to 25.3 °C (77.5 °F) in July; the annual mean is 12.01 °C (53.6 °F). The diurnal temperature variation is not particularly large for a desert, averaging 13.3 °C (23.9 °F) annually. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 56% in March to 75% in October, the county seat receives 2,860 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Climate data for Yarkhant (1981−2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 0.8
(33.4)
6.5
(43.7)
15.2
(59.4)
23.1
(73.6)
27.6
(81.7)
31.2
(88.2)
32.6
(90.7)
31.0
(87.8)
26.8
(80.2)
20.4
(68.7)
11.5
(52.7)
2.4
(36.3)
19.1
(66.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −5.2
(22.6)
0.2
(32.4)
8.5
(47.3)
15.9
(60.6)
20.2
(68.4)
23.8
(74.8)
25.3
(77.5)
23.8
(74.8)
19.1
(66.4)
11.9
(53.4)
3.8
(38.8)
−3.2
(26.2)
12.0
(53.6)
Average low °C (°F) −10.3
(13.5)
−5.3
(22.5)
2.3
(36.1)
9.0
(48.2)
13.4
(56.1)
16.9
(62.4)
18.6
(65.5)
17.3
(63.1)
12.0
(53.6)
4.7
(40.5)
−2.1
(28.2)
−7.5
(18.5)
5.8
(42.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 1.9
(0.07)
1.7
(0.07)
4.8
(0.19)
4.9
(0.19)
8.2
(0.32)
9.9
(0.39)
10.2
(0.40)
9.1
(0.36)
5.9
(0.23)
1.7
(0.07)
1.8
(0.07)
1.0
(0.04)
61.1
(2.4)
Average precipitation days(≥ 0.1 mm) 1.7 1.6 1.2 1.1 2.4 3.2 3.5 3.2 1.5 0.9 0.3 1.5 22.1
Average relative humidity (%) 65 55 45 39 43 43 49 56 60 59 60 69 54
Mean monthly sunshine hours 181.6 182.8 205.0 231.4 262.9 303.6 296.6 268.2 257.7 261.4 222.8 186.3 2,860.3
Percent possible sunshine 60 61 56 59 60 69 66 64 69 75 74 63 65
Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 1971–2000)

County controlled District (县辖区)

Subdistricts

Towns (بازىرى /)

Townships (يېزىسى /)

Ethnic Townships (民族乡)

  • 孜热甫夏提塔吉克族乡 Zerepshat Tajik township

Other (其他)

  • 莎车农场 | 莎车县良种场 | 莎车县国营农场 | 喀什监狱

莎车县各县辖区管辖乡镇 Tuomuwusitang District (托木吾斯塘区)

  • 古勒巴格乡 | 托木吾斯塘乡 | 英吾斯塘乡 | 阿热勒乡 | 恰尔巴格乡

Tuomuwusitang District (托木吾斯塘区)

  • 伊什库力乡 | 米夏乡 | 塔尕尔其乡 | 拍克其乡

Wudalike District (乌达力克区)

  • 热克镇 | 乌达力克乡 | 阿尔斯兰巴格乡 | 亚喀艾日克乡 | 孜热甫夏提塔吉克族乡

Huoshilafu District (霍什拉甫区)

  • 喀群乡 | 霍什拉甫乡 | 达木斯乡

Awat District (阿瓦提区)

Aili West Lake District (艾力西湖区)

  • Ailixihu Town (艾力西湖镇) | Huangdi Town (荒地镇) | Kuoshiairike Township (阔什艾日克乡) | Dunbage Township (墩巴格乡)

Baishikan Special District (白什坎特区)

  • 白什坎特镇 | 依盖尔其镇 | 巴格阿瓦提乡 | 喀拉苏乡

Yarkant County is an important producer of wheat, corn, rice, rapeseed, and cotton in southern Xinjiang. The area also produces grapes, rugs, and leather products. Industries include electronics, coal, silk, tractor repair, and cotton and cooking oil processing.

As of 1885[update], there was about 154,600 acres (1,021,500 mu) of cultivated land in Yarkant.

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
2000620,329
2010762,385+2.08%

As of 2015, 818,379 of the 851,374 residents of the county were Uyghur, 25,404 were Han Chinese and 7,591 were from other ethnic groups.

As of 1999, 95.71% of the population of Yarkant (Shache) County was Uyghur and 3.47% of the population was Han Chinese.

Yarkant is served by China National Highway 315, the Kashgar-Hotan Railway and Shache Airport.

Historical English-language maps including Yarkant:

  • Map including Yarkant (labeled as SHACHE (SHA-CH'E) (DMA, 1980)

  • Map including Yarkant (labeled as SO-CH'E (YARKAND)) (AMS, 1966)

  • From the Operational Navigation Chart; map including Yarkant (labeled as SHACHE (SO-CH'E)) (DMA, 1980)

  • Map including Yarkant (labeled as SHACHE (SO-CH'E)) (DMA, 1984)

