fbpx
Wikipedia

Yazid ibn Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan (Arabic:يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان, romanized: Yazīd ibn Muʿāwiya ibn ʾAbī Sufyān; c. 646 – 11 November 683), commonly known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate. He ruled from April 680 until his death in November 683. His appointment was the first hereditary succession to the caliphate in Islamic history. His caliphate was marked by the death of Muhammad's grandson Husayn ibn Ali and the start of the crisis known as the Second Fitna.

Yazid I
يزيد بن معاوية
Khalīfah
Arab-Sasanian dirham of Yazid I, struck at the Basra mint, dated AH 61 (680/1 CE), the year in which the Battle of Karbala occurred
2nd Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate
ReignApril 680 – 11 November 683
PredecessorMu'awiya I
SuccessorMu'awiya II
Bornc. 646 (25 AH) Syria
Died11 November 683 (aged c. 37)(14 Rabi al-Awwal 64 AH)
Huwwarin, Syria
Spouse
  • Umm Khalid Fakhita bint Abi Hisham
  • Umm Kulthum bint Abd Allah ibn Amir
Issue
Names
Abū Khālid Yazīd ibn Muʿāwiya ibn ʾAbī Sufyān
أبو خالد يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان
HouseSufyanid
DynastyUmayyad
FatherMu'awiya I
MotherMaysun bint Bahdal
ReligionIslam

Yazid's nomination as heir apparent in 676 CE (56 AH) by his father Mu'awiya I was opposed by several Muslim grandees from the Hejaz region, including Husayn and Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr. The two men refused to recognize Yazid following his accession and took sanctuary in Mecca. When Husayn left for Kufa in Iraq to lead a revolt against Yazid, he was killed with his small band of supporters by Yazid's forces in the Battle of Karbala. Husayn's death caused resentment in the Hejaz, where Ibn al-Zubayr called for a consultative assembly to elect a new caliph. The people of Medina, who supported Ibn al-Zubayr, held other grievances toward the Umayyads. After failing to gain the allegiance of Ibn al-Zubayr and the people of the Hejaz through diplomacy, Yazid sent an army to suppress their rebellion. The army defeated the Medinese in the Battle of al-Harra in August 683 and the city was sacked. Afterward, Mecca was besieged for several weeks until the army withdrew as a result of Yazid's death in November 683. The Caliphate fell into a nearly decade-long civil war, ending with the establishment of the Marwanid dynasty (the Umayyad caliph Marwan I and his descendants).

Yazid continued Mu'awiya's decentralized model of governance, relying on his provincial governors and the tribal nobility. He abandoned Mu'awiya's ambitious raids against the Byzantine Empire and strengthened Syria's military defences. No new territories were conquered during his reign. Yazid is considered an illegitimate ruler and a tyrant by many Muslims due to his hereditary succession, the death of Husayn, and his attack on Medina. Modern historians take a milder view, and consider him a capable ruler, albeit less successful than his father.

Contents

The Syrian Desert, where Yazid spent his childhood springs with his maternal Bedouin kin from the Banu Kalb tribe

Yazid was born in Syria. His year of birth is uncertain, placed between 642 and 649. His father was Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan, then governor of Syria under Caliph Uthman (r. 644–656). Mu'awiya and Uthman belonged to the wealthy Umayyad clan of the Quraysh tribe, a grouping of Meccan clans to which the Islamic prophet Muhammad and all the preceding caliphs belonged. Yazid's mother, Maysun, was the daughter of Bahdal ibn Unayf, a chieftain of the powerful Bedouin tribe of Banu Kalb. She was a Christian, like most of her tribe. Yazid grew up with his maternal Kalbite kin, spending the springs of his youth in the Syrian Desert; for the remainder of the year he was in the company of the Greek and native Syrian courtiers of his father, who became caliph in 661.

During his father's caliphate, Yazid led several campaigns against the Byzantine Empire, which the Caliphate had been trying to conquer, including an attack on the Byzantine capital, Constantinople. Sources give several dates for this between 49 AH (669–70 CE) and 55 AH (674–5 CE). Muslim sources offer few details of his role in the campaigns, possibly downplaying his involvement due to the controversies of his later career. He is portrayed in these sources as having been unwilling to participate in the expedition to the chagrin of Mu'awiya, who then forced him to comply. However, two eighth-century non-Muslim sources from al-Andalus (Islamic Spain), the Chronicle of 741 and the Chronicle of 754, both of which likely drew their material from an earlier Arabic work, report that Yazid besieged Constantinople with a 100,000-strong army. Unable to conquer the city, the army captured adjacent towns, acquired considerable loot, and retreated after two years. Yazid also led the hajj (the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca) on several occasions.

The third caliph Uthman drew the ire of the Muslim settlers of the conquered lands as a consequence of his controversial policies, which were seen by many as nepotistic and interfering in provincial affairs. In 656 he was killed by the provincial rebels in Medina, then capital of the Caliphate, after which Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, was recognized as caliph by the Medinese people and the rebels. In the consequent first Islamic civil war (656–661), Mu'awiya opposed Ali from his stronghold in Syria, fighting him to a stalemate at the Battle of Siffin in 657. In January 661 Ali was assassinated by a Kharijite (a faction opposed to Ali and Mu'awiya), after which his son Hasan was recognized as his successor. In August, Mu'awiya, who had already been recognized as caliph by his partisans in Syria, led his army toward Kufa, the capital of Hasan and Ali in Iraq, and gained control over the rest of the Caliphate by securing a peace treaty with Hasan. The terms of the treaty stipulated that Mu'awiya would not nominate a successor. Although the treaty brought a temporary peace, no framework of succession was established.

Mu'awiya was determined to install Yazid as his successor. The idea was scandalous to Muslims, as hereditary succession had no precedent in Islamic history—earlier caliphs had been elected either by popular support in Medina or by the consultation of the senior companions of Muhammad—and according to Islamic principles, the position of ruler was not the private property of a ruler to award to his descendants. It was also unacceptable by Arab custom, according to which the rulership should not pass from father to son but within the wider clan. According to the orientalist Bernard Lewis, the "only precedents available to Mu'āwiya from Islamic history were election and civil war. The former was unworkable; the latter had obvious drawbacks." Mu'awiya passed over his eldest son Abd Allah, who was from his Qurayshite wife, perhaps due to the stronger support Yazid had in Syria because of his Kalbite parentage. The Banu Kalb was dominant in southern Syria and led the larger tribal confederation of Quda'a. The Quda'a were established in Syria long before Islam and had acquired significant military experience and familiarity with hierarchical order under the Byzantines, as opposed to the more free-spirited tribesmen of Arabia and Iraq. Northern Syria, on the other hand, was dominated by the tribal confederation of Qays, which had immigrated there during Mu'awiya's reign, and resented the privileged position of the Kalb in the Umayyad court. By appointing Yazid to lead campaigns against the Byzantines, Mu'awiya may have sought to foster support for Yazid from the northern tribesmen. The policy had limited success as the Qays opposed the nomination of Yazid, at least in the beginning, for he was "the son of a Kalbi woman". In the Hejaz (western Arabia, where Medina and Mecca are located and where the old Muslim elite resided), Yazid had support among his Umayyad kinsmen, but there were other members of the Hejazi nobility whose approval was important. By appointing Yazid to lead the hajj rituals there, Mu'awiya may have hoped to enlist support for Yazid's succession and elevate his status as a Muslim leader. According to Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani (d. 967), Mu'awiya had also employed poets to influence public opinion in favour of Yazid's succession.

According to the account of Ibn Athir (d. 1233), Mu'awiya summoned ashura (consultative assembly) of influential men from all of the provinces to his capital, Damascus, in 676 and won their support through flattery, bribes, and threats. He then ordered his Umayyad kinsman Marwan ibn al-Hakam, the governor of Medina, to inform its people of his decision. Marwan faced resistance, especially from Ali's son and Muhammad's grandson Husayn, and Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, Abd Allah ibn Umar, and Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr, all sons of prominent companions of Muhammad, who, by virtue of their descent, could also lay claim to the caliphal office. Mu'awiya went to Medina and pressed the four dissenters to accede, but they fled to Mecca. He followed and threatened some of them with death, but to no avail. Nonetheless, he was successful in convincing the people of Mecca that the four had pledged their allegiance, and received the Meccans' allegiance for Yazid. On his way back to Damascus, he secured allegiance from the people of Medina. General recognition of the nomination thus forced Yazid's opponents into silence. The orientalist Julius Wellhausen doubted the story, holding that the reports of the nomination's rejection by prominent Medinese were a back-projection of the events that followed Mu'awiya's death. A similar opinion is held by the historian Andrew Marsham. According to the account of al-Tabari (d. 923), Mu'awiya announced the nomination in 676 and only received delegations from the Iraqi garrison town of Basra, which pledged allegiance to Yazid in Damascus in 679 or 680. According to Ya'qubi (d. 898), Mu'awiya demanded allegiance for Yazid on the occasion of the hajj. All, except the four prominent Muslims mentioned above, complied. No force was used against them. In any case, Mu'awiya arranged a general recognition for Yazid's succession before his death.

Mu'awiya died in April 680. According to al-Tabari, Yazid was at his residence in Huwwarin, located between Damascus and Palmyra, at the time of his father's death. According to verses of Yazid preserved in Isfahani'sKitab al-Aghani, a collection of Arabic poetry, Yazid was away on a summertime expedition against the Byzantines when he received the news of Mu'awiya's final illness. Based on this and the fact that Yazid arrived in Damascus only after Mu'awiya's death, the historian Henri Lammens has rejected the reports of Yazid being in Huwwarin. Mu'awiya entrusted supervision of the government to his most loyal associates, Dahhak ibn Qays al-Fihri and Muslim ibn Uqba al-Murri, until Yazid's return. He left a will for Yazid, instructing him on matters of governing the Caliphate. He was advised to beware Husayn and Ibn al-Zubayr, for they could challenge his rule, and instructed to defeat them if they did. Yazid was further advised to treat Husayn with caution and not to spill his blood, since he was the grandson of Muhammad. Ibn al-Zubayr, on the other hand, was to be treated harshly, unless he came to terms.

