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Yellow vests protests

The yellow vests protests, or yellow jackets protests (French: Mouvement des gilets jaunes, pronounced ), is a series of populist grassroots weekly protests in France, at first for economic justice and later for institutional political reforms,[citation needed] that began in France on 17 November 2018.

Yellow vests movement
Gilets jaunes protests
Part of the protests against Emmanuel Macron
A yellow vests protest in Belfort, France, on 29 December 2018
Date17 November 2018 – present
(2 years, 5 months and 14 days)
  • First phase: 17 November 2018 – 14 March 2020
    (1 year, 3 months and 26 days)
  • Second phase: 12 September 2020 – present
    (7 months and 19 days)
Location
France
Other countries:
  • Australia
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Burkina Faso
  • Canada
  • Central African Republic
  • Croatia
  • Czechia
  • Finland
  • Germany
  • Iraq
  • Israel
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Jordan
  • Latvia
  • Lebanon
  • Libya
  • Netherlands
  • Nigeria
  • Pakistan
  • Portugal
  • Russia
  • Serbia
  • Slovakia
  • Spain
  • Sudan
  • Sweden
  • Taiwan
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey
  • United Kingdom
  • United States
Caused by
Goals
Methods

Other occurences

Concessions
given
  • 10 December 2018:
    • Cancellation of fuel tax and six-month moratorium on diesel and petrol price changes
    • Announcement that price of Électricité de France blue tariffs would not increase before March 2019
    • Elimination of tax on overtime and end-of-year bonuses
    • Decrease of fuel and motor taxes
    • €100 ($112) wage increase for employees
Parties to the civil conflict
Lead figures
Jacline Mouraud
Étienne Chouard
Priscillia Ludosky
Maxime Nicolle [fr]
Éric Drouet [fr]
Jérôme Rodrigues [fr]
Christophe Chalençon
François Boulo
Emmanuel Macron
President of the French Republic

Édouard Philippe
Prime Minister of France (2017–2020)

Christophe Castaner
Minister of Interior (2018–2020)
Number
287,710 protesters (peak, according to the Ministry of the Interior)
8,000 police (15 Dec 2018: Paris)
Casualties
Death(s)11 people, including 3 yellow vests, were killed in traffic accidents caused by yellow vests roadblocks in Belgium and France, 2 yellow vests, both aged over 50, died during the demonstrations due to heart problems unrelated to the protests, 1 woman died of a surgical shock at the hospital after she had been injured in the margins of a demonstration
Injuries4,439 (police and civilians)

After an online petition posted in May 2018 had attracted nearly 1 million signatures, mass demonstrations began on 17 November. The movement was initially motivated by rising crude oil and fuel prices, a high cost of living, and economic inequality; it claims that a disproportionate burden of taxation in France was falling on the working and middle classes, especially in rural and peri-urban areas. The protesters have called for lower fuel taxes, a reintroduction of the solidarity tax on wealth, a minimum wage increase, among other things. On 29 November 2018, a list of 42 demands was made public and went viral on social media, becoming de facto a structuring basis for the movement, covering a wide range of eclectic topics, mostly related to democracy, and social and fiscal justice. After President Emmanuel Macron made an address on TV on 10 December announcing the cancellation of the fuel tax increase and other social measures, the movement evolved, and the citizens' initiative referendums became its unique revendication. Participation in the weekly protests diminished due to violence, particularly due to the loss of eyes, hands, and other neurological disorders caused by police blast balls. The protests eventually stopped due to the COVID-19 pandemic in France.

The movement spans the political spectrum. According to one poll, few of those protesting had voted for Macron in the 2017 French presidential election; many had showed political alienation by not voting, or had voted for far-right or far-left candidates. Rising fuel prices initially sparked the demonstrations. Yellow high-visibility vests, which French law requires all drivers to have in their vehicles and to wear during emergency situations, were chosen as "a unifying thread and call to arms" because of their convenience, visibility, ubiquity, and association with working-class industries. The protests have involved demonstrations and the blocking of roads and fuel depots, some of which developed into major riots, described as the most violent since those of May 68. The police action, resulting in multiple incidences of loss of limb, has been criticised by politicians and international media; it has sometimes resulted in police officers being charged for their violent behaviour. The movement has received international attention. Protesters in many places around the world have used the yellow vest as a symbol. About 3 million people participated in the yellow vests movement.

Contents

The issue on which the French movement centred at first was the projected 2019 increase in fuel taxes, particularly on diesel fuel. The yellow vest was an accessible symbol for the protests, as all French drivers have been required to have one in their vehicles since 2008.

General discontentment

Already low in early 2018 (47% approval in January 2018), French president Emmanuel Macron's approval rating had dipped below 25% at the beginning of the movement. The government's method of curbing the budget deficit had proven unpopular, with Macron being dubbed président des très riches ("president of the very rich") by his former boss François Hollande.

Late in June 2017, Macron's Minister of Justice, François Bayrou, came under pressure to resign, due to the ongoing investigation into the financial arrangements of the political party (MoDem) he leads. During a radio interview in August 2018, Nicolas Hulot had resigned from the Ministry of the Environment, without telling either the President or the Prime Minister of his plans to do so. Criticized for his role in the Benalla affair, Gérard Collomb tried to resign in October 2018 as Minister of the Interior—leaving himself with only two jobs, as senator and mayor of Lyon—but saw his resignation initially refused, then finally accepted.

Diesel

In the 1950s, diesel engines were used only in heavy equipment so, to help sell off the surpluses in French refineries, the state created a favorable tax regime to encourage motorists and manufacturers to use diesel. The 1979 oil crisis prompted efforts to curb petrol (gasoline) use, while taking advantage of diesel fuel availability and diesel engine efficiency. The French manufacturer Peugeot has been at the forefront of diesel technology, and from the 1980s, the French government favoured this technology. A reduction in VAT taxes for corporate fleets also increased the prevalence of diesel cars in France. In 2015, two out of every three cars purchased consumed diesel fuel.

Fuel prices

The price of petrol (SP95-E10) decreased during 2018, from €1.47 per litre (USD $6.24/gallon) in January to €1.43 per litre (USD $6.07/gallon) in the last week of November.

Prices of petrol and diesel fuel increased by 15 percent and 23 percent respectively between October 2017 and October 2018. The world market purchase price of petrol for distributors increased by 28 percent over the previous year; for diesel, by 35 percent. Costs of distribution increased by 40 percent. VAT included, diesel taxes increased by 14 percent over one year and petrol taxes by 7.5 percent. The tax increase had been 7.6 cents per litre on diesel and 3.9 cents on petrol in 2018, with a further increase of 6.5 cents on diesel and 2.9 cents on petrol planned for 1 January 2019.

The taxes collected on the sale of fuel are:

  • The domestic consumption tax on energy products (TICPE, la Taxe intérieure de consommation sur les produits énergétiques), which is not calculated based on the price of oil, but rather at a fixed rate by volume. Part of this tax, paid at the pump, goes to regional governments, while another portion goes to the national government. Since 2014, this tax has included a carbon component—increased each year—in an effort to reduce fossil fuel consumption. The TICPE for diesel fuel was raised sharply in 2017 and 2018 to bring it to the same level as the tax on petrol.
  • Value added tax (VAT), calculated on the sum of the price excluding tax and the TICPE. Its rate has been stable at 20 percent since 2014, after having been at 19.6 percent between 2000 and 2014.

The protest movement against fuel prices mainly concerns individuals, as a number of professions and activities benefit from partial or total exemptions from TICPE.

Though pro-climate, the protesters criticized Édouard Philippe's second government for burdening households with the bulk of the carbon tax, while offering exemptions to many carbon-intensive companies. As the carbon tax had progressively been ramping up to meet ecological objectives, many who had chosen fossil fuel-based heating for their homes, outside of city centres—where a car is required were displeased. President Macron attempted to dispel these concerns in early November by offering special subsidies and incentives.

Diesel prices in France increased by 16 percent in 2018, with taxes on both petrol and diesel increasing at the same time and a further tax increase planned for 2019, making diesel as expensive as petrol. President Macron is bearing the brunt of the protesters' anger for his extension of policies implemented under François Hollande's government.

Speed limit reduction

The government decided in 2017 to cut the speed limit on country roads from 1 July 2018 from 90 to 80 km/h (50 mph) with the aim to save 200 lives each year, after research found that "excessive or unsuitable" speed was involved in a third (32 percent) of fatal road accidents. The change was opposed and was a factor in the rise of the yellow vest movement. It was seen as another tax via citations and a failure to understand the needs of rural residents who are totally reliant on their cars. Vandalism of traffic enforcement cameras grew significantly after the yellow vest movement began.

Economic reforms

Sparked by claims that the fuel tax was intended to finance tax cuts for big business (a characterization that French President Emmanuel Macron has objected to, stating that the fuel tax was intended to discourage fossil fuel use as a way to combat climate change) and including many people motivated by economic difficulties due to low salaries and high energy prices, the yellow vests movement has called for redistributive economic policies like a wealth tax, increased pensions, a higher minimum wage, and reduced salaries for politicians. While some commentators have claimed that the movement was a backlash to policies meant to combat climate change, a communique released by the movement calls for a "real ecological policy", including fuel and kerosene taxes for ships and airplanes, but objects to policies like the gas tax that hit the poor and working class most heavily.

Yellow vest symbol

A high-visibility vest, the key symbol of the protests

No one knows how the high-visibility yellow vest came to be chosen as the symbol and uniform for the movement, and no one has claimed to be its originator. The movement originated with French motorists from rural areas who had long commutes protesting against an increase in fuel taxes, wearing the yellow vests that, under a 2008 French law, all motorists are required to keep in their vehicles and to wear in case of emergency. The symbol has become "a unifying thread and call to arms" because yellow vests are common and inexpensive, easy to wear over any clothing, associated with working class industries, highly visible, and widely understood as a distress signal. As the movement grew to include grievances beyond fuel taxes, non-motorists in France put on yellow vests and joined the demonstrations, as did protesters in other countries with diverse (and sometimes conflicting) grievances of their own. In the words of one commentator, "The uniform of this revolution is as accessible as the frustration and fury."

Éric Drouet and a businesswoman named Priscillia Ludosky from the Seine-et-Marne department started a petition on the change.org website in May 2018 that had reached 300,000 signatures by mid-October and close to 1 million a month later. Parallel to this petition, two men from the same Department launched a Facebook event for 17 November to "block all roads" and thus protest against an increase in fuel prices they considered excessive, stating that this increase was the result of the tax increase. One of the viral videos around this group launched the idea of using yellow jackets.

The first gilets jaunes protest in Vesoul, 17 November 2018

The movement is organised in a leaderless, horizontal fashion. Informal leaders can emerge, but some have been rejected by other demonstrators and even threatened. According to John Lichfield, some in the movement extend their hatred of politicians even to any "would-be politicians who emerge from their own ranks". The yellow jacket movement is not associated with a specific political party or trade union and has spread largely by social media.

The yellow vests movement has been described as a populist, grassroots movement for economic justice, opposing what it sees as the wealthy urban elite and the establishment. Many of the protesters live in tight financial circumstances, often in rural or outer-urban areas where there is "weak economic growth and high unemployment", and where depending on a car for transport is "essential, and increasingly costly". According to the BBC, "It’s no accident that cars were the spark that ignited this anger. Not needing one has become a status symbol in France. Those in city centres have a wealth of public transport to choose from, but you need to be rich enough to live in the centre of Paris or Marseille or Bordeaux".

The movement has drawn supporters from across the political spectrum. An opinion poll published by the Elabe Institute showed that in the presidential election in May 2017, 36% of the participants voted for far-right candidate Marine Le Pen and 28% for far-left candidate Jean-Luc Melenchon in the 2017 presidential elections. Five Le Monde journalists studied the yellow vests' forty-two directives and concluded that two thirds were "very close" to the position of the "radical left" (Jean-Luc Mélenchon, Philippe Poutou and Nathalie Arthaud), nearly a half were "compatible with" the position of the "far right" (Nicolas Dupont-Aignan and Marine Le Pen), and that all were "very far removed" from economically "liberal" policies (Emmanuel Macron and François Fillon). Étienne Girard, writing for Marianne, says the one figure that gathers wide support in the movement has been dead for thirty-two years: the former humourist and presidential candidate Coluche.