  1. From map: "DELINEATION OF INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES MUST NOT BE CONSIDERED AUTHORITATIVE"
  2. From map: "The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative."
  3. From map: "The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative"
  1. Statistical Yearbook of Xinjiang in 2016
  2. 1997年莎车县行政区划. XZQH.org. 19 November 2010. Retrieved27 February 2020. 面积12平方千米,人口3.8万,其中维吾尔族占93.2%,
  3. P. Lurje, “Yārkand”, Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition
  4. Andrew Jacobs (29 July 2014). "China's Account of Bloodshed in Far West Is Disputed". New York Times. Retrieved28 February 2020. According to Xinhua, it began at a government building in Yarkant County and spread to surrounding streets, where assailants attacked passers-by and set cars on fire.
  5. An, ed. (20 January 2017). "4.8-magnitude quake jolts Xinjiang: CENC". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved28 February 2020. A 4.8-magnitude earthquake hits Yarkant County of northwest China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region at 5:54 p.m. Friday (Beijing Time), according to the China Earthquake Networks Center (CENC).
  6. Yarkant Xian (Variant - V) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  7. Shache (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  8. Chris Buckly, Steven Lee Myers (18 January 2020). "Battered but Resilient After China's Crackdown". New York Times. Retrieved7 April 2020. An ancient Muslim town, Yarkand is a cultural cradle for the Uighurs, who have experienced mass detentions.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  9. Hill (2015) Vol. I, pp. 39, 41.
  10. Chavannes, Édouard (1906). "Trois généraux Chinois de la dynastie des Han Orientaux." T'oung pao 7, pp. 232-233.
  11. Hill (2015) Vol. I, p. 43.
  12. Hill (2015), Vol. I, p. 11.
  13. Hill (2015) Vol. I, pp. 180-181.
  14. Stein, Aurel M. 1907. Ancient Khotan: Detailed report of archaeological explorations in Chinese Turkestan, 2 vols., p. 87. Clarendon Press. Oxford. [1]
  15. The Travels of Marco Polo. Translated by Ronald Latham. Abaris Books, New York (1982), p. 66. ISBN 0-89835-058-1
  16. [2] (From: The Travels of Benedict Göez)
  17. "Eastern Turkestan". Pall Mall Gazette. British Newspaper Archive. 8 June 1871. Retrieved8 August 2014.
  18. Forsyth (1875), p. 34.
  19. Ildikó Bellér-Hann (2008). Community Matters in Xinjiang, 1880-1949: Towards a Historical Anthropology of the Uyghur. BRILL. pp. 267–. ISBN 978-90-04-16675-2.
  20. Charles Adolphus Murray Earl of Dunmore (1894). The Pamirs: Being a Narrative of a Year's Expedition on Horseback and on Foot Through Kashmir, Western Tibet, Chinese Tartary, and Russian Central Asia. J. Murray. pp. 328–. When a Chinaman is called back to his own home in China proper, or a Chinese soldier has served his time in Turkestan and has to return to his native city of Pekin and Shanghai, he either leaves his temporary wife behind to shift for herself, or he sells her to a friend. If he has a family he takes the boys with him.
  21. Ildikó Bellér-Hann (2008). Community Matters in Xinjiang, 1880-1949: Towards a Historical Anthropology of the Uyghur. BRILL. pp. 267–. ISBN 978-90-04-16675-2.
  22. Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. pp. 123, 303. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved2010-06-28.
  23. Christian Tyler (2004). Wild West China: the taming of Xinjiang. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. p. 314. ISBN 0-8135-3533-6. Retrieved2010-06-28.
  24. Dorje (2009), p. 453.
  25. "'At Least 2,000 Uyghurs Killed' in Yarkand Violence: Exile Leader".
  26. http://news.sky.com/story/1328589/rare-visit-to-town-at-centre-of-massacre-claims
  27. Li Jing (29 July 2014). "Dozens of axe-wielding attackers shot dead by police during attacks in Xinjiang". South China Morning Post. Retrieved9 April 2020.
  28. 心系群众实际困难 提高服务群众能力 (in Chinese). 9 August 2015. Archived from the original on 3 May 2016.
  29. "The Most Important Findings of Niya in Taklamakan". The Silk Road. Retrieved2007-07-21.
  30. 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved2020-04-15.
  31. 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved2010-05-25.
  32. 2019年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:莎车县 (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2019. Retrieved27 February 2020. 统计用区划代码 名称 653125001000 叶尓羌街道 653125002000 城中街道 653125003000 城东街道 653125004000 城西街道 653125005000 城北街道 653125100000 莎车镇 653125101000 恰热克镇 653125102000 艾力西湖镇 653125103000 荒地镇 653125104000 阿瓦提镇 653125105000 白什坎特镇 653125106000 依盖尔其镇 653125107000 古勒巴格镇 653125108000 米夏镇 653125109000 托木吾斯塘镇 653125110000 塔尕尔其镇 653125111000 乌达力克镇 653125112000 阿拉买提镇 653125113000 阿扎特巴格镇 653125201000 阿热勒乡 653125202000 恰尔巴格乡 653125204000 英吾斯塘乡 653125206000 阿尔斯兰巴格乡 653125207000 孜热甫夏提塔吉克族乡 653125208000 亚喀艾日克乡 653125209000 喀群乡 653125210000 霍什拉甫乡 653125211000 达木斯乡 653125213000 伊什库力乡 653125214000 拍克其乡 653125216000 阔什艾日克乡 653125217000 墩巴格乡 653125220000 巴格阿瓦提乡 653125221000 喀拉苏乡 653125401000 喀什监狱 653125402000 莎车县良种繁育场 653125403000 莎车县第一林场(国营苗圃) 653125404000 莎车县国营二林场 653125405000 莎车县园艺场 653125406000 莎车县蚕种场 653125407000 莎车县鱼苗场 653125408000 农科院莎车农业试验站 653125409000 工业园区管委会 653125410000 英阿瓦提管理委员会 653125411000 永安管理委员会 653125514000 兵团五十四团
  33. 莎车县历史沿革. XZQH.org. 29 January 2015. Retrieved27 February 2020. 2010年第六次人口普查,莎车县常住总人口762385人,其中:莎车镇128145人,恰热克镇29946人,艾力西湖镇36793人,荒地镇34658人,阿瓦提镇25119人,伯什坎特镇39243人,依盖尔其镇27038人,古勒巴格乡22255人,阿热勒乡17398人,恰尔巴格乡12972人,托木吾斯塘乡29579人,英吾斯塘乡10582人,乌达力克乡31525人,阿热斯兰巴格乡20018人,孜热甫普夏提乡10504人,亚喀艾日克乡10204人,喀群乡18749人,藿什拉甫乡17351人,达木斯乡9678人,米夏乡32419人,伊什库力乡29930人,拍克其乡19809人,塔尕尔其乡34554人,阔什艾日克乡16413人,墩巴格乡17579人,阿拉买提乡23583人,阿扎特巴格乡15846人,巴格阿瓦提乡16951人,喀拉苏乡14756人,喀什监狱5506人,县良种场1988人,优质果树苗木繁育基地270人,国营二林场224人,园艺场186人,蚕种场284人,渔苗场30人,农科院莎车农业试验站300人。
  34. Parameswaran Ponnudurai and Luisetta Mudie (29 July 2014). "Dozens of Uyghurs Shot Dead in Riots in Xinjiang's Yarkand County". Radio Free Asia. Translated by Mamatjan Juma and Luisetta Mudie. Retrieved28 February 2020. The riots began on Monday morning when groups of Uyghurs attacked a police station and government offices in Elishku township, prompting police to fire at the crowd, leaving many dead or wounded, local officials told RFA’s Uyghur Service.{...}“China does not want the world to know what occurred on Monday in Elishku Township,” he said. “That state media could label the killing of dozens of people as in line with the law reflects the poor regard the state has for its own laws and judicial process.”{...}Aytullah Tursun, head of No. 16 village, also one of the villages affected by the clashes, said the police killing of a family of five in Beshkent village near Elishku township on July 18 could have triggered the riots.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  35. huaxia, ed. (17 September 2020). "Full Text: Employment and Labor Rights in Xinjiang". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved20 September 2020. According to a survey in early 2020, with a population of 3,540, the Aybagh Village in Gulbagh Town, Shache (Yarkant) County, Kashgar Prefecture,