Oaths of allegiance

An early 19th-century painting of Damascus, Yazid's capital

Upon his accession, Yazid requested and received oaths of allegiance from the governors of the provinces. He wrote to the governor of Medina, his cousin Walid ibn Utba ibn Abi Sufyan, informing him of Mu'awiya's death and instructing him to secure allegiance from Husayn, Ibn al-Zubayr, and Ibn Umar. The instructions contained in the letter were:

Seize Husayn, Abdullah ibn Umar, and Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr to give the oath of allegiance. Act so fiercely that they have no chance to do anything before giving the oath of allegiance.

Walid sought the advice of Marwan, who suggested that Ibn al-Zubayr and Husayn be forced to pay allegiance as they were dangerous, while Ibn Umar should be left alone as he posed no threat. Husayn answered Walid's summon, meeting Walid and Marwan in a semi-private meeting where he was informed of Mu'awiya's death and Yazid's accession. When asked for his oath of allegiance, Husayn responded that giving his allegiance in private would be insufficient and suggested the oath be made in public. Walid agreed, but Marwan insisted that Husayn be detained until he proffered allegiance. Husayn scolded Marwan and left to join his armed retinue, who were waiting nearby in case the authorities attempted to apprehend him. Immediately following Husayn's exit, Marwan admonished Walid, who in turn justified his refusal to harm Husayn by dint of the latter's close relation to Muhammad. Ibn al-Zubayr did not answer the summons and left for Mecca. Walid sent eighty horsemen after him, but he escaped. Husayn too left for Mecca shortly after, without having sworn allegiance to Yazid. Dissatisfied with this failure, Yazid replaced Walid with his distant Umayyad kinsman Amr ibn Sa'id. Unlike Husayn and Ibn al-Zubayr, Ibn Umar, Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr, and Abd Allah ibn Abbas, who had also previously denounced Mu'awiya's nomination of Yazid, paid allegiance to him.

Battle of Karbala

Main article: Battle of Karbala

In Mecca Husayn received letters from pro-Alid Kufans, inviting him to lead them in revolt against Yazid. Husayn subsequently sent his cousin Muslim ibn Aqil to assess the situation in the city. He also sent letters to Basra, but his messenger was handed over to the governor Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad and killed. Ibn Aqil informed Husayn of the large-scale support he found in Kufa, signalling that the latter should enter the city. Informed by some Kufan tribal chiefs (ashraf) of the goings-on, Yazid replaced the governor of Kufa, Nu'man ibn Bashir al-Ansari, who had been unwilling to take action against pro-Alid activity, with Ibn Ziyad, whom he ordered to execute or imprison Ibn Aqil. As a result of Ibn Ziyad's suppression and political maneuvering, Ibn Aqil's following began to dissipate and he was forced to declare the revolt prematurely. It was suppressed and Ibn Aqil was executed.

Encouraged by Ibn Aqil's letter, Husayn left for Kufa, ignoring warnings from Ibn Umar and Ibn Abbas. The latter reminded him, to no avail, of the Kufans' previous abandonment of his father Ali and his brother Hasan. On the way to the city, he received news of Ibn Aqil's death. Nonetheless, he continued his march towards Kufa. Ibn Ziyad's 4,000-strong army blocked his entry into the city and forced him to camp in the desert of Karbala. Ibn Ziyad would not let Husayn pass without submitting, which Husayn refused to do. Week-long negotiations failed, and in the ensuing hostilities on 10 October 680, Husayn and 72 of his male companions were slain, while his family was taken prisoner. The captives and Husayn's severed head were sent to Yazid. According to the accounts of Abu Mikhnaf (d. 774) and Ammar al-Duhni (d. 750–51), Yazid poked Husayn's head with his staff, although others ascribe this action to Ibn Ziyad. Yazid treated the captives well and sent them back to Medina after a few days.

Revolt of Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr

Following Husayn's death, Yazid faced increased opposition to his rule from Ibn al-Zubayr who declared him deposed. Although publicly he called for ashura to elect a new caliph, in secret Ibn al-Zubayr let his partisans pay allegiance to him. At first, Yazid attempted to placate him by sending gifts and delegations in an attempt to reach a settlement. After Ibn al-Zubayr's refusal to recognize him, Yazid sent a force led by Ibn al-Zubayr's estranged brother Amr to arrest him. The force was defeated and Amr was taken captive and executed. As well as Ibn al-Zubayr's growing influence in Medina, the city's inhabitants were disillusioned with Umayyad rule and Mu'awiya's agricultural projects, which included the confiscation of their lands to boost government revenue. Yazid invited the notables of Medina to Damascus and tried to win them over with gifts. They were unpersuaded and on their return to Medina narrated tales of Yazid's lavish lifestyle. Accusations included Yazid drinking wine, hunting with hounds, and his love for music. The Medinese, under the leadership of Abd Allah ibn Hanzala, renounced their allegiance to Yazid and expelled the governor, Yazid's cousin Uthman ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Sufyan, and the Umayyads residing in the city. Yazid dispatched a 12,000-strong army under the command of Muslim ibn Uqba to reconquer the Hejaz. After failed negotiations, the Medinese were defeated in the Battle of al-Harra. According to the accounts of Abu Mikhnaf and al-Samhudi (d. 1533), the city was sacked, whereas per the account of Awana (d. 764) only the ringleaders of the rebellion were executed. Having forced the rebels to renew their allegiance, Yazid's army headed for Mecca to subdue Ibn al-Zubayr. Ibn Uqba died on the way to Mecca and command passed to Husayn ibn Numayr al-Sakuni, who besieged Mecca in September 683. The siege lasted for several weeks, during which the Ka'ba, the sacred Muslim shrine at the center of the Mecca Mosque, caught fire. Yazid's sudden death in November 683 ended the campaign and Ibn Numayr retreated to Syria with his army.

Domestic affairs and foreign campaigns

The style of Yazid's governance was, by and large, a continuation of the model developed by Mu'awiya. He continued to rely on the governors of the provinces andashraf, as Mu'awiya had, instead of relatives. He retained several of Mu'awiya's officials, including Ibn Ziyad, who was Mu'awiya's governor of Basra, and Sarjun ibn Mansur, a native Syrian Christian, who had served as the head of the fiscal administration under Mu'awiya. Like Mu'awiya, Yazid received delegations of tribal notables (wufud) from the provinces to win their support, which would also involve distributing gifts and bribes. The structure of the caliphal administration and military remained decentralised as in Mu'awiya's time. Provinces retained much of their tax revenue and forwarded a small portion to the Caliph. The military units in the provinces were derived from local tribes whose command also fell to theashraf.

In Syria, Yazid established the northern border district of Qinnasrin.

Yazid approved a decrease in taxes on the Arab Christian tribe of Najran upon their request, but abolished the special tax exemption of the ethno-religious community of Samaritans, which had been granted to them by previous caliphs as a reward for their aid to the Muslim conquerors. He improved the irrigation system of the fertile lands of the Ghouta near Damascus by digging a canal that became known asNahr Yazid.

Toward the end of his reign, Mu'awiya reached a thirty-year peace agreement with the Byzantines, obliging the Caliphate to pay an annual tribute of 3,000 gold coins, 50 horses, and 50 slaves, and to withdraw Muslim troops from the forward bases they had occupied on the island of Rhodes and the Anatolian coast. Under Yazid, Muslim bases along the Sea of Marmara were abandoned. In contrast to the far-reaching raids against the Byzantine Empire launched under his father, Yazid focused on stabilizing the border with Byzantium. In order to improve Syria's military defences and prevent Byzantine incursions, Yazid established the northern Syrian frontier district of Qinnasrin from what had been a part of Hims, and garrisoned it.

Yazid reappointed Uqba ibn Nafi, the conqueror of the central North African region of Ifriqiya whom Mu'awiya had deposed, as governor of Ifriqiya. In 681, Uqba launched a large-scale expedition into western North Africa. Defeating the Berbers and the Byzantines, Uqba reached the Atlantic coast and captured Tangier and Volubilis. He was unable to establish permanent control in these territories. On his return to Ifriqiya, he was ambushed and killed by a Berber–Byzantine force at the Battle of Vescera, resulting in the loss of the conquered territories. In 681 Yazid appointed Ibn Ziyad's brother Salm ibn Ziyad as the governor of the northeastern border province of Khurasan. Salm led several campaigns in Transoxiana (Central Asia) and raided Samarqand and Khwarazm, but without gaining a permanent foothold in any of them. Yazid's death in 683 and the subsequent chaos in the east ended the campaigns.

Genealogical tree of Yazid's family, the Sufyanids, who ruled the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 until their replacement by the Marwanids in 684

Yazid died on 11 November 683 in the central Syrian desert town of Huwwarin, his favourite residence, aged between 35 and 43, and was buried there. Early annalists like Abu Ma'shar al-Madani (d. 778) and al-Waqidi (d. 823) do not give any details about his death. This lack of information seems to have inspired fabrication of accounts by authors with anti-Umayyad leanings, which detail several causes of death, including a horse fall, excessive drinking, pleurisy, and burning. According to the verses by a contemporary poet Ibn Arada, who at the time resided in Khurasan, Yazid died in his bed with a wine cup by his side.

Ibn al-Zubayr subsequently declared himself caliph and Iraq and Egypt came under his rule. In Syria, Yazid's son Mu'awiya II, whom he had nominated, became caliph. His control was limited to parts of Syria as most of the Syrian districts (Hims, Qinnasrin, and Palestine) were controlled by allies of Ibn al-Zubayr. Mu'awiya II died after a few months from an unknown illness. Several early sources state that he abdicated before his death. Following his death, Yazid's maternal Kalbite tribesmen, seeking to maintain their privileges, sought to install Yazid's son Khalid on the throne, but he was considered too young for the post by the non-Kalbites in the pro-Umayyad coalition. Consequently, Marwan ibn al-Hakam was acknowledged as caliph in ashura of pro-Umayyad tribes in June 684. Shortly after, Marwan and the Kalb routed the pro-Zubayrid forces in Syria led by Dahhak at the Battle of Marj Rahit. Although the pro-Umayyadshura stipulated that Khalid would succeed Marwan, the latter nominated his son Abd al-Malik as his heir. Thus the Sufyanid house, named after Mu'awiya I's father Abu Sufyan, was replaced by the Marwanid house of the Umayyad dynasty. By 692 Abd al-Malik had defeated Ibn al-Zubayr and restored Umayyad authority across the Caliphate.

