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General classification in the Tour de France

"Yellow Jersey" redirects here. For the publisher Yellow Jersey Press, see Random House.
See also: List of Tour de France general classification winners and Yellow jersey statistics

The general classification is the most important classification, the one by which the winner of the Tour de France is determined. Since 1919, the leader of the general classification wears the yellow jersey (French: maillot jaune pronounced ).

Yellow jersey
The yellow jersey worn by Fabian Cancellara during 2015 Tour de France (collection KOERS. Museum of Cycle Racing)
SportRoad bicycle racing
CompetitionTour de France
Awarded forOverall best time
Local nameMaillot jaune(French)
History
First award1903
Editions108 (as of 2021)
First winnerMaurice Garin(FRA)
Most winsJacques Anquetil(FRA)
Eddy Merckx(BEL)
Bernard Hinault(FRA)
Miguel Indurain(ESP)
5 wins each
Most recentTadej Pogačar(SLO)

The winner of the first Tour de France wore a green armband, not a yellow jersey. After the second Tour de France, the rules were changed, and the general classification was no longer calculated by time, but by points. This points system was kept until 1912, after which it changed back into the time classification. At that time, the leader still did not wear a yellow jersey.

There is doubt over when the yellow jersey began. The Belgian rider Philippe Thys, who won the Tour in 1913, 1914 and 1920, recalled in the Belgian magazine Champions et Vedettes when he was 67 that he was awarded a yellow jersey in 1913 when the organiser, Henri Desgrange, asked him to wear a coloured jersey. Thys declined, saying making himself more visible in yellow would encourage other riders to ride against him. He said

He then made his argument from another direction. Several stages later, it was my team manager at Peugeot, (Alphonse) Baugé, who urged me to give in. The yellow jersey would be an advertisement for the company and, that being the argument, I was obliged to concede. So a yellow jersey was bought in the first shop we came to. It was just the right size, although we had to cut a slightly larger hole for my head to go through.

He spoke of the next year's race, when "I won the first stage and was beaten by a tyre by Bossus in the second. On the following stage, the maillot jaune passed to Georget after a crash."

The Tour historian Jacques Augendre called Thys "a valorous rider... well-known for his intelligence" and said his claim "seems free from all suspicion". But: "No newspaper mentions a yellow jersey before the war. Being at a loss for witnesses, we can't solve this enigma."

Plaque in the city of Grenoble, celebrating the centenary of the presentation of the first yellow jersey on 19 July 1919

According to the official history, the first yellow jersey was worn by the Frenchman Eugène Christophe in the stage from Grenoble to Geneva on July 19, 1919. The colour was chosen either to reflect the yellow newsprint of the organising newspaper, L'Auto, or because yellow was an unpopular colour and therefore the only one available with which a manufacturer could create jerseys at late notice.

The two possibilities have been promoted equally but the idea of matching the colour of Desgrange's newspaper seems more probable because Desgrange wrote: "This morning I gave the valiant Christophe a superb yellow jersey. You already know that our director decided that the man leading the race [de tête du classement général] should wear a jersey in the colours of L'Auto. The battle to wear this jersey is going to be passionate."

Christophe disliked wearing it, anyway, and complained that spectators imitated canaries whenever he passed. It was a habit encouraged by his nickname of Cri-Cri (from "Christophe") which is French babytalk for a bird. Christophe remembered riders and spectators teasing: "Ah, the yellow jersey! Isn't he beautiful, the canary? What are you doing, Madame Cri-Cri", adding, "And that lasted the whole course."

There was no formal presentation when Christophe wore his first yellow jersey in Grenoble, from where the race left at 2 am for the 325 km to Geneva. He was given it the night before and tried it on later in his hotel.

In the next Tour de France in 1920, the yellow jersey was initially not awarded, but after the ninth stage, it was introduced again.

Winner of the 1965 Tour's general classification Felice Gimondi wearing the yellow jersey with the initials of Henri Desgrange, the first organiser of the Tour de France

After Desgrange's death, his stylized initials were added to the yellow jersey, originally on the chest. They moved in 1969 to the sleeve to make way for a logo advertising Virlux. A further advertisement for the clothing company Le Coq Sportif appeared at the bottom of the zip fastener at the neck, the first supplementary advertisement on the yellow jersey.

Desgrange's initials returned to the front of the jersey in 1972, some years on the left, others on the right. They were removed in 1984 to make way for a commercial logo but Nike added them again in 2003 as part of the Tour's centenary celebrations. One set of initials is now worn on the upper right chest of the jersey.

In 2013, a nighttime finish on the Champs-Élysées for the final stage was done to commemorate the race's 100th edition. Race leader Chris Froome wore a special yellow jersey covered in small translucent sequins into Paris as well as on the podium to allow him to be more visible under the lights.

