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Yasuni National Park

Yasuni National Park (Spanish: Parque Nacional Yasuní) is in Ecuador with an area of 9,823 km2 between the Napo and Curaray Rivers in Napo and Pastaza Provinces in Amazonian Ecuador. The national park lies within the Napo moist forests ecoregion and is primarily rain forest. The park is about 250 km from Quito and was designated a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1989. It is within the claimed ancestral territory of the Huaorani indigenous people. Yasuni is also home to two uncontacted indigenous tribes, the Tagaeri and the Taromenane. Many indigenous people use the riverways within the park as a main mode of travel. Several waterways in the area are tributaries that lead into the Amazon River, including blackwater rivers high in tannins boasting vastly different floral composition than the main riverways. The spine-covered palm, Bactris riparia, and aquatic plant Montrichardia linifera typically line the edges of these slow moving rivers, often referred to as Igapós.

Yasuni National Park Llanganates
Yasuni National Park (dark green).
LocationEcuador
Napo and Pastaza province
Coordinates1°5′S75°55′W /1.083°S 75.917°W /-1.083; -75.917Coordinates: 1°5′S75°55′W /1.083°S 75.917°W /-1.083; -75.917
Area9,823 km2 (3,793 sq mi)
Established26 July 1979
Indigenous Tourism project within the park
This is an image of the grounds at Yasuni Research Station in Ecuador, located in Yasuni National Park along the bank of the Tiputini River.
Amazon rainforest in the Park

Contents

Yasuni National Park (YNP) is arguably the most biologically diverse spot on Earth and a convergence point for three unique regions, the Equator, Andes Mountains, and the Amazon rainforest. The park is at the center of a small zone where amphibian, bird, mammal, and vascular plant diversity all reach their maximum levels within the western hemisphere. Moreover, the park breaks world records for local-scale (less than 100 km2) tree, amphibian, and bat species richness, and is one of the richest spots in the world for birds and mammals at local scales as well. The park also harbors a lot of amphibian diversity compared to other sites sampled in the western Amazon. Reptile species in the park are also very high in diversity with 121 documented species found. In spite of covering less than 0.15% of the Amazon Basin, Yasuni is home to approximately one-third of amphibian and reptile species. The park also harbors high levels of fish diversity with 382 known species. Yasuni is also home to at least 596 bird species which comprises one-third of the total native bird species for the Amazon. The park is also rich in species of bats. On a regional scale, the Amazon Basin has an estimated 117 bat species, but on a local scale, Yasuni is estimated to have comparable richness. In a single hectare, Yasuni has over 100,000 different species of insects which is roughly the amount of insect species that can be found in all of North America. The park also boasts one of the world's richest levels of vascular plants. It is one of nine places in the world that has over 4,000 vascular plant species per 10,000 km2. The park contains many species of trees and shrubs and holds at least four world records for documented tree and liana richness as well as three world records for diversity in woody plant species. The park also hosts a list endemic species such as 43 different species of vertebrates and 220–720 different plant species. Moreover, the park breaks world records for local-scale (less than 100 km2) tree, amphibian, and bat species richness, and is one of the richest spots in the world for birds and mammals at local scales as well.[citation needed] Within the northwest region of the park is a Forest Dynamics Plot, a 50 hectare research plot created in 1995 by a collaboration between Pontificia Universidad Católica de Ecuador (PUCE), the Aarhus University in Denmark, and ForestGEO-STRI.

White-banded swallows perching of a tree stump on the bank of Rio Tiputini, Yasuni National Park

Mammals

Yasuni National Park hosts a large diversity of insects.
Water puddles with mineral rich clay are where many animals and insects congregate to obtain minerals they cannot obtain otherwise.

