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Yellow Crane Tower

Yellow Crane Tower (simplified Chinese:黄鹤楼; traditional Chinese:黃鶴樓; pinyin: Huánghè Lóu) is a traditional Chinese tower located in Wuhan. The current structure was built in 1981, but the tower has existed in various forms from as early as AD 223. The current Yellow Crane Tower is 51.4 m (169 ft) high and covers an area of {{cvt|3219|m2}(34,649ft2}. It is situated on Snake Hill (蛇山), one kilometer away from the original site, on the banks of the Yangtze River in Wuchang District.

The modern Yellow Crane Tower build in 1985
Yellow Crane Tower
"Yellow Crane Tower" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese黄鹤楼
Traditional Chinese黃鶴樓
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinHuáng hè lóu
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationWòhng hohk làuh
JyutpingWong4 hok6 lau4
Southern Min
Tâi-lôN̂g ho̍h lâu (col.)
Hông ho̍k lâu (lit.)
The Yellow Crane Tower in 1871.
View to the west with Tortoise Hill and the Tortoise Mountain TV Tower

Contents

View to the east from the Yellow Crane Tower. Snake Hill is in the middle and the red-brick compound of the Wuchang Uprising memorial is to the right

The Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and Counties, written almost 600 years after the construction of the tower, notes that after Sun Quan, founder of the kingdom of Eastern Wu, built the fort of Xiakou in 223, a tower was constructed at/on the Yellow Crane Jetty, west of Xiakou, and hence its name.

The tower has been destroyed twelve times, both by warfare and by fire, in the Ming and Qing dynasties and was repaired on ten separate occasions. The last tower at the original site was built in 1868 and destroyed in 1884. In 1907, a new tower was built near the site of the Yellow Crane Tower. Zhang Zhidong proposed '奧略樓' (Aoliaolou Tower) as the name for this tower and wrote an antithetical couplet for it. In 1957, the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge was built with one trestle of the bridge on the Yellow Crane Tower's site. In 1981, the Wuhan City Government commenced reconstruction of the tower at a new location, about 1 km (0.62 mi) from the original site, and it was completed in 1985.

The Sacred Stupa (simplified Chinese: 胜像宝塔,pinyin: shèng xiàng bǎo tǎ ) is 9.36 meters high and 5.68 meters wide. It is built with external stone and internal bricks, mainly stone masonry, and a small amount of bricks are used in the internal tower room. It is the oldest and most complete single building preserved in the former site of the Yellow Crane Tower. The Sacred Stupa is a Stupa of Tibetan Buddhism Tantric Buddhism, and it is also the first type of stupa after Buddhism inherited from India to China. It is the only existing Lama-style white stupa in Wuhan, and it provides important physical materials for studying the history and religion of the famous historical and cultural city Wuhan in the late Yuan and early Ming Dynasties.

Legends

Yellow Crane Tower, by An Zhengwen during the Ming dynasty

Notwithstanding the tower's current location on Snake Hill being unrelated to its original location one kilometre away, the two popular legends related to it invoke the hill. In the first, an Immortal (仙人) named Wang Zi'an (王子安) rode away from Snake Mountain on a yellow crane and a tower was later built in commemoration of this story. In the second legend, Fei Yi becomes immortal and rides a yellow crane, often stopping on Snake Hill to take a rest.

The tower is also a sacred site of Taoism. Lü Dongbin is said to ascend to heaven from here. There is a small cave in the hill beneath the tower with Lü Dongbin statue. The cave is been called Lü Zu Dong[citation needed], literately means cave of Lü Dongbin.

Poem by Cui Hao

Yellow Crane Tower was made famous by an 8th-century poem written by Cui Hao, titled "Yellow Crane Tower" (黃鶴樓). The original text of the poem is shown below:

昔人已乘黃鶴去, 此地空餘黃鶴樓。
黃鶴一去不復返, 白雲千載空悠悠。
晴川歷歷漢陽樹, 芳草萋萋鸚鵡洲。
日暮鄉關何處是, 煙波江上使人愁。

A modern English translation is:

Long ago one's gone riding the yellow crane, all that remained is the Yellow Crane Tower.
Once the yellow crane left it will never return, for one thousand years the clouds wandered carelessly.
The clear river reflects each Hanyang tree, fragrant grasses lushly grow on Parrot Island.
At sunset, which direction leads to my hometown? One could not help feeling melancholy along the misty river.