  36. 夏征农; 陈至立, eds. (September 2009). 辞海:第六版彩图本 [Cihai (Sixth Edition in Color)] (in Chinese). Shanghai: Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. p. 1955. ISBN 9787532628599.
  37. Herold J. Wiens (November 1966). "Cultivation Development and Expansion in China's Colonial Realm in Central Asia". The Journal of Asian Studies. 26 (1): 75. JSTOR 2051832 – via JSTOR.
  38. 3-7 各地、州、市、县(市)分民族人口数 (in Chinese).شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى新疆维吾尔自治区统计局 Statistic Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. 15 March 2017. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved3 September 2017.
  39. Morris Rossabi, ed. (2004). Governing China's Multiethnic Frontiers(PDF). University of Washington Press. p. 179. ISBN 0-295-98390-6.
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Yarkant County
Yarkant County Article Talk Language Watch Edit Yarkand redirects here For other meanings see Yarkand disambiguation Shache redirects here It is not to be confused with Schache This article contains too many or overly lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry Please help improve the article by presenting facts as a neutrally worded summary with appropriate citations Consider transferring direct quotations to Wikiquote or for entire works to Wikisource May 2021 Yarkant County 4 5 6 also Shache County 7 also transliterated from Uyghur as Yakan County is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region China located on the southern rim of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin It is one of 11 counties administered under Kashgar Prefecture The county usually referred to as Yarkand 8 in English was the seat of an ancient Buddhist kingdom on the southern branch of the Silk Road and the Yarkand Khanate The county sits at an altitude of 1 189 metres 3 901 ft and as of 2003 update had a population of 373 492 Yarkant County يەكەن ناھىيىسى 莎车县Yarkand Shache SocheCountyA street in YarkantYarkant County red within Kashgar Prefecture yellow and XinjiangYarkantLocation of the seat in XinjiangShow map of XinjiangYarkantYarkant China Show map of ChinaCoordinates County government 38 23 27 N 77 13 24 E 38 3909 N 77 2232 E 38 3909 77 2232 Coordinates 38 23 27 N 77 13 24 E 38 3909 N 77 2232 E 38 3909 77 2232CountryPeople s Republic of ChinaAutonomous regionXinjiangPrefectureKashgarArea Total8 969 km2 3 463 sq mi Elevation1 232 m 4 042 ft Population 2015 Total851 374 1 Ethnic groups Major ethnic groupsUyghur 2 Time zoneUTC 8 China Standard Postal code844700Yarkant Shache CountyStreet scene in Yarkand in the 1870sUyghur nameUyghurيەكەن ناھىيىسى Literal meaningCliff city 3 TranscriptionsLatin YeziqiYeken NahiyisiYengi YeziⱪYeken Nah iyisiSASM GNCYakan NahiyisiSiril YeziqiJәkәn naһijisiChinese nameSimplified Chinese莎车县Traditional Chinese莎車縣TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinShache XianWade GilesSha chʻe Hsien IPA ʂa ʈʂʰɤ ɕjɛ n Alternative Chinese nameSimplified Chinese叶尔羌县Traditional Chinese葉爾羌縣TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinYe erqiang Xian The fertile oasis is fed by the Yarkand River which flows north down from the Karakorum mountains and passes through the Kunlun Mountains known historically as the Congling mountains lit Onion Mountains from the abundance of wild onions found there The oasis now covers 3 210 square kilometres 1 240 sq mi but was likely far more extensive before a period of desiccation affected the region from the 3rd century CE onwards Today Yarkant is a predominantly Uyghur settlement The irrigated oasis farmland produces cotton wheat corn fruits especially pomegranates pears and apricots and walnuts Yak and sheep graze in the highlands Mineral deposits include petroleum natural gas gold copper lead bauxite granite and coal Map showing the rivers of the Tarim Basin and Yarkand River Contents 1 History 1 1 Han dynasty 1 2 Later history 1 3 Yarkent Khanate 1 4 Qing dynasty 1 5 Twentieth century 2 Geography 2 1 Climate 3 Administrative divisions 4 Economy 5 Demographics 6 Transportation 7 Historical maps 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 References 12 External linksHistory EditHan dynasty Edit The territory of Yarkand is first mentioned in the Book of Han 1st century BCE as Shaju Old Chinese approximately s a j ka which is probably related to the name of the Iranian Saka tribes 3 Descriptions in the Hou Hanshu History of the Later Han contain insights into the complex political situation China faced in attempting to open up the Silk Routes to the West in the 1st century CE According to the Chapter on the Western Regions in the Hou Hanshu Going west from the kingdom of Suoju Yarkand and passing through the countries of Puli Tashkurghan and Wulei centred on Sarhad in the Wakhan you arrive among the Da Yuezhi Kushans To the east it is 10 950 li 4 553 km from Luoyang The Chanyu Khan of the Xiongnu took advantage of the chaos caused by Wang Mang 9 24 CE and invaded the Western Regions Only Yan the king of Suoju who was more powerful than the others did not consent to being annexed Previously during the time of Emperor Yuan 48 33 BCE he was a hostage prince and grew up in the capital He admired and loved the Middle Kingdom and extended the rules of Chinese administration to his own country He ordered all his sons to respectfully serve the Han dynasty generation by generation and to never turn their backs on it Yan died in the fifth Tianfeng year 18 CE He was awarded the posthumous title of Faithful and Martial King His son Kang succeeded him on the throne At the beginning of Emperor Guangwu s reign 25 57 CE Kang led the neighboring kingdoms to resist the Xiongnu He escorted and protected more than a thousand people including the officers the soldiers the wife and children of the former Protector General He sent a letter to Hexi Chinese territory west of the Yellow River to inquire about the activities of the Middle Kingdom and personally expressed his attachment to and admiration for the Han dynasty In the fifth Jianwu year 29 CE the General in Chief of Hexi Dou Rong following Imperial instructions bestowed on Kang the titles of King of Chinese Suoju Performer of Heroic Deeds Who Cherishes Virtue and Commandant in Chief of the Western Regions The fifty five kingdoms were all made dependencies after that In the ninth year 33 CE Kang died He was awarded