Many types of mammals live within the national park both in water, on land, and in the air. Pteronura brasiliensis, commonly known as the Giant Otter, an endangered species endemic to rivers in and surrounding the national park, are forced to adjust to constant seasonal changes in water levels that concurrently alter food availability. A species of bat, Lophostoma yasuni, is endemic to the park, and the Amazon Basin has an estimated 117 bat species, but on a local scale, Yasuni is estimated to have comparable richness. Many species of monkey spend their lives coexisting among the tops of the canopy, including the Eastern Ecuadorian Squirrel (Saimiri cassiquiarensis), Pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea), Ecuadorian White-Fronted Capuchin (Cebus aequatorialis), Red-crowned Titi (Plecturocebus discolor), Napo saki (Pithecia napensis), Colombian Red Howler (Alouatta seniculus), White-Bellied Spider Monkey (Ateles belzebuth), and Brown Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix lagothricha). These creatures are key components to many trophic levels of the ecosystem as they serve as seed dispersers and remove insects from plants for nourishment.

Herpetofauna

In spite of covering less than 0.15% of the Amazon Basin, Yasuni is home to approximately one-third of the amphibian and reptile species. The park holds a world record 150 amphibian species for places with comparable landscapes, and high amphibian diversity compared to other sites sampled in the western Amazon.[citation needed] Treefrog Osteocephalus yasuni is named after the park.[citation needed] Reptile species in the park are also very high with 121 documented species found.

Fish

The park harbors high levels of fish diversity, boasting an estimated 500 species.[citation needed] However, this may be an underestimate of the amount of species actually present due to cryptic diversity, differences not easily seen morphologically but revealed using DNA studies, amongst species. The diversity of fish species in this region is influenced by seasonality and habitat, which is important for consideration when trying to capture the breadth of species encompassed in the waterways.

Birds

Yasuni is also home to at least 596 bird species which comprises one-third of the total native bird species for the Amazon. According to a field guide composed by PUCE, the area surrounding the Yasuni Scientific Research Station contain a large diversity of bird species including various predatory birds like falcons, hawks, and eagles and other birds such as macaws, antwrens, manakins, thrushes, and many other species. The diverse levels of canopy available have supported many different lifestyles for birds, including pollinators like hummingbirds who can often share close relation with certain plant groups.

Insects

This national park hosts very high levels of insect diversity and insect-plant mutualisms. In a single hectare, Yasuni has over 100,000 different species of insects which is roughly the amount of insect species that can be found in all of North America.[citation needed]

Parrots at a clay lick, Anangu, Yasuni National Park

Plant Diversity

The park also boasts one of the world's richest levels of vascular plants. It is one of nine places in the world that has over 4,000 vascular plant species per 10,000 km2. The park contains many species of trees and shrubs and holds at least four world records for documented tree and liana richness as well as three world records for diversity in woody plant species. Several recent book publications in coordination with PUCE have provided comprehensive information about plant species within the Yasuni region, one of which details 337 plants, predominantly trees, endemic to the Yasuni Region. The park also hosts a list endemic species such as 43 different species of vertebrates and 220–720 different plant species.[citation needed]

Yasuni National Park is home to an estimated 1.7 billion barrels of crude oil - 40 percent of Ecuador's reserves – in the Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha (ITT) oil fields. Environmentalists and scientists such as Jane Goodall, E.O. Wilson, and Stuart Pimm urged the government to leave the resources untapped. Indigenous people and environmentalists called for a national referendum on the issue. This referendum called the Yasuní-ITT Initiative was enacted in 2007, and by 2009 pledges of support from around the world came to around 1.7 billion dollars. In response, President Rafael Correa launched the Yasuní-ITT Initiative to protect the park's natural resources in June 2007. The initiative promised to leave the park undisturbed in exchange for compensation from the international community. Not drilling in the park would prevent 400 million metric tons of carbon dioxide from entering the air, officials said. The government hoped to generate funds of at least 50 percent of the profits that it would receive were it to utilize the oil reserves. In total it hoped that US$3.6 billion would be raised over 12 years. At the time, the plan was hailed by environmentalists as a precedent setting decision that would reduce the burden of environmental preservation on the world's poorer countries.