Poem by Li Bai

There are other famous poems about the Yellow Crane Tower by Li Bai. One was written on the occasion of Li Bai parting with his friend and poetic colleague, Meng Haoran. The poem is titled "Seeing off Meng Haoran for Guangling at Yellow Crane Tower" (黃鶴樓送孟浩然之廣陵), and is shown in its original form below:

故人西辭黃鶴樓,
煙花三月下揚州。
孤帆遠影碧空盡,
唯見長江天際流。

A modern English translation is:

My old friend bids farewell to me in the west at Yellow Crane Tower.
Amid April's mist and flowers he goes down to Yangzhou.
The distant image of his lonely sail disappears in blue emptiness,
And all I see is the Long River flowing to the edge of sky.

The tower and its surroundings have been marked as Yellow Crane Tower park. There are tour services that can be hired for a fee at the entrance. The top of the tower has a broad view of its surroundings and the Yangtze River. Yellow Crane Tower is considered one of the Four Great Towers of China. In its modern version, it has the appearance of an ancient tower but is built of modern materials, including an elevator. Each level has its own display. To the east on the hill, a large temple bell may be rung by tourists for a small fee. There are court dances in the western yard during the week-long National Day of the People's Republic of China celebration. The tower is classified as an AAAAA scenic area by the China National Tourism Administration. At south side of the tower, there is a statue of Yue Fei because he was garrison around this area in Song Dynasty.

Yellow Crane Tower park
  • Bronze statue of Yue Fei (岳飛像)

  • Sacred Stupa

  • Crane-Ridding Pavilion

  • Goose Pond

  • Waterfall

  1. 元和郡縣圖志 卷第二十七 [Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and Counties, Chapter 27] (in Chinese). Chinese Text Project. Retrieved30 December 2017. 州城本夏口城,吳黃武二年[223],城江夏以安屯戍地也。城西臨大口,西南角因磯為樓,名黃鶴樓。
  2. Li, Jifu (李吉甫; He, Cijun (賀次君) (1983). 元和郡縣圖志 [Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and Counties]. 中國古代地理總志叢刊. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company.
  3. 两副楹联两座楼. 光绪三十三年(1907),张之洞由湖广总督任内奉召进京任军机大臣。湖北学界为了表示纪念他,在被焚的同治黄鹤楼的故址附近,修了一座“风度楼”,接着遵照张之洞的意见,改名为“奥略楼”。第二年,张氏为它题了一副楹联:“昔贤整顿乾坤,缔造多从江汉起;今日交通文轨,登临不觉亚欧遥。”{...}Aoliaolou Hall
  4. Fang Wang (14 April 2016). Geo-Architecture and Landscape in China's Geographic and Historic Context: Volume 1 Geo-Architecture Wandering in the Landscape. Springer. pp. 43–. ISBN 978-981-10-0483-4.
  5. Wan: The source of the Wang Zi'an legend is《南齐书·州郡志》. The Fei Wenyi legend is from《太平寰宇记》. Pages 43.
  6. Images of the Immortal: The Cult of Lü Dongbin at the Palace of Eternal Joy by Paul R. Katz, University of Hawaii Press, 1999, page 80
  7. Wan: Page 42.
  8. Wan: Several Tang sources use "cloud" (白云) rather than "yellow crane" here. The use of "yellow crane" is a later change. Page 43.
  9. Wan: Parrot Island was a sandbar in the middle of the river that has since disappeared. Page 43.
  10. Whincup, Greg (1987). The Heart of Chinese Poetry.
  11. Li Shiqiao (29 April 2014). Understanding the Chinese City. SAGE Publications. pp. 177–. ISBN 978-1-4739-0539-9.
  12. "AAAAA Scenic Areas". China National Tourism Administration. 16 November 2008. Retrieved9 April 2011.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toYellow Crane Tower.