the posthumous title of Greatly Accomplished King His younger brother Xian succeeded him on the throne Xian attacked and conquered the kingdoms of Jumi Keriya and Xiye Karghalik He killed both their kings and installed two sons of his elder brother Kang as the kings of Jumi and Xiye In the fourteenth year 38 CE together with An the king of Shanshan the Lop Nor region he sent envoys to the Imperial Palace to offer tribute Following this the Western Regions were again in communication with China All the kingdoms to the east of the Congling Pamirs were dependent on Xian In the seventeenth year 41 CE Xian again sent an envoy to present offerings to the Emperor and to ask that a Protector General be appointed The Son of Heaven questioned the Excellency of Works Dou Rong about this He was of the opinion that Xian and his sons and brothers who had pledged to serve the Han were truly sincere Therefore he suggested that it would be appropriate to give him higher rank to maintain order and security Yarkand ambassador at the Chinese court of Emperor Yuan of Liang in his capital Jingzhou in 516 520 CE with explanatory text Portraits of Periodical Offering of Liang 11th century Song copy The Emperor then using the same envoy that Xian had sent to him bestowed upon him the seal and ribbon of Protector General of the Western Regions and gave him chariots standards gold brocades and embroideries Pei Zun the Administrator of Dunhuang wrote saying that foreigners should not be allowed to employ such great authority and that these decrees would cause the kingdoms to despair An Imperial decree then ordered that the seal and ribbons of Protector General be recovered and replaced with the seal and ribbon of Great Han General Xian s envoy refused to make the exchange and Pei Zun took them by force Consequently Xian became resentful Furthermore he falsely named himself Great Protector General and sent letters to all the kingdoms They all submitted to him and bestowed the title of Chanyu on him Xian gradually became arrogant making heavy demands for duties and taxes Several times he attacked Qiuci Kucha and the other kingdoms All the kingdoms were anxious and fearful In the winter of the twenty first year 45 CE eighteen kings including the king of Nearer Jushi Turpan Shanshan Yanqi Karashahr and others sent their sons to enter the service of the Emperor and offered treasure As a result they were granted audience when they circulated weeping prostrating with their foreheads to the ground in the hope of obtaining a Protector General The Son of Heaven considering that the Middle Kingdom was just beginning to return to peace and that the northern frontier regions were still unsettled returned all the hostage princes with generous gifts At the same time Xian infatuated with his military power wanted to annex the Western Regions and greatly increased his attacks The kingdoms informed that no Protector General would be sent and that the hostage princes were all returning were very worried and frightened Therefore they sent a letter to the Administrator of Dunhuang to ask him to detain their hostage sons with him so that they could point this out to the king of Suoju Yarkand and tell him that their young hostage sons were detained because a Protector General was to be sent Then he the king of Yarkand would stop his hostilities Pei Zun sent an official report informing the Emperor of this proposal which he approved In the twenty second year 46 CE Xian aware that no Protector General was coming sent a letter to An king of Shanshan ordering him to cut the route to the Han An did not accept this order and killed the envoy Xian was furious and sent soldiers to attack Shanshan An gave battle but was defeated and fled into the mountains Xian killed or captured more than a thousand men and then withdrew Yarkand 周古柯 Zhouguke in Wanghuitu circa 650 CE That winter 46 CE Xian returned and attacked Qiuci Kucha killed the king and annexed the kingdom The hostage princes of Shanshan and then Yanqi Karashahr and the other kingdoms were detained a long time at Dunhuang and became worried so they fled and returned to their kingdoms The king of Shanshan wrote a letter to the Emperor expressing his desire to return his son to enter the service of the Emperor and again pleaded for a Protector General saying that if a Protector General were not sent he would be forced to obey the Xiongnu The Son of Heaven replied We are not able at the moment to send out envoys and Imperial troops so in spite of their good wishes each kingdom should seek help as they please wherever they can to the east west south or north dd Following this Shanshan and Jushi Turpan Jimasa again submitted to the Xiongnu Meanwhile Xian became increasingly violent The king of Guisai reckoning that his kingdom was far enough away killed Xian s envoy Xian then attacked and killed him He appointed a nobleman from that country Sijian king of Guisai Furthermore Xian appointed his own son Zeluo to be king of Qiuci Kucha Xian taking account of the youth of Zeluo detached a part of the territory from Qiuci Kucha from which he made the kingdom of Wulei Yengisar He transferred Sijian to the post of king of Wulei and appointed another noble to the post of king of Guisai Several years later the people of the kingdom of Qiuci Kucha killed Zeluo and Sijian and sent envoys to the Xiongnu to ask them to appoint a king to replace them The Xiongnu established a nobleman of Qiuci Kucha Shendu to be king of Qiuci Kucha making it dependent on the Xiongnu Because Dayuan Ferghana had reduced their tribute and taxes Xian personally took command of several tens of thousands of men taken from several kingdoms and attacked Dayuan Ferghana Yanliu the king of Dayuan came before him to submit Xian took advantage of this to take him back to his own kingdom Then he transferred Qiaosaiti the king of Jumi Keriya to the post of king of Dayuan Ferghana Then Kangju Tashkent plus the Chu Talas and middle Jaxartes basins attacked him there several times and Qiaosaiti fled home to Keriya more than a year later Xian appointed him king of Jumi Keriya and sent Yanliu back to Dayuan again ordering him to bring the customary tribute and offerings Xian also banished the king of Yutian Khotan Yulin to be king of Ligui and set up his younger brother Weishi as king of Yutian More than a year later Xian became suspicious that the kingdoms wanted to rebel against him He summoned Weishi and the kings of Jumi Keriya Gumo Aksu and Zihe Shahidulla and killed them all He didn t set up any more kings he just sent generals to maintain order and guard these kingdoms Rong the son of Weishi fled and made submission to the Han who named him Marquis Who Maintains Virtue A general from Suoju Yarkand