Actors Leonardo DiCaprio and Edward Norton, filmmaker and global ecological activist/scientist Michael Charles Tobias, and former Vice President of the United States Al Gore were among those who pledged support to the Ecuadorian government. Countries contributing funds included Turkey, Chile, Colombia, Georgia, Australia, Spain and Belgium. However, fundraising efforts were inhibited by Ecuador's insistence that the government alone would decide how any funds raised were spent.

In July 2013, Correa formed a commission to evaluate the Yasuni-ITT initiative's progress to date. The commission concluded that the economic results were not sufficient. On August 15, Correa scrapped the plan citing poor follow-through from the international community. "The world has failed us", he said, calling the world's richest countries hypocrites who emit most of the world's greenhouse gases while expecting nations like his to sacrifice economic progress for the environment. Through an executive order, he liquidated the Yasuni-ITT trust fund formally ending the initiative. During the six-year history of the initiative, only US$336 million had been pledged, Correa said (in contrast to the $1.6 billion stated in the report cited above), and of that only US$13.3 million had actually been delivered.

The Yasuni River is home to many different species of caiman.

Correa also said he had commissioned economic, legal, and technical studies on drilling in the region in preparation for the national assembly formally opening the park to drilling. He said expanding Ecuador's oil production was essential to furthering his economic projects that have won him widespread support among the nation's poor. He said the drilling would affect only 1% of the Yasuni basin. A spokesperson said the drilling could be conducted without damaging the environment. Environmentalists strongly objected to opening the park to oil exploration. Hundreds of protesters gathered outside the presidential palace after Correa's announcement. The money pledged insured that it would be possible to fund the initiative, with support from the international community. Oil production accounts for one-third of Ecuador's national budget.

Other threats to the park

Colonization, deforestation, illegal logging, and unsustainable hunting are affecting the park at present.