Some media outlets were shocked at the hostility they felt from the very beginning of the yellow vest mobilisation. The media had been largely supportive of Emmanuel Macron's government since before his election. This unyielding support of his policies was widely cited by the yellow vests' as the main cause for this violence. Multiple verbal and physical attacks perpetrated by yellow vests against journalists have been reported and documented throughout the movement. For example in Rouen during the Acte IX, LCI television reporters were attacked by a group of protesters, thrown to the ground and beaten. The same day a reporter for the local newspaper La Dépêche du Midi was threatened by yellow vest protesters in Toulouse who told her "we'll take you out of your car and rape you". On 19 November a BFMTV crew was forced to abandon a protest in the Bordeaux region because they were targeted by protesters who not only hurled insults but also threw stones and beer cans at them. In parallel, many comments and photomontages expressing hatred towards journalists as a whole circulated on "yellow vest" Facebook pages. In December the level of threats and attacks was such that more and more news organizations decided that every reporter they sent out should be accompanied by a bodyguard, because of the strong aversion the yellow jackets had shown toward journalists and media. A month later, 25 yellow vests prevented Ouest-France from being delivered in parts of the Vendée and Loire-Atlantique because they did not like an editorial. Protesters had also blocked the printing centre of the L'Yonne Republicaine newspaper and prevented the newspaper la Voix du Nord from being distributed.

Yellow vest protesters in Toulouse (Occitania), 8 December 2018

International media have also reported on the disproportionate violence used by the French police response against the protestors, including the use of explosive grenades and flashball weapons resulting in multiple incidences of loss of limb and sight by the protestors.

A gilets jaunes demonstration on boulevard Saint-Germain, Paris, 5 January 2019

According to Stéphane Sirot, a specialist in the history of French trade unionism, the unions were hesitant to join forces with the yellow jackets because the movement included people trade unions traditionally do not represent (business owners and the self-employed) as well as people who simply did not want to negotiate. The presence of far-right elements in the movement was also off-putting to the CGT.

A significant number of misleading images and information have been circulated on social media concerning the protests. According to Pascal Froissart, the leaderless, horizontal aspect of the movement contributes to the dissemination of disinformation, as nobody is in charge of public relations or social media messaging.

One of the goals of the yellow jackets is to obtain the right to direct initiative, in other words the right to petition the government at any time to propose or repeal a law, to amend the constitution or remove a public official from office. The bottom-up Swiss model of government, where referenda are frequent, has been compared to the top-down French governmental system to explain the lack of a similar movement in French-speaking Switzerland. Étienne Chouard, a French economics and law teacher, and a retired dentist named Yvan Bachaud, who named the RIC, were among the earliest proponents of such referenda. More recently, several politicians included the idea in their 2017 presidential platforms.

2018

17 November: "Act I"

Gilets jaunes protest in Mont-de-Marsan, Landes
A protest on 17 November cutting the road near Belfort

The protests began on 17 November 2018, and attracted more than 300,000 people across France with protesters constructing barricades and blocking roads. John Lichfield, a journalist who witnessed the riots, described them as insurrectional.

In addition to roads, protesters also blocked as many as ten fuel depots. On this first day of protests, a 63-year-old pensioner was run over by a motorist in Le Pont-de-Beauvoisin while she was demonstrating at a roundabout at the entrance to a commercial zone. A motorcyclist died after being struck the same day by a van trying to get around a barricade. By 21 November casualties had climbed to 585 civilians and 115 police injured, with 16 civilians and 3 police severely wounded.

Protests also occurred in the French overseas region of Réunion, where the situation developed into looting and riots. Schools on the island were closed for three days after protesters blocked access to roads. On 21 November, President Macron ordered the deployment of troops to the island to calm the violence.

24 November: "Act II"

With the protests in Paris having raised tensions the previous week, the Interior Ministry agreed to allow a gathering on 24 November at the Champ de Mars. The protests attracted 106,000 people all across France, only 8,000 of whom were in Paris, where the protests turned violent. Protesters lit fires in the streets, tore down signs, built barricades and pulled up cobblestones. Police resorted to tear gas and water cannons to disperse the protesters. On 26 November, an official estimated that the riots in Paris during the two previous days had cost up to €1.5m ($1,680,000) in damage. Two hundred additional workers were assigned to assist with the cleanup and repair work.

1 December: "Act III"

A gilets jaunes demonstration in Belfort on 1 December

A protest called "Act 3 – Macron Quits [fr]" was organised for 1 December.

Yellow jackets briefly occupied the runway at Nantes Atlantique Airport and prevented access to Nice Côte d'Azur Airport. Vinci Autoroutes reported tollbooths were blocked on 20 major arteries all across France.

In Marseille, where demonstrations have been frequent since 5 November collapse of a building and the evacuation of the surrounding neighbourhood, an 80-year-old Algerian woman trying to close her shutters was hit by shards from a police tear gas canister, later dying while in surgery. A second motorist was killed on the third weekend after crashing his van into stopped lorries at a barricade on the Arles bypass.

More than 100 cars were burned in Paris during the protest on 1 December, and the Arc de Triomphe was vandalised. A man fell into a coma and several people were seriously injured after the yellow vests tore down a 15 ft cast iron railing from the Tuilerie garden. On the following Monday, Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo estimated the property damages at €3–4 million ($3,358,000-4,480,000).

8 December: "Act IV"

A gilets jaunes demonstration in Paris on 8 December 2018

Protests turned violent for the second week in a row in Le Puy-en-Velay. Civil unrest marred the Festival of Lights in both Lyon and Saint-Étienne. The A6 motorway was again blocked north of Lyon in Villefranche-sur-Saône.

In Bordeaux, after two hours of skirmishes between the police and protesters, rioters took advantage of the situation to set fires and pillage the local Apple Store.

Paris experienced protests for the fourth consecutive week. Many shops were boarded up in anticipation of violence, with The Louvre, Eiffel Tower and the Paris Opera also closed. Police assembled steel fences around the Élysée Palace and deployed armoured vehicles on the streets in an attempt to limit the violence.

10 December: Macron's televised address

In his 10 December speech to the French people in response to the movement, Macron pledged a €100 per month increase in the minimum wage in 2019, the exclusion of charges and taxes on overtime hours in 2019, and on any 2018 end-of-year bonuses paid to employees. Macron likewise announced that pensioners on low incomes would be excluded from an increase in the CSG in 2019. He stood by his replacement of the solidarity tax on wealth with increases in property taxes. The broadcast was watched by more than 23 million people, making it the most-viewed political speech in French history. After investigation, it became apparent that the minimum wage itself would not be raised by €100 a month but that those eligible would see an increase in the activity bonus paid by the CAF.

On 11 December, after having declared a state of economic and social emergency the day before, Macron invited representatives of the French banks to the Elysée to announce that the banks had agreed to freeze their prices in 2019 and to permanently limit incident-related fees to €25 a month ($28/month) for people in extreme financial difficulty, as determined by the Bank of France.

15 December: "Act V"

In the wake of the 2018 Strasbourg attack, the government asked protesters to stay off the streets. According to the Paris prefecture estimates, there were 8,000 police for 2,200 demonstrators in Paris. The Minister of the Interior estimated that 66,000 people protested in France on 15 December. Conflict arose in Bordeaux, Toulouse, Marseille, Lyon and the capital. Priscillia Ludosky, in front of the Paris Opera, said over megaphone: "We are exhausted by the colossal pressure of taxation that takes away the energy of our country, of our entrepreneurs, of our artisans, of our small businesses, of our creators and of our workers, while a small elite constantly dodges taxes."

At the end of the day, the Interior Minister called for the roundabouts, occupied since 17 November, to be liberated.

22 December: "Act VI"

A gilets jaunes demonstration in Belfort on 22 December

Demonstrations continued throughout the country. The Ministry of the Interior announced a participation figure almost half that of the previous week with 38,600 demonstrators throughout France, including 2,000 in Paris according to the Prefecture of Police. Versailles Palace was preventively closed for the day. Éric Drouet, the 33-year-old truck driver who is one of the most followed yellow jackets on Facebook, was arrested for organising an undeclared demonstration and participating in a violent assembly. He had called on Facebook for demonstrators to meet at Versailles but then revised the call to Montmartre after it had been announced that Versailles would be closed. Authorities say that Drouet was carrying a truncheon and would be summoned in court where they would seek to prevent him from coming to Paris.

Protesters blocked border traffic to Switzerland at Cluse-et-Mijoux. They were dispersed after one hour by police. Similar operations were conducted at the Spanish, Italian, German, and Belgian borders. Two distribution platforms were blocked in Montélimar: EasyDis (Groupe Casino) and Amazon.

Overall, at least 220 people were arrested in the country, including 142 in Paris. A motorist was killed on 21 December when his car hit a truck that was stopped at a blockade in Perpignan, the tenth fatality overall.

29 December: "Act VII"

Demonstrations in front of Radio France (Paris)

Much quieter than in the first weeks on a national level, there was a significant confrontation in Rouen, Normandy, after fires were set in front of the local branch of the Banque de France.

In Paris, the protesters demonstrated in front of the headquarters of BFM-TV, Libération and France Télévisions. Victor Glad suggests that the same crisis of representation motivating the citizens' initiative referenda is also behind the gilets jaunes' criticism of the traditional media.

2019

5 January: "Act VIII"

According to French Ministry of the Interior, the first demonstrations of 2019 brought 50,000 people into the streets across France. A door to Rennes' city hall was damaged, while government Spokesman Benjamin Griveaux was evacuated from his office on Rue de Grenelle (Paris) through the garden, after rioters hijacked a forklift to break down the door to the Ministry. There were also skirmishes in Bordeaux, Nantes, Caen & Rennes.

Women's role, both in defining the movement's objectives and in communicating at roundabouts, is—for editorialist Pierre Rimbert—a reflection of the fact that women make up the majority of workers in "intermediary professions" but are three times more likely to be classed as "employees" than men according to an INSEE study in 2017. Women organized separate demonstrations in Paris, Toulouse and Caen. According to one of the organizers, the goal was to have a "channel of communication other than violence".

A civil servant and former light-heavyweight boxing champion was filmed fighting with two gendarmes on a footbridge about one of the gendarmes' use of force. One month later the civil servant was sentenced to serve one year of sleeping in jail, which allowed him to continue to work.

The interior minister announced that over 60% of the traffic enforcement cameras in the country had been vandalised. This was up from estimates of 50% in early December.

12 January: "Act IX"

Attendance increased in the ninth straight weekend of protests, with at least 84,000 demonstrating on 12 January for economic reform across France, including 8,000 in Paris, 6,000 in Bourges, 6,000 in Bordeaux, and 2,000 in Strasbourg. Government officials deployed 80,000 security forces nationwide, vowing "zero tolerance" for violence. The CRS (riot police) resorted to tear gas in most major cities.

On the streets of Paris, protesters marching "noisily but mostly peacefully", singing the French national anthem, were met by 5,000 riot police officers, armored vehicles and barricades. Citing 5 January attack on the Dijon gendarmerie and terror threats, the police communication service said that some CRS agents were authorized to carry semi-automatic weapons. This was confirmed by the Paris prefecture. Small groups of people left the designated protest route and threw projectiles at police. Around the Arc de Triomphe, riot police fired water cannon and tear gas at protesters after being hit with stones and paint. 244 people were arrested nationwide; 156 in Paris.

A "massive" gas explosion caused by an apparent gas leak in a bakery in northern Paris killed four people, including two firefighters already at the scene investigating the leak, and injured dozens more. The explosions occurred early on 12 January, while Paris was under heavy guard in anticipation of the day's demonstrations. The French Interior Minister told the media that "responsibility triumphed over the temptation of confrontation" and that protesters marched in Paris "without serious incident".

19 January: "Act X"

Tribute to the dead during the movement (Paris, act 10)

As in week IX, police estimated that 84,000 people demonstrated across France, including a peak of 10,000 in Toulouse for a short period, 7,000 in Paris (where protesters demonstrated on the Left Bank for the first time), 4,000 in Bordeaux, and 2,500 in both Marseille and Angers. This weekly protest is the first to happen after the launch of the "Great National Debate" by President Emmanuel Macron.[citation needed]

26 January: "Act XI"

Nationwide demonstrations continued for an eleventh straight week on Saturday, 26 January. The French interior ministry estimated crowds of 69,000 across the country, and local police estimated 4,000 in Paris. A high-profile member of the protest movement, Jérôme Rodrigues, was maimed after being shot in the face by police with a flash-ball launcher, resulting in the loss of his right eye. Dozens of people have been similarly injured during the course of the yellow vests protests. "I was deliberately targeted. I am a figure of the movement, at least in the Paris protests, and police pointed their fingers at me many times during previous demonstrations, so I think they knew very well who they were shooting at," Rodrigues told the media. The following day, an estimated 10,000 people marched in Paris in a foulards rouges ("red scarves") counter-protest in opposition to the yellow vests.

2 February: "Act XII"

On Friday, 1 February 2019, Edouard Philippe went to Bordeaux and informed merchants that an agreement had been found with insurers to treat insurance damage claims in successive weeks as part of a single event (with a single deductible). He also announced that the ten cities most affected by degradations, including Bordeaux, would receive €300,000 ($336,000).