named Junde had been posted to Yutian Khotan and tyrannised the people there who became indignant Yarkand official 1870s In the third Yongping year 60 CE during the reign of Emperor Ming a high official of this country called Dumo had left town when he saw a wild pig He wanted to shoot it but the pig said to him Do not shoot me I will undertake to kill Junde for you Following this Dumo plotted with his brothers and killed Junde However another high official Xiumo Ba plotted in his turn with a Chinese man Han Rong and others to kill Dumo and his brothers then he named himself king of Yutian Khotan Together with men from the kingdom of Jumi Keriya he attacked and killed the Suoju Yarkand general who was at Pishan modern Pishan or Guma He then returned with the soldiers Then Xian sent his Heir Apparent and his State Chancellor leading 20 000 soldiers from several kingdoms to attack Xiumo Ba Xiumo Ba came to meet them and gave battle defeating the soldiers of Suoju Yarkand who fled and more than 10 000 of them were killed Xian again fielded several tens of thousands of men from several kingdoms and personally led them to attack Xiumo Ba Xiumo Ba was again victorious and beheaded more than half of the enemy Xian escaped and fled returning to his kingdom Xiumo Ba advanced and encircled Suoju Yarkand but he was hit and killed by an arrow and his soldiers retreated to Yutian Khotan Suyule State Chancellor of Khotan and others appointed Guangde the son of Xiumo Ba s elder brother king The Xiongnu with Qiuci Kucha and the other kingdoms attacked Suoju Yarkand but were unable to take it Later Guangde recognising of the exhaustion of Suoju Yarkand sent his younger brother the Marquis who Supports the State Ren commanding an army to attack Xian As he had suffered war continuously Xian sent an envoy to make peace with Guangde Guangde s father had previously been detained for several years in Suoju Yarkand Xian returned Guangde s father and also gave one of his daughters in marriage and swore brotherhood to Guangde so the soldiers withdrew and left Andijani Taifurghis of the Yarkand Governor s Guard 1870s In the following year 61 CE Qieyun the Chancellor of Suoju Yarkand and others worried by Xian s arrogance plotted to get the town to submit to Yutian Khotan Guangde the king of Yutian Khotan then led 30 000 men from several kingdoms to attack Suoju Yarkand Xian stayed in the town to defend it and sent a messenger to say to Guangde I have given you your father and a wife Why are you attacking me Guangde replied to him O king you are the father of my wife It has been a long time since we met I want us to meet each of us escorted by only two men outside the town wall to make an alliance Xian consulted Qieyun about this Qieyun said to him Guangde your son in law is a very close relation you should go out to see him Xian then rashly went out Guangde advanced and captured him In addition Qieyun and his colleagues let the soldiers of Yutian Khotan into the town to capture Xian s wife and children Guangde annexed his kingdom He put Xian in chains and took him home with him More than a year later he killed him When the Xiongnu heard that Guangde had defeated Suoju Yarkand they sent five generals leading more than 30 000 men from fifteen kingdoms including Yanqi Karashahr Weili Korla and Qiuci Kucha to besiege Yutian Khotan Guangde asked to submit He sent his Heir Apparent as a hostage and promised to give felt carpets each year In winter the Xiongnu ordered soldiers to take Xian s son Bujuzheng who was a hostage with them to appoint him king of Suoju Yarkand Guangde then attacked and killed Bujuzheng and put his younger brother Qili on the throne This was in the third Yuanhe year 86 CE of Emperor Zhang At this time Chief Clerk Ban Chao brought the troops of several kingdoms to attack Suoju Yarkand He soundly defeated Suoju Yarkand so it submitted to Han 9 In 90 CE the Yuezhi or Kushans invaded the region with an army of reportedly 70 000 men under their Viceroy Xian but they were forced to withdraw without a battle after Ban Chao instigated a burnt earth policy 10 After the Yuanchu period 114 120 CE when the Yuezhi or Kushans placed a hostage prince on the throne of Kashgar Suoju Yarkand followed by resisting Yutian Khotan and put themselves under Shule Kashgar Thus Shule Kashgar became powerful and a rival to Qiuci Kucha and Yutian Khotan 11 In the second Yongjian year 127 CE of the reign of Emperor Shun Ban Yong once again attacked and subdued Yanqi Karashahr and then Qiuci Kucha Shule Kashgar Yutian Khotan Suoju Yarkand and other kingdoms seventeen altogether came to submit Following this the Wusun Ili River Basin and Issyk Kul and the countries of the Congling Pamir Mountains put an end to their disruptions to communications with the west 12 In 130 CE Yarkand along with Ferghana and Kashgar sent tribute and offerings to the Chinese Emperor 13 Later history Edit Kanishka s Empire 2nd century AD including Yarkand Yarkand 1868 showing city walls and gallows The towers in Yakka Arik There is very little information on Yarkant s history for many centuries apart from a couple of brief references in Tang dynasty 618 907 histories and it appears to have been of less note than the oasis of Kharghalik see Yecheng and Yecheng County to its south 14 It was possibly captured by the Muslims soon after they subdued Kashgar in the early 10 11th century citation needed The area became the main base in the region for Chagatai Khan died 1241 who inherited Kashgaria and also much of the land between the Oxus Amu Darya and Jaxartes Syr Darya rivers after his father Genghis Khan died in 1227 Marco Polo described Yarkant in 1273 but said only that this province of Kublai Khan s nephew Kaidu d 1301 was five days journey in extent The inhabitants follow the law of Mahomet and there are also some Nestorian Christians They are subject to the Great Khan s nephew It is amply stocked with the means of life especially cotton 15 Tombs of Yarkand Khans near the Altyn Mosque At the end of the 16th century Yarkant was incorporated into the Khanate of Kashgar and became its capital The Jesuit Benedict Goez who sought a route from the Mughal Empire to Cathay which according to his superiors may or may not have been the same place as China arrived in Yarkant with a caravan from Kabul in late 1603 He remained there for about a year making a short trip to Khotan during that time He reported Hiarchan Yarkant the capital of the kingdom of Cascar is a mart of much note both for the great concourse of merchants and for the variety of wares At this capital the caravan of Kabul merchants reaches its terminus and a new one is formed for the journey to Cathay The command of this caravan is sold by the king who invests