The original yellow jerseys were of conventional style. Riders had to pull them over their head on the rostrum. For many years the jersey was made in only limited sizes and many riders found it a struggle to pull one on, especially when tired or wet. The presentation jersey is now made with a full-length zip at the back and the rider pulls it on from the front, sliding his hands through the sleeves rather like a strait-jacket. He then receives three further jerseys each day, plus money (referred to as the "rent") for each day he leads the race.

There is no copyright on the yellow jersey and it has been imitated by many other races, although not always for the best rider overall: in the Tour of Benelux yellow is worn by the best young rider. In professional surf, the current male and female leaders of the World Surf League get to wear a yellow jersey on all the heats of a tour stop.

In American English it is sometimes referred to as the mellow johnny, a mispronunciation of its French name originally by Lance Armstrong, who wore it many times while riding in the 1999-2005 races. Armstrong also uses the name "Mellow Johnny" for his Texas-based bike shop. The Lance Armstrong Foundation donated the yellow jersey from Armstrong's fourth Tour de France win (2002) to the National Museum of American History.

On 19 July 2019, on the occasion of the centenary, a plaque was unveiled on the scene of delivery of the first yellow jersey in Grenoble.

The Tour de France, and other bicycle stage races, are decided by totalling the time each rider takes on the daily stages. Time can be added or subtracted from this total time as bonuses or penalties for winning individual stages or being first to the top of a climb or for infractions of the rules. The rider with the lowest overall time at the end of each stage receives a ceremonial yellow bicycling jersey and the right to start the next stage, usually the next day, of the Tour in the yellow jersey.

The rider to receive the yellow jersey after the last stage in Paris, is the overall (or ultimate) winner of the Tour.

Similar leader's jerseys exist in other cycling races, but are not always yellow (the color being chosen by the individual race organizers). The Tour of California uses gold, the Giro d'Italia uses pink and the Tour Down Under uses an ochre-coloured jersey, as ochre is a colour strongly associated with Australia, particularly its desert regions. Until 2009 the Vuelta a España used gold; since 2010 the leader's jersey is red.

In the early years of the Tour de France, the time was measured in minutes, although cyclists were usually seconds apart, with several cyclists sometimes sharing the same time. In 1914, before the introduction of the yellow jersey, this had happened with the two leaders, Philippe Thys and Jean Rossius.

After the introduction of the yellow jersey in 1919, the situation occurred twice. The first time was in 1929, when three riders had the same time when the race reached Bordeaux. Nicolas Frantz of Luxembourg and the Frenchmen Victor Fontan and André Leducq all rode in yellow, although none held it to the finish in Paris. In 1931, Charles Pélissier and Rafaele di Paco were both leading with the same time.

The problem of joint leaders was resolved in later Tours by giving the jersey to whichever rider had the best daily finishing places earlier in the race. The introduction of a short time trial at the start of the race in 1967 - the prologue time trial — meant riders have since been divided by fractions of seconds recorded in that race, excepting the 2008, 2011 and 2013 editions. According to the ASO rules,

"In the event of a tie in the general ranking, the hundredth of a second recorded by the timekeepers during the individual time trial stages will be included in the total times in order to decide the overall winner and who takes the yellow jersey. If a tie should still result from this, then the places achieved for each stage are added up and, as a last resort, the place obtained in the final stage is counted."

Riders who became race leader through the misfortune of others have ridden next day without the yellow jersey.

In 1950, Ferdi Kubler of Switzerland rode in his national jersey rather than yellow when the race leader, Fiorenzo Magni abandoned the race along with the Italian team in protest at threats said to have been made by spectators.

Eddy Merckx declined the jersey in 1971 after its previous wearer, Luis Ocaña, crashed on the col de Mente in the Pyrenees.

The Dutchman Joop Zoetemelk did not wear the yellow jersey that passed to him in 1980 when his rival, Bernard Hinault retired with tendonitis.

In 1991, Greg LeMond rode without the jersey after a crash eliminated Rolf Sørensen of Denmark.

In 2005, Lance Armstrong refused to start in the yellow jersey after the previous owner, David Zabriskie, was eliminated by a crash, but put it on after the neutral zone on request of the race organizers.

In 2015, there was no yellow jersey in stage 7 after Tony Martin had crashed in the previous stage. Martin had finished the previous stage after the crash (and officially retained the yellow jersey as a result), but had broken his collarbone in the crash and did not start stage 7. Chris Froome became the overall leader with Martin's non-start.

The yellow jersey on the first day of the Tour is traditionally permitted to be worn by the winner of the previous year's race; however, wearing it is a choice left to the rider, and in recent years has gone out of fashion. If the winner does not ride, the jersey is not worn. The previous year's winner traditionally has race number "1" (with his teammates given the other single-digit racing numbers), with subsequent sets of numbers determined by the highest classified riders for that team in the previous Tour. The lead riders for a particular team will often wear the first number in the series (11, 21, 31 and so forth), but these riders are not necessarily contenders for the general classification — teams led by sprinters will often designate the points classification contender as their lead rider.