The killing of Muhammad's grandson Husayn caused widespread outcry among Muslims and the image of Yazid suffered greatly. It also helped crystallize opposition to Yazid into an anti-Umayyad movement based on Alid aspirations, and contributed to the development of Shi'a identity, whereby the party of Alid partisans was transformed into a religious sect with distinct rituals and memory. After the Battle of Karbala, Shi'a imams from Husayn's line adopted the policy of political quietism.

Traditional Muslim view

Yazid is considered an evil figure by many Muslims to the present day, not only by the Shi'a, who hold that the ruling position rightly belonged to Husayn's father Ali and his descendants, including Husayn, whom Yazid killed to strip him of his right, but also by many Sunnis, to whom he was an affront to Islamic values. For the Shi'a, Yazid is an epitome of evil. He is annually reviled in the Ashura processions and passion plays, and rulers considered tyrannical and oppressive are often equated with him. Before the Iranian Revolution, the Shah of Iran was called the "Yazid of his time" by the Iranian cleric Rouhollah Khomeini, as was the Iraqi president Saddam Hussein by the Iraqi Shi'a during the Iran–Iraq War for his ban on pilgrimages to the holy sites of Shi'a Islam. Among the Sunnis, the Hanafi school allows cursing of Yazid, whereas the Hanbali school and many in the Shafi'i school maintain that no judgment should be passed on Yazid, rather tyrants in general should be cursed. However, the Hanbali scholar Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 1201) encouraged the cursing. According to al-Ghazali (d. 1111), cursing Yazid is prohibited, for he was a Muslim and his role in the killing of Husayn is unverified.

Yazid was the first person in the history of the Caliphate to be nominated as heir based on a blood relationship, and this became a tradition afterwards. As such, his accession is considered by the Muslim historical tradition as the corruption of the caliphate into a kingship. He is depicted as a tyrant who was responsible for three major crimes during his caliphate: the death of Husayn and his followers at Karbala, considered a massacre; the aftermath of the Battle of al-Harra, in which Yazid's troops sacked Medina; and the burning of the Ka'ba during the siege of Mecca, which is blamed on Yazid's commander Husayn ibn Numayr. The tradition stresses his habits of drinking, dancing, hunting, and keeping pet animals such as dogs and monkeys, portraying him as impious and unworthy of leading the Muslim community. Extant contemporary Muslim histories describe Yazid as "a sinner in respect of his belly and his private parts", "an arrogant drunken sot", and "motivated by defiance of God, lack of faith in His religion and hostility toward His Messenger". Baladhuri (d. 892) described him as the "commander of the sinners" (amir al-fasiqin), as opposed to the title commander of the faithful (amir al-mu'minin) usually applied to the caliphs. Nevertheless, some historians have argued that there is a tendency in early Muslim sources to exonerate Yazid of blame for Husayn's death, and put the blame squarely on Ibn Ziyad. According to the historian James Lindsay, the Syrian historian Ibn Asakir (d. 1176) attempted to stress Yazid's positive qualities, while accepting the allegations that are generally made against him. Ibn Asakir thus emphasised that Yazid was a transmitter of hadith (the sayings and traditions attributed to Muhammad), a virtuous man "by reason of his connection to the age of the Prophet", and worthy of the ruling position.

Modern scholarly view

Despite his reputation in religious circles, academic historians generally portray a more favourable view of Yazid. According to Wellhausen, Yazid was a mild ruler, who resorted to violence only when necessary, and was not the tyrant that the religious tradition portrays him to be. He further notes that Yazid lacked interest in public affairs as a prince, but as a caliph "he seems to have pulled himself together, although he did not give up his old predilections,—wine, music, the chase and other sport". In the view of the historian Hugh N. Kennedy, despite the disasters of Karbala and al-Harra, Yazid's rule was "not devoid of achievement". His reputation might have improved had he lived longer, but his early death played a part in sticking of the stigma of "the shocks of the early part of his reign". According to the Islamicist G. R. Hawting, Yazid tried to continue the diplomatic policies of his father but, unlike Mu'awiya, he was not successful in winning over the opposition with gifts and bribes. In Hawting's summation, "the image of Muʿāwiya as operating more like a tribals̲h̲ayk̲h̲ than a traditional Middle Eastern despot ... also seems applicable to Yazīd". In the view of Lewis, Yazid was a capable ruler "with much of the ability of his father" but was overly criticized by later Arab historians. Expressing a viewpoint similar to Wellhausen's, Lammens remarked, "a poet himself, and fond of music, he was a Maecenas of poets and artists".

The characterization of Yazid in the Muslim sources has been attributed to the hostility of the Abbasid dynasty, during whose rule the histories were written, toward the Umayyads, whom they toppled in 750. Most reports in the traditional Muslim sources focus on the revolts against Yazid, and usually lack detail on his public life in Syria and his activities other than the suppression of the revolts. Lammens has attributed this to the tendency of the Iraq-based, Abbasid-era chroniclers to portray a caliph, under whom Husayn was killed and the holy cities of Islam were attacked, only as an impious drunkard. In contrast, a Syrian source preserved in the Chronicle of 741 describes the Caliph as "a most pleasant man and deemed highly agreeable by all the peoples subject to his rule. He never, as is the wont of men, sought glory for himself because of his royal rank, but lived as a citizen along with all the common people."

Yazidism

In the Yazidi religion, practiced by the mainly Iraq-based Kurdish-speaking ethno-religious community of Yazidis, Sultan Ezid is a highly revered divine figure. Most modern historians hold that the name Ezid derives from the name of Caliph Yazid. In Yazidi religious lore, there is no trace of any link between Sultan Ezid and the second Umayyad caliph. A pro-Umayyad movement particularly sympathetic towards Yazid existed in the Kurdish mountains before the 12th century, when Shaykh Adi, a Sufi of Umayyad descent venerated by Yazidis to this day, settled there and attracted a following among the adherents of the movement. The name Yazidi seems to have been applied to the group because of his Umayyad origins.

Coin of the Umayyad Caliphate at the time of Yazid. Mint location: Basra. Governor: Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad. Date: 60 AH (679–680 CE). Obverse: Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrow II;bismillah and four pellets in margin. Reverse: fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; date to left, mint name to right.

A Sasanian-style silver coin bearing the mint date as "Year I of Yazid" has been reported. The obverse side shows the portrait of the Sasanian king Khosrow II (r. 590–628) and his name in the Pahlavi script. The reverse has the usual Zoroastrian fire altar surrounded by attendants. The margins, however, contain the inscription that it was minted during the first year of Yazid's reign. An anonymous coin from the Nishapur mint bearing the mint date 60, which is assumed to be the Hijri year, is also thought to be from Yazid's first regnal year. Other coins from his reign usually have only the name of the governor of the province where the coin originated. Coins bearing the name of the counter-caliph Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr have also been found from the provinces of Fars and Kirman, dated between 61 and 63 (681–683 CE), although Ibn al-Zubayr did not publicly claim the caliphate until after the death of Yazid. This may show that as well as the challenges to his rule in Arabia and Iraq, Yazid's authority was also challenged in southern Persia from roughly the time of his accession. The coins were probably minted in the name of Ibn al-Zubayr to lend legitimacy to the challengers of the Umayyads by using a suitable Qurayshite name.

Yazid married three women and had several concubines. The names of two of his wives are known: Umm Khalid Fakhita bint Abi Hisham and Umm Kulthum, a daughter of the veteran commander and statesman Abd Allah ibn Amir. Fakhita and Umm Kulthum both hailed from the Abd Shams, the parent clan of the Umayyads.

Yazid had three sons from his wives. His eldest, Mu'awiya II, was between 17 and 23 years old at the time of Yazid's death. The name of Mu'awiya II's mother is unknown, but she was from the Banu Kalb. Ill health prevented him from carrying out the caliphal duties and he rarely left his residence. He survived his father only by a few months and died without leaving any offspring. Yazid's second son, Khalid, was from Fakhita, and was born circa 668. Marwan married Fakhita after becoming caliph, to foster an alliance with the Sufyanid house and neutralize her son Khalid's claim to the caliphate. He remained quiet about being sidelined from the succession, although a legendary report says that he protested to Marwan, who in turn insulted him. He had friendly relations with Abd al-Malik, whose daughter he married. Several legendary accounts report Khalid being interested in alchemy and having ordered the translation of Greek works on alchemy, astronomy, and medicine into Arabic. Yazid's daughter Atika was the favourite wife of Abd al-Malik. She bore him several children, including the future Caliph Yazid II (r. 720–724). Yazid's son Abd Allah, from Umm Kulthum, was a famed archer and horseman. Yazid had several other sons from slave women.