the chiefs with a kind of royal authority over the merchants for the whole journey A twelvemonth passed away however before the new company was formed for the way is long and perilous and the caravan is not formed every year but only when a large number arrange to join it and when it is known that they will be allowed to enter Cathay 16 During his journey Goez also noted the presence of large marble quarries in the area leading him to write that amongst native travellers from Yarkant to Cathay no article of traffic is more valuable or more generally adopted as an investment for this journey than lumps of a certain transparent kind of marble called by the Chinese jusce jade They carry these to the Emperor of Cathay attracted by the high prices which he deems it obligatory on his dignity to give and such pieces as the Emperor does not fancy they are free to dispose of to private individuals 17 Yarkent Khanate Edit Yarkent served as capital for the Yarkent Khanate also known as Yarkent State from the establishment of Yarkent Khanate to its fall 1514 1713 Qing dynasty Edit Yarkand c 1759 The Qing dynasty gained control of the region in the middle of the 18th century The Begs of Yarkand 1915 By the 19th century due to its active trade with Ladakh and an influx of foreign merchants it became the largest and most populous of all the States of Kashghar Kashgar 18 Yakub Beg 1820 1877 conquered Khotan Aksu Kashgar and neighbouring towns with the help of the Russians in the 1860s He made Yarkant the capital of the newly founded Turkic state of Yettishar where he received embassies from England in 1870 and 1873 The Qing dynasty defeated Yakub at Turpan in 1877 after which he committed suicide Thus ended the Yettishar kingdom and the region returned to Qing Chinese control Chinese merchants and soldiers foreigners like Russians foreign Muslims and other Turki merchants all engaged in temporary marriages with Turki Uyghur women since a lot of foreigners lived in Yarkand temporary marriage flourished there more than it did towards areas with fewer foreigners like areas towards Kucha s east 19 The Earl of Dunmore wrote in 1894 Almost every Chinaman in Yarkand soldier or civilian takes unto himself a temporary wife dispensing entirely with the services of the clergy as being superfluous and most of the high officials also give way to the same amiable weakness their mistresses being in almost all cases natives of Khotan which city enjoys the unenviable distinction of supplying every large city in Turkestan with courtesans When a Chinaman is called back to his own home in China proper or a Chinese soldier has served his time in Turkestan and has to return to his native city of Pekin or Shanghai he either leaves his temporary wife behind to shift for herself or he sells her to a friend If he has a family he takes the boys with him if he can afford it failing that the sons are left alone and unprotected to fight the battle of life While in the case of daughters he sells them to one of his former companions for a trifling sum The natives although all Mahammadans have a strong predilection for the Chinese and seem to like their manners and customs and never seem to resent this behaviour to their womankind their own manners customs and morals being of the very loosest description 20 21 Twentieth century Edit Uyghur meshrep in Yarkand Hardware store Yarkand This article or section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page May 2016 Learn how and when to remove this template message The Battle of Yarkand took place in Yarkant county in April 1934 Ma Zhancang s Chinese Muslim army defeated the Turkic Uighur and Kirghiz army and the Afghan volunteers sent by king Mohammed Zahir Shah and exterminated them all The emir Abdullah Bughra was killed and beheaded his head was sent to Idgah mosque 22 23 Almost all the ancient buildings of the old city were destroyed during the Cultural Revolution 1966 1968 with only the central mosque the main gate of the old palace and the royal cemetery surviving 24 Following riots around Yarkant in summer 2014 many scores of people including Hans and Uyghurs died with estimates ranging from the state media total of 96 to over 1 000 according to some residents and Rebiya Kadeer president of the Germany based World Uyghur Congress WUC 25 26 27 In August 2015 it was reported by Chinese media that the amount of farmland per capita was increased from 2 6 mu per person to 3 5 mu after clearing up more arable lands 28 Geography EditYarkant is strategically located about half way between Kashgar and Khotan at the junction of a branch road north to Aksu It also was the terminus for caravans coming from Kashmir via Ladakh and then over the Karakoram Pass to the oasis of Niya in the Tarim Basin 29 The Xinjiang Tibet Highway China National Highway 219 built in 1956 commences in Yecheng Yarkant and heads south and west across the Ladakh plateau and into central Tibet From Yarkant another important route headed southwest via Tashkurgan Town to the Wakhan corridor from where travellers could cross the relatively easy Baroghil Pass and Badakshan Climate Edit As with much of southern Xinjiang Yarkant has a temperate zone continental Koppen BWk with a mean total of only 61 mm 2 40 in of precipitation per annum As spring and autumn are short winter and summer are the main seasons The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 5 2 C 22 6 F in January to 25 3 C 77 5 F in July the annual mean is 12 01 C 53 6 F The diurnal temperature variation is not particularly large for a desert averaging 13 3 C 23 9 F annually With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 56 in March to 75 in October the county seat receives 2 860 hours of bright sunshine annually Climate data for Yarkhant 1981 2010 normals Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec YearAverage high C F 0 8 33 4 6 5 43 7 15 2 59 4 23 1 73 6 27 6 81 7 31 2 88 2 32 6 90 7 31 0 87 8 26 8 80 2 20 4 68 7 11 5 52 7 2 4 36 3 19 1 66 4 Daily mean C F 5 2 22 6 0 2 32 4 8 5 47 3 15 9 60 6 20 2 68 4 23 8 74 8 25 3 77 5 23 8 74 8 19 1 66 4 11 9 53 4 3 8 38 8 3 2 26 2 12 0 53 6 Average low C F 10 3 13 5 5 3 22 5 2 3 36 1 9 0 48 2 13 4 56 1 16 9 62 4 18 6 65 5 17 3 63 1 12 0 53 6 4 7 40 5 2 1 28 2 7 5 18 5 5 8 42 4 Average precipitation mm inches 1 9 0 07 1 7 0 07 4 8 0 19 4 9 0 19 8 2 0 32 9 9 0 39 10 2 0 40 9 1 0 36 5 9 0 23 1 7 0 07 1 8 0 07 1 0 0 04 61 1 2 4 Average precipitation days 0 1 mm 1 7 1 6 1 2 1 1 2 4 3 2 3 5 3 2 1 5 0 9 0 3 1 5 22 1Average relative humidity 65 55 45 39 43 43 49 56 60 59 60 69 54Mean monthly sunshine hours 181 6 182 8 205 0 231 4 262 9 303 6 296 6 268 2 257 7 261 4 222 8 186 3 2 860 3Percent possible sunshine 60 61 56 59 60 69 66 64 69 75 74 63 65Source