  1. "A Durable Yet Vulnerable Eden in Amazonia". nytimes.com. Retrieved4 March 2015.
  2. "Yasuni: Ecuador abandons plan to stave off Amazon drilling". The Guardian. Associated Press. August 15, 2013. RetrievedAugust 17, 2013.
  3. "Palms of Yasuni"(PDF).
  4. "Yasuni National Park".
  5. Hector, Andy; Bass, Margot S.; Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Kreft, Holger; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.; McCracken, Shawn F.; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; English, Peter H.; Swing, Kelly; Villa, Gorky; Di Fiore, Anthony; Voigt, Christian C.; Kunz, Thomas H. (2010). "Global conservation significance of Ecuador's Yasuní National Park". PLOS ONE. 5 (1): e8767. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008767. PMC2808245. PMID 20098736.
  6. "Yasuní". ForestGEO. 2017-02-06. Retrieved2019-03-19.
  7. Utreras B, V, Suárez R, E, Zapata-Ríos, G, Lasso, G, Pinos, L (2005) Dry and rainy season estimations of Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, home range in the Yasuní National Park. LAJAM 4(2): 191-194.
  8. "The Monkeys of the Rainforest".
  9. Escobar-Camancho, D., Barriga, R., Ron, S. R., (2015) "Discovering Hidden Diversity of Characins (Teleostei: Characiformes) in Ecuador’s Yasuní National Park" PLOS ONE: 10(8): e0135569.
  10. Galacatos K, Barriga-Salazar R, Stewart DJ (2004) "Seasonal and habitat influences on fish communities within the lower Yasuni River basin of the Ecuadorian Amazon" Environ Biol Fishes. 71: 33–51.
  11. "Some birds of the Yasuni Research Station, Prov. Orellana"(PDF).
  12. J., Pérez, Álvaro (2014). Árboles emblemáticos de Yasuní, Ecuador. Hernández, Consuelo,, Romero-Saltos, Hugo,, Valencia, Renato,, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador. Escuela de Ciencias Biológicas,, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Center for Tropical Forest Science (Primera edición ed.). [Quito, Ecuador]. ISBN 9789942202604. OCLC 907558484.
  13. Editorial, Reuters. "Ecuador boosts oil reserves in ITT field to 1.7 bln barrels". AF. Archived from the original on 2017-10-17. Retrieved2017-10-17.
  14. Yasuni Rainforest Campaign - Leading Scientists Letter. Saveamericasforests.org (2005-02-14). Retrieved on 2013-08-22.
  15. Temper, L., Yánez, I., Sharife, K., Ojo, G., Martinez-Alier, J., CANA, Combes, M., Cornelissen, K., Lerkelund, H., Louw, M., Martínez, E., Minnaar, J., Molina, P., Murcia, D., Oriola, T., Osuoka, A., Pérez, M. M., Roa Avendaño, T., Urkidi, L., Valdés, M., Wadzah, N., Wykes, S. (2013). "Towards a Post-Oil Civilization: Yasunization and other initiatives to leave fossil fuels in the soil EJOLT Report No. 6"(PDF). www.ejolt.org. Retrieved2018-05-04.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  16. Finer, M., R. Moncel, C.N. Jenkins. 2010. Leaving the Oil Under the Amazon: Ecuador's Yasuní-ITT Initiative., Biotropica 42:63-66.
  17. Alexandra Valencia (August 16, 2013). "Ecuador to open Amazon's Yasuni basin to oil drilling". Reuters. RetrievedAugust 17, 2013.
  18. "Leonardo DiCaprio and Edward Norton join Sea Eco-Conference". Contactmusic. 2010-04-13. Retrieved2012-03-14.
  19. "Al Gore viajará a Ecuador para respaldar iniciativa ecuatoriana Yasuní-ITT". americaeconomia.com. 2010-11-04. Retrieved2012-03-14.
  20. Temper, L., Yánez, I., Sharife, K., Ojo, G., Martinez-Alier, J., CANA, Combes, M., Cornelissen, K., Lerkelund, H., Louw, M., Martínez, E., Minnaar, J., Molina, P., Murcia, D., Oriola, T., Osuoka, A., Pérez, M. M., Roa Avendaño, T., Urkidi, L., Valdés, M., Wadzah, N., Wykes, S. (2013). "Towards a Post-Oil Civilization: Yasunization and other initiatives to leave fossil fuels in the soil EJOLT Report No. 6"(PDF). www.ejolt.org. Retrieved2018-05-04.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  21. "Ecuador approves Yasuni park oil drilling in Amazon rainforest". BBC News. 2013-08-16.
  22. Finer, Matt; Vijay, Varsha; Ponce, Fernando; Jenkins, Clinton N; Kahn, Ted R (2009). "Ecuador's Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: a brief modern history and conservation challenges". Environmental Research Letters. 4 (3): 034005. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/4/3/034005.
  • Greenberg, J. A.; Kefauver, S. C.; Stimson, H. C.; Yeaton, C. J.; Ustin, S. L. (2005). "Survival analysis of a neotropical rainforest using multitemporal satellite imagery". Remote Sensing of Environment. 96 (2): 202–211. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2005.02.010.
  • Hennessy, L. A. (2000). Whither the Huaorani? competing interventions in indigenous Ecuador. Master's thesis, Berkeley, University of California, Berkeley.
  • Lu, F. E. (1999). Changes in subsistence patterns and resource use of the Huaorani Indians in the Ecuadorian Amazon. PhD dissertation. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
  • Pitman, N. C. A. (2000). A large-scale inventory of two Amazonian tree communities. PhD dissertation. Durham, Duke University.
  • Vogel, J.H. (2009). The economics of the Yasuní Initiative: climate change as if thermodynamics mattered. London, Anthem Press.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toYasuni National Park.