  1. Mu'awiya died in the month of Rajab 60 AH. Rajab of the year 60 AH started on 7 April 680. The precise date of death varies depending on the source: 7 April according to Ibn al-Kalbi (d. 819), 21 April according to al-Waqidi (d. 823), and 29 April according to al-Mada'ini (d. 843). Yazid acceded to the caliphate a few days after Mu'awiya's death; according to Abu Mikhnaf (d. 774), his accession was on 7 April, whereas Elijah of Nisibis placed it on 21 April.
  2. His year of birth is uncertain. His age at the time of his death is reported to have been between 35 and 43 lunar years. The earliest report of his birth is 22 AH, which corresponds to 642–643, and comes closest to the age of 43 years. The historians Henri Lammens and Michael Jan de Goeje both prefer this date. Another report puts his birth in 25 AH, which corresponds to 645–646. The age of 35 years would put his birth year at 29 AH, corresponding to 649.
  3. The reports of Abd Allah ibn Abbas's earlier rejection of Yazid's nomination by Mu'awiya are doubted by modern historians who suspect the reports to have been Abbasid efforts to elevate the status of Ibn Abbas, the ancestor of the Abbasid dynasty, and equate him with other prominent leaders of the resistance.
  4. Pro-Alids or Alid partisans were political supporters of Ali, and later of his descendants.
  5. According to Julius Wellhausen, the attribution to Yazid is likely correct as the staff of office was usually held by monarchs. According to Henri Lammens, the deed was likely performed by Ibn Ziyad but the Iraqi chroniclers, whose sympathies lay with Husayn, were only eager to transfer the scene to Damascus.
  6. Some later Muslim sources assert that the Syrians caused the fire. It is more likely that the defenders caused it accidentally.
  7. He wrote a treatise on the subject titledRisala fi jawaz al-la'n ala Yazid (Treatise on the legality of cursing Yazid), and another refuting those who prohibited such practice:Al-radd ali al-muta'sib al-'anid al-mani fi dhamm Yazid (Reply to the stubborn fanatic who forbids condemnation of Yazid).
  8. Qurayshite descent was considered a prerequisite for the caliphal office by the majority of Muslims in early Islamic history.
  9. The names of Yazid's sons from his slave women were Abd Allah al-Asghar, Umar, Abu Bakr, Utba, Harb, Abd al-Rahman, al-Rabi and Muhammad.
  1. Morony 1987, p. 210.
  2. Wellhausen 1927, p. 139.
  3. de Goeje 1911, p. 30.
  4. Lammens 1921, pp. 477–478.
  5. Goldschmidt Jr. & Al-Marashi 2019, p. 53.
  6. Sprengling 1939, pp. 182, 193–194.
  7. Sprengling 1939, p. 194.
  8. Lewis 2002, p. 64.
  9. Jankowiak 2013, pp. 290–291.
  10. Jankowiak 2013, pp. 292–294.
  11. Hawting 2002, pp. 309–311.
  12. Donner 2010, pp. 156–157.
  13. Donner 2010, pp. 160–161.
  14. Donner 2010, pp. 166–167.
  15. Morony 1987, p. 183.
  16. Madelung 1997, p. 322.
  17. Donner 2010, p. 177.
  18. Lewis 2002, p. 67.
  19. Wellhausen 1927, p. 140.
  20. Hawting 2002, p. 309.
  21. Marsham 2009, p. 90.
  22. Wellhausen 1927, pp. 131–132.
  23. Crone 1980, p. 34.
  24. Marsham 2009, p. 91.
  25. Kennedy 2016, p. 39.
  26. Lammens 1921, p. 104.
  27. Wellhausen 1927, pp. 141–142.
  28. Wellhausen 1927, p. 145.
  29. Hawting 2000, p. 46.
  30. Wellhausen 1927, pp. 141–145.
  31. Wellhausen 1927, pp. 143–144.
  32. Morony 1987, p. 214.
  33. Kilpatrick 2003, p. 390 n. 54.
  34. Lammens 1921, p. 108.
  35. Lammens 1921, pp. 5–6.
  36. Wellhausen 1927, pp. 145–146.
  37. Howard 1990, pp. 2–3.
  38. Howard 1990, pp. 3–7.
  39. Marsham 2009, pp. 91–92.
  40. Sharon 1983, pp. 82–83.
  41. Donner 2010, p. 178.
  42. Kennedy 2004, p. 89.
  43. Madelung 2004.
  44. Daftary 1990, p. 50.
  45. Wellhausen 1901, p. 67.
  46. Howard 1990, pp. xiv, 81, 165.
  47. Wellhausen 1901, p. 67 n..
  48. Lammens 1921, p. 171.
  49. Wellhausen 1927, pp. 148–150.
  50. Donner 2010, p. 180.
  51. Wellhausen 1927, pp. 152–156.
  52. Donner 2010, pp. 180–181.
  53. Hawting 2000, p. 48.
  54. Wellhausen 1927, pp. 165–166.
  55. Lammens 1934, p. 1162.
  56. Donner 2010, pp. 181–182.
  57. Hawting 2002, p. 310.
  58. Crone 1980, pp. 30–33.
  59. Crone 1980, p. 31.
  60. Lilie 1976, pp. 81–82.
  61. Kennedy 2004, p. 90.
  62. Lammens 1921, p. 327.
  63. Kennedy 2007, pp. 212–215.
  64. Kennedy 2007, pp. 237–238.
  65. Lammens 1921, p. 478.
  66. Lammens 1921, pp. 475–476.
  67. Wellhausen 1927, p. 169.
  68. Ullmann 1978, p. 929.
  69. Marsham 2009, pp. 117–118.
  70. Wellhausen 1927, p. 182.
  71. Kennedy 2004, p. 91.
  72. Hawting 2000, p. 47.
  73. Hawting 2000, pp. 48–49.
  74. Donner 2010, p. 179.
  75. Lewis 2002, p. 68.
  76. Halm 1997, p. 16.
  77. Fischer 2003, p. 19.
  78. Hyder 2006, p. 77.
  79. Hathaway 2003, p. 47.
  80. Fischer 2003, p. 7.
  81. Aghaie 2004, pp. xi, 9.
  82. Halm 1997, p. 56.
  83. Kennedy 2016, p. 40.
  84. Hyder 2006, pp. 69, 91.
  85. Aghaie 2004, p. 73.
  86. Halm 1997, p. 140.
  87. Hyder 2006, p. 69.
  88. Kohlberg 2020, p. 74.
  89. Lammens 1921, pp. 487–488, 492.
  90. Lammens 1921, p. 490.
  91. Hoyland 2015, p. 233.
  92. Lammens 1921, p. 321.
  93. Lindsay 1997, p. 253.
  94. Lindsay 1997, p. 254.
  95. Wellhausen 1927, p. 168.
  96. Lammens 1921, pp. 317–318.
  97. Langer 2010, p. 394.
  98. Kreyenbroek 2002, p. 313.
  99. Asatrian & Arakelova 2016, p. 386.
  100. Kreyenbroek 2002, p. 314.
  101. Mochiri 1982, pp. 137–139.
  102. Mochiri 1982, p. 139.
  103. Rotter 1982, p. 85.
  104. Rotter 1982, pp. 85–86.
  105. Rotter 1982, p. 86.
  106. Demichelis 2015, p. 108.
  107. Howard 1990, p. 226.
  108. Bosworth 1993, p. 268.
  109. Robinson 2020, p. 143.
  110. Wellhausen 1927, p. 222.
  111. Ahmed 2010, p. 118.
  112. Howard 1990, p. 227.
Yazid I
Born: 646 Died: 11 November 683
Preceded by Caliph of Islam
Umayyad Caliph