On Saturday, 2 February, between 10,000 and 13,800 people protested in Paris, with thousands more in Tours, Valence, Marseille, Bordeaux, Toulouse, and other French cities. In Valence, the downtown shopping district was boarded up; the city had removed trash cans, park benches and protective fencing around trees in preparation. Paving stones had been tarred over to eliminate the risk of their being used as projectiles. According to the préfecture, 1850 people demonstrated in downtown Tours, which had likewise been boarded up.

A Gilets jaunes protest in Paris, 9 February 2019

The demonstrations of "Act XII" focused on denouncing the number of serious injuries caused by police violence during anti-government demonstrations. According to the French government, around 2,000 civilians were injured in protests between November 2018 and February 2019, including four serious eye injuries. The government agency that investigates police abuses has opened 116 investigations into police conduct during the protests, ten of which concern serious eye injuries suffered by protesters. A group of 59 lawyers published an open letter denouncing the treatment of protesters in the courts, including rushed judgments against protesters without regard for their rights, which they contrasted with the slow pace of investigations into reports of police violence.

Earlier in the week, France's highest court denied a request to ban police from using "flash balls" or "defensive ball launchers", known as LBDs, that shoot 40 millimetres (1.6 in) rubber projectiles, which have been blamed for a number of serious injuries. French Interior Minister Christophe Castaner admitted in media interviews that the weapon could cause injuries and had been used more than 9,000 times since yellow vests demonstrations began. The day before the Act XII protests, the government warned the public that police would not hesitate to use the weapons to combat violence by demonstrators, since they had been authorized by the court. On Saturday, thousands in Paris participated in a "march of the injured" calling for the weapon to be banned. Injured protesters marched at the front, some wearing eye patches with a target sign on them. Jerome Rodrigues, a well-known participant in the movement who lost an eye in the previous week's demonstrations, was received warmly with applause by the crowds.

Most of the demonstrations during Act XII were peaceful. As in prior weeks, 80,000 security officials had been mobilized, including 5,000 in Paris. In Paris, police used tear gas and water cannons at Place de la Republique in the city centre to force demonstrators back after clashes with protesters, some hooded or masked, and some who set fire to bins and a scooter. Despite these incidents, the media reported that demonstrations "remained relatively calm compared to previous weekends". Two police officers were injured and two protesters arrested in Morlaix; two officers injured and one demonstrator arrested in Nantes; and in Lille, where between 1,800 and 3,000 protesters marched, 20 were arrested.

The twelfth week of protests occurred as the French parliament was considering a new law proposed by Macron's governing party restricting the right to protest. The proposed law would outlaw covering one's face during a street demonstration (whether with a helmet, mask, or scarf), punishable by a €15,000 ($16,800) fine or imprisonment, and allow local police to establish blacklists of people not allowed to participate in street protests. The proposed law was opposed by some members of parliament inside and outside Macron's party.

16 February: "Act XIV"

Bordeaux, 9 February 2019

About 41,500 protesters (5,000 in Paris) took to the streets again on Saturday 16 February, for the 14th consecutive weekend.[citation needed]

In Paris, a group of individuals involved in the march confronted the high-profile Jewish philosopher and academician Alain Finkielkraut with anti-Semitic verbal abuse. Police stepped in to protect him, and Macron later said that this behaviour was an "absolute negation" of what made France great and would not be tolerated. The man leading the insults against the philosopher on published video-recordings of the event was detained for questioning on Tuesday on charges of hate speech. Police indicated he was close to the Salafi movement in 2014.

16 March: "Act XVIII"

Leaders of the movement stated on 8 March 2019 that a protest (which had already been dubbed "The Ultimatum") was planned for the following weekend of 16 March.

200 people were taken into custody in Paris after the Champs-Elysées was again targeted by rioters. Luxury stores including Fouquet's, Hugo Boss and Xiaomi were among the 80 businesses damaged, pillaged or set ablaze. Anne Hidalgo, the Mayor of Paris, called upon the government to do something about the political and social fracture.

In response, the French government announced it would deploy the military, in addition to extra police and gendarmery forces. The soldiers were drafted from Operation Sentinelle, active since the January 2015 terror attacks in Paris.

7 September: "Act XLIII"

New protests were held in cities, including Montpellier, Rouen and Strasbourg.

21 September: "Act XLV"

A new wave of yellow vest protests initiated in Paris for the 45th consecutive week. Over a hundred demonstrators were taken into custody after they attempted to enter Avenue Champs-Elysees by force.

2020

14 March: "Act LXX"

People participated in the protests of 14 March 2020 in spite of the imminent COVID-19 national lockdown, but leaders of the movement, like Maxime Nicolle and Jérôme Rodrigues, called on staying safe at home. The lockdown effectively put an end to the weekly protests.

Gilets jaunes leader Jérôme Rodrigues lost an eye after a police intervention on 26 January 2019

As of 22 December 2018, 10 fatalities had been linked to the protests in France.

Fatalities
Date Number Context
17 November 1 pedestrian + car
19 November 1 motorbike + truck
1/2 December 1 car + HGV/LGV
1 December [fr] 1 tear gas grenade (Marseille)
10 December 1 car + HGV/LGV
12/13 December 1 pedestrian + HGV/LGV
14 December 2 car + HGV/LGV
car + car
20 December 1 pedestrian + truck
22 December 1 car + truck

By late December, over 1,843 protesters and 1,048 police had been injured. Injuries included tens of facial trauma (jaws or even eyes) caused by police non-lethal weapon ammunition, nicknamed flash-ball despite not being of the type, that are supposed to be fired at the legs, not at the head, and are accurate enough for this purpose.

As of 14 January 2019, 94 had been reported as seriously injured, including 14 with monocular blindness and one who had to be treated for a brain haemorrhage and left in an artificial coma (from which he emerged on the following Friday).

Adama Committee and Nuit Debout

On 29 November, François Ruffin, the founder of left-wing Fakir magazine, organised a mobilising meeting with various French left-wing movements, at which Frédéric Lordon spoke of the Yellow Vests, saying "If the Nuitdeboutistes who got all wound up into deforestation and anti-specist commissions can't get moving when this happens, then they are the lowest of the low".

Students protesting against the government's educational reforms

Angered by Macron's education reforms and plans to change the baccalauréat (a secondary-school leaving exam), students protested in cities across France. Students expressed concern that these reforms will lead to further inequalities of access to higher education between students in urban, peri-urban, and rural areas.

On 6 December, over 140 students were arrested outside a school in Mantes-la-Jolie. A video of the mass arrest—showing students kneeling with their hands behind their heads—inspired indignation. Jean-Michel Blanquer, the French Education Minister, said that although he was "shocked" by the scene, it needed to be viewed "in context". Amnesty International issued a report about the incident. On the same day, France Bleu reported that Saint-Étienne was "under siege". It was in this context that the mayor of Saint-Étienne suggested, first by tweet then by press release, that the Festival of Lights in neighbouring Lyon be cancelled to free up police in the region.

University students have reportedly joined the movement, denouncing the planned increase of tuition fees for foreign students from non-EU countries.

Christmas shopping season

Overall, by mid-December, trade losses of €2 billion ($2.24×109) had been reported as a result of the blocked roundabouts leading to commercial zones and the closures of urban chains. The chain supermarkets, in particular, reported that traffic had been down significantly, estimating the overall loss at around €600 million ($672,000,000) as of 13 December.

A Gilets jaunes protest in December 2018

A terror attack on 11 December 2018 at the Strasbourg Christmas market contributed to heightened public security concerns and smaller demonstrations in Act V. Conspiracy theories began to be circulated on social media forthwith, suggesting that the attack, which had been perpetrated by a 29-year-old man with multiple criminal convictions, was in fact a manufactured event.

Vinci growth

Vinci SA, which operates roughly half of France's highway concessions, stated in its annual report to investors that traffic had dropped nine percent in the final three months of 2018 as a result of the protests. CEO Xavier Huillard said the fourth quarter loss "wiped out the increase in traffic of the first 10 months".

Tourism

The riots have led to a declining number of tourists to Paris in 2019, with hotel owners reporting fewer bookings in the run up to the summer tourist season. Cancellations have risen as visitors are scared off from traveling to France for safety and security concerns, while corporate trips have also sought to avoid Paris, because the protests have turned the city into a liability. Overall, France reported the largest decreases in international tourist activity in Europe, compared to countries such as the United Kingdom, Italy, Spain and Germany.

Cultural impact

A video of comedian Anne-Sophie Bajon, known as La Bajon, in the role of Emmanuel Macron's lawyer wearing a yellow vest, has been seen several million times on social networks. Dancer Nadia Vadori-Gauthier improvised a choreography in the street during demonstrations with the fumes of the various gases and fires of cars. On 15 December 2018, on the sidelines of the demonstration on the Champs-Élysées, Deborah De Robertis organized a demonstration in which five women appear topless in front of the French police, with a costume reminiscent of the French Goddess of Liberty Marianne. A video of a performance by yellow vests protesters at a roundabout of Michel Fugain's 1975 hit song Les Gentils, Les Méchants ("The Good Ones, The Evil Ones") received over 800,000 views online. A restaurant in Nîmes created a yellow vests-inspired hamburger, served on a bright yellow bun, with a circular "roundabout" beef patty, onions from the vegetable plot of the Élysée Palace, "tear gas" pepper sauce, and "CRS sauce" made of cream, ricotta, and Saint Môret cheese (a reference to the French riot police, the Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité).

Riot police in Brussels in December 2018

In late November 2018, polls showed that the movement had widespread support in France (ranging from 73 to 84 percent). An opinion poll conducted after 1 December events found that 73 percent of French people supported the gilets jaunes and that 85 percent were opposed to the violence in Paris.

Truckers were targeted by protesters, and the industry made their displeasure with the situation known to the government in an open letter. Two labor unions, CGT and FO who had initially called on truckers to start striking on 9 December, retracted their call on 7 December, after having consulted the government and their membership.

The recently named Minister of the Interior, Christophe Castaner, blamed Marine Le Pen, Macron's opponent in the 2017 presidential election, and her Rassemblement National party for the violence on 24 November 2018 after she had reportedly urged people to go to the Champs Élysées. Le Pen responded that letting people assemble on the Champs Élysées was the government's responsibility and accused the Minister of the Interior of trying to increase the tension to discredit the movement.

French riot police in Paris, 26 January 2019

Although President Macron had been insisting that the fuel tax increases would go through as planned, on 4 December 2018 the government announced that the tax rises would be put on hold, with Prime Minister Édouard Philippe saying that "no tax deserves to endanger the unity of the nation".

In early December 2018, the prime minister announced that the price of the Électricité de France blue tariffs would not increase before March 2019.

On Sunday, 9 December, the Elysée called trade unions and employers' organizations to invite them to meet on Monday 10 December so Macron could "present the measures" he intended to announce later in the day. On 10 December, Macron condemned the violence but acknowledged the protesters' anger as "deep, and in many ways legitimate". He subsequently promised a minimum wage increase of €100 per month from 2019, cancelled a planned tax increase for low-income pensioners, and made overtime payments as well as end-of-year bonuses tax free. However, Macron refused to reinstate a wealth tax he scrapped upon entering into office. Amnesty International called on police to "end use of excessive force against protesters and high school children in France".

Police, unlike other public sector employees, either saw their wages raised by €120–150 per month ($134-168) by an agreement signed on 20 December, or received an annual €300 ($336) bonus by an amendment voted into law the previous day. Nicolas Chapuis, writing for Le Monde, says this was likely due to 85% turnout in recent police union elections and the exceptional levels of activity.

In May 2019, Édouard Philippe changed his view on his main political decision for saving lives, allowing a 90 km/h (56 mph) speed limit, agreeing that the speed limit of local roads become managed at local level (département) rather than decided by the Prime Minister.

Comparisons

Adam Gopnik writes that gilets jaunes can be viewed as part of a series of French street protests stretching back to at least the strikes of 1995. Citing historian Herrick Chapman, he suggests General de Gaulle's centralisation of power when creating the French Fifth Republic was so excessive that it made street protests the only "dynamic alternative to government policy".

A gilets jaunes demonstration in Paris in December 2018

1 December riots in Paris were widely acknowledged to have been the most violent since May 1968. Paris-based journalist John Lichfield said that the 1968 events had a joyous side to them, largely absent from the yellow vest movement, but that both movements were similar in that they lacked recognized leaders, much as the banlieues riots of 2005 had.

According to French scholar Béatrice Giblin, comparisons between the gilets jaunes and the Bonnets Rouges—who opposed a new eco-tax in 2013—were inapt because the latter "had been taken in hand by real leaders, such as the mayor of Carhaix, or the great bosses of Brittany" whereas that was not the case for the yellow jackets.