Yasuni National Park
Yasuni National Park Language Watch Edit Yasuni National Park Spanish Parque Nacional Yasuni is in Ecuador 1 with an area of 9 823 km2 between the Napo and Curaray Rivers in Napo and Pastaza Provinces in Amazonian Ecuador The national park lies within the Napo moist forests ecoregion and is primarily rain forest The park is about 250 km from Quito and was designated a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1989 It is within the claimed ancestral territory of the Huaorani indigenous people Yasuni is also home to two uncontacted indigenous tribes the Tagaeri and the Taromenane 2 Many indigenous people use the riverways within the park as a main mode of travel Several waterways in the area are tributaries that lead into the Amazon River including blackwater rivers high in tannins boasting vastly different floral composition than the main riverways The spine covered palm Bactris riparia 3 and aquatic plant Montrichardia linifera typically line the edges of these slow moving rivers often referred to as Igapos Yasuni National Park LlanganatesIUCN category II national park Yasuni National Park dark green Location Ecuador Napo and Pastaza provinceCoordinates1 5 S 75 55 W 1 083 S 75 917 W 1 083 75 917 Coordinates 1 5 S 75 55 W 1 083 S 75 917 W 1 083 75 917Area9 823 km2 3 793 sq mi Established26 July 1979Indigenous Tourism project within the park This is an image of the grounds at Yasuni Research Station in Ecuador located in Yasuni National Park along the bank of the Tiputini River Napo saki Pithecia napensisAmazon rainforest in the ParkContents 1 Biodiversity 1 1 Mammals 1 2 Herpetofauna 1 3 Fish 1 4 Birds 1 5 Insects 2 Oil reserves 2 1 Other threats to the park 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiodiversity EditYasuni National Park YNP is arguably the most biologically diverse spot on Earth and a convergence point for three unique regions the Equator Andes Mountains and the Amazon rainforest 4 The park is at the center of a small zone where amphibian bird mammal and vascular plant diversity all reach their maximum levels within the western hemisphere Moreover the park breaks world records for local scale less than 100 km2 tree amphibian and bat species richness and is one of the richest spots in the world for birds and mammals at local scales as well 5 The park also harbors a lot of amphibian diversity compared to other sites sampled in the western Amazon 5 Reptile species in the park are also very high in diversity with 121 documented species found In spite of covering less than 0 15 of the Amazon Basin Yasuni is home to approximately one third of amphibian and reptile species The park also harbors high levels of fish diversity with 382 known species Yasuni is also home to at least 596 bird species which comprises one third of the total native bird species for the Amazon The park is also rich in species of bats On a regional scale the Amazon Basin has an estimated 117 bat species but on a local scale Yasuni is estimated to have comparable richness In a single hectare Yasuni has over 100 000 different species of insects which is roughly the amount of insect species that can be found in all of North America The park also boasts one of the world s richest levels of vascular plants It is one of nine places in the world that has over 4 000 vascular plant species per 10 000 km2 The park contains many species of trees and shrubs and holds at least four world records for documented tree and liana richness as well as three world records for diversity in woody plant species The park also hosts a list endemic species such as 43 different species of vertebrates and 220 720 different plant species 5 Moreover the park breaks world records for local scale less than 100 km2 tree amphibian and bat species richness and is one of the richest spots in the world for birds and mammals at local scales as well citation needed Within the northwest region of the park is a Forest Dynamics Plot a 50 hectare research plot created in 1995 by a collaboration between Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Ecuador PUCE the Aarhus University in Denmark and ForestGEO STRI 6 White banded swallows perching of a tree stump on the bank of Rio Tiputini Yasuni National Park Mammals Edit Yasuni National Park hosts a large diversity of insects