680 – 11 November 683
Succeeded by

Yazid I Article Talk Language Watch Edit Yazid ibn Mu awiya ibn Abi Sufyan Arabic يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان romanized Yazid ibn Muʿawiya ibn ʾAbi Sufyan c 646 b 11 November 683 commonly known as Yazid I was the second caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate He ruled from April 680 until his death in November 683 His appointment was the first hereditary succession to the caliphate in Islamic history His caliphate was marked by the death of Muhammad s grandson Husayn ibn Ali and the start of the crisis known as the Second Fitna Yazid I يزيد بن معاويةKhalifahArab Sasanian dirham of Yazid I struck at the Basra mint dated AH 61 680 1 CE the year in which the Battle of Karbala occurred2nd Caliph of the Umayyad CaliphateReignApril 680 a 11 November 683PredecessorMu awiya ISuccessorMu awiya IIBornc 646 25 AH b SyriaDied11 November 683 aged c 37 14 Rabi al Awwal 64 AH Huwwarin SyriaSpouseUmm Khalid Fakhita bint Abi Hisham Umm Kulthum bint Abd Allah ibn AmirIssueMu awiya II Khalid Abd Allah AtikaNamesAbu Khalid Yazid ibn Muʿawiya ibn ʾAbi Sufyan أبو خالد يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيانHouseSufyanidDynastyUmayyadFatherMu awiya IMotherMaysun bint BahdalReligionIslam Yazid s nomination as heir apparent in 676 CE 56 AH by his father Mu awiya I was opposed by several Muslim grandees from the Hejaz region including Husayn and Abd Allah ibn al Zubayr The two men refused to recognize Yazid following his accession and took sanctuary in Mecca When Husayn left for Kufa in Iraq to lead a revolt against Yazid he was killed with his small band of supporters by Yazid s forces in the Battle of Karbala Husayn s death caused resentment in the Hejaz where Ibn al Zubayr called for a consultative assembly to elect a new caliph The people of Medina who supported Ibn al Zubayr held other grievances toward the Umayyads After failing to gain the allegiance of Ibn al Zubayr and the people of the Hejaz through diplomacy Yazid sent an army to suppress their rebellion The army defeated the Medinese in the Battle of al Harra in August 683 and the city was sacked Afterward Mecca was besieged for several weeks until the army withdrew as a result of Yazid s death in November 683 The Caliphate fell into a nearly decade long civil war ending with the establishment of the Marwanid dynasty the Umayyad caliph Marwan I and his descendants Yazid continued Mu awiya s decentralized model of governance relying on his provincial governors and the tribal nobility He abandoned Mu awiya s ambitious raids against the Byzantine Empire and strengthened Syria s military defences No new territories were conquered during his reign Yazid is considered an illegitimate ruler and a tyrant by many Muslims due to his hereditary succession the death of Husayn and his attack on Medina Modern historians take a milder view and consider him a capable ruler albeit less successful than his father Contents 1 Early life 2 Nomination as caliph 3 Reign 3 1 Oaths of allegiance 3 2 Battle of Karbala 3 3 Revolt of Abd Allah ibn al Zubayr 3 4 Domestic affairs and foreign campaigns 4 Death and succession 5 Legacy 5 1 Traditional Muslim view 5 2 Modern scholarly view 5 3 Yazidism 6 Coins 7 Wives and children 8 Notes 9 Citations 10 Sources 11 External linksEarly life The Syrian Desert where Yazid spent his childhood springs with his maternal Bedouin kin from the Banu Kalb tribe Yazid was born in Syria His year of birth is uncertain placed between 642 and 649 b His father was Mu awiya ibn Abi Sufyan then governor of Syria under Caliph Uthman r 644 656 Mu awiya and Uthman belonged to the wealthy Umayyad clan of the Quraysh tribe a grouping of Meccan clans to which the Islamic prophet Muhammad and all the preceding caliphs belonged Yazid s mother Maysun was the daughter of Bahdal ibn Unayf a chieftain of the powerful Bedouin tribe of Banu Kalb She was a Christian like most of her tribe 5 6 Yazid grew up with his maternal Kalbite kin 5 spending the springs of his youth in the Syrian Desert for the remainder of the year he was in the company of the Greek and native Syrian courtiers of his father 7 who became caliph in 661 8 During his father s caliphate Yazid led several campaigns against the Byzantine Empire which the Caliphate had been trying to conquer including an attack on the Byzantine capital Constantinople Sources give several dates for this between 49 AH 669 70 CE and 55 AH 674 5 CE Muslim sources offer few details of his role in the campaigns possibly downplaying his involvement due to the controversies of his later career He is portrayed in these sources as having been unwilling to participate in the expedition to the chagrin of Mu awiya who then forced him to comply 9 However two eighth century non Muslim sources from al Andalus Islamic Spain the Chronicle of 741 and the Chronicle of 754 both of which likely drew their material from an earlier Arabic work report that Yazid besieged Constantinople with a 100 000 strong army Unable to conquer the city the army captured adjacent towns acquired considerable loot and retreated after two years 10 Yazid also led the hajj the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca on several occasions 11 Nomination as caliphThe third caliph Uthman drew the ire of the Muslim settlers of the conquered lands as a consequence of his controversial policies which were seen by many as nepotistic and interfering in provincial affairs In 656 he was killed by the provincial rebels in Medina then capital of the Caliphate after which Ali the cousin and son in law of Muhammad was recognized as caliph by the Medinese people and the rebels 12 In the consequent first Islamic civil war 656 661 Mu awiya opposed Ali from his stronghold in Syria fighting him to a stalemate at the Battle of Siffin in 657 13 In January 661 Ali was assassinated by a Kharijite a faction opposed to Ali and Mu awiya after which his son Hasan was recognized as his successor 14 In August Mu awiya who had already been recognized as caliph by his partisans in Syria led his army toward Kufa the capital of Hasan and Ali in Iraq and gained control over the rest of the Caliphate by securing a peace treaty with Hasan The terms of the treaty stipulated that Mu awiya would not nominate a successor 15 16 Although the treaty brought a temporary peace no framework of succession was established 17 18 Mu awiya was determined to install Yazid as his successor The idea was scandalous to Muslims as hereditary succession had no precedent in Islamic history earlier caliphs had been elected either by popular support in Medina or by the consultation of the senior companions of Muhammad and according to Islamic principles the position of ruler was not the private property of a ruler to award to his descendants It was also unacceptable by Arab custom according to which the rulership should not pass from father to son but within the wider clan 18 19 According to the orientalist Bernard Lewis the only precedents available to Mu awiya from Islamic history were election and civil war The former was unworkable the latter had obvious drawbacks 18 Mu awiya passed over his eldest son Abd Allah who was from his Qurayshite wife perhaps due to the stronger support Yazid had in Syria because of his Kalbite parentage 20 The Banu Kalb was dominant in southern Syria and led the larger tribal confederation of Quda a 21 The Quda a were established in Syria long before Islam and had acquired significant military experience and familiarity with hierarchical order under the Byzantines as opposed to the more free spirited tribesmen of Arabia and Iraq 22 Northern Syria on the other hand was dominated by the tribal confederation of Qays which had immigrated there during Mu awiya s reign 23 24 and resented the privileged position of the Kalb in the Umayyad court 25 By appointing Yazid to lead campaigns against the Byzantines Mu awiya may have sought to foster support for Yazid from the northern tribesmen 25 The policy had limited success as the Qays opposed the nomination of Yazid at least in the beginning for he was the son of a Kalbi woman 24 In the Hejaz western Arabia where Medina and Mecca are located and where the old Muslim elite resided Yazid had support among his Umayyad kinsmen but there were other members of the Hejazi nobility whose approval was important By appointing Yazid to lead the hajj rituals there Mu awiya may have hoped to enlist support for Yazid s succession and elevate his status as a Muslim leader 24 25 According to Abu al Faraj al Isfahani d 967 Mu awiya had also employed poets to influence public opinion in favour of Yazid s succession 26 According to the account of Ibn Athir d 1233 Mu awiya summoned a shura consultative assembly of influential men from all of the provinces to his capital Damascus in 676 and won their support through flattery bribes and threats 27 18 He then ordered his Umayyad kinsman Marwan ibn al Hakam the governor of Medina to inform its people of his decision Marwan faced resistance especially from Ali s son and Muhammad s grandson Husayn and Abd Allah ibn al Zubayr Abd Allah ibn Umar and Abd al Rahman ibn Abi Bakr all sons of prominent companions of Muhammad who by virtue of their descent could also lay claim to the caliphal office 28 29 Mu awiya went to Medina and pressed the four dissenters to accede but they fled to Mecca He followed and threatened some of them with death but to no avail Nonetheless he was successful in convincing the people of Mecca that the four had pledged their allegiance and received the Meccans allegiance for Yazid On his way back to Damascus he secured allegiance from the people of Medina General recognition of the nomination thus forced Yazid s opponents into silence The orientalist Julius Wellhausen doubted the story holding that the reports of the nomination s rejection by prominent Medinese were a back projection of the events that followed Mu awiya s death 30 A similar opinion is held by the historian Andrew Marsham 24 According to the account of al Tabari d 923 Mu awiya announced the nomination in 676 and only received delegations from the Iraqi garrison town of Basra which pledged allegiance to Yazid in Damascus in 679 or 680 31 According to Ya qubi d 898 Mu awiya demanded allegiance for Yazid on the occasion of the hajj All except the four prominent Muslims mentioned above complied No force was used against them 26 In any case Mu awiya arranged a general recognition for Yazid s succession before his death 25 ReignMu awiya died in April 680 a According to al Tabari Yazid was at his residence in Huwwarin located between Damascus and Palmyra at the time of his father s death 32 According to verses of Yazid preserved in Isfahani s Kitab al Aghani a collection of Arabic poetry Yazid was away on a summertime expedition against the Byzantines when he received the news of Mu awiya s final illness 33 Based on this and the fact that Yazid arrived in Damascus only after Mu awiya s death the historian Henri Lammens has rejected the reports of Yazid being in Huwwarin 34 Mu awiya entrusted supervision of the government to his most loyal associates Dahhak ibn Qays al Fihri and Muslim ibn Uqba al Murri until Yazid s return He left a will for Yazid instructing him on matters of governing the Caliphate He was