China Meteorological Administration precipitation days and sunshine 1971 2000 30 31 Administrative divisions Edit 32 33 County controlled District 县辖区 Tuomuwusitang District 托木吾斯塘区 Yishikuli District 伊什库力区 Wudalike District 乌达力克区 Huoshilapu District 霍什拉甫区 Awati District 阿瓦提区 Ailixihu District 艾力西湖区 Baishikante District 白什坎特区 Subdistricts Yarkant Subdistrict Ye erqiang 叶尔羌街道 Chengzhong Subdistrict 城中街道 Chengdong Subdistrict 城东街道 Chengxi Subdistrict 城西街道 Chengbei Subdistrict 城北街道 Towns بازىرى 镇 Yarkant Town Shache يەكەن بازىرى 莎车镇 Charak Qiareke چارەك بازىرى 恰热克镇 Awat Awati ئاۋات بازىرى 阿瓦提镇 Elishku 34 Ailixihu Elishqu ئېلىشقۇ بازىرى 艾力西湖镇 Hangdi Huangdi خاڭدى بازىرى 荒地镇 Beshkent Baishikante بەشكەنت بازىرى 白什坎特镇 Egerchi Yigai erqi ئېگەرچى بازىرى 依盖尔其镇 Tomosteng Tuomu Wusitang Tuomuwusitang 托木吾斯塘镇 formerly Tomosteng Township تومئۆستەڭ يېزىسى 托木吾斯塘乡 Misha Mixia مىشا بازىرى 米夏镇 formerly Misha Township 米夏乡 Odanlik Wudalike 乌达力克镇 formerly Odanlik Township ئودانلىق يېزىسى 乌达力克乡 Alamet Alamaiti 阿拉买提镇 formerly a Alamet Township ئالامەت يېزىسى 阿拉买提乡 Townships يېزىسى 乡 Gulbagh Township 35 Gulebage گۈلباغ بازىرى 古勒巴格乡 Yengiostang Township Yingwusitang يېڭىئۆستەڭ يېزىسى 英吾斯塘乡 Aral Township Arele ئارال يېزىسى 阿热勒乡 Charbagh Township Qia erbage چارباغ يېزىسى 恰尔巴格乡 Ishkul Township Yishikuli ئىشقۇل يېزىسى 伊什库力乡 Tagharchi Township Taga erqi تاغارچى يېزىسى 塔尕尔其乡 Pekichi Township Paikeqi پەكىچى يېزىسى 拍克其乡 Arslanbagh Township A ersilanbage ئارسلانباغ يېزىسى 阿尔斯兰巴格乡 Yaqaerik Township Yaka airike ياقائېرىق يېزىسى 亚喀艾日克乡 Kachung Township Kaqun كاچۇڭ يېزىسى 喀群乡 Koshirap Township Huoshilafu قوشىراپ يېزىسى 霍什拉甫乡 藿什拉甫乡 Damsi Township Damusi دامسى يېزىسى 达木斯乡 Azadbagh Township Azhatibage ئازادباغ يېزىسى 阿扎特巴格乡 Kosh erik Township Kuoshi airike قوشئېرىق يېزىسى 阔什艾日克乡 Dongbagh Township Dunbage دۆڭباغ يېزىسى 墩巴格乡 Baghawat Township Bage awati باغئاۋات يېزىسى 巴格阿瓦提乡 Karasu Township Kalasu قاراسۇ يېزىسى 喀拉苏乡 Ethnic Townships 民族乡 孜热甫夏提塔吉克族乡 Zerepshat Tajik township Other 其他 莎车农场 莎车县良种场 莎车县国营农场 喀什监狱 莎车县各县辖区管辖乡镇 Tuomuwusitang District 托木吾斯塘区 古勒巴格乡 托木吾斯塘乡 英吾斯塘乡 阿热勒乡 恰尔巴格乡 Tuomuwusitang District 托木吾斯塘区 伊什库力乡 米夏乡 塔尕尔其乡 拍克其乡 Wudalike District 乌达力克区 热克镇 乌达力克乡 阿尔斯兰巴格乡 亚喀艾日克乡 孜热甫夏提塔吉克族乡 Huoshilafu District 霍什拉甫区 喀群乡 霍什拉甫乡 达木斯乡 Awat District 阿瓦提区 Awat Town 阿瓦提镇 Alamaiti Township 阿拉买提乡 Azatibage Township 阿扎提巴格乡 Aili West Lake District 艾力西湖区 Ailixihu Town 艾力西湖镇 Huangdi Town 荒地镇 Kuoshiairike Township 阔什艾日克乡 Dunbage Township 墩巴格乡 Baishikan Special District 白什坎特区 白什坎特镇 依盖尔其镇 巴格阿瓦提乡 喀拉苏乡Economy EditYarkant County is an important producer of wheat corn rice rapeseed and cotton in southern Xinjiang The area also produces grapes rugs and leather products Industries include electronics coal silk tractor repair and cotton and cooking oil processing 36 As of 1885 update there was about 154 600 acres 1 021 500 mu of cultivated land in Yarkant 37 Demographics EditHistorical populationYearPop p a 2000620 329 2010762 385 2 08 33 As of 2015 818 379 of the 851 374 residents of the county were Uyghur 25 404 were Han Chinese and 7 591 were from other ethnic groups 38 As of 1999 95 71 of the population of Yarkant Shache County was Uyghur and 3 47 of the population was Han Chinese 39 Transportation EditYarkant is served by China National Highway 315 the Kashgar Hotan Railway and Shache Airport Historical maps EditHistorical English language maps including Yarkant Map including Yarkant labeled as SHACHE SHA CH E DMA 1980 Map including Yarkant labeled as SO CH E YARKAND AMS 1966 a From the Operational Navigation Chart map including Yarkant labeled as SHACHE SO CH E DMA 1980 b Map including Yarkant labeled as SHACHE SO CH E DMA 1984 c See also EditAltyn Mosque Xinjiang Mount Imeon Shaksgam RiverNotes Edit From map DELINEATION OF INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES MUST NOT BE CONSIDERED AUTHORITATIVE From map The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative From map The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative References Edit Statistical Yearbook of Xinjiang in 2016 1997年莎车县行政区划 XZQH org 19 November 2010 Retrieved 27 February 2020 面积12平方千米 人口3 8万 其中维吾尔族占93 2 a b P Lurje Yarkand Encyclopaedia Iranica online edition Andrew Jacobs 29 July 2014 China s Account of Bloodshed in Far West Is Disputed New York Times Retrieved 28 February 2020 According to Xinhua it began at a government building in Yarkant County and spread to surrounding streets where assailants attacked passers by and set cars on fire An ed 20 January 2017 4 8 magnitude quake jolts Xinjiang CENC Xinhua News Agency Retrieved 28 February 2020 A 4 8 magnitude earthquake hits Yarkant County of northwest China s Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region at 5 54 p m Friday Beijing Time according to the China Earthquake Networks Center CENC Yarkant Xian Variant V at GEOnet Names Server United States National Geospatial Intelligence Agency Shache Approved N at GEOnet Names Server United States National Geospatial Intelligence Agency Chris Buckly Steven Lee Myers 18 January 2020 Battered but Resilient After China s Crackdown New York Times Retrieved 7 April 2020 An ancient Muslim town Yarkand is a cultural cradle for the Uighurs who have experienced mass detentions CS1 maint uses authors parameter link Hill 2015 Vol I pp 39 41 Chavannes Edouard 1906 Trois generaux Chinois de la dynastie des Han Orientaux T oung pao 7 pp 232 233 Hill 2015 Vol I p 43 Hill 2015 Vol I p 11 Hill 2015 Vol I pp 180 181 Stein Aurel M 1907 Ancient Khotan Detailed report of archaeological explorations in Chinese Turkestan 2 vols p 87 Clarendon Press Oxford 1 The Travels of Marco Polo Translated by Ronald Latham Abaris Books New York 1982 p 66 ISBN 0 89835 058 1 2 From The Travels of Benedict Goez Eastern Turkestan Pall Mall Gazette British Newspaper Archive 8 June 1871 Retrieved 8 August 2014 Forsyth 1875 p 34 Ildiko Beller Hann 2008 Community Matters in Xinjiang 1880 1949 Towards a Historical Anthropology of the Uyghur BRILL pp 267 ISBN 978 90 04 16675 2 Charles Adolphus Murray Earl of Dunmore 1894 The Pamirs Being a Narrative of a Year s Expedition on Horseback and on Foot Through Kashmir Western Tibet Chinese Tartary and Russian Central Asia J Murray pp 328 When a Chinaman is called back to his own home in China proper or a Chinese soldier has served his time in Turkestan and has to return to his native city of Pekin and Shanghai he either leaves his temporary wife behind to shift for herself or he sells her to a friend If he has a family he takes the boys with him Ildiko Beller Hann 2008 Community Matters in Xinjiang 1880 1949 Towards a Historical Anthropology of the Uyghur BRILL pp 267 ISBN 978 90 04 16675 2 Andrew D W Forbes 1986 Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911 1949 Cambridge England CUP Archive