In 2007 there was neither a yellow jersey at the start of the race nor a number 1; the winner from the previous year, Floyd Landis of the United States, failed a doping control after the race, and organisers declined to declare an official winner pending arbitration of the Landis case. On September 20, 2007, Landis was officially stripped of his title following the arbitration court's guilty verdict, and the 2006 title passed to Óscar Pereiro. In 2008, the runner-up from the previous year, Cadel Evans, was given the race number "1" when the 2007 winner, Alberto Contador was unable to defend his title due to a dispute between the organisers ASO and his new team Astana barring that team from riding the Tour.

In 1978 the Belgian rider Michel Pollentier became race leader after attacking on the Alpe d'Huez. He was disqualified the same day after trying to cheat a drug test.

In 1988, Pedro Delgado of Spain won the Tour despite a drug test showing he had taken a drug that could be used to hide the use of steroids. News of the test was leaked to the press by the former organiser of the Tour Jacques Goddet. Delgado was allowed to continue because the drug, probenecid, was not banned by the Union Cycliste Internationale.

The 1996 winner Bjarne Riis of Denmark said, in 2007, that he used drugs during the race. He was asked to stay away from the 2007 Tour in his role as directeur sportif of the Danish Team CSC.

The 2006 winner Floyd Landis was disqualified more than a year after the race. After he failed a doping control test following his stunning Stage 17 victory, an arbitration panel declared him guilty of doping in September 2007; the official title for the 2006 Tour passed to Óscar Pereiro. Landis appealed his case to the Court of Arbitration for Sport, but lost this appeal at the end of June 2008 allowing Oscar Pereiro to start the 2008 edition of Le Tour de France as the unqualified 2006 Tour champion.

In 2007, the Danish rider Michael Rasmussen was withdrawn from the race by his team after complaints that he had not made himself available for drug tests earlier in the year. Rasmussen said that he was in Mexico, but there were reports that he was seen training in Italy. He later admitted doping for more than a decade.

Maurice Garin won the Tour de France before yellow jerseys were awarded; but in 1904, he was disqualified as winner after complaints that he and other riders cheated. The allegations disappeared with the Tour de France's other archives, when they were taken south in 1940 to avoid the German invasion. But a man, who knew Garin as a small boy, recalled that Garin admitted catching a train part of the way.

In 2012, Lance Armstrong was stripped of his seven Tour de France titles by UCI, following a report by the United States Anti-Doping Agency revealing that Armstrong had systematically used performance-enhancing drugs for much of his career, including all seven Tour victories.

The rider who has most worn the yellow jersey is the Belgian Eddy Merckx, who wore it 96 days. The greatest number of riders to wear the jersey in a single edition of Le Tour de France is eight, which happened in 1958 and 1987.

The yellow jersey was made for decades, like all other cycling jerseys, from wool. No synthetic fibres existed which had both the warmth and the absorption of wool. Embroidery was expensive and so the only lettering to appear on the jersey was the H.D. of Desgrange's initials. Riders added the name of the team for which they were riding or the professional team for which they normally rode (in the years when the Tour was for national rather than sponsored teams) by attaching a panel of printed cloth to the front of the jersey by pins.

While synthetic material did not exist in a way to create whole jerseys, synthetic thread or blends were added in 1947, following the arrival of Sofil as a sponsor. Sofil made artificial yarn. Riders, especially the Frenchman Louison Bobet (Louis Bobet as he was still known), believed in the pureness of wool. Bobet insisted that cyclists needed wool for their long days of sweating in the heat and dust. It was a matter of hygiene. Artificial fabrics made riders sweat too much. And, in his first Tour de France, he refused to wear the jersey with which he had been presented.

Goddet recalled:

"It produced a real drama. Our contract with Sofil was crumbling away. If the news had got out, the commercial effect would have been disastrous for the manufacturer. I remember debating it with him a good part of the night. Louison was always exquisitely courteous but his principles were as hard as the granite blocks of his native Brittany coast."

No compromise was possible. Goddet had to get Sofil to produce another jersey overnight, its logo still visible but artificial fabric absent.

For the veteran writer and television broadcaster Jean-Paul Ollivier, the woollen yellow jersey...

"...gave the riders a rare elegance, even if the way it caught the air left something to be desired. In wool, then in Rhovyl — a material used for making underwear — it entered into legend for the quality of those who wore it. Those were the years of national teams. In 1930 Henri Desgrange, the organiser, decided that commercially-sponsored teams were contriving to spoil his race and opted instead for teams representing countries. The Tour de France stayed that way until 1962, when it reverted to commercial teams with the exception of 1967 and 1968 and the riders knotted on their jerseys a spare tyre [across the shoulders] A narrow slip of white cotton placed on the chest showed discreetly the name of the sponsor outside the Tour: La Perle, Mercier, Helyett..."