Water puddles with mineral rich clay are where many animals and insects congregate to obtain minerals they cannot obtain otherwise Many types of mammals live within the national park both in water on land and in the air Pteronura brasiliensis commonly known as the Giant Otter an endangered species endemic to rivers in and surrounding the national park are forced to adjust to constant seasonal changes in water levels that concurrently alter food availability 7 A species of bat Lophostoma yasuni is endemic to the park and the Amazon Basin has an estimated 117 bat species but on a local scale Yasuni is estimated to have comparable richness Many species of monkey spend their lives coexisting among the tops of the canopy including the Eastern Ecuadorian Squirrel Saimiri cassiquiarensis Pygmy marmoset Cebuella pygmaea Ecuadorian White Fronted Capuchin Cebus aequatorialis Red crowned Titi Plecturocebus discolor Napo saki Pithecia napensis Colombian Red Howler Alouatta seniculus White Bellied Spider Monkey Ateles belzebuth and Brown Woolly Monkey Lagothrix lagothricha These creatures are key components to many trophic levels of the ecosystem as they serve as seed dispersers and remove insects from plants for nourishment 8 Herpetofauna Edit In spite of covering less than 0 15 of the Amazon Basin Yasuni is home to approximately one third of the amphibian and reptile species The park holds a world record 150 amphibian species for places with comparable landscapes and high amphibian diversity compared to other sites sampled in the western Amazon citation needed Treefrog Osteocephalus yasuni is named after the park citation needed Reptile species in the park are also very high with 121 documented species found Fish Edit The park harbors high levels of fish diversity boasting an estimated 500 species citation needed However this may be an underestimate of the amount of species actually present due to cryptic diversity differences not easily seen morphologically but revealed using DNA studies amongst species 9 The diversity of fish species in this region is influenced by seasonality and habitat which is important for consideration when trying to capture the breadth of species encompassed in the waterways 10 Birds Edit Yasuni is also home to at least 596 bird species which comprises one third of the total native bird species for the Amazon According to a field guide composed by PUCE the area surrounding the Yasuni Scientific Research Station contain a large diversity of bird species including various predatory birds like falcons hawks and eagles and other birds such as macaws antwrens manakins thrushes and many other species 11 The diverse levels of canopy available have supported many different lifestyles for birds including pollinators like hummingbirds who can often share close relation with certain plant groups Insects Edit This national park hosts very high levels of insect diversity and insect plant mutualisms In a single hectare Yasuni has over 100 000 different species of insects which is roughly the amount of insect species that can be found in all of North America citation needed Parrots at a clay lick Anangu Yasuni National Park Plant Diversity The park also boasts one of the world s richest levels of vascular plants It is one of nine places in the world that has over 4 000 vascular plant species per 10 000 km2 The park contains many species of trees and shrubs and holds at least four world records for documented tree and liana richness as well as three world records for diversity in woody plant species Several recent book publications in coordination with PUCE have provided comprehensive information about plant species within the Yasuni region one of which details 337 plants predominantly trees endemic to the Yasuni Region 12 The park also hosts a list endemic species such as 43 different species of vertebrates and 220 720 different plant species citation needed Oil reserves EditYasuni National Park is home to an estimated 1 7 billion barrels of crude oil 40 percent of Ecuador s reserves in the Ishpingo Tiputini Tambococha ITT oil fields 13 Environmentalists and scientists such as Jane Goodall E O Wilson and Stuart Pimm urged the government to leave the resources untapped 14 Indigenous people and environmentalists called for a national referendum on the issue