Some have compared the yellow vests to other modern populist movements such as the Occupy movement in the United States, the Five Star Movement in Italy, and Orbanism in Hungary. Others have drawn parallels to popular revolts in late-medieval Europe like the Jacquerie, to Poujadism, to the Brownshirts, and to the French Revolution.

Foulards rouges (red scarves)

On 27 January 2019 a counter-demonstration occurred in Paris by a group identifying themselves by the foulards rouges ("red scarves") they chose to wear. They put out a joint statement with other groups saying: "We denounce the insurrectional climate created by the yellow vests. We also reject the threats and constant verbal abuse (aimed at non-yellow vests)".

Concerns about extremist elements in the movement

Concerns that the yellow vests movement were providing a new forum for extremist views were more frequently reported in the media after Alain Finkielkraut was insulted in week XIV. Vincent Duclert [fr], an expert on anti-Semitism, said that while "the gilets jaunes are not an anti-Semitic movement, each Saturday there are anti-Semitic expressions by groups of the extreme right or extreme left." Jean-Yves Camus, an expert on French political extremism, identified an "inherent weakness of a movement that lets the people speak" as being that anyone (whether far left, far right, radical Islamist or anti-Zionist) can say whatever they want in the street with little concern for propriety or legality.

Finkielkraut, interviewed by BFM-TV, was especially concerned with the viral nature of what he called a new type of "anti-racist" anti-Semitism, which he says consists of comparing the "Israeli colonization of Palestine" with Nazism. He named Dieudonné and Alain Soral as those responsible for propagating this new form of anti-Semitism.

According to a study conducted in February 2019, half of all yellow vest protesters (50%) said they believed in a "global Zionist conspiracy".

The Gilets noirs movement arose partly in response to perceived racist, anti-immigrant, and pro-fascist sentiment among the Gilets jaunes.[citation needed]

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France (afterwards)

2020

25 July

After the government change on Saturday 25 July 2020, several dozen people protested in Toulouse.

12 September

For the first time after the Coronavirus lockdown, protesters returned to the streets of which more than 250 were arrested by the police. Some of the protesters wore black clothes and carried the flag of an anti-fascist movement, suggesting the presence of radical demonstrators dubbed "black blocs" often blamed for violence at street marches in France.

10–12 October

Yellow vests launched fireworks at a police station in Paris and struck it with metal bars. No injuries occurred. It is also suspected to be linked to the disapproval of the French police's police brutality issues. Delinquent youth also appeared in the group of around 40 people, some unrelated to the cause.

2020–2021

Anti-security protests
This section may lend undue weight to only the use of yellow vests. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. (July 2021)

Demonstrations (sometimes called "marches of freedom" or "marches of freedom and justice") gathered several thousand people (including yellow vests) in several French cities on the evening of 17 November, at the initiative of a union of journalists and human rights defense associations. Violence breaks out in Paris. Several employed journalists are handled by police officers, photographer Taranis News and French journalist 3 Paris Ile-de-France have been taken into police custody (receive a reminder of the law), provoking strong criticism from the audiovisual group and journalists' unions – who also see effects national law enforcement plan published two months ago.

Other demonstrations are being held on 21 November in about 20 cities. This is also the case on 28 November, this time in more than seventy cities. Between 46,000 (Interior Ministry) and 200,000 people (organizers) demonstrated that day in Paris, between 133,000 and 500,000 in France. Syrian photojournalist Ameer Al Halbi was wounded in the face with a baton. The Reporter Without Borders filed a complaint for intentional violence by a person with public authority106. According to the Ministry of the Interior, several dozen police officers and gendarmes were wounded, and one of them, in Paris, was pushed to the ground and then severely beaten.

On 5 December, about 90 parades parade across France and gather, according to the Interior Ministry, about 50,000 people; clashes with police took place in Paris, Dijon, Nantes and Lyon, which, according to Gerald Darmanin, led to 95 arrests and resulted in 67 injuries among police, including 48 in Paris. In addition, the protester was severely wounded in the arm, probably by a GM2L bomb.

The Paris demonstration on 12 December 2020, gathered 5,000 protesters against the police and took place "without major incidents" against Le Monde113, but MPs, associations and unions during the demonstrations condemned "arbitrary arrests". Gerald Darmanin mentions 142 arrests and welcomes the position of the forces security that would enable the avoidance of violence. Police have been in prison several times (32 times according to Mediapart) to arrest potentially violent people; but according to footage broadcast by Mediapart, these attacks occur "for no apparent reason". Of the 142 arrested, 5 were convicted, including only two for acts of violence.

On 22 December 2020, the State Council, seized by La Quadrature du Net, ruled that the monitoring of these demonstrations by the Paris police prefecture using drones was illegal.

Tens of thousands of protesters marched across France on 16 January 2021, to condemn a security law that critics say would restrict police filming and posting pictures on social media, especially to document cases of police brutality. A new rally against the protection of police officers was held on 30 January, with significantly fewer demonstrators than in November and December 2020. In the afternoon and evening, there were occasional incidents between the police and the demonstrators. Police used batons, tear gas and water cannons. The following Saturday, 6 February 2021, three protests took place in Bordeaux. Fabienne Buccio, the prefect, has issued a new prefecture decree banning all processions, parades and gatherings on the streets of the inner city. She is especially afraid that she will "join these declared demonstrations of individuals who are openly hostile to the police and who want to create disturbances in the public order in the city center." Protests were also held in Nantes, Toulouse, Paris and Nancy, where occasional incidents took place at the end of the procession.

Vaccination obligation, sanitary pass

This section may lend undue weight to only the use of yellow vests. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. (October 2021)

The announcement of president Macron on 12 July 2021 of a COVID-19 vaccination obligation for all health care workers by 15 September, as well as the obligation for people older than twelve to show a "sanitary pass" as of August for admittance to cafés, restaurants, cinemas, hospitals, senior citizens' homes, trains, shopping malls, and other public venues led to protests across France. The 'sanitary pass' should prove that someone is either vaccinated, has recently tested negative, or has recovered from COVID-19. Macron's motivation was: "We are in a new race against time", "Vaccination is the only way to protect yourself and others".

Marine Le Pen, challenger of Macron in the 2022 French presidential election, immediately condemned the vaccination obligation as "indecent insolence" attesting of "ingratitude" towards the health care workers. On Wednesday 14 July, the French National day called 'Bastille Day', in Paris some 2,250 people protested against these new corona restrictions. Demonstrations were also held in Toulouse, Bordeaux, Montpellier, Nantes and 48 other places, totalling around 19,000 protesters. Slogans chanted were: "Down with dictatorship", "Down with the health pass". A demonstrator equated the health pass with "segregation". Objects and fireworks were thrown at the police, who answered with tear gas and arrests.

On Saturday 17 July, nationwide some 114,000 people protested against the two new measures. On 24 July, some 160,000 people around France protested against the measures. Protesters chanted: "Liberty! Liberty!" Projectiles including a chair were thrown at the police in Paris, who reacted with tear gas and water cannons.

On 25 July, the French Senate nevertheless agreed to the measures except the pass obligation for children under 18 years old.

On 31 July, over 200,000 people nationwide protested against these plans. Thousands around Place de la Bastille in Paris chanted: "Liberté!" [Freedom!]. Signs accused Macron of being a dictator. A bus driver motivated his protest as: "I'm not an antivaxer (...) But this is going to fast, I want to wait and see". A hospital worker said: "These vaccines are experimental ; there's no way I'm gonna take it". A placard in Paris cited Macron: ' "Je ne rendrai pas la vaccination obligatoire", Emmanuel Macron, Novembre 2020 ' ["I will not make vaccination obligatory", Macron, Nov. 2020]. Another: ' De la démocratie à la dictature il n'y a qu'un <<PASS>> ' [From democracy to dictatorship is only one step [or] one pass]. Another: 'VACCINÉ A LA LIBERTÉ' [VACCINATED FOR FREEDOM].

On Saturday 7 August, 237,000 people protested on 198 locations in France, the authorities reported. In Paris, Lyon, Toulouse, rioters pelted the police with all sorts of things, police reacted with tear gas and charges and arrests. The sanitary pass obligation came into effect on 9 August, civilians risk a fine of 135 euro for disobedience, business owners risk a 45,000 euro fine or one year prison and the closure of their business. On 14 August 2021, between 200,000 and 250,000 people according to the police and the organisers have again demonstrated, on more than 200 locations in France, against the pass sanitaire and the obligated vaccination of health care personnel. Placards compared the sanitary pass with 'Apartheid', people chanted slogans about the "health dictatorship". Police in Lyon used pepper spray against rioters.

Thousands of people demonstrated again on the streets of France on Saturday, August 21, against the government's policy of vaccination against Covid-19 amid concerns from human rights groups over the anti-Semitic mood in the protest movement.

Protesters in Toulouse (Occitania), 28 August 2021

More than 141,000 people marched the following Saturday, September 4, against the health pass this weekend, which is another drop in the number of the eighth consecutive Saturday of protests. There were 215 marches across France, five of them in Paris, attracting 18,000 people to the capital, according to the Interior Ministry. The total number of people – 141,655 – is down from last weekend, when nearly 160,000 people came out across the country/

More than 120,000 people demonstrated on Saturday, September 11, in France, according to official data, in protest against health passes.

Since then, these protests grew smaller ; on Saturday, 18 September 2021, the demonstrators in France against the sanitary pass and obligated vaccination counted 80,000.

About 20,000 people gathered on October 16 across France for the same reasons. There were occasional clashes between police and protesters in Paris.

About 800 people paraded on Saturday, October 23 in Nantes in the afternoon.

Other countries or regions

A gilets jaunes protest in London, United Kingdom
Locations of yellow vests protests

The largest "yellow vest" protest outside France was held in Taipei with over 10,000 demonstrating on 19 December. Their principal concern was tax justice. Some protests in other countries are related to the central concerns of the French movement (taxation, high-living costs, representation, and income disparity). Others are related primarily by the use of the readily-available symbol.

Belgium

A gilets jaunes protest in Brussels, Belgium

Riot police in Brussels were pelted with billiard balls, cobblestones and rocks on 30 November, and responded with water cannons; 60 arrests were made for disturbing the public order. Several oil depots had been blocked in Wallonia as of 16 November 2018, though protesters' attempts to block the Russian Lukoil depot in Brussels were quickly thwarted by police. Some members of the movement began working to form a party for the Belgian federal elections in 2019 under the name Mouvement citoyen belge. On 8 December, when protesters calling for the resignation of Prime Minister Charles Michel tried to breach a riot barricade, police used tear gas and water cannons to disperse the demonstrators. The protesters involved were throwing stones, flares and other objects at police, resulting in around 100 arrests.

As of 12 January, three people had died during gilets jaunes protests in Belgium: two drivers were killed mid-December by sudden traffic queues caused by roadblocks and one protester was fatally hit by a truck when his group tried to block the E25 highway between Liège and Maastricht on 11 January.