The advent of printing by flocking, a process in which cotton fluff is sprayed on to stencilled glue, and then of screen printing, combined with the domination of synthetic materials to increase the advertising on jerseys: the domination which Ollivier regrets. "All sorts of fantasies such as fluorescent jerseys or shorts," he said. Such was the quantity of advertising when Bernard Thévenet accepted the yellow jersey when the Tour finished for the first time on the Champs Elysées in 1975 that the French sports minister counted all the logos and protested to broadcasters. Since then the number of people with access to the podium has been restricted.

The French bank, Crédit Lyonnais, has sponsored the maillot jaune since 1987. The company has been a commercial partner of the Tour since 1981. It awards a toy lion - le lion en peluche - to each day's winner as a play on its name. In 2007, sponsorship of the jersey was credited to LCL, the new name for Crédit Lyonnais following its takeover by another bank, Crédit Agricole.

  1. Woodland, Les (ed.) (2007). Yellow Jersey Companion to the Tour de France. Yellow Jersey, UK.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  2. Chany, Pierre (1997) La Fabuleuse Histoire du Tour de France, Ed. de la Martinière, France.
  3. Chany, Pierre: La Fabuleuse Histoire de Cyclisme, Nathan, France
  4. "C'était en 1913. J'étais leader du classement général. Une nuit, Desgrange rêva d'un maillot couleur or et me proposa de le porter. Je refusais, car je me sentais déjà le point de mire de tous. Il insista, mais je me montrais intraitable. Têtu, H.D. revint à la charge par la tangente. En effet, quelques étapes plus loin, ce fut mon directeur sportif de la marque Peugeot, M. Baugé, qui me conseilla de céder. On acheta donc dans le premier magasin venu, un maillot jaune. Il était juste aux dimensions nécessaires. Trop juste même, puisqu’il fallut découper une encolure plus grande pour le passage de la tête et c’est ainsi que je fis plusieurs étapes en décolleté de grande dame. Ce qui ne m’empêcha pas de gagner mon premier Tour!"
  5. Augendre, Jacques: Tour de France, panorama d'un siècle, Soc. du Tour de France, 1996
  6. Ollivier, Jean-Paul (2001) L'ABCdaire du Tour de France, Flammarion, France.
  7. Desgrange, Henri, L'Auto, 1919
  8. Ollivier, Jean-Paul: Maillot Jaune, Selection Readers Digest, France, 1999
  9. McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol (2006). The Story of the Tour de France. Dog Ear Publishing. pp. 56–57. ISBN 1-59858-180-5. Retrieved12 June 2009.
  10. "Lance Armstrong, The Healing Cyclist and Tour de France Champion". National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved2008-07-08.
  11. (in French) francebleu.fr, Il y a 100 ans le premier maillot jaune du Tour de France était remis à Grenoble.
  12. "Regulations of the race"(PDF). ASO/letour.fr. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2006-07-05. Retrieved2009-09-28.
  13. "Tour de France 1914" (in German). www.radsport-seite.de. Retrieved2008-03-17.
  14. Velo-news online, US, June 29, 2003
  15. McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol (2006). The Story of the Tour De France. Dog Ear Publishing. p. 92. ISBN 1-59858-180-5. Retrieved2008-03-17. Frantz, André Leducq and Victor Fontan, who were in that winning stage 17 break, were exactly tied in time. Today the judges would go back to the time trial and look at the fractions-of-a-second differences. If that doesn't resolve the tie, then a look at placings solves the problem. The Tour didn't have rules to take care of ties, so 3 Yellow Jerseys were awarded.
  16. McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol (2006). The Story of the Tour De France. Dog Ear Publishing. p. 118. ISBN 1-59858-180-5. Retrieved2008-03-17. Leading up to the Pyrenees, Italy's ace sprinter Rafaelo di Paco dueled with France's Charles Pélissier for stage wins and the lead. After stage 5 they shared the lead for a single day.
  17. VeloNews.com (July 9, 2015). "Froome in yellow on Friday? It's his choice". VeloNews. Competitor Group, Inc. Archived from the original on July 9, 2015. RetrievedJuly 9, 2015.
  18. "Tour de France 2011: Armstrong declines yellow jersey, organizers insist".
  19. "New Tour de France leader isn't wearing a yellow jersey on Friday". 10 July 2015.
  20. Goddet, Jacques, L'Équipée Belle, Laffont, France
  21. "Landis ban appeal is turned down". BBC News. June 30, 2008. RetrievedMay 3, 2010.
  22. Magnay, Jacquelin (January 31, 2013). "Danish cyclist Michael Rasmussen admits doping for more than a decade and quits the sport". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  23. Woodland, Les: The Unknown Tour de France, van de Plas Publishing, US
  24. "Lance Armstrong stripped of all seven Tour de France wins by UCI". BBC. Retrieved22 October 2012.
  25. Le maillot jaune LCL a 20 ans Archived 2007-11-01 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved December 2007.