pp 123 303 ISBN 0 521 25514 7 Retrieved 2010 06 28 Christian Tyler 2004 Wild West China the taming of Xinjiang New Brunswick New Jersey Rutgers University Press p 314 ISBN 0 8135 3533 6 Retrieved 2010 06 28 Dorje 2009 p 453 At Least 2 000 Uyghurs Killed in Yarkand Violence Exile Leader http news sky com story 1328589 rare visit to town at centre of massacre claims Li Jing 29 July 2014 Dozens of axe wielding attackers shot dead by police during attacks in Xinjiang South China Morning Post Retrieved 9 April 2020 心系群众实际困难 提高服务群众能力 in Chinese 9 August 2015 Archived from the original on 3 May 2016 The Most Important Findings of Niya in Taklamakan The Silk Road Retrieved 2007 07 21 中国气象数据网 WeatherBk Data in Chinese China Meteorological Administration Retrieved 2020 04 15 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集 1971 2000年 China Meteorological Administration Archived from the original on 2013 09 21 Retrieved 2010 05 25 2019年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码 莎车县 in Chinese National Bureau of Statistics of the People s Republic of China 2019 Retrieved 27 February 2020 统计用区划代码 名称 653125001000 叶尓羌街道 653125002000 城中街道 653125003000 城东街道 653125004000 城西街道 653125005000 城北街道 653125100000 莎车镇 653125101000 恰热克镇 653125102000 艾力西湖镇 653125103000 荒地镇 653125104000 阿瓦提镇 653125105000 白什坎特镇 653125106000 依盖尔其镇 653125107000 古勒巴格镇 653125108000 米夏镇 653125109000 托木吾斯塘镇 653125110000 塔尕尔其镇 653125111000 乌达力克镇 653125112000 阿拉买提镇 653125113000 阿扎特巴格镇 653125201000 阿热勒乡 653125202000 恰尔巴格乡 653125204000 英吾斯塘乡 653125206000 阿尔斯兰巴格乡 653125207000 孜热甫夏提塔吉克族乡 653125208000 亚喀艾日克乡 653125209000 喀群乡 653125210000 霍什拉甫乡 653125211000 达木斯乡 653125213000 伊什库力乡 653125214000 拍克其乡 653125216000 阔什艾日克乡 653125217000 墩巴格乡 653125220000 巴格阿瓦提乡 653125221000 喀拉苏乡 653125401000 喀什监狱 653125402000 莎车县良种繁育场 653125403000 莎车县第一林场 国营苗圃 653125404000 莎车县国营二林场 653125405000 莎车县园艺场 653125406000 莎车县蚕种场 653125407000 莎车县鱼苗场 653125408000 农科院莎车农业试验站 653125409000 工业园区管委会 653125410000 英阿瓦提管理委员会 653125411000 永安管理委员会 653125514000 兵团五十四团 a b 莎车县历史沿革 XZQH org 29 January 2015 Retrieved 27 February 2020 2010年第六次人口普查 莎车县常住总人口762385人 其中 莎车镇128145人 恰热克镇29946人 艾力西湖镇36793人 荒地镇34658人 阿瓦提镇25119人 伯什坎特镇39243人 依盖尔其镇27038人 古勒巴格乡22255人 阿热勒乡17398人 恰尔巴格乡12972人 托木吾斯塘乡29579人 英吾斯塘乡10582人 乌达力克乡31525人 阿热斯兰巴格乡20018人 孜热甫普夏提乡10504人 亚喀艾日克乡10204人 喀群乡18749人 藿什拉甫乡17351人 达木斯乡9678人 米夏乡32419人 伊什库力乡29930人 拍克其乡19809人 塔尕尔其乡34554人 阔什艾日克乡16413人 墩巴格乡17579人 阿拉买提乡23583人 阿扎特巴格乡15846人 巴格阿瓦提乡16951人 喀拉苏乡14756人 喀什监狱5506人 县良种场1988人 优质果树苗木繁育基地270人 国营二林场224人 园艺场186人 蚕种场284人 渔苗场30人 农科院莎车农业试验站300人 Parameswaran Ponnudurai and Luisetta Mudie 29 July 2014 Dozens of Uyghurs Shot Dead in Riots in Xinjiang s Yarkand County Radio Free Asia Translated by Mamatjan Juma and Luisetta Mudie Retrieved 28 February 2020 The riots began on Monday morning when groups of Uyghurs attacked a police station and government offices in Elishku township prompting police to fire at the crowd leaving many dead or wounded local officials told RFA s Uyghur Service China does not want the world to know what occurred on Monday in Elishku Township he said That state media could label the killing of dozens of people as in line with the law reflects the poor regard the state has for its own laws and judicial process Aytullah Tursun head of No 16 village also one of the villages affected by the clashes said the police killing of a family of five in Beshkent village near Elishku township on July 18 could have triggered the riots CS1 maint uses authors parameter link huaxia ed 17 September 2020 Full Text Employment and Labor Rights in Xinjiang Xinhua News Agency Retrieved 20 September 2020 According to a survey in early 2020 with a population of 3 540 the Aybagh Village in Gulbagh Town Shache Yarkant County Kashgar Prefecture 夏征农 陈至立 eds September 2009 辞海 第六版彩图本 Cihai Sixth Edition in Color in Chinese Shanghai Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House p 1955 ISBN 9787532628599 Herold J Wiens November 1966 Cultivation Development and Expansion in China s Colonial Realm in Central Asia The Journal of Asian Studies 26 1 75 JSTOR 2051832 via JSTOR 3 7 各地 州 市 县 市 分民族人口数 in Chinese شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى 新疆维吾尔自治区统计局 Statistic Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region 15 March 2017 Archived from the original on 11 October 2017 Retrieved 3 September 2017 Morris Rossabi ed 2004 Governing China s Multiethnic Frontiers PDF University of Washington Press p 179 ISBN 0 295 98390 6 References EditDorje Gyurme 2009 Tibet Handbook 4th Edition Footprint Bath England ISBN 978 1 906098 32 2 Sir Thomas Douglas Forsyth 1875 Report of a mission to Yarkund in 1873 under command of Sir T D Forsyth with historical and geographical information regarding the possessions of the ameer of Yarkund Printed at the Foreign department press p 573 Retrieved 2011 01 23 Forsyth T D Report on A Mission to Yarkund in 1873 Foreign Department Press Calcutta 1875 Downloadable from https archive org details reportamissiont00forsgoog Gordon T E 1876 The Roof of the World Being the Narrative of a Journey over the high plateau of Tibet to the Russian Frontier and the Oxus sources on Pamir Edinburgh Edmonston and Douglas Reprint Ch eng Wen Publishing Company Taipei 1971 Hill John E 2015 Through the Jade Gate China to Rome A Study of the Silk Routes 1st to 2nd Centuries CE Volumes I and II CreateSpace Charleston SC ISBN 978 1500696702 and ISBN 978 1503384620 self published source Hulsewe A F P and Loewe M A N 1979 China in Central Asia The Early Stage 125 BC AD 23 an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty E J Brill Leiden Puri B N Buddhism in Central Asia Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited Delhi 1987 2000 reprint Shaw Robert 1871 Visits to High Tartary Yarkand and Kashgar Reprint with introduction by Peter Hopkirk Oxford University Press 1984 ISBN 0 19 583830 0 Stein Aurel M 1907 Ancient Khotan Detailed report of archaeological explorations in Chinese Turkestan 2 vols Clarendon Press Oxford 3 Stein Aurel M 1921 Serindia Detailed report of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China 5 vols London amp Oxford Clarendon Press Reprint Delhi Motilal Banarsidass 1980 4 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Yarkand Look up Yarkant or Yarkand in Wiktionary the free dictionary Introduction to Yarkent County official website of Kashgar Prefecture government Yarkand Pictures Travels of Benedict Goez Washington University The Silk Road Seattle website contains many useful resources including a number of full text historical works Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yarkant County amp oldid 1041728087, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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