Rest of the world

Beginning in late December, various yellow-vest wearing protest movements have been seen across the country. This protest movement, known as Yellow Vests Canada, does not follow the same goals as the French movement. Protests have had occasional outbreaks of violence. Groups of various protesters wearing yellow vests have taken place in at least a 30 cities and towns across Canada as of January 2019.
A controversial event in February 2019 known as the "United We Roll" truck convoy attracted several Yellow Vest participants to the grounds of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. Prominent political officials such as federal Conservative Party leader Andrew Scheer and People's Party leader Maxime Bernier addressed the crowd. Scheer and Bernier drew criticism for appearing at the United We Roll event when it was revealed that alt-right personality Faith Goldy, formerly of controversial Internet outlet Rebel Media, was also in attendance and made a presentation to the participants, several of whom carried signs and chanted slogans accusing Prime Minister Justin Trudeau of "treason" and demanding that Canada withdraw from the non-binding United Nations Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM). Conservative Senator David Tkachuk was also at the rally and was criticized for his remarks calling upon truck drivers to "roll over every Liberal left in the country". Liberal Minister of Natural Resources Amarjeet Sohi and NDP MP Nathan Cullen were among the members of Parliament who expressed concern that the presence of mainstream political leaders at the rally was lending legitimacy to the movement. Anti-racism activist Evan Balgord, director of the Canadian Anti-Hate Network, condemned Scheer for his support of an organization whose members have repeatedly promulgated conspiracy theories and made death threats against Muslims, immigrants, members of Parliament, and Prime Minister Trudeau. A spokesperson for Scheer denied that the Conservative leader intended to lend support to racist and/or violent groups, telling columnist Martin Patriquin that "We can't control who shows up to these events."
On 15 June 2019, a number of Yellow Vests Canada protesters joined groups protesting LGBT individuals at a Pride Festival in Hamilton, Ontario, and several people were injured.
  • Croatia: On 15 December 2018, "Yellow Vests Croatia" held demonstrations in Zagreb, Pula and Rijeka.
  • Egypt: A lawyer was detained for 15 days after posting a picture of himself wearing a high-visibility jacket in support of the protests in France. Sales restrictions on yellow reflective vests were introduced, causing backlash from human rights groups, who stated that President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi is attempting to suppress political opposition.
  • Finland: Anti-immigration protesters, who had begun demonstrations before the rise of the yellow vests movement, have adopted the yellow vest symbol, beginning with a demonstration on 17 December.
  • Germany: The yellow vests symbol was used both by the left and right-wing groups, including Pegida and Aufstehen, who demonstrated at the Brandenburg Gate, Dresden, Munich and in Stuttgart.
  • Iraq: On 5 December 2018, yellow-vest-inspired protesters demonstrated in Basra, Iraq, for more job opportunities and better services. They were reportedly fired upon with live ammunition.
  • Ireland: Initially, at least three rival groups claimed the "Yellow Vest" name in Ireland, and varied from general opposition to the government to far-right/alt-right and xenophobic views. In December 2018, hundreds attended yellow vests protests in the centre of Dublin against 'the perceived failures of the Government', and also the use of fluoride in the public water supply. In January 2019 minor protests were held in Dublin, Belfast, Galway, Limerick, Wicklow, Waterford and Donegal. On 16 November and 14 December 2019, and on 12 September 2020, Yellow Vest Ireland participated in demonstrations in Dublin outside the Dáil, in opposition to proposed anti-hate speech legislation and COVID lockdowns. By mid-to-late 2020, the group was protesting against COVID-19 prevention measures taken by the Irish government. Violence erupted at the September protest, and in October 2021 a Yellow Vest member, Michael Quinn, was sentenced to three years imprisonment (with the final year suspended) for assaulting a woman with a wooden pole at the protest.
  • Israel: Economic uncertainty and corruption led to a yellow vest rally at the Azrieli Centre Mall in Tel Aviv on 14 December.
  • Italy: The yellow vests symbol has been used by multiple protest groups in Italy. In November 2018, a pro-Italian government, anti-EU protest group launched a Facebook page with thousands of online supporters, stating it was "inspired by the French gilet jaunes". On 15 December, several thousand people wearing yellow vests marched in Rome to protest against Italy's "tough new anti-migrant law". In January 2019, the leaders of Italy's ruling government coalition announced their support for the gilet jaunes protests in France. AFP reported that it is "extremely rare for European leaders to back anti-government protesters in a fellow member state".
  • Latvia: Foundation "Tautas varas fronte " ("Front of the people power"). On 20 January leaders of this foundation started the campaign of yellow vests, protesting against oil prices.[citation needed]
  • Libya: During the 2019 Western Libya Offensive, during which the capital city Tripoli was militarily attacked by the Libyan National Army under the command of Khalifa Haftar, regular Friday street demonstrations against Haftar in Tripoli and Misrata, included (on 19 April and 3 May 2019) protestors wearing yellow vests to symbolise their opposition to perceived French support for Haftar's attack on Tripoli.
  • Netherlands: On 1 December, a small number of yellow vest demonstrators protested in Dutch cities. Further demonstrations occurred on 8 December, where peaceful protesters marched through Rotterdam.
  • Nigeria: A yellow vest protester was seen in a protest demanding the release of Ibrahim Zakzaky.
  • Pakistan: Hundreds of engineers staged a day long protest at Lahore wearing yellow vests.
  • Poland: On 12 December, a group of farmers blocked the A2 motorway 30 kilometers outside of Warsaw, demanding compensation for pigs they were required to slaughter, and protesting the importation of Ukrainian agricultural products unlabeled with respect to their country of origin. The agricultural minister Jan Krzysztof Ardanowski met with the protesters to explain that their demands were met already.
  • Portugal: On 21 December 2018, a coletes amarelos (yellow vest) rally was held under the slogan Vamos Parar Portugal ("Let's Bring Portugal to a Halt"). In spite of the 70% solidarity polled among the 10-million strong Portuguese public, less than one hundred demonstrators showed up for the rally, for which authorities had 20 thousand uniformed police officers prepared for.
  • Russia: On 23 December 2018, Blue Bucket demonstrators at Sokolniki Park wore yellow vests at a rally against parking fee increases in Moscow. Yellow vests are also common in protests in the Arkhangelsk region against a plan to build landfill in Shiyes, which is the smallest station and a village in the region.
  • Serbia: A civil rights organisation Združena akcija Krov nad glavom started using yellow vests in its protests to oppose the eviction of a resident in the Mirijevo district of Belgrade and to show solidarity and common cause with French Yellow vest movement. Parallel to that, on 4 December, Boško Obradović, the leader of the far-right Dveri party, called for demonstrations about high fuel prices in Serbia on 8 December.
  • Spain: During the taxi driver strike of January in Madrid and Barcelona, many protesters used yellow vests.[citation needed]
  • Taiwan: The Tax and Legal Reform League, demonstrating for tax justice since December 2016, organized a yellow vests march on 19 December.
  • Tunisia: A derivative group, the gilets rouges ("red vests"), emerged on Facebook, calling for protests against the economic situation in the country.
  • United Kingdom: Pro-Brexit groups involved in small-scale protests in London and other UK cities have appropriated or "hijack[ed]" the yellow vests symbol.
  • United States: In Vermont, a group called "No Carbon Tax Vermont" held a rally at the Vermont Statehouse on 9 January 2019.
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    Yellow vests protests
Yellow vests protests Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Yellow vests movement The yellow vests protests or yellow jackets protests French Mouvement des gilets jaunes pronounced muvmɑ de ʒilɛ ʒon is a series of populist 66 grassroots 67 weekly protests in France at first for economic justice 68 69 and later for institutional political reforms citation needed that began in France on 17 November 2018 Yellow vests movement Gilets jaunes protestsPart of the protests against Emmanuel MacronA yellow vests protest in Belfort France on 29 December 2018Date17 November 2018 present 2 years 5 months and 14 days First phase 17 November 2018 14 March 2020 1 year 3 months and 26 days Second phase 12 September 2020 present 7 months and 19 days Location France Other countries Australia 1 Belgium 2 Bulgaria 3 Burkina Faso 4 Canada 5 Central African Republic 4 Croatia 6 Czechia 7 Finland 8 Germany 9 Iraq 10 Israel 11 Ireland 12 Italy 13 Jordan 14 Latvia Lebanon 15 Libya 16 Netherlands 17 Nigeria 18 Pakistan 19 Portugal 20 Russia 21 Serbia 22 Slovakia 23 Spain 24 Sudan Sweden 25 Taiwan 26 Tunisia 27 Turkey 28 United Kingdom 29 United StatesCaused byRise of crude oil prices in 2018 30 Fuel tax 31 Traffic enforcement cameras 32 Austerity measures 33 2017 wealth tax repeal 34 Globalisation 35 Class conflict 36 Neoliberalism 37 Immigration 38 GoalsFrom October to 10 December 2018 Increase of minimum wage in France 39 End to austerity measures 40 Improved standard of living 40 Government transparency and accountability 40 Improved government services for rural areas 40 42 demands in total 40 From 10 December 2018 to 14 March 2020 Constitutional proposal for a citizens initiative referendum including constitutional legislative abrogative and recall initiatives 41 MethodsProtests Civil disobedience 42 Collectivist anarchism 43 Blocking traffic 44 Disabling traffic enforcement cameras 32 Strike action citation needed Other occurences Violence 45 Property damage 46 47 Vandalism 45 Barricades 45 Rioting 48 49 Looting 50 Concessions given10 December 2018 Cancellation of fuel tax and six month moratorium on diesel and petrol price changes 51 Announcement that price of Electricite de France blue tariffs would not increase before March 2019 52 Elimination of tax on overtime and end of year bonuses 53 Decrease of fuel and motor taxes 44 100 112 wage increase for employees 54 Parties to the civil conflictGilets jaunes Government National Police CRSNational Gendarmerie Mobile GendarmerieRural GuardsFrench Army 55 Pro government protesters 56 Lead figuresJacline Mouraud Etienne Chouard 57 Priscillia Ludosky Maxime Nicolle fr 58 Eric Drouet fr Jerome Rodrigues fr 59 60 Christophe Chalencon 61 Francois Boulo 62 Emmanuel Macron President of the French Republic Edouard Philippe Prime Minister of France 2017 2020 Christophe Castaner Minister of Interior 2018 2020 Number287 710 protesters peak according to the Ministry of the Interior 63 8 000 police 15 Dec 2018 Paris CasualtiesDeath s 11 people including 3 yellow vests were killed in traffic accidents caused by yellow vests roadblocks in Belgium and France 2 yellow vests both aged over 50 died during the demonstrations due to heart problems unrelated to the protests 1 woman died of a surgical shock at the hospital after she had been injured in the margins of a demonstration 64 Injuries4 439 police and civilians 65 After an online petition posted in May 2018 had attracted nearly 1 million signatures mass demonstrations began on 17 November 70 The movement was initially motivated by rising crude oil and fuel prices a high cost of living and economic inequality it claims that a disproportionate burden of taxation in France was falling on the working and middle classes 71 72 73 especially in rural and peri urban areas 33 74 The protesters have called for lower fuel taxes a reintroduction of the solidarity tax on wealth a minimum wage increase 41 among other things On 29 November 2018 a list of 42 demands was made public and went viral on social media becoming de facto a structuring basis for the movement covering a wide range of eclectic topics mostly related to democracy and social and fiscal justice 40 75 After President Emmanuel Macron made an address on TV on 10 December announcing the cancellation of the fuel tax increase and other social measures the movement evolved and the citizens initiative referendums became its unique revendication 41 Participation in the weekly protests diminished due to violence particularly due to the loss of eyes hands and other neurological disorders caused by police blast balls 76 77 78 The protests eventually stopped due to the COVID 19 pandemic in France The movement spans the political spectrum According to one poll few of those protesting had voted for Macron in the 2017 French presidential election many had showed political alienation by not voting or had voted for far right or far left candidates 79 Rising fuel prices initially sparked the demonstrations Yellow high visibility vests which French law requires all drivers to have in their vehicles and to wear during emergency situations were chosen as a unifying thread and call to arms because of their convenience visibility ubiquity and association with working class industries 80 The protests have involved demonstrations and the blocking of roads and fuel depots some of which developed into major riots 81 described as the most violent since those of May 68 82 The police action resulting in multiple incidences of loss of limb has been criticised by politicians and international media it has sometimes resulted in police officers being charged for their violent behaviour 83 The movement has received international attention Protesters in many places around the world have used the yellow vest as a symbol 84 85 About 3 million people participated in the yellow vests movement 86 Contents 1 Background 1 1 General discontentment 1 2 Diesel 1 3 Fuel prices 1 4 Speed limit reduction 1 5 Economic reforms 1 6 Yellow vest symbol 2 Origin 3 Timeline 3 1 2018 3 1 1 17 November Act I 3 1 2 24 November Act II 3 1 3 1 December Act III 3 1 4 8 December Act IV 3 1 5 10 December Macron s televised address 3 1 6 15 December Act V 3 1 7 22 December Act VI 3 1 8 29 December Act VII 3 2 2019 3 2 1 5 January Act VIII 3 2 2 12 January Act IX 3 2 3 19 January Act X 3 2 4 26 January Act XI 3 2 5 2 February Act XII 3 2 6 16 February Act XIV 3 2 7 16 March Act XVIII 3 2 8 7 September Act XLIII 3 2 9 21 September Act XLV 3 3 2020 3 3 1 14 March Act LXX 4 Fatalities and injuries 5 Impact 5 1 Adama Committee and Nuit Debout 5 2 Students protesting against the government s educational reforms 5 3 Christmas shopping season 5 4 Vinci growth 5 5 Tourism 5 6 Cultural impact 6 Reactions and counter protest 6 1 Comparisons 6 2 Foulards rouges red scarves 6 3 Concerns about extremist elements in the movement 7 Protests adopting yellow vests as a symbol 7 1 France afterwards 7 1 1 2020 7 1 1 1 25 July 7 1 1 2 12 September 7 1 1 3 10 12 October 7 1 2 2020 2021 7 1 2 1 Anti security protests 7 1 3 Vaccination obligation sanitary pass 7 2 Other countries or regions 7 2 1 Belgium 7 2 2 Rest of the world 8 Notable members 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksBackground EditThe issue on which the French movement centred at first was the projected 2019 increase in fuel taxes particularly on diesel fuel 87 The yellow vest was an accessible symbol for the protests as all French drivers have been required to have one in their