Media related to General classification in the Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons

General classification in the Tour de France
General classification in the Tour de France Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Yellow Jersey Yellow Jersey redirects here For the publisher Yellow Jersey Press see Random House See also List of Tour de France general classification winners and Yellow jersey statistics The general classification is the most important classification the one by which the winner of the Tour de France is determined Since 1919 the leader of the general classification wears the yellow jersey French maillot jaune pronounced majo ʒon Yellow jerseyThe yellow jersey worn by Fabian Cancellara during 2015 Tour de France collection KOERS Museum of Cycle Racing SportRoad bicycle racingCompetitionTour de FranceAwarded forOverall best timeLocal nameMaillot jaune French HistoryFirst award1903Editions108 as of 2021 First winner Maurice Garin FRA Most wins Jacques Anquetil FRA Eddy Merckx BEL Bernard Hinault FRA Miguel Indurain ESP 5 wins eachMost recent Tadej Pogacar SLO History EditThe winner of the first Tour de France wore a green armband not a yellow jersey 1 After the second Tour de France the rules were changed and the general classification was no longer calculated by time but by points This points system was kept until 1912 after which it changed back into the time classification At that time the leader still did not wear a yellow jersey There is doubt over when the yellow jersey began The Belgian rider Philippe Thys who won the Tour in 1913 1914 and 1920 recalled in the Belgian magazine Champions et Vedettes when he was 67 that he was awarded a yellow jersey in 1913 when the organiser Henri Desgrange asked him to wear a coloured jersey Thys declined saying making himself more visible in yellow would encourage other riders to ride against him 1 2 He saidHe then made his argument from another direction Several stages later it was my team manager at Peugeot Alphonse Bauge who urged me to give in The yellow jersey would be an advertisement for the company and that being the argument I was obliged to concede So a yellow jersey was bought in the first shop we came to It was just the right size although we had to cut a slightly larger hole for my head to go through 2 3 4 He spoke of the next year s race when I won the first stage and was beaten by a tyre by Bossus in the second On the following stage the maillot jaune passed to Georget after a crash The Tour historian Jacques Augendre called Thys a valorous rider well known for his intelligence and said his claim seems free from all suspicion But No newspaper mentions a yellow jersey before the war Being at a loss for witnesses we can t solve this enigma 5 Plaque in the city of Grenoble celebrating the centenary of the presentation of the first yellow jersey on 19 July 1919 According to the official history the first yellow jersey was worn by the Frenchman Eugene Christophe in the stage from Grenoble to Geneva on July 19 1919 6 The colour was chosen either to reflect the yellow newsprint of the organising newspaper L Auto or because yellow was an unpopular colour and therefore the only one available with which a manufacturer could create jerseys at late notice 1 The two possibilities have been promoted equally but the idea of matching the colour of Desgrange s newspaper seems more probable because Desgrange wrote This morning I gave the valiant Christophe a superb yellow jersey You already know that our director decided that the man leading the race de tete du classement general should wear a jersey in the colours of L Auto The battle to wear this jersey is going to be passionate 7 Christophe disliked wearing it anyway and complained that spectators imitated canaries whenever he passed It was a habit encouraged by his nickname of Cri Cri from Christophe which is French babytalk for a bird 1 Christophe remembered riders and spectators teasing Ah the yellow jersey Isn t he beautiful the canary What are you doing Madame Cri Cri adding And that lasted the whole course 8 There was no formal presentation when Christophe wore his first yellow jersey in Grenoble from where the race left at 2 am for the 325 km to Geneva He was given it the night before and tried it on later in his hotel 1 In the next Tour de France in 1920 the yellow jersey was initially not awarded but after the ninth stage it was introduced again 9 Winner of the 1965 Tour s general classification Felice Gimondi wearing the yellow jersey with the initials of Henri Desgrange the first organiser of the Tour de France After Desgrange s death his stylized initials were added to the yellow jersey 6 originally on the chest They moved in 1969 to the sleeve to make way for a logo advertising Virlux A further advertisement for the clothing company Le Coq Sportif appeared at the bottom of the zip fastener at the neck the first supplementary advertisement on the yellow jersey Desgrange s initials returned to the front of the jersey in 1972 some years on the left others on the right They were removed in 1984 to make way for a commercial logo but Nike added them again in 2003 as part of the Tour s centenary celebrations One set of initials is now worn on the upper right chest of the jersey 1 In 2013 a nighttime finish on the Champs Elysees for the final stage was done to commemorate the race s 100th edition Race leader Chris Froome wore a special yellow jersey covered in small translucent sequins into Paris as well