advised to beware Husayn and Ibn al Zubayr for they could challenge his rule and instructed to defeat them if they did Yazid was further advised to treat Husayn with caution and not to spill his blood since he was the grandson of Muhammad Ibn al Zubayr on the other hand was to be treated harshly unless he came to terms 35 Oaths of allegiance An early 19th century painting of Damascus Yazid s capital Upon his accession a Yazid requested and received oaths of allegiance from the governors of the provinces He wrote to the governor of Medina his cousin Walid ibn Utba ibn Abi Sufyan informing him of Mu awiya s death and instructing him to secure allegiance from Husayn Ibn al Zubayr and Ibn Umar 36 The instructions contained in the letter were Seize Husayn Abdullah ibn Umar and Abdullah ibn al Zubayr to give the oath of allegiance Act so fiercely that they have no chance to do anything before giving the oath of allegiance 37 Walid sought the advice of Marwan who suggested that Ibn al Zubayr and Husayn be forced to pay allegiance as they were dangerous while Ibn Umar should be left alone as he posed no threat Husayn answered Walid s summon meeting Walid and Marwan in a semi private meeting where he was informed of Mu awiya s death and Yazid s accession When asked for his oath of allegiance Husayn responded that giving his allegiance in private would be insufficient and suggested the oath be made in public Walid agreed but Marwan insisted that Husayn be detained until he proffered allegiance Husayn scolded Marwan and left to join his armed retinue who were waiting nearby in case the authorities attempted to apprehend him Immediately following Husayn s exit Marwan admonished Walid who in turn justified his refusal to harm Husayn by dint of the latter s close relation to Muhammad Ibn al Zubayr did not answer the summons and left for Mecca Walid sent eighty horsemen after him but he escaped Husayn too left for Mecca shortly after without having sworn allegiance to Yazid 38 Dissatisfied with this failure Yazid replaced Walid with his distant Umayyad kinsman Amr ibn Sa id 36 Unlike Husayn and Ibn al Zubayr Ibn Umar Abd al Rahman ibn Abi Bakr and Abd Allah ibn Abbas who had also previously denounced Mu awiya s nomination of Yazid c paid allegiance to him 17 Battle of Karbala Main article Battle of Karbala In Mecca Husayn received letters from pro Alid d Kufans inviting him to lead them in revolt against Yazid Husayn subsequently sent his cousin Muslim ibn Aqil to assess the situation in the city He also sent letters to Basra but his messenger was handed over to the governor Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad and killed Ibn Aqil informed Husayn of the large scale support he found in Kufa signalling that the latter should enter the city Informed by some Kufan tribal chiefs ashraf of the goings on Yazid replaced the governor of Kufa Nu man ibn Bashir al Ansari who had been unwilling to take action against pro Alid activity with Ibn Ziyad whom he ordered to execute or imprison Ibn Aqil As a result of Ibn Ziyad s suppression and political maneuvering Ibn Aqil s following began to dissipate and he was forced to declare the revolt prematurely It was suppressed and Ibn Aqil was executed 43 Encouraged by Ibn Aqil s letter Husayn left for Kufa ignoring warnings from Ibn Umar and Ibn Abbas The latter reminded him to no avail of the Kufans previous abandonment of his father Ali and his brother Hasan On the way to the city he received news of Ibn Aqil s death 43 Nonetheless he continued his march towards Kufa Ibn Ziyad s 4 000 strong army blocked his entry into the city and forced him to camp in the desert of Karbala Ibn Ziyad would not let Husayn pass without submitting which Husayn refused to do Week long negotiations failed and in the ensuing hostilities on 10 October 680 Husayn and 72 of his male companions were slain while his family was taken prisoner 43 44 The captives and Husayn s severed head were sent to Yazid According to the accounts of Abu Mikhnaf d 774 and Ammar al Duhni d 750 51 Yazid poked Husayn s head with his staff 45 although others ascribe this action to Ibn Ziyad 46 e Yazid treated the captives well and sent them back to Medina after a few days 45 43 Revolt of Abd Allah ibn al Zubayr Main article Ibn al Zubayr s revolt Following Husayn s death Yazid faced increased opposition to his rule from Ibn al Zubayr who declared him deposed Although publicly he called for a shura to elect a new caliph 42 in secret Ibn al Zubayr let his partisans pay allegiance to him 49 At first Yazid attempted to placate him by sending gifts and delegations in an attempt to reach a settlement 49 After Ibn al Zubayr s refusal to recognize him Yazid sent a force led by Ibn al Zubayr s estranged brother Amr to arrest him The force was defeated and Amr was taken captive and executed 50 As well as Ibn al Zubayr s growing influence in Medina the city s inhabitants were disillusioned with Umayyad rule and Mu awiya s agricultural projects which included the confiscation of their lands to boost government revenue 42 Yazid invited the notables of Medina to Damascus and tried to win them over with gifts They were unpersuaded and on their return to Medina narrated tales of Yazid s lavish lifestyle Accusations included Yazid drinking wine hunting with hounds and his love for music The Medinese under the leadership of Abd Allah ibn Hanzala renounced their allegiance to Yazid and expelled the governor Yazid s cousin Uthman ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Sufyan and the Umayyads residing in the city Yazid dispatched a 12 000 strong army under the command of Muslim ibn Uqba to reconquer the Hejaz After failed negotiations the Medinese were defeated in the Battle of al Harra According to the accounts of Abu Mikhnaf and al Samhudi d 1533 the city was sacked whereas per the account of Awana d 764 only the ringleaders of the rebellion were executed 51 Having forced the rebels to renew their allegiance Yazid s army headed for Mecca to subdue Ibn al Zubayr 52 Ibn Uqba died on the way to Mecca and command passed to Husayn ibn Numayr al Sakuni who besieged Mecca in September 683 The siege lasted for several weeks during which the Ka ba the sacred Muslim shrine at the center of the Mecca Mosque caught fire f Yazid s sudden death in November 683 ended the campaign and Ibn Numayr retreated to Syria with his army 56 Domestic affairs and foreign campaigns The style of Yazid s governance was by and large a continuation of the model developed by Mu awiya He continued to rely on the governors of the provinces and ashraf as Mu awiya had instead of relatives He retained several of Mu awiya s officials including Ibn Ziyad who was Mu awiya s governor of Basra and Sarjun ibn Mansur a native Syrian Christian who had served as the head of the fiscal administration under Mu awiya 57 55 Like Mu awiya Yazid received delegations of tribal notables wufud from the provinces to win their support which would also involve distributing gifts and bribes 57 The structure of the caliphal administration and military remained decentralised as in Mu awiya s time Provinces retained much of their tax revenue and forwarded a small portion to the Caliph 58 The military units in the provinces were derived from local tribes whose command also fell to the ashraf 59 In Syria Yazid established the northern border district of Qinnasrin Yazid approved a decrease in taxes on the Arab Christian tribe of Najran upon their request but abolished the special tax exemption of the ethno religious community of Samaritans which had been granted to them by previous caliphs as a reward for their aid to the Muslim conquerors He improved the irrigation system of the fertile lands of the Ghouta near Damascus by digging a canal that became known as Nahr Yazid 55 Toward the end of his reign Mu awiya reached a thirty year peace agreement with the Byzantines obliging the Caliphate to pay an annual tribute of 3 000 gold coins 50 horses and 50 slaves and to withdraw Muslim troops from the forward bases they had occupied on the island of Rhodes and the Anatolian coast 60 Under Yazid Muslim bases along the Sea of Marmara were abandoned 61 In contrast to the far reaching raids against the Byzantine Empire launched under his father Yazid focused on stabilizing the border with Byzantium 61 In order to improve Syria s military defences and prevent Byzantine incursions Yazid established the northern Syrian frontier district of Qinnasrin from what had been a part of Hims and garrisoned it 62 61 Yazid reappointed Uqba ibn Nafi the conqueror of the central North African region of Ifriqiya whom Mu awiya had deposed as governor of Ifriqiya In 681 Uqba launched a large scale expedition into western North Africa Defeating the Berbers and the Byzantines Uqba reached the Atlantic coast and captured Tangier and Volubilis He was unable to establish permanent control in these territories On his return to Ifriqiya he was ambushed and killed by a Berber Byzantine force at the Battle of Vescera resulting in the loss of the conquered territories 63 In 681 Yazid appointed Ibn Ziyad s brother Salm ibn Ziyad as the governor of the northeastern border province of Khurasan Salm led several campaigns in Transoxiana Central Asia and raided Samarqand and Khwarazm but without gaining a permanent foothold in any of them Yazid s death in 683 and the subsequent chaos in the east ended the campaigns 64 Death and succession Genealogical tree of Yazid s family the Sufyanids who ruled the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 until their replacement by the Marwanids in 684 Yazid died on 11 November 683 in the central Syrian desert town of Huwwarin his favourite residence aged between 35 and 43 and was buried there 65 Early annalists like Abu Ma shar al Madani d 778 and al Waqidi d 823 do not give any details about his death This lack of information seems to have inspired fabrication of accounts by authors with anti Umayyad leanings which detail several causes of death including a horse fall excessive drinking pleurisy and burning 66 According to the verses by a contemporary poet Ibn Arada who at the time resided in Khurasan Yazid died in his bed with a wine cup by his side 67 66 Ibn al Zubayr subsequently declared himself caliph and Iraq and Egypt came under his rule In Syria Yazid s son Mu awiya II whom he had nominated became caliph His control was limited to parts of Syria as most of the Syrian districts Hims Qinnasrin and Palestine were controlled by allies of Ibn al Zubayr 56 Mu awiya II died after a few months from an unknown illness Several early sources state that he abdicated before his death 67 Following his death Yazid s maternal Kalbite tribesmen seeking to maintain their privileges sought to install Yazid s son Khalid on the throne but he was considered too young for the post by the non Kalbites in the pro Umayyad coalition 68 69 Consequently Marwan ibn al Hakam was acknowledged as caliph in a shura of pro Umayyad tribes in June 684 70 Shortly after Marwan and the Kalb routed the pro Zubayrid forces in Syria led by Dahhak at the Battle of Marj Rahit 71 Although the pro Umayyad shura stipulated that Khalid would succeed Marwan the latter nominated his son Abd al Malik as his heir 68 69 Thus the Sufyanid house named after Mu awiya I s father Abu Sufyan