vehicles since 2008 80 General discontentment Edit Already low in early 2018 47 approval in January 2018 88 French president Emmanuel Macron s approval rating had dipped below 25 at the beginning of the movement 89 The government s method of curbing the budget deficit had proven unpopular with Macron being dubbed president des tres riches president of the very rich by his former boss Francois Hollande 90 Late in June 2017 Macron s Minister of Justice Francois Bayrou came under pressure to resign due to the ongoing investigation into the financial arrangements of the political party MoDem he leads 91 92 During a radio interview in August 2018 Nicolas Hulot had resigned from the Ministry of the Environment without telling either the President or the Prime Minister of his plans to do so 93 Criticized for his role in the Benalla affair Gerard Collomb tried to resign in October 2018 as Minister of the Interior leaving himself with only two jobs as senator and mayor of Lyon but saw his resignation initially refused then finally accepted 94 95 Diesel Edit In the 1950s diesel engines were used only in heavy equipment so to help sell off the surpluses in French refineries the state created a favorable tax regime to encourage motorists and manufacturers to use diesel 96 The 1979 oil crisis prompted efforts to curb petrol gasoline use while taking advantage of diesel fuel availability and diesel engine efficiency The French manufacturer Peugeot has been at the forefront of diesel technology and from the 1980s the French government favoured this technology A reduction in VAT taxes for corporate fleets also increased the prevalence of diesel cars in France 97 In 2015 two out of every three cars purchased consumed diesel fuel 96 Fuel prices Edit The price of petrol SP95 E10 decreased during 2018 from 1 47 per litre USD 6 24 gallon in January to 1 43 per litre USD 6 07 gallon in the last week of November 98 Prices of petrol and diesel fuel increased by 15 percent and 23 percent respectively between October 2017 and October 2018 99 The world market purchase price of petrol for distributors increased by 28 percent over the previous year for diesel by 35 percent Costs of distribution increased by 40 percent VAT included diesel taxes increased by 14 percent over one year and petrol taxes by 7 5 percent 99 The tax increase had been 7 6 cents per litre on diesel and 3 9 cents on petrol in 2018 with a further increase of 6 5 cents on diesel and 2 9 cents on petrol planned for 1 January 2019 100 101 The taxes collected on the sale of fuel are The domestic consumption tax on energy products TICPE la Taxe interieure de consommation sur les produits energetiques which is not calculated based on the price of oil but rather at a fixed rate by volume Part of this tax paid at the pump goes to regional governments while another portion goes to the national government Since 2014 this tax has included a carbon component increased each year in an effort to reduce fossil fuel consumption The TICPE for diesel fuel was raised sharply in 2017 and 2018 to bring it to the same level as the tax on petrol Value added tax VAT calculated on the sum of the price excluding tax and the TICPE Its rate has been stable at 20 percent since 2014 after having been at 19 6 percent between 2000 and 2014 The protest movement against fuel prices mainly concerns individuals as a number of professions and activities benefit from partial or total exemptions from TICPE 31 102 Though pro climate the protesters criticized Edouard Philippe s second government for burdening households with the bulk of the carbon tax while offering exemptions to many carbon intensive companies 68 As the carbon tax had progressively been ramping up to meet ecological objectives many who had chosen fossil fuel based heating for their homes outside of city centres where a car is required were displeased President Macron attempted to dispel these concerns in early November by offering special subsidies and incentives 103 104 Diesel prices in France increased by 16 percent in 2018 with taxes on both petrol and diesel increasing at the same time and a further tax increase planned for 2019 making diesel as expensive as petrol 105 President Macron is bearing the brunt of the protesters anger for his extension of policies implemented under Francois Hollande s government 105 Speed limit reduction Edit The government decided in 2017 to cut the speed limit on country roads from 1 July 2018 from 90 to 80 km h 50 mph with the aim to save 200 lives each year after research found that excessive or unsuitable speed was involved in a third 32 percent of fatal road accidents The change was opposed and was a factor in the rise of the yellow vest movement It was seen as another tax via citations 106 and a failure to understand the needs of rural residents who are totally reliant on their cars Vandalism of traffic enforcement cameras grew significantly after the yellow vest movement began 107 108 109 Economic reforms Edit Sparked by claims that the fuel tax was intended to finance tax cuts for big business 110 a characterization that French President Emmanuel Macron has objected to stating that the fuel tax was intended to discourage fossil fuel use as a way to combat climate change 111 103 and including many people motivated by economic difficulties due to low salaries and high energy prices 112 the yellow vests movement has called for redistributive economic policies like a wealth tax increased pensions a higher minimum wage and reduced salaries for politicians 113 114 While some commentators have claimed that the movement was a backlash to policies meant to combat climate change 115 116 a communique released by the movement calls for a real ecological policy including fuel and kerosene taxes for ships and airplanes but objects to policies like the gas tax that hit the poor and working class most heavily 117 118 Yellow vest symbol Edit A high visibility vest the key symbol of the protests No one knows how the high visibility yellow vest came to be chosen as the symbol and uniform for the movement and no one has claimed to be its originator 80 The movement originated with French motorists from rural areas who had long commutes protesting against an increase in fuel taxes wearing the yellow vests that under a 2008 French law all motorists are required to keep in their vehicles and to wear in case of emergency 81 The symbol has become a unifying thread and call to arms because yellow vests are common and inexpensive easy to wear over any clothing associated with working class industries highly visible and widely understood as a distress signal 80 As the movement grew to include grievances beyond fuel taxes non motorists in France put on yellow vests and joined the demonstrations as did protesters in other countries with diverse and sometimes conflicting grievances of their own 80 81 In the words of one commentator The uniform of this revolution is as accessible as the frustration and fury 80 Origin EditEric Drouet and a businesswoman named Priscillia Ludosky from the Seine et Marne department started a petition on the change org website in May 2018 that had reached 300 000 signatures by mid October and close to 1 million a month later 70 119 120 Parallel to this petition two men from the same Department launched a Facebook event for 17 November to block all roads and thus protest against an increase in fuel prices they considered excessive stating that this increase was the result of the tax increase One of the viral videos around this group launched the idea of using yellow jackets 121 The first gilets jaunes protest in Vesoul 17 November 2018 The movement is organised in a leaderless horizontal fashion Informal leaders can emerge but some have been rejected by other demonstrators and even threatened According to John Lichfield some in the movement extend their hatred of politicians even to any would be politicians who emerge from their own ranks 122 123 The yellow jacket movement is not associated with a specific political party or trade union and has spread largely by social media 124 The yellow vests movement has been described as a populist 66 79 grassroots 67 movement for economic justice 69 opposing what it sees as the wealthy urban elite and the establishment 125 Many of the protesters live in tight financial circumstances often in rural or outer urban areas where there is weak economic growth and high unemployment and where depending on a car for transport is essential and increasingly costly 79 According to the BBC It s no accident that cars were the spark that ignited this anger Not needing one has become a status symbol in France Those in city centres have a wealth of public transport to choose from but you need to be rich enough to live in the centre of Paris or Marseille or Bordeaux 67 The movement has drawn supporters from across the political spectrum 66 67 79 An opinion poll published by the Elabe Institute showed that in the presidential election in May 2017 36 of the participants voted for far right candidate Marine Le Pen and 28 for far left candidate Jean Luc Melenchon in the 2017 presidential elections 79 126 Five Le Monde journalists studied the yellow vests forty two directives 40 and concluded that two thirds were very close to the position of the radical left Jean Luc Melenchon Philippe Poutou and Nathalie Arthaud nearly a half were compatible with the position of the far right Nicolas Dupont Aignan and Marine Le Pen and that all were very far removed from economically liberal policies Emmanuel Macron and Francois Fillon 127 Etienne Girard writing for Marianne says the one figure that gathers wide support in the movement has been dead for thirty two years the former humourist and presidential candidate Coluche 128 Some media outlets were shocked at the hostility they felt from the very beginning of the yellow vest mobilisation The media had been largely supportive of Emmanuel Macron s government since before his election This unyielding support of his policies was widely cited by the yellow vests as the main cause for this violence 129 Multiple verbal and physical attacks perpetrated by yellow vests against journalists have been reported and documented throughout the movement 130 For example in Rouen during the Acte IX LCI television reporters were attacked by a group of protesters thrown to the ground and beaten 131 The same day a reporter for the local newspaper La Depeche du Midi was threatened by yellow vest protesters in Toulouse who told her we ll take you out of your car and rape you 131 On 19 November a BFMTV crew was forced to abandon a protest in the Bordeaux region because they were targeted by protesters who not only hurled insults but also threw stones and beer cans at them 130 In parallel many comments and photomontages expressing hatred towards journalists as a whole circulated on yellow vest Facebook pages In December the level of threats and attacks was such that more and more news organizations decided that every reporter they sent out should be accompanied by a bodyguard 132 because of the strong aversion the yellow jackets had shown toward journalists and media 129 132 A month later 25 yellow vests prevented Ouest France from being delivered in parts of the Vendee and Loire Atlantique because they did not like an editorial 133 134 Protesters had also blocked the printing centre of the L Yonne Republicaine newspaper and prevented the newspaper la Voix du Nord from being distributed 135 Yellow vest protesters in Toulouse Occitania 8 December 2018 International media have also reported on the disproportionate violence used by the French police response against the protestors including the use of explosive grenades and flashball weapons resulting in multiple incidences of loss of limb and sight by the protestors 83 A gilets jaunes demonstration on boulevard Saint Germain Paris 5 January 2019 According to Stephane Sirot a specialist in the history of French trade unionism the unions were hesitant to join forces with the yellow jackets because the movement included people trade unions traditionally do not represent business owners and the self employed as well as people who simply did not want to negotiate The presence of far right elements in the movement was also off putting to the CGT 136 A significant number of misleading images and information have been circulated on social media concerning the protests According to Pascal Froissart the leaderless horizontal aspect of the movement contributes to the dissemination of disinformation as nobody is in charge of public relations or social media messaging 137 One of the goals of the yellow jackets is to obtain the right to direct initiative in other words the right to petition the government at any time to propose or repeal a law to amend the constitution or remove a public official from office The bottom up Swiss model of government where referenda are frequent has been compared to the top down French governmental system to explain the lack of a similar movement in French speaking Switzerland 138 139 Etienne Chouard a French economics and law teacher and a retired dentist named Yvan Bachaud who named the RIC were among the earliest proponents of such referenda 140 More recently several politicians included the idea in their 2017 presidential platforms 141 142 143 Timeline Edit2018 Edit 17 November Act I Edit Gilets jaunes protest in Mont de Marsan Landes A protest on 17 November cutting the road near Belfort The protests began on 17 November 2018 and attracted more than 300 000 people across France with protesters constructing barricades and blocking roads 100 144 John Lichfield a journalist who witnessed the riots described them as insurrectional 145 In addition to roads protesters also blocked as many as ten fuel depots 146 On this first day of protests a 63 year old pensioner was run over by a motorist in Le Pont de Beauvoisin while she was demonstrating at a roundabout at the entrance to a commercial zone 121 147 A motorcyclist died after being struck the same day by a van trying to get around a barricade 148 By 21 November casualties had climbed to 585 civilians and 115 police injured with 16 civilians and 3 police severely wounded 149 Protests also occurred in the French overseas region of Reunion where the situation developed into looting and riots Schools on the island were closed for three days after protesters blocked access to roads On 21 November President Macron ordered the deployment of troops to the island to calm the violence 150 24 November Act II Edit With the protests in Paris having raised tensions the previous week the Interior Ministry agreed to allow a gathering on 24 November at the Champ de Mars 150 The protests attracted 106 000 people all across France 151 only 8 000 of whom were in Paris where the protests turned violent Protesters lit fires in the streets tore down signs built barricades and pulled up cobblestones Police resorted to tear gas and water cannons to disperse the protesters 100 On 26 November an official estimated that the riots in Paris during the two previous days had cost up to 1 5m 1 680 000 in damage Two hundred additional workers were assigned to assist with the cleanup and repair work 152 1 December Act III Edit A gilets jaunes demonstration in Belfort on 1 December A protest called Act 3 Macron Quits fr was organised for 1 December 153 Yellow jackets briefly occupied the runway at Nantes Atlantique Airport and prevented access to Nice Cote d Azur Airport Vinci Autoroutes reported tollbooths were blocked on 20 major arteries all across France 154 155 156 In Marseille where demonstrations have been frequent since 5 November collapse of a building and the evacuation of the surrounding neighbourhood 157 an 80 year old Algerian woman trying to close her shutters was hit by shards from a police tear gas canister later dying while in surgery 158 159 A second motorist was killed on the third weekend after crashing his van into stopped lorries at a barricade on the Arles bypass 148 More than 100 cars were burned in Paris during the