as on the podium to allow him to be more visible under the lights The original yellow jerseys were of conventional style Riders had to pull them over their head on the rostrum For many years the jersey was made in only limited sizes and many riders found it a struggle to pull one on especially when tired or wet The presentation jersey is now made with a full length zip at the back and the rider pulls it on from the front sliding his hands through the sleeves rather like a strait jacket He then receives three further jerseys each day plus money referred to as the rent for each day he leads the race There is no copyright on the yellow jersey and it has been imitated by many other races although not always for the best rider overall in the Tour of Benelux yellow is worn by the best young rider In professional surf the current male and female leaders of the World Surf League get to wear a yellow jersey on all the heats of a tour stop In American English it is sometimes referred to as the mellow johnny a mispronunciation of its French name originally by Lance Armstrong who wore it many times while riding in the 1999 2005 races Armstrong also uses the name Mellow Johnny for his Texas based bike shop The Lance Armstrong Foundation donated the yellow jersey from Armstrong s fourth Tour de France win 2002 to the National Museum of American History 10 On 19 July 2019 on the occasion of the centenary a plaque was unveiled on the scene of delivery of the first yellow jersey in Grenoble 11 Rules EditThe Tour de France and other bicycle stage races are decided by totalling the time each rider takes on the daily stages Time can be added or subtracted from this total time as bonuses or penalties for winning individual stages or being first to the top of a climb or for infractions of the rules The rider with the lowest overall time at the end of each stage receives a ceremonial yellow bicycling jersey and the right to start the next stage usually the next day of the Tour in the yellow jersey 12 The rider to receive the yellow jersey after the last stage in Paris is the overall or ultimate winner of the Tour Similar leader s jerseys exist in other cycling races but are not always yellow the color being chosen by the individual race organizers The Tour of California uses gold the Giro d Italia uses pink and the Tour Down Under uses an ochre coloured jersey as ochre is a colour strongly associated with Australia particularly its desert regions Until 2009 the Vuelta a Espana used gold since 2010 the leader s jersey is red More than one rider leading the general classification EditIn the early years of the Tour de France the time was measured in minutes although cyclists were usually seconds apart with several cyclists sometimes sharing the same time In 1914 before the introduction of the yellow jersey this had happened with the two leaders Philippe Thys and Jean Rossius 13 After the introduction of the yellow jersey in 1919 the situation occurred twice The first time was in 1929 when three riders had the same time when the race reached Bordeaux Nicolas Frantz of Luxembourg and the Frenchmen Victor Fontan and Andre Leducq all rode in yellow although none held it to the finish in Paris 14 15 In 1931 Charles Pelissier and Rafaele di Paco were both leading with the same time 16 The problem of joint leaders was resolved in later Tours by giving the jersey to whichever rider had the best daily finishing places earlier in the race The introduction of a short time trial at the start of the race in 1967 the prologue time trial meant riders have since been divided by fractions of seconds recorded in that race excepting the 2008 2011 and 2013 editions According to the ASO rules 12 In the event of a tie in the general ranking the hundredth of a second recorded by the timekeepers during the individual time trial stages will be included in the total times in order to decide the overall winner and who takes the yellow jersey If a tie should still result from this then the places achieved for each stage are added up and as a last resort the place obtained in the final stage is counted No riders in yellow EditRiders who became race leader through the misfortune of others have ridden next day without the yellow jersey 14 In 1950 Ferdi Kubler of Switzerland rode in his national jersey rather than yellow when the race leader Fiorenzo Magni abandoned the race along with the Italian team in protest at threats said to have been made by spectators Eddy Merckx declined the jersey in 1971 after its previous wearer Luis Ocana crashed on the col de Mente in the Pyrenees 17 The Dutchman Joop Zoetemelk did not wear the yellow jersey that passed to him in 1980 when his rival Bernard Hinault retired with tendonitis 17 In 1991 Greg LeMond rode without the jersey after a crash eliminated Rolf Sorensen of Denmark 17 In 2005 Lance Armstrong refused to start in the yellow jersey after the previous owner David Zabriskie was eliminated by a crash but put it on after the neutral zone on request of the race organizers 18 In 2015 there was no yellow jersey in stage 7 after Tony Martin had crashed in the previous stage Martin had finished the previous stage after the crash and officially retained the yellow jersey as a result but had broken his collarbone in the crash and did not start stage 7 Chris Froome became the overall leader with Martin s non start 19 The yellow jersey on the first day of the Tour is traditionally permitted to be worn by the winner of the previous year s race however wearing it is