was replaced by the Marwanid house of the Umayyad dynasty 72 By 692 Abd al Malik had defeated Ibn al Zubayr and restored Umayyad authority across the Caliphate 73 LegacyThe killing of Muhammad s grandson Husayn caused widespread outcry among Muslims and the image of Yazid suffered greatly 74 It also helped crystallize opposition to Yazid into an anti Umayyad movement based on Alid aspirations 75 and contributed to the development of Shi a identity 44 whereby the party of Alid partisans was transformed into a religious sect with distinct rituals and memory After the Battle of Karbala Shi a imams from Husayn s line adopted the policy of political quietism 76 Traditional Muslim view Yazid is considered an evil figure by many Muslims to the present day 11 not only by the Shi a who hold that the ruling position rightly belonged to Husayn s father Ali and his descendants including Husayn whom Yazid killed to strip him of his right 77 but also by many Sunnis to whom he was an affront to Islamic values 78 79 For the Shi a Yazid is an epitome of evil 80 81 He is annually reviled in the Ashura processions and passion plays 82 83 and rulers considered tyrannical and oppressive are often equated with him 84 85 Before the Iranian Revolution the Shah of Iran was called the Yazid of his time by the Iranian cleric Rouhollah Khomeini 86 80 as was the Iraqi president Saddam Hussein by the Iraqi Shi a during the Iran Iraq War for his ban on pilgrimages to the holy sites of Shi a Islam 87 Among the Sunnis the Hanafi school allows cursing of Yazid 88 whereas the Hanbali school and many in the Shafi i school maintain that no judgment should be passed on Yazid rather tyrants in general should be cursed 89 However the Hanbali scholar Ibn al Jawzi d 1201 encouraged the cursing 89 g According to al Ghazali d 1111 cursing Yazid is prohibited for he was a Muslim and his role in the killing of Husayn is unverified 90 Yazid was the first person in the history of the Caliphate to be nominated as heir based on a blood relationship and this became a tradition afterwards 25 As such his accession is considered by the Muslim historical tradition as the corruption of the caliphate into a kingship He is depicted as a tyrant who was responsible for three major crimes during his caliphate the death of Husayn and his followers at Karbala considered a massacre the aftermath of the Battle of al Harra in which Yazid s troops sacked Medina and the burning of the Ka ba during the siege of Mecca which is blamed on Yazid s commander Husayn ibn Numayr The tradition stresses his habits of drinking dancing hunting and keeping pet animals such as dogs and monkeys portraying him as impious and unworthy of leading the Muslim community 57 Extant contemporary Muslim histories describe Yazid as a sinner in respect of his belly and his private parts an arrogant drunken sot and motivated by defiance of God lack of faith in His religion and hostility toward His Messenger 91 Baladhuri d 892 described him as the commander of the sinners amir al fasiqin as opposed to the title commander of the faithful amir al mu minin usually applied to the caliphs 92 Nevertheless some historians have argued that there is a tendency in early Muslim sources to exonerate Yazid of blame for Husayn s death and put the blame squarely on Ibn Ziyad 43 According to the historian James Lindsay the Syrian historian Ibn Asakir d 1176 attempted to stress Yazid s positive qualities while accepting the allegations that are generally made against him 57 93 Ibn Asakir thus emphasised that Yazid was a transmitter of hadith the sayings and traditions attributed to Muhammad a virtuous man by reason of his connection to the age of the Prophet and worthy of the ruling position 94 Modern scholarly view Despite his reputation in religious circles academic historians generally portray a more favourable view of Yazid According to Wellhausen Yazid was a mild ruler who resorted to violence only when necessary and was not the tyrant that the religious tradition portrays him to be He further notes that Yazid lacked interest in public affairs as a prince but as a caliph he seems to have pulled himself together although he did not give up his old predilections wine music the chase and other sport 95 In the view of the historian Hugh N Kennedy despite the disasters of Karbala and al Harra Yazid s rule was not devoid of achievement His reputation might have improved had he lived longer but his early death played a part in sticking of the stigma of the shocks of the early part of his reign 61 According to the Islamicist G R Hawting Yazid tried to continue the diplomatic policies of his father but unlike Mu awiya he was not successful in winning over the opposition with gifts and bribes In Hawting s summation the image of Muʿawiya as operating more like a tribal s h ayk h than a traditional Middle Eastern despot also seems applicable to Yazid 57 In the view of Lewis Yazid was a capable ruler with much of the ability of his father but was overly criticized by later Arab historians 75 Expressing a viewpoint similar to Wellhausen s Lammens remarked a poet himself and fond of music he was a Maecenas of poets and artists 55 The characterization of Yazid in the Muslim sources has been attributed to the hostility of the Abbasid dynasty during whose rule the histories were written toward the Umayyads whom they toppled in 750 91 Most reports in the traditional Muslim sources focus on the revolts against Yazid 57 and usually lack detail on his public life in Syria and his activities other than the suppression of the revolts Lammens has attributed this to the tendency of the Iraq based Abbasid era chroniclers to portray a caliph under whom Husayn was killed and the holy cities of Islam were attacked only as an impious drunkard 96 In contrast a Syrian source preserved in the Chronicle of 741 describes the Caliph as a most pleasant man and deemed highly agreeable by all the peoples subject to his rule He never as is the wont of men sought glory for himself because of his royal rank but lived as a citizen along with all the common people 91 Yazidism In the Yazidi religion practiced by the mainly Iraq based Kurdish speaking ethno religious community of Yazidis Sultan Ezid is a highly revered divine figure 97 Most modern historians hold that the name Ezid derives from the name of Caliph Yazid 98 In Yazidi religious lore there is no trace of any link between Sultan Ezid and the second Umayyad caliph 99 A pro Umayyad movement particularly sympathetic towards Yazid existed in the Kurdish mountains before the 12th century when Shaykh Adi 100 a Sufi of Umayyad descent venerated by Yazidis to this day 97 settled there and attracted a following among the adherents of the movement The name Yazidi seems to have been applied to the group because of his Umayyad origins 100 Coins Coin of the Umayyad Caliphate at the time of Yazid Mint location Basra Governor Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad Date 60 AH 679 680 CE Obverse Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrow II bismillah and four pellets in margin Reverse fire altar with ribbons and attendants star and crescent flanking flames date to left mint name to right A Sasanian style silver coin bearing the mint date as Year I of Yazid has been reported The obverse side shows the portrait of the Sasanian king Khosrow II r 590 628 and his name in the Pahlavi script The reverse has the usual Zoroastrian fire altar surrounded by attendants The margins however contain the inscription that it was minted during the first year of Yazid s reign 101 An anonymous coin from the Nishapur mint bearing the mint date 60 which is assumed to be the Hijri year is also thought to be from Yazid s first regnal year 102 Other coins from his reign usually have only the name of the governor of the province where the coin originated 102 103 Coins bearing the name of the counter caliph Abd Allah ibn al Zubayr have also been found from the provinces of Fars and Kirman dated between 61 and 63 681 683 CE although Ibn al Zubayr did not publicly claim the caliphate until after the death of Yazid 104 This may show that as well as the challenges to his rule in Arabia and Iraq Yazid s authority was also challenged in southern Persia from roughly the time of his accession The coins were probably minted in the name of Ibn al Zubayr to lend legitimacy to the challengers of the Umayyads by using a suitable Qurayshite name 105 h Wives and childrenYazid married three women and had several concubines The names of two of his wives are known Umm Khalid Fakhita bint Abi Hisham and Umm Kulthum a daughter of the veteran commander and statesman Abd Allah ibn Amir 107 108 Fakhita and Umm Kulthum both hailed from the Abd Shams the parent clan of the Umayyads 109 Yazid had three sons from his wives His eldest Mu awiya II was between 17 and 23 years old at the time of Yazid s death The name of Mu awiya II s mother is unknown but she was from the Banu Kalb Ill health prevented him from carrying out the caliphal duties and he rarely left his residence He survived his father only by a few months and died without leaving any offspring 108 Yazid s second son Khalid was from Fakhita and was born circa 668 Marwan married Fakhita after becoming caliph to foster an alliance with the Sufyanid house and neutralize her son Khalid s claim to the caliphate He remained quiet about being sidelined from the succession although a legendary report says that he protested to Marwan who in turn insulted him He had friendly relations with Abd al Malik whose daughter he married Several legendary accounts report Khalid being interested in alchemy and having ordered the translation of Greek works on alchemy astronomy and medicine into Arabic 68 Yazid s daughter Atika was the favourite wife of Abd al Malik 110 She bore him several children including the future Caliph Yazid II r 720 724 111 Yazid s son Abd Allah from Umm Kulthum was a famed archer and horseman 107 Yazid had several other sons from slave women 112 i Notes a b c Mu awiya died in the month of Rajab 60 AH Rajab of the year 60 AH started on 7 April 680 The precise date of death varies depending on the source 7 April according to Ibn al Kalbi d 819 21 April according to al Waqidi d 823 and 29 April according to al Mada ini d 843 1 Yazid acceded to the caliphate a few days after Mu awiya s death according to Abu Mikhnaf d 774 his accession was on 7 April whereas Elijah of Nisibis placed it on 21 April 2 a b c His year of birth is uncertain His age at the time of his death is reported to have been between 35 and 43 lunar years The earliest report of his birth is 22 AH which corresponds to 642 643 and comes closest to the age of 43 years The historians Henri Lammens and Michael Jan de Goeje both prefer this date Another report puts his birth in 25 AH which corresponds to 645 646 The age of 35 years would put his birth year at 29 AH corresponding to 649 3 4 The reports of Abd Allah ibn Abbas s earlier rejection of Yazid s nomination by Mu awiya are doubted by modern historians who suspect the reports to have been Abbasid efforts to elevate the status of Ibn Abbas the ancestor of the Abbasid dynasty and equate him with other prominent leaders of the resistance 39 40 Pro Alids or Alid partisans were political supporters of Ali and later of