protest on 1 December and the Arc de Triomphe was vandalised 145 A man fell into a coma and several people were seriously injured after the yellow vests tore down a 15 ft cast iron railing from the Tuilerie garden 160 On the following Monday Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo estimated the property damages at 3 4 million 3 358 000 4 480 000 158 8 December Act IV Edit A gilets jaunes demonstration in Paris on 8 December 2018 Protests turned violent for the second week in a row in Le Puy en Velay Civil unrest marred the Festival of Lights in both Lyon and Saint Etienne 161 The A6 motorway was again blocked north of Lyon in Villefranche sur Saone 162 In Bordeaux after two hours of skirmishes between the police and protesters rioters took advantage of the situation to set fires and pillage the local Apple Store 163 Paris experienced protests for the fourth consecutive week Many shops were boarded up in anticipation of violence with The Louvre Eiffel Tower and the Paris Opera also closed 164 Police assembled steel fences around the Elysee Palace and deployed armoured vehicles on the streets in an attempt to limit the violence 164 10 December Macron s televised address Edit In his 10 December speech to the French people in response to the movement Macron pledged a 100 per month increase in the minimum wage in 2019 the exclusion of charges and taxes on overtime hours in 2019 and on any 2018 end of year bonuses paid to employees Macron likewise announced that pensioners on low incomes would be excluded from an increase in the CSG in 2019 He stood by his replacement of the solidarity tax on wealth with increases in property taxes 165 166 The broadcast was watched by more than 23 million people making it the most viewed political speech in French history 167 After investigation it became apparent that the minimum wage itself would not be raised by 100 a month but that those eligible would see an increase in the activity bonus paid by the CAF 54 On 11 December after having declared a state of economic and social emergency the day before Macron invited representatives of the French banks to the Elysee to announce that the banks had agreed to freeze their prices in 2019 and to permanently limit incident related fees to 25 a month 28 month for people in extreme financial difficulty as determined by the Bank of France 168 15 December Act V Edit In the wake of the 2018 Strasbourg attack the government asked protesters to stay off the streets According to the Paris prefecture estimates there were 8 000 police for 2 200 demonstrators in Paris 60 The Minister of the Interior estimated that 66 000 people protested in France on 15 December 169 Conflict arose in Bordeaux Toulouse Marseille Lyon and the capital Priscillia Ludosky in front of the Paris Opera said over megaphone We are exhausted by the colossal pressure of taxation that takes away the energy of our country of our entrepreneurs of our artisans of our small businesses of our creators and of our workers while a small elite constantly dodges taxes 169 At the end of the day the Interior Minister called for the roundabouts occupied since 17 November to be liberated 170 22 December Act VI Edit A gilets jaunes demonstration in Belfort on 22 December Demonstrations continued throughout the country The Ministry of the Interior announced a participation figure almost half that of the previous week with 38 600 demonstrators throughout France including 2 000 in Paris according to the Prefecture of Police 171 172 Versailles Palace was preventively closed for the day 173 Eric Drouet the 33 year old truck driver who is one of the most followed yellow jackets on Facebook was arrested for organising an undeclared demonstration and participating in a violent assembly He had called on Facebook for demonstrators to meet at Versailles but then revised the call to Montmartre after it had been announced that Versailles would be closed Authorities say that Drouet was carrying a truncheon and would be summoned in court where they would seek to prevent him from coming to Paris 174 Protesters blocked border traffic to Switzerland at Cluse et Mijoux They were dispersed after one hour by police 175 Similar operations were conducted at the Spanish Italian German and Belgian borders 175 Two distribution platforms were blocked in Montelimar EasyDis Groupe Casino and Amazon 176 177 Overall at least 220 people were arrested in the country including 142 in Paris 178 A motorist was killed on 21 December when his car hit a truck that was stopped at a blockade in Perpignan the tenth fatality overall 172 29 December Act VII Edit Demonstrations in front of Radio France Paris Much quieter than in the first weeks on a national level there was a significant confrontation in Rouen Normandy after fires were set in front of the local branch of the Banque de France 179 In Paris the protesters demonstrated in front of the headquarters of BFM TV Liberation and France Televisions Victor Glad suggests that the same crisis of representation motivating the citizens initiative referenda is also behind the gilets jaunes criticism of the traditional media 180 2019 Edit 5 January Act VIII Edit According to French Ministry of the Interior the first demonstrations of 2019 brought 50 000 people into the streets across France A door to Rennes city hall was damaged while government Spokesman Benjamin Griveaux was evacuated from his office on Rue de Grenelle Paris through the garden after rioters hijacked a forklift to break down the door to the Ministry There were also skirmishes in Bordeaux Nantes Caen amp Rennes 181 Women s role both in defining the movement s objectives 70 182 and in communicating at roundabouts 183 is for editorialist Pierre Rimbert a reflection of the fact that women make up the majority of workers in intermediary professions but are three times more likely to be classed as employees than men according to an INSEE study in 2017 184 185 Women organized separate demonstrations in Paris Toulouse and Caen According to one of the organizers the goal was to have a channel of communication other than violence 186 A civil servant and former light heavyweight boxing champion was filmed fighting with two gendarmes on a footbridge about one of the gendarmes use of force One month later the civil servant was sentenced to serve one year of sleeping in jail which allowed him to continue to work 187 The interior minister announced that over 60 of the traffic enforcement cameras in the country had been vandalised 188 This was up from estimates of 50 in early December 189 12 January Act IX Edit Attendance increased in the ninth straight weekend of protests with at least 84 000 demonstrating on 12 January for economic reform across France including 8 000 in Paris 6 000 in Bourges 6 000 in Bordeaux and 2 000 in Strasbourg 190 191 192 Government officials deployed 80 000 security forces nationwide vowing zero tolerance for violence 192 The CRS riot police resorted to tear gas in most major cities 190 On the streets of Paris protesters marching noisily but mostly peacefully 191 singing the French national anthem were met by 5 000 riot police officers armored vehicles and barricades 192 Citing 5 January attack on the Dijon gendarmerie and terror threats the police communication service said that some CRS agents were authorized to carry semi automatic weapons This was confirmed by the Paris prefecture 193 194 Small groups of people left the designated protest route and threw projectiles at police 191 Around the Arc de Triomphe riot police fired water cannon and tear gas at protesters after being hit with stones and paint 191 244 people were arrested nationwide 156 in Paris 191 192 A massive 191 gas explosion caused by an apparent gas leak in a bakery in northern Paris killed four people including two firefighters already at the scene investigating the leak and injured dozens more 191 195 The explosions occurred early on 12 January 191 while Paris was under heavy guard in anticipation of the day s demonstrations 195 The French Interior Minister told the media that responsibility triumphed over the temptation of confrontation and that protesters marched in Paris without serious incident 192 19 January Act X Edit Tribute to the dead during the movement Paris act 10 As in week IX police estimated that 84 000 people demonstrated across France including a peak of 10 000 in Toulouse for a short period 7 000 in Paris where protesters demonstrated on the Left Bank for the first time 4 000 in Bordeaux and 2 500 in both Marseille and Angers 196 This weekly protest is the first to happen after the launch of the Great National Debate by President Emmanuel Macron citation needed 26 January Act XI Edit Nationwide demonstrations continued for an eleventh straight week on Saturday 26 January The French interior ministry estimated crowds of 69 000 across the country and local police estimated 4 000 in Paris A high profile member of the protest movement Jerome Rodrigues was maimed after being shot in the face by police with a flash ball launcher resulting in the loss of his right eye Dozens of people have been similarly injured during the course of the yellow vests protests 197 I was deliberately targeted I am a figure of the movement at least in the Paris protests and police pointed their fingers at me many times during previous demonstrations so I think they knew very well who they were shooting at Rodrigues told the media 198 The following day an estimated 10 000 people marched in Paris in a foulards rouges red scarves counter protest in opposition to the yellow vests 197 198 2 February Act XII Edit On Friday 1 February 2019 Edouard Philippe went to Bordeaux and informed merchants that an agreement had been found with insurers to treat insurance damage claims in successive weeks as part of a single event with a single deductible He also announced that the ten cities most affected by degradations including Bordeaux would receive 300 000 336 000 199 On Saturday 2 February between 10 000 and 13 800 people protested in Paris 200 201 with thousands more in Tours Valence Marseille Bordeaux Toulouse and other French cities 200 201 In Valence the downtown shopping district was boarded up the city had removed trash cans park benches and protective fencing around trees in preparation Paving stones had been tarred over to eliminate the risk of their being used as projectiles 202 According to the prefecture 1850 people demonstrated in downtown Tours which had likewise been boarded up 203 A Gilets jaunes protest in Paris 9 February 2019 The demonstrations of Act XII focused on denouncing the number of serious injuries caused by police violence during anti government demonstrations 201 204 According to the French government around 2 000 civilians were injured in protests between November 2018 and February 2019 including four serious eye injuries 204 The government agency that investigates police abuses has opened 116 investigations into police conduct during the protests ten of which concern serious eye injuries suffered by protesters 201 A group of 59 lawyers published an open letter denouncing the treatment of protesters in the courts including rushed judgments against protesters without regard for their rights which they contrasted with the slow pace of investigations into reports of police violence 201 Earlier in the week France s highest court denied a request to ban police from using flash balls or defensive ball launchers known as LBDs that shoot 40 millimetres 1 6 in rubber projectiles which have been blamed for a number of serious injuries 201 French Interior Minister Christophe Castaner admitted in media interviews that the weapon could cause injuries and had been used more than 9 000 times since yellow vests demonstrations began 201 The day before the Act XII protests the government warned the public that police would not hesitate to use the weapons to combat violence by demonstrators since they had been authorized by the court 200 204 On Saturday thousands in Paris participated in a march of the injured calling for the weapon to be banned 201 Injured protesters marched at the front some wearing eye patches with a target sign on them 200 Jerome Rodrigues a well known participant in the movement who lost an eye in the previous week s demonstrations was received warmly with applause by the crowds 201 204 Most of the demonstrations during Act XII were peaceful 204 As in prior weeks 80 000 security officials had been mobilized including 5 000 in Paris 200 In Paris police used tear gas and water cannons at Place de la Republique in the city centre to force demonstrators back after clashes with protesters some hooded or masked and some who set fire to bins and a scooter Despite these incidents the media reported that demonstrations remained relatively calm compared to previous weekends 204 Two police officers were injured and two protesters arrested in Morlaix two officers injured and one demonstrator arrested in Nantes and in Lille where between 1 800 and 3 000 protesters marched 20 were arrested 201 The twelfth week of protests occurred as the French parliament was considering a new law proposed by Macron s governing party restricting the right to protest The proposed law would outlaw covering one s face during a street demonstration whether with a helmet mask or scarf punishable by a 15 000 16 800 fine or imprisonment 205 and allow local police to establish blacklists of people not allowed to participate in street protests 201 204 205 The proposed law was opposed by some members of parliament inside and outside Macron s party 205 16 February Act XIV Edit Bordeaux 9 February 2019 About 41 500 protesters 5 000 in Paris took to the streets again on Saturday 16 February for the 14th consecutive weekend citation needed In Paris a group of individuals involved in the march confronted the high profile Jewish philosopher and academician Alain Finkielkraut with anti Semitic verbal abuse Police stepped in to protect him and Macron later said that this behaviour was an absolute negation of what made France great and would not be tolerated 206 207 The man leading the insults against the philosopher on published video recordings of the event was detained for questioning on Tuesday on charges of hate speech Police indicated he was close to the Salafi movement in 2014 208 16 March Act XVIII Edit Leaders of the movement stated on 8 March 2019 that a protest which had already been dubbed The Ultimatum was planned for the following weekend of 16 March 209 200 people were taken into custody in Paris after the Champs Elysees was again targeted by rioters Luxury stores including Fouquet s Hugo Boss and Xiaomi were among the 80 businesses damaged pillaged or set ablaze Anne Hidalgo the Mayor of Paris called upon the government to do something about the political and social fracture 210 In response the French government announced it would deploy the military in addition to extra police and gendarmery forces The soldiers were drafted from Operation Sentinelle active since the January 2015 terror attacks in Paris 211 7 September Act XLIII Edit New protests were held in cities including Montpellier Rouen and Strasbourg 212 21 September Act XLV Edit A new wave of yellow vest protests initiated in Paris for the 45th consecutive week Over a hundred demonstrators were taken into custody after they attempted to enter Avenue Champs Elysees by force 213 2020 Edit 14 March Act LXX Edit People participated in the protests of 14 March 2020 in spite of the imminent COVID 19 national lockdown but leaders of the movement like Maxime Nicolle and Jerome Rodrigues called on staying safe at home 214 The lockdown effectively put an end to the weekly protests Fatalities and injuries Edit Gilets jaunes leader Jerome Rodrigues lost an eye after a police intervention on 26 January 2019 60 215 As of 22 December 2018 10 fatalities had been linked to the protests in France 216 Fatalities Date Number Context17 November 1 pedestrian car 148 19 November 1 motorbike truck 148 1 2 December 1 car HGV LGV 148 1 December fr 1 tear gas