a choice left to the rider and in recent years has gone out of fashion If the winner does not ride the jersey is not worn The previous year s winner traditionally has race number 1 with his teammates given the other single digit racing numbers with subsequent sets of numbers determined by the highest classified riders for that team in the previous Tour The lead riders for a particular team will often wear the first number in the series 11 21 31 and so forth but these riders are not necessarily contenders for the general classification teams led by sprinters will often designate the points classification contender as their lead rider In 2007 there was neither a yellow jersey at the start of the race nor a number 1 the winner from the previous year Floyd Landis of the United States failed a doping control after the race and organisers declined to declare an official winner pending arbitration of the Landis case On September 20 2007 Landis was officially stripped of his title following the arbitration court s guilty verdict and the 2006 title passed to oscar Pereiro In 2008 the runner up from the previous year Cadel Evans was given the race number 1 when the 2007 winner Alberto Contador was unable to defend his title due to a dispute between the organisers ASO and his new team Astana barring that team from riding the Tour Doping violations EditIn 1978 the Belgian rider Michel Pollentier became race leader after attacking on the Alpe d Huez He was disqualified the same day after trying to cheat a drug test In 1988 Pedro Delgado of Spain won the Tour despite a drug test showing he had taken a drug that could be used to hide the use of steroids News of the test was leaked to the press by the former organiser of the Tour Jacques Goddet 20 Delgado was allowed to continue because the drug probenecid was not banned by the Union Cycliste Internationale 1 The 1996 winner Bjarne Riis of Denmark said in 2007 that he used drugs during the race He was asked to stay away from the 2007 Tour in his role as directeur sportif of the Danish Team CSC The 2006 winner Floyd Landis was disqualified more than a year after the race After he failed a doping control test following his stunning Stage 17 victory an arbitration panel declared him guilty of doping in September 2007 the official title for the 2006 Tour passed to oscar Pereiro Landis appealed his case to the Court of Arbitration for Sport but lost this appeal at the end of June 2008 21 allowing Oscar Pereiro to start the 2008 edition of Le Tour de France as the unqualified 2006 Tour champion In 2007 the Danish rider Michael Rasmussen was withdrawn from the race by his team after complaints that he had not made himself available for drug tests earlier in the year Rasmussen said that he was in Mexico but there were reports that he was seen training in Italy He later admitted doping for more than a decade 22 Maurice Garin won the Tour de France before yellow jerseys were awarded but in 1904 he was disqualified as winner after complaints that he and other riders cheated The allegations disappeared with the Tour de France s other archives when they were taken south in 1940 to avoid the German invasion But a man who knew Garin as a small boy recalled that Garin admitted catching a train part of the way 23 In 2012 Lance Armstrong was stripped of his seven Tour de France titles by UCI following a report by the United States Anti Doping Agency revealing that Armstrong had systematically used performance enhancing drugs for much of his career including all seven Tour victories 24 Record days in yellow EditThe rider who has most worn the yellow jersey is the Belgian Eddy Merckx who wore it 96 days The greatest number of riders to wear the jersey in a single edition of Le Tour de France is eight which happened in 1958 and 1987 The man who refused the yellow jersey EditThe yellow jersey was made for decades like all other cycling jerseys from wool No synthetic fibres existed which had both the warmth and the absorption of wool Embroidery was expensive and so the only lettering to appear on the jersey was the H D of Desgrange s initials Riders added the name of the team for which they were riding or the professional team for which they normally rode in the years when the Tour was for national rather than sponsored teams by attaching a panel of printed cloth to the front of the jersey by pins While synthetic material did not exist in a way to create whole jerseys synthetic thread or blends were added in 1947 following the arrival of Sofil as a sponsor Sofil made artificial yarn 20 Riders especially the Frenchman Louison Bobet Louis Bobet as he was still known believed in the pureness of wool Bobet insisted that cyclists needed wool for their long days of sweating in the heat and dust It was a matter of hygiene Artificial fabrics made riders sweat too much And in his first Tour de France he refused to wear the jersey with which he had been presented Goddet recalled It produced a real drama Our contract with Sofil was crumbling away If the news had got out the commercial effect would have been disastrous for the manufacturer I remember debating it with him a good part of the night Louison was always exquisitely courteous but his principles were as hard as the granite blocks of his native Brittany coast 20 No compromise was possible Goddet had to get Sofil to produce another jersey overnight its logo still visible but artificial fabric absent Elegance in yellow EditFor the veteran writer and television broadcaster Jean Paul