his descendants 41 42 According to Julius Wellhausen the attribution to Yazid is likely correct as the staff of office was usually held by monarchs 47 According to Henri Lammens the deed was likely performed by Ibn Ziyad but the Iraqi chroniclers whose sympathies lay with Husayn were only eager to transfer the scene to Damascus 48 Some later Muslim sources assert that the Syrians caused the fire It is more likely that the defenders caused it accidentally 53 54 55 He wrote a treatise on the subject titled Risala fi jawaz al la n ala Yazid Treatise on the legality of cursing Yazid and another refuting those who prohibited such practice Al radd ali al muta sib al anid al mani fi dhamm Yazid Reply to the stubborn fanatic who forbids condemnation of Yazid 89 Qurayshite descent was considered a prerequisite for the caliphal office by the majority of Muslims in early Islamic history 106 The names of Yazid s sons from his slave women were Abd Allah al Asghar Umar Abu Bakr Utba Harb Abd al Rahman al Rabi and Muhammad 112 Citations Morony 1987 p 210 Wellhausen 1927 p 139 de Goeje 1911 p 30 Lammens 1921 pp 477 478 a b Goldschmidt Jr amp Al Marashi 2019 p 53 Sprengling 1939 pp 182 193 194 Sprengling 1939 p 194 Lewis 2002 p 64 Jankowiak 2013 pp 290 291 Jankowiak 2013 pp 292 294 a b Hawting 2002 pp 309 311 Donner 2010 pp 156 157 Donner 2010 pp 160 161 Donner 2010 pp 166 167 Morony 1987 p 183 Madelung 1997 p 322 a b Donner 2010 p 177 a b c d Lewis 2002 p 67 Wellhausen 1927 p 140 Hawting 2002 p 309 Marsham 2009 p 90 Wellhausen 1927 pp 131 132 Crone 1980 p 34 a b c d Marsham 2009 p 91 a b c d e Kennedy 2016 p 39 a b Lammens 1921 p 104 Wellhausen 1927 pp 141 142 Wellhausen 1927 p 145 Hawting 2000 p 46 Wellhausen 1927 pp 141 145 Wellhausen 1927 pp 143 144 Morony 1987 p 214 Kilpatrick 2003 p 390 n 54 Lammens 1921 p 108 Lammens 1921 pp 5 6 a b Wellhausen 1927 pp 145 146 Howard 1990 pp 2 3 Howard 1990 pp 3 7 Marsham 2009 pp 91 92 Sharon 1983 pp 82 83 Donner 2010 p 178 a b c Kennedy 2004 p 89 a b c d e Madelung 2004 a b Daftary 1990 p 50 a b Wellhausen 1901 p 67 Howard 1990 pp xiv 81 165 Wellhausen 1901 p 67 n Lammens 1921 p 171 a b Wellhausen 1927 pp 148 150 Donner 2010 p 180 Wellhausen 1927 pp 152 156 Donner 2010 pp 180 181 Hawting 2000 p 48 Wellhausen 1927 pp 165 166 a b c d Lammens 1934 p 1162 a b Donner 2010 pp 181 182 a b c d e f Hawting 2002 p 310 Crone 1980 pp 30 33 Crone 1980 p 31 Lilie 1976 pp 81 82 a b c d Kennedy 2004 p 90 Lammens 1921 p 327 Kennedy 2007 pp 212 215 Kennedy 2007 pp 237 238 Lammens 1921 p 478 a b Lammens 1921 pp 475 476 a b Wellhausen 1927 p 169 a b c Ullmann 1978 p 929 a b Marsham 2009 pp 117 118 Wellhausen 1927 p 182 Kennedy 2004 p 91 Hawting 2000 p 47 Hawting 2000 pp 48 49 Donner 2010 p 179 a b Lewis 2002 p 68 Halm 1997 p 16 Fischer 2003 p 19 Hyder 2006 p 77 Hathaway 2003 p 47 a b Fischer 2003 p 7 Aghaie 2004 pp xi 9 Halm 1997 p 56 Kennedy 2016 p 40 Hyder 2006 pp 69 91 Aghaie 2004 p 73 Halm 1997 p 140 Hyder 2006 p 69 Kohlberg 2020 p 74 a b c Lammens 1921 pp 487 488 492 Lammens 1921 p 490 a b c Hoyland 2015 p 233 Lammens 1921 p 321 Lindsay 1997 p 253 Lindsay 1997 p 254 Wellhausen 1927 p 168 Lammens 1921 pp 317 318 a b Langer 2010 p 394 Kreyenbroek 2002 p 313 Asatrian amp Arakelova 2016 p 386 a b Kreyenbroek 2002 p 314 Mochiri 1982 pp 137 139 a b Mochiri 1982 p 139 Rotter 1982 p 85 Rotter 1982 pp 85 86 Rotter 1982 p 86 Demichelis 2015 p 108 a b Howard 1990 p 226 a b Bosworth 1993 p 268 Robinson 2020 p 143 Wellhausen 1927 p 222 Ahmed 2010 p 118 a b Howard 1990 p 227 SourcesAghaie Kamran S 2004 The Martyrs of Karbala Shi i Symbols and Rituals in Modern Iran Seattle amp London University of Washington Press ISBN 978 0 295 98455 1 Ahmed Asad Q 2010 The Religious Elite of the Early Islamic Ḥijaz Five Prosopographical Case Studies Oxford University of Oxford Linacre College Unit for Prosopographical Research ISBN 978 1 900934 13 8 Asatrian Garnik Arakelova Victoria 2016 On the Shi a Constituent in the Yezidi Religious Lore Iran and the Caucasus 20 3 4 385 395 doi 10 1163 1573384X 20160308 JSTOR 44631094 Bosworth C E 1993 Muʿawiya II In Bosworth C E van Donzel E Heinrichs W P amp Pellat Ch eds The Encyclopaedia of Islam New Edition Volume VII Mif Naz Leiden E J Brill pp 268 269 ISBN 978 90 04 09419 2 Crone Patricia 1980 Slaves on Horses The Evolution of the Islamic Polity Cambridge Cambridge University Press ISBN 0 521 52940 9 Daftary Farhad 1990 The Ismaʿi li s Their History and Doctrines Cambridge Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 37019 6 de Goeje Michael Jan 1911 Caliphate In Chisholm Hugh ed Encyclopaedia Britannica Vol 5 11th ed Cambridge University Press Demichelis Marco 2015 Kharijites and Qarmatians Islamic Pre Democratic Thought a Political Theological Analysis In Mattson Ingrid Nesbitt Larking Paul Tahir Nawaz eds Religion and Representation Islam and Democracy Newcastle upon Tyne Cambridge Scholars Publishing pp 101 127 ISBN 978 1 4438 7059 7 Donner Fred M 2010 Muhammad and the Believers at the Origins of Islam Cambridge Massachusetts Harvard University Press ISBN 978 0 674 05097 6 Fischer Michael M J 2003 Iran From Religious Dispute to Revolution Madison The University of Wisconsin Press ISBN 9780299184735 Goldschmidt Jr Arthur Al Marashi Ibrahim 2019 A Concise History of the Middle East New York Routledge ISBN 978 1 138 62397 2 Halm Heinz 1997 Shi a Islam From Religion to Revolution Translated by Allison Brown Princeton Markus Wiener Publishers ISBN 1 55876 134 9 Hathaway Jane 2003 A Tale of Two Factions Myth Memory and Identity in Ottoman Egypt and Yemen New York State University of New York Press ISBN 9780791486108 Hawting Gerald R 2000 The First Dynasty of Islam The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661 750 Second ed London and New York Routledge ISBN 0 415 24072 7 Hawting Gerald R 2002 Yazid I b Mu awiya In Bearman P J Bianquis Th Bosworth C E van Donzel E amp Heinrichs W P eds The Encyclopaedia of Islam New Edition Volume XI W Z Leiden E J Brill pp 309 311 ISBN 978 90 04 12756 2 Howard I K A ed 1990 The History of al Ṭabari Volume XIX The Caliphate of Yazid ibn Muʿawiyah A D 680 683 A H 60 64 SUNY Series in Near Eastern Studies Albany New York State University of New York Press ISBN 978 0 7914 0040 1 Hoyland Robert G 2015 In God s Path the Arab Conquests and the Creation of an Islamic Empire New York Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 991637 5 Hyder Syed Akbar 2006 Reliving Karbala Martyrdom in South Asian Memory Oxford Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 537302 8 Jankowiak Marek 2013 The First Arab Siege of Constantinople In Zuckerman Constantin ed Travaux et memoires Vol 17 Constructing the Seventh Century Paris Association des Amis du Centre d Histoire et Civilisation de Byzance pp 237 320 ISBN 978 2 916716 45 9 Kennedy Hugh 2004 The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates The Islamic Near East from the 6th to the 11th Century Second ed Harlow Longman ISBN 978 0 582 40525 7 Kennedy Hugh 2007 The Great Arab Conquests How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In Philadelphia Pennsylvania Da Capo Press ISBN 978 0 306 81740 3 Kennedy Hugh 2016 Caliphate The History of an Idea New York Basic Books ISBN 9780465094394 Kilpatrick Hilary 2003 Making the Great Book of Songs Compilation and the Author s Craft in Abu l Faraj al Iṣbahani s Kitab al Aghani London Routledge ISBN 9780700717019 OCLC 50810677 Kohlberg Etan 2020 In Praise of the Few Studies in Shiʿi Thought and History Leiden E J Brill ISBN 9789004406971 Kreyenbroek Philip G 2002 Yazidi In Bearman P J Bianquis Th Bosworth C E van Donzel E amp Heinrichs W P eds The Encyclopaedia of Islam New Edition Volume XI W Z Leiden E J Brill pp 313 316 ISBN 978 90 04 12756 2 Lammens Henri 1921 Le Califat de Yazid Ier in French Beirut Imprimerie Catholique Beyrouth OCLC 474534621 Lammens Henri 1934 Yazid b Mu awiya In Houtsma M Th Wensinck A J Gibb H A R Heffening W Levi Provencal E eds The Encyclopaedia of Islam A Dictionary of the Geography Ethnography and Biography of the Muhammadan Peoples Vol IV S Z Leiden E J Brill pp 1162 1163 Langer Robert 2010 Yezidism between Scholarly Literature and Actual Practice From Heterodox Islam and Syncretism to the Formation of a Transnational Yezidi Orthodoxy British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 37 3 393 403 doi 10 1080 13530194 2010 524441 JSTOR 23077034 S2CID 145061694 Lewis Bernard 2002 Arabs in History Oxford Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 164716 1 Lilie Ralph Johannes 1976 Die byzantinische Reaktion auf die Ausbreitung der Araber Studien zur Strukturwandlung des byzantinischen Staates im 7 und 8 Jhd in German Munich Institut fur Byzantinistik und Neugriechische Philologie der Universitat Munchen OCLC 797598069 Lindsay James E 1997 Caliphal and Moral Exemplar Ali Ibn Asakir s Portrait of Yazid b Mu awiya Der Islam 74 2 250 278 doi 10 1515 islm 1997 74 2 250 S2CID 163851803 Madelung Wilferd 1997 The Succession to Muhammad A Study of the Early Caliphate Cambridge Cambridge University Press ISBN 0 521 64696 0 Madelung Wilferd 2004 Ḥosayn b ʿAli I Life and Significance in Shiʿism Encyclopaedia Iranica Vol 7 New York Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation Retrieved 24 January 2021 Marsham Andrew 2009 Rituals of Islamic Monarchy Accession and Succession in the First Muslim Empire Edinburgh Edinburgh University Press ISBN 978 0 7486 3077 6 Mochiri Malek Iradj 1982 A Sasanian Style Coin of Yazid B Mu awiya Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 114 1 137 141 doi 10 1017 S0035869X00159180 JSTOR 25211312 Morony Michael G ed 1987 The History of al Ṭabari Volume XVIII Between Civil Wars The Caliphate of Muʿawiyah 661 680 A D A H 40 60 SUNY Series in Near Eastern Studies Albany New York State University of New York Press ISBN 978 0 87395 933 9 Robinson Majied 2020 Marriage in the Tribe of Muhammad A Statistical Study of Early Arabic Genealogical Literature Berlin Walter de Gruyter ISBN 978 3 11 062416 8 Rotter Gernot 1982 Die Umayyaden und der zweite Burgerkrieg 680 692 in German Wiesbaden Deutsche Morgenlandische Gesellschaft ISBN 9783515029131 Sharon Moshe 1983 Black Banners from the East The Establishment of the ʻAbbasid State Incubation of a Revolt Jerusalem JSAI ISBN 978 965 223 501 5 Sprengling Martin 1939 From Persian to Arabic The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures The University of Chicago Press 56 2 175 224 doi 10 1086 370538 JSTOR 528934 S2CID 170486943 Ullmann Manfred 1978 Khalid b Yazid b Muʿawiya In van Donzel E Lewis B Pellat Ch amp Bosworth C E eds The Encyclopaedia of Islam New Edition Volume IV Iran Kha Leiden E J Brill pp 929 930 OCLC 758278456 Wellhausen Julius 1901 Die religios politischen Oppositionsparteien im alten Islam in German Berlin Weidmannsche Buchhandlung OCLC 453206240 Wellhausen Julius 1927 The Arab Kingdom and its Fall Translated by Margaret Graham Weir Calcutta University of Calcutta OCLC 752790641 External linksWorks by Yazid I at LibriVox public domain audiobooks Yazid IUmayyad DynastyBorn 646 Died 11 November 683Preceded byMu awiya I Caliph of Islam Umayyad Caliph 680 11 November 683 Succeeded byMu awiya II Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yazid I amp oldid 1092979654, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.