grenade Marseille 158 159 10 December 1 car HGV LGV 217 12 13 December 1 pedestrian HGV LGV 217 14 December 2 car HGV LGV 218 car car 219 20 December 1 pedestrian truck 220 22 December 1 car truck 216 By late December over 1 843 protesters and 1 048 police had been injured 221 Injuries included tens of facial trauma jaws or even eyes caused by police non lethal weapon ammunition 222 nicknamed flash ball despite not being of the type 223 224 that are supposed to be fired at the legs not at the head and are accurate enough for this purpose 225 As of 14 January 2019 94 had been reported as seriously injured including 14 with monocular blindness and one who had to be treated for a brain haemorrhage and left in an artificial coma from which he emerged on the following Friday 226 227 Impact EditAdama Committee and Nuit Debout Edit On 29 November Francois Ruffin the founder of left wing Fakir magazine organised a mobilising meeting with various French left wing movements at which Frederic Lordon spoke of the Yellow Vests saying If the Nuitdeboutistes who got all wound up into deforestation and anti specist commissions can t get moving when this happens then they are the lowest of the low 228 Students protesting against the government s educational reforms Edit Angered by Macron s education reforms and plans to change the baccalaureat a secondary school leaving exam students protested in cities across France 229 Students expressed concern that these reforms will lead to further inequalities of access to higher education between students in urban peri urban and rural areas 230 231 232 On 6 December over 140 students were arrested outside a school in Mantes la Jolie A video of the mass arrest showing students kneeling with their hands behind their heads inspired indignation 233 Jean Michel Blanquer the French Education Minister said that although he was shocked by the scene it needed to be viewed in context 234 235 Amnesty International issued a report about the incident 236 On the same day France Bleu reported that Saint Etienne was under siege 237 It was in this context that the mayor of Saint Etienne suggested first by tweet then by press release that the Festival of Lights in neighbouring Lyon be cancelled to free up police in the region 238 University students have reportedly joined the movement denouncing the planned increase of tuition fees for foreign students from non EU countries 239 Christmas shopping season Edit Overall by mid December trade losses of 2 billion 2 24 109 had been reported as a result of the blocked roundabouts leading to commercial zones and the closures of urban chains The chain supermarkets in particular reported that traffic had been down significantly estimating the overall loss at around 600 million 672 000 000 as of 13 December 240 A Gilets jaunes protest in December 2018 A terror attack on 11 December 2018 at the Strasbourg Christmas market contributed to heightened public security concerns and smaller demonstrations in Act V Conspiracy theories began to be circulated on social media forthwith suggesting that the attack which had been perpetrated by a 29 year old man with multiple criminal convictions was in fact a manufactured event 241 242 Vinci growth Edit Vinci SA which operates roughly half of France s highway concessions stated in its annual report to investors that traffic had dropped nine percent in the final three months of 2018 as a result of the protests 243 CEO Xavier Huillard said the fourth quarter loss wiped out the increase in traffic of the first 10 months 244 Tourism Edit The riots have led to a declining number of tourists to Paris in 2019 with hotel owners reporting fewer bookings in the run up to the summer tourist season 245 Cancellations have risen as visitors are scared off from traveling to France for safety and security concerns while corporate trips have also sought to avoid Paris because the protests have turned the city into a liability 246 Overall France reported the largest decreases in international tourist activity in Europe compared to countries such as the United Kingdom Italy Spain and Germany 247 Cultural impact Edit A video of comedian Anne Sophie Bajon known as La Bajon in the role of Emmanuel Macron s lawyer wearing a yellow vest has been seen several million times on social networks 248 Dancer Nadia Vadori Gauthier improvised a choreography in the street during demonstrations with the fumes of the various gases and fires of cars 249 On 15 December 2018 on the sidelines of the demonstration on the Champs Elysees Deborah De Robertis organized a demonstration in which five women appear topless in front of the French police with a costume reminiscent of the French Goddess of Liberty Marianne 250 A video of a performance by yellow vests protesters at a roundabout of Michel Fugain s 1975 hit song Les Gentils Les Mechants The Good Ones The Evil Ones received over 800 000 views online 251 A restaurant in Nimes created a yellow vests inspired hamburger served on a bright yellow bun with a circular roundabout beef patty onions from the vegetable plot of the Elysee Palace tear gas pepper sauce and CRS sauce made of cream ricotta and Saint Moret cheese a reference to the French riot police the Compagnies Republicaines de Securite 252 Reactions and counter protest Edit Riot police in Brussels in December 2018 In late November 2018 polls showed that the movement had widespread support in France ranging from 73 253 to 84 percent 124 An opinion poll conducted after 1 December events found that 73 percent of French people supported the gilets jaunes and that 85 percent were opposed to the violence in Paris 254 Truckers were targeted by protesters and the industry made their displeasure with the situation known to the government in an open letter 102 Two labor unions CGT and FO who had initially called on truckers to start striking on 9 December 255 retracted their call on 7 December after having consulted the government and their membership 256 The recently named 257 Minister of the Interior Christophe Castaner blamed Marine Le Pen Macron s opponent in the 2017 presidential election and her Rassemblement National party for the violence on 24 November 2018 after she had reportedly urged people to go to the Champs Elysees 151 Le Pen responded that letting people assemble on the Champs Elysees was the government s responsibility and accused the Minister of the Interior of trying to increase the tension to discredit the movement 151 French riot police in Paris 26 January 2019 Although President Macron had been insisting that the fuel tax increases would go through as planned on 4 December 2018 the government announced that the tax rises would be put on hold with Prime Minister Edouard Philippe saying that no tax deserves to endanger the unity of the nation 39 258 In early December 2018 the prime minister announced that the price of the Electricite de France blue tariffs would not increase before March 2019 52 On Sunday 9 December the Elysee called trade unions and employers organizations to invite them to meet on Monday 10 December so Macron could present the measures he intended to announce later in the day 259 On 10 December Macron condemned the violence but acknowledged the protesters anger as deep and in many ways legitimate 260 He subsequently promised a minimum wage increase of 100 per month from 2019 cancelled a planned tax increase for low income pensioners and made overtime payments as well as end of year bonuses tax free 260 261 However Macron refused to reinstate a wealth tax he scrapped upon entering into office 262 263 Amnesty International called on police to end use of excessive force against protesters and high school children in France 236 264 Police unlike other public sector employees either saw their wages raised by 120 150 per month 134 168 by an agreement signed on 20 December 265 or received an annual 300 336 bonus by an amendment voted into law the previous day 266 Nicolas Chapuis writing for Le Monde says this was likely due to 85 turnout in recent police union elections and the exceptional levels of activity 265 In May 2019 Edouard Philippe changed his view on his main political decision for saving lives allowing a 90 km h 56 mph speed limit agreeing that the speed limit of local roads become managed at local level departement rather than decided by the Prime Minister 267 Comparisons Edit Adam Gopnik writes that gilets jaunes can be viewed as part of a series of French street protests stretching back to at least the strikes of 1995 Citing historian Herrick Chapman he suggests General de Gaulle s centralisation of power when creating the French Fifth Republic was so excessive that it made street protests the only dynamic alternative to government policy 268 A gilets jaunes demonstration in Paris in December 2018 1 December riots in Paris were widely acknowledged to have been the most violent since May 1968 82 Paris based journalist John Lichfield said that the 1968 events had a joyous side to them largely absent from the yellow vest movement but that both movements were similar in that they lacked recognized leaders much as the banlieues riots of 2005 had 122 According to French scholar Beatrice Giblin comparisons between the gilets jaunes and the Bonnets Rouges who opposed a new eco tax in 2013 were inapt because the latter had been taken in hand by real leaders such as the mayor of Carhaix or the great bosses of Brittany whereas that was not the case for the yellow jackets 269 Some have compared the yellow vests to other modern populist movements such as the Occupy movement in the United States 79 270 the Five Star Movement in Italy 67 79 and Orbanism in Hungary 268 Others have drawn parallels to popular revolts in late medieval Europe like the Jacquerie 271 to Poujadism to the Brownshirts 122 272 and to the French Revolution 273 274 Foulards rouges red scarves Edit On 27 January 2019 a counter demonstration occurred in Paris by a group identifying themselves by the foulards rouges red scarves they chose to wear They put out a joint statement with other groups saying We denounce the insurrectional climate created by the yellow vests We also reject the threats and constant verbal abuse aimed at non yellow vests 275 276 277 Concerns about extremist elements in the movement Edit Concerns that the yellow vests movement were providing a new forum for extremist views were more frequently reported in the media after Alain Finkielkraut was insulted in week XIV Vincent Duclert fr an expert on anti Semitism said that while the gilets jaunes are not an anti Semitic movement each Saturday there are anti Semitic expressions by groups of the extreme right or extreme left Jean Yves Camus an expert on French political extremism identified an inherent weakness of a movement that lets the people speak as being that anyone whether far left far right radical Islamist or anti Zionist can say whatever they want in the street with little concern for propriety or legality 278 Finkielkraut interviewed by BFM TV was especially concerned with the viral nature of what he called a new type of anti racist anti Semitism which he says consists of comparing the Israeli colonization of Palestine with Nazism He named Dieudonne and Alain Soral as those responsible for propagating this new form of anti Semitism 279 According to a study conducted in February 2019 half of all yellow vest protesters 50 said they believed in a global Zionist conspiracy 280 The Gilets noirs movement arose partly in response to perceived racist anti immigrant and pro fascist sentiment among the Gilets jaunes citation needed Protests adopting yellow vests as a symbol EditThis section may require copy editing for grammar style cohesion tone or spelling You can assist by editing it November 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message France afterwards Edit 2020 Edit 25 July Edit After the government change on Saturday 25 July 2020 several dozen people protested in Toulouse 281 12 September Edit For the first time after the Coronavirus lockdown protesters returned to the streets of which more than 250 were arrested by the police Some of the protesters wore black clothes and carried the flag of an anti fascist movement suggesting the presence of radical demonstrators dubbed black blocs often blamed for violence at street marches in France 282 10 12 October Edit Yellow vests launched fireworks at a police station in Paris and struck it with metal bars No injuries occurred It is also suspected to be linked to the disapproval of the French police s police brutality issues Delinquent youth also appeared in the group of around 40 people some unrelated to the cause 283 284 2020 2021 Edit Anti security protests Edit This section may lend undue weight to only the use of yellow vests Please help to create a more balanced presentation Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message July 2021 Demonstrations sometimes called marches of freedom or marches of freedom and justice gathered several thousand people including yellow vests in several French cities on the evening of 17 November at the initiative of a union of journalists and human rights defense associations 285 Violence breaks out in Paris Several employed journalists are handled by police officers photographer Taranis News and French journalist 3 Paris Ile de France have been taken into police custody receive a reminder of the law provoking strong criticism from the audiovisual group and journalists unions who also see effects national law enforcement plan published two months ago 286 287 288 289 Other demonstrations are being held on 21 November in about 20 cities 290 291 This is also the case on 28 November 292 this time in more than seventy cities 293 Between 46 000 Interior Ministry and 200 000 people organizers demonstrated that day in Paris between 133 000 and 500 000 in France 294 295 Syrian photojournalist Ameer Al Halbi was wounded in the face with a baton 296 297 298 The Reporter Without Borders filed a complaint for intentional violence by a person with public authority106 According to the Ministry of the Interior several dozen police officers and gendarmes were wounded and one of them in Paris was pushed to the ground and then severely beaten 299 On 5 December about 90 parades parade across France and gather according to the Interior Ministry about 50 000 people clashes with police took place in Paris Dijon Nantes and Lyon which according to Gerald Darmanin led to 95 arrests and resulted in 67 injuries among police including 48 in Paris In addition the protester was severely wounded in the arm probably by a GM2L bomb 300 301 302 303 The Paris demonstration on 12 December 2020 gathered 5 000 protesters against the police 304 and took place without major incidents against Le Monde113 but MPs associations and unions during the demonstrations condemned arbitrary arrests Gerald Darmanin mentions 142 arrests and welcomes the position of the forces security that would enable the avoidance of violence 305 Police have been in prison several times 32 times according to Mediapart 306 to arrest potentially violent people 307 but according to footage broadcast by Mediapart these attacks occur for no apparent reason 308 Of the 142 arrested 5 were convicted including only two for acts of violence On 22 December 2020 the State Council seized by La Quadrature du Net ruled that the monitoring of these demonstrations by the Paris police prefecture using drones was illegal 309 Tens of thousands of protesters marched across France on 16 January 2021 to condemn a security law that critics say would restrict police filming and posting pictures on social media especially to document cases of police brutality 310 A new rally against the protection of police officers was held on 30 January with significantly fewer demonstrators than in November and December 2020 In the afternoon and evening there were occasional incidents between the police and the demonstrators Police used batons tear gas and water cannons 311 The following Saturday 6 February 2021 three protests took place in Bordeaux