Ollivier the woollen yellow jersey gave the riders a rare elegance even if the way it caught the air left something to be desired In wool then in Rhovyl a material used for making underwear it entered into legend for the quality of those who wore it Those were the years of national teams In 1930 Henri Desgrange the organiser decided that commercially sponsored teams were contriving to spoil his race and opted instead for teams representing countries The Tour de France stayed that way until 1962 when it reverted to commercial teams with the exception of 1967 and 1968 and the riders knotted on their jerseys a spare tyre across the shoulders A narrow slip of white cotton placed on the chest showed discreetly the name of the sponsor outside the Tour La Perle Mercier Helyett 6 The advent of printing by flocking a process in which cotton fluff is sprayed on to stencilled glue and then of screen printing combined with the domination of synthetic materials to increase the advertising on jerseys the domination which Ollivier regrets All sorts of fantasies such as fluorescent jerseys or shorts he said 6 Such was the quantity of advertising when Bernard Thevenet accepted the yellow jersey when the Tour finished for the first time on the Champs Elysees in 1975 that the French sports minister counted all the logos and protested to broadcasters Since then the number of people with access to the podium has been restricted 20 Sponsorship EditThe French bank Credit Lyonnais has sponsored the maillot jaune since 1987 25 The company has been a commercial partner of the Tour since 1981 It awards a toy lion le lion en peluche to each day s winner as a play on its name In 2007 sponsorship of the jersey was credited to LCL the new name for Credit Lyonnais following its takeover by another bank Credit Agricole References Edit a b c d e f g Woodland Les ed 2007 Yellow Jersey Companion to the Tour de France Yellow Jersey UK CS1 maint extra text authors list link a b Chany Pierre 1997 La Fabuleuse Histoire du Tour de France Ed de la Martiniere France Chany Pierre La Fabuleuse Histoire de Cyclisme Nathan France C etait en 1913 J etais leader du classement general Une nuit Desgrange reva d un maillot couleur or et me proposa de le porter Je refusais car je me sentais deja le point de mire de tous Il insista mais je me montrais intraitable Tetu H D revint a la charge par la tangente En effet quelques etapes plus loin ce fut mon directeur sportif de la marque Peugeot M Bauge qui me conseilla de ceder On acheta donc dans le premier magasin venu un maillot jaune Il etait juste aux dimensions necessaires Trop juste meme puisqu il fallut decouper une encolure plus grande pour le passage de la tete et c est ainsi que je fis plusieurs etapes en decollete de grande dame Ce qui ne m empecha pas de gagner mon premier Tour Augendre Jacques Tour de France panorama d un siecle Soc du Tour de France 1996 a b c d Ollivier Jean Paul 2001 L ABCdaire du Tour de France Flammarion France Desgrange Henri L Auto 1919 Ollivier Jean Paul Maillot Jaune Selection Readers Digest France 1999 McGann Bill McGann Carol 2006 The Story of the Tour de France Dog Ear Publishing pp 56 57 ISBN 1 59858 180 5 Retrieved 12 June 2009 Lance Armstrong The Healing Cyclist and Tour de France Champion National Museum of American History Smithsonian Institution Retrieved 2008 07 08 in French francebleu fr Il y a 100 ans le premier maillot jaune du Tour de France etait remis a Grenoble a b Regulations of the race PDF ASO letour fr Archived from the original PDF on 2006 07 05 Retrieved 2009 09 28 Tour de France 1914 in German www radsport seite de Retrieved 2008 03 17 a b Velo news online US June 29 2003 McGann Bill McGann Carol 2006 The Story of the Tour De France Dog Ear Publishing p 92 ISBN 1 59858 180 5 Retrieved 2008 03 17 Frantz Andre Leducq and Victor Fontan who were in that winning stage 17 break were exactly tied in time Today the judges would go back to the time trial and look at the fractions of a second differences If that doesn t resolve the tie then a look at placings solves the problem The Tour didn t have rules to take care of ties so 3 Yellow Jerseys were awarded McGann Bill McGann Carol 2006 The Story of the Tour De France Dog Ear Publishing p 118 ISBN 1 59858 180 5 Retrieved 2008 03 17 Leading up to the Pyrenees Italy s ace sprinter Rafaelo di Paco dueled with France s Charles Pelissier for stage wins and the lead After stage 5 they shared the lead for a single day a b c VeloNews com July 9 2015 Froome in yellow on Friday It s his choice VeloNews Competitor Group Inc Archived from the original on July 9 2015 Retrieved July 9 2015 Tour de France 2011 Armstrong declines yellow jersey organizers insist New Tour de France leader isn t wearing a yellow jersey on Friday 10 July 2015 a b c d Goddet Jacques L Equipee Belle Laffont France Landis ban appeal is turned down BBC News June 30 2008 Retrieved May 3 2010 Magnay Jacquelin January 31 2013 Danish cyclist Michael Rasmussen admits doping for more than a decade and quits the sport The Daily Telegraph London Woodland Les The Unknown Tour de France van de Plas Publishing US Lance Armstrong stripped of all seven Tour de France wins by UCI BBC Retrieved 22 October 2012 Le maillot jaune LCL a 20 ans Archived 2007 11 01 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved December 2007 External links Edit Media related to General classification in the Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index 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