Coordinates:30°32′49″N114°17′49″E /30.54694°N 114.29694°E /30.54694; 114.29694

Yellow Crane Tower
Yellow Crane Tower Language Watch Edit Yellow Crane Tower simplified Chinese 黄鹤楼 traditional Chinese 黃鶴樓 pinyin Huanghe Lou is a traditional Chinese tower located in Wuhan The current structure was built in 1981 but the tower has existed in various forms from as early as AD 223 The current Yellow Crane Tower is 51 4 m 169 ft high and covers an area of cvt 3219 m2 34 649ft2 It is situated on Snake Hill 蛇山 one kilometer away from the original site on the banks of the Yangtze River in Wuchang District The modern Yellow Crane Tower build in 1985 Yellow Crane Tower Yellow Crane Tower in Simplified top and Traditional bottom Chinese charactersSimplified Chinese黄鹤楼Traditional Chinese黃鶴樓TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinHuang he louIPA xwa ŋ xɤ lo u Yue CantoneseYale RomanizationWohng hohk lauhJyutpingWong4 hok6 lau4IPA wɔ ːŋ hɔ ːk lɐ u Southern MinTai loN g ho h lau col Hong ho k lau lit The Yellow Crane Tower in 1871 View to the west with Tortoise Hill and the Tortoise Mountain TV Tower Contents 1 History 2 Relic Protection 2 1 Legends 3 Literature 3 1 Poem by Cui Hao 3 2 Poem by Li Bai 4 Tourism 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory Edit View to the east from the Yellow Crane Tower Snake Hill is in the middle and the red brick compound of the Wuchang Uprising memorial is to the right The Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and Counties written almost 600 years after the construction of the tower notes that after Sun Quan founder of the kingdom of Eastern Wu built the fort of Xiakou in 223 a tower was constructed at on the Yellow Crane Jetty west of Xiakou and hence its name 1 2 The tower has been destroyed twelve times both by warfare and by fire in the Ming and Qing dynasties and was repaired on ten separate occasions The last tower at the original site was built in 1868 and destroyed in 1884 In 1907 a new tower was built near the site of the Yellow Crane Tower Zhang Zhidong proposed 奧略樓 Aoliaolou Tower as the name for this tower and wrote an antithetical couplet for it 3 In 1957 the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge was built with one trestle of the bridge on the Yellow Crane Tower s site In 1981 the Wuhan City Government commenced reconstruction of the tower at a new location about 1 km 0 62 mi from the original site and it was completed in 1985 4 Relic Protection EditThe Sacred Stupa simplified Chinese 胜像宝塔 pinyin sheng xiang bǎo tǎ is 9 36 meters high and 5 68 meters wide It is built with external stone and internal bricks mainly stone masonry and a small amount of bricks are used in the internal tower room It is the oldest and most complete single building preserved in the former site of the Yellow Crane Tower The Sacred Stupa is a Stupa of Tibetan Buddhism Tantric Buddhism and it is also the first type of stupa after Buddhism inherited from India to China It is the only existing Lama style white stupa in Wuhan and it provides important physical materials for studying the history and religion of the famous historical and cultural city Wuhan in the late Yuan and early Ming Dynasties Legends Edit Yellow Crane Tower by An Zhengwen during the Ming dynasty Notwithstanding the tower s current location on Snake Hill being unrelated to its original location one kilometre away the two popular legends related to it invoke the hill In the first an Immortal 仙人 named Wang Zi an 王子安 rode away from Snake Mountain on a yellow crane and a tower was later built in commemoration of this story In the second legend Fei Yi becomes immortal and rides a yellow crane often stopping on Snake Hill to take a rest 5 The tower is also a sacred site of Taoism Lu Dongbin is said to ascend to heaven from here 6 There is a small cave in the hill beneath the tower with Lu Dongbin statue The cave is been called Lu Zu Dong citation needed literately means cave of Lu Dongbin Literature EditPoem by Cui Hao Edit Yellow Crane Tower was made famous by an 8th century poem written by Cui Hao titled Yellow Crane Tower 黃鶴樓 7 The original text of the poem is shown below 昔人已乘黃鶴去 此地空餘黃鶴樓 黃鶴一去不復返 白雲千載空悠悠 晴川歷歷漢陽樹 芳草萋萋鸚鵡洲 日暮鄉關何處是 煙波江上使人愁 A modern English translation is Long ago one s gone riding the yellow crane 8 all that remained is the Yellow Crane Tower