This referendum called the Yasuni ITT Initiative was enacted in 2007 and by 2009 pledges of support from around the world came to around 1 7 billion dollars 15 In response President Rafael Correa launched the Yasuni ITT Initiative to protect the park s natural resources in June 2007 The initiative promised to leave the park undisturbed in exchange for compensation from the international community 16 Not drilling in the park would prevent 400 million metric tons of carbon dioxide from entering the air officials said 2 The government hoped to generate funds of at least 50 percent of the profits that it would receive were it to utilize the oil reserves In total it hoped that US 3 6 billion would be raised over 12 years 17 At the time the plan was hailed by environmentalists as a precedent setting decision that would reduce the burden of environmental preservation on the world s poorer countries 2 Actors Leonardo DiCaprio and Edward Norton filmmaker and global ecological activist scientist Michael Charles Tobias and former Vice President of the United States Al Gore were among those who pledged support to the Ecuadorian government 18 19 Countries contributing funds included Turkey Chile Colombia Georgia Australia Spain and Belgium However fundraising efforts were inhibited by Ecuador s insistence that the government alone would decide how any funds raised were spent 2 In July 2013 Correa formed a commission to evaluate the Yasuni ITT initiative s progress to date The commission concluded that the economic results were not sufficient On August 15 Correa scrapped the plan citing poor follow through from the international community 17 The world has failed us he said calling the world s richest countries hypocrites who emit most of the world s greenhouse gases while expecting nations like his to sacrifice economic progress for the environment 2 Through an executive order he liquidated the Yasuni ITT trust fund formally ending the initiative During the six year history of the initiative only US 336 million had been pledged Correa said in contrast to the 1 6 billion stated in the report cited above and of that only US 13 3 million had actually been delivered 17 The Yasuni River is home to many different species of caiman Correa also said he had commissioned economic legal and technical studies on drilling in the region in preparation for the national assembly formally opening the park to drilling He said expanding Ecuador s oil production was essential to furthering his economic projects that have won him widespread support among the nation s poor He said the drilling would affect only 1 of the Yasuni basin A spokesperson said the drilling could be conducted without damaging the environment Environmentalists strongly objected to opening the park to oil exploration Hundreds of protesters gathered outside the presidential palace after Correa s announcement 17 The money pledged insured that it would be possible to fund the initiative with support from the international community 20 Oil production accounts for one third of Ecuador s national budget 2 21 Other threats to the park Edit Colonization deforestation illegal logging and unsustainable hunting are affecting the park at present 22 See also EditFinding Species Tiputini Biodiversity StationReferences Edit A Durable Yet Vulnerable Eden in Amazonia nytimes com Retrieved 4 March 2015 a b c d e f Yasuni Ecuador abandons plan to stave off Amazon drilling The Guardian Associated Press August 15 2013 Retrieved August 17 2013 Palms of Yasuni PDF Yasuni National Park a b c Hector Andy Bass Margot S Finer Matt Jenkins Clinton N Kreft Holger Cisneros Heredia Diego F McCracken Shawn F Pitman Nigel C A English Peter H Swing Kelly Villa Gorky Di Fiore Anthony Voigt Christian C Kunz Thomas H 2010 Global conservation significance of Ecuador s Yasuni National Park PLOS ONE 5 1 e8767 doi 10 1371 journal pone 0008767 PMC 2808245 PMID 20098736 Yasuni ForestGEO 2017 02 06 Retrieved 2019 03 19 Utreras B V Suarez R E Zapata Rios G Lasso G Pinos L 2005 Dry and rainy season estimations of Giant Otter Pteronura brasiliensis home range in the Yasuni National Park LAJAM 4 2 191 194 The Monkeys of the Rainforest Escobar Camancho D Barriga R Ron S R 2015 Discovering Hidden Diversity of Characins Teleostei Characiformes in Ecuador s Yasuni National