Once the yellow crane left it will never return for one thousand years the clouds wandered carelessly The clear river reflects each Hanyang tree fragrant grasses lushly grow on Parrot Island 9 At sunset which direction leads to my hometown One could not help feeling melancholy along the misty river Poem by Li Bai Edit There are other famous poems about the Yellow Crane Tower by Li Bai One was written on the occasion of Li Bai parting with his friend and poetic colleague Meng Haoran The poem is titled Seeing off Meng Haoran for Guangling at Yellow Crane Tower 黃鶴樓送孟浩然之廣陵 and is shown in its original form below 故人西辭黃鶴樓 煙花三月下揚州 孤帆遠影碧空盡 唯見長江天際流 A modern English translation is 10 My old friend bids farewell to me in the west at Yellow Crane Tower Amid April s mist and flowers he goes down to Yangzhou The distant image of his lonely sail disappears in blue emptiness And all I see is the Long River flowing to the edge of sky Tourism EditThe tower and its surroundings have been marked as Yellow Crane Tower park There are tour services that can be hired for a fee at the entrance The top of the tower has a broad view of its surroundings and the Yangtze River Yellow Crane Tower is considered one of the Four Great Towers of China In its modern version it has the appearance of an ancient tower but is built of modern materials including an elevator 11 Each level has its own display To the east on the hill a large temple bell may be rung by tourists for a small fee There are court dances in the western yard during the week long National Day of the People s Republic of China celebration The tower is classified as an AAAAA scenic area by the China National Tourism Administration 12 At south side of the tower there is a statue of Yue Fei because he was garrison around this area in Song Dynasty Yellow Crane Tower park Bronze statue of Yue Fei 岳飛像 Sacred Stupa Crane Ridding Pavilion Goose Pond WaterfallGallery Edit The Yellow Tower by Xia Yong Yuan dynasty Yellow Crane Tower by Xia Yong Yuan dynasty Yellow Crane Tower by An Zhengwen Ming dynasty Yellow Crane Tower by Anonymous Ming dynastySee also Edit China portal Architecture portal Crane bird Crane in Chinese mythology Four Great Towers of China Pavilion of Prince Teng Poetry of Mao Zedong Yueyang Tower Wuhan Yangtze River Xian Taoism References Edit 元和郡縣圖志 卷第二十七 Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and Counties Chapter 27 in Chinese Chinese Text Project Retrieved 30 December 2017 州城本夏口城 吳黃武二年 223 城江夏以安屯戍地也 城西臨大口 西南角因磯為樓 名黃鶴樓 Li Jifu 李吉甫 He Cijun 賀次君 1983 元和郡縣圖志 Yuanhe Maps and Records of Prefectures and Counties 中國古代地理總志叢刊 Beijing Zhonghua Book Company 两副楹联两座楼 光绪三十三年 1907 张之洞由湖广总督任内奉召进京任军机大臣 湖北学界为了表示纪念他 在被焚的同治黄鹤楼的故址附近 修了一座 风度楼 接着遵照张之洞的意见 改名为 奥略楼 第二年 张氏为它题了一副楹联 昔贤整顿乾坤 缔造多从江汉起 今日交通文轨 登临不觉亚欧遥 Aoliaolou Hall Fang Wang 14 April 2016 Geo Architecture and Landscape in China s Geographic and Historic Context Volume 1 Geo Architecture Wandering in the Landscape Springer pp 43 ISBN 978 981 10 0483 4 Wan The source of the Wang Zi an legend is 南齐书 州郡志 The Fei Wenyi legend is from 太平寰宇记 Pages 43 Images of the Immortal The Cult of Lu Dongbin at the Palace of Eternal Joy by Paul R Katz University of Hawaii Press 1999 page 80 Wan Page 42 Wan Several Tang sources use cloud 白云 rather than yellow crane here The use of yellow crane is a later change Page 43 Wan Parrot Island was a sandbar in the middle of the river that has since disappeared Page 43 Whincup Greg 1987 The Heart of Chinese Poetry Li Shiqiao 29 April 2014 Understanding the Chinese City SAGE Publications pp 177 ISBN 978 1 4739 0539 9 AAAAA Scenic Areas China National Tourism Administration 16 November 2008 Retrieved 9 April 2011 Wan Jingjun Chinese 万竞君 pinyin Wan Jingjun 1982 Cui Hao Poem Annotations simplified Chinese 崔颢诗注 traditional Chinese 崔顥詩注 pinyin Cui Hao Shi Zhu Shanghai Ancient Books Press Chinese 上海古籍出版社 pinyin Shanghǎi Gǔji Chubǎnshe 54 pages External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Yellow Crane Tower Official website of Yellow Crane Tower 81641900 Yellow Crane Tower on OpenStreetMap Coordinates 30 32 49 N 114 17 49 E 30 54694 N 114 29694 E 30 54694 114 29694 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yellow Crane Tower amp oldid 1050025766, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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