Park PLOS ONE 10 8 e0135569 Galacatos K Barriga Salazar R Stewart DJ 2004 Seasonal and habitat influences on fish communities within the lower Yasuni River basin of the Ecuadorian Amazon Environ Biol Fishes 71 33 51 Some birds of the Yasuni Research Station Prov Orellana PDF J Perez Alvaro 2014 Arboles emblematicos de Yasuni Ecuador Hernandez Consuelo Romero Saltos Hugo Valencia Renato Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador Escuela de Ciencias Biologicas Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Center for Tropical Forest Science Primera edicion ed Quito Ecuador ISBN 9789942202604 OCLC 907558484 Editorial Reuters Ecuador boosts oil reserves in ITT field to 1 7 bln barrels AF Archived from the original on 2017 10 17 Retrieved 2017 10 17 Yasuni Rainforest Campaign Leading Scientists Letter Saveamericasforests org 2005 02 14 Retrieved on 2013 08 22 Temper L Yanez I Sharife K Ojo G Martinez Alier J CANA Combes M Cornelissen K Lerkelund H Louw M Martinez E Minnaar J Molina P Murcia D Oriola T Osuoka A Perez M M Roa Avendano T Urkidi L Valdes M Wadzah N Wykes S 2013 Towards a Post Oil Civilization Yasunization and other initiatives to leave fossil fuels in the soil EJOLT Report No 6 PDF www ejolt org Retrieved 2018 05 04 CS1 maint uses authors parameter link Finer M R Moncel C N Jenkins 2010 Leaving the Oil Under the Amazon Ecuador s Yasuni ITT Initiative Biotropica 42 63 66 a b c d Alexandra Valencia August 16 2013 Ecuador to open Amazon s Yasuni basin to oil drilling Reuters Retrieved August 17 2013 Leonardo DiCaprio and Edward Norton join Sea Eco Conference Contactmusic 2010 04 13 Retrieved 2012 03 14 Al Gore viajara a Ecuador para respaldar iniciativa ecuatoriana Yasuni ITT americaeconomia com 2010 11 04 Retrieved 2012 03 14 Temper L Yanez I Sharife K Ojo G Martinez Alier J CANA Combes M Cornelissen K Lerkelund H Louw M Martinez E Minnaar J Molina P Murcia D Oriola T Osuoka A Perez M M Roa Avendano T Urkidi L Valdes M Wadzah N Wykes S 2013 Towards a Post Oil Civilization Yasunization and other initiatives to leave fossil fuels in the soil EJOLT Report No 6 PDF www ejolt org Retrieved 2018 05 04 CS1 maint uses authors parameter link Ecuador approves Yasuni park oil drilling in Amazon rainforest BBC News 2013 08 16 Finer Matt Vijay Varsha Ponce Fernando Jenkins Clinton N Kahn Ted R 2009 Ecuador s Yasuni Biosphere Reserve a brief modern history and conservation challenges Environmental Research Letters 4 3 034005 doi 10 1088 1748 9326 4 3 034005 Further reading EditGreenberg J A Kefauver S C Stimson H C Yeaton C J Ustin S L 2005 Survival analysis of a neotropical rainforest using multitemporal satellite imagery Remote Sensing of Environment 96 2 202 211 doi 10 1016 j rse 2005 02 010 Hennessy L A 2000 Whither the Huaorani competing interventions in indigenous Ecuador Master s thesis Berkeley University of California Berkeley Lu F E 1999 Changes in subsistence patterns and resource use of the Huaorani Indians in the Ecuadorian Amazon PhD dissertation Chapel Hill University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Pitman N C A 2000 A large scale inventory of two Amazonian tree communities PhD dissertation Durham Duke University Vogel J H 2009 The economics of the Yasuni Initiative climate change as if thermodynamics mattered London Anthem Press External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Yasuni National Park Opinion Yasuni and the New Economics of Climate Change CNN Edition International August 23 2010 Yasuni Green Gold Campaign to save the park and its indigenous people Yasuni Campaign by New Internationalist Yasuni Campaign by Ecuadorian civil society organizations Amazonia por la Vida Background article at Deutsche Welle climate project Global Ideas on Ecuador s controversial plan to refrain from drilling for oil in its rainforests in return for money Deutsche Welle report on Yasuni National Park Oil Drilling Underway Inside the Yasuni National Park of Amazonian Ecuador 2016 on YouTube Where do we draw the line Documentary directed by Joseph Wordsworth and produced by Cora Fern and Mike Smith vimeo com 193289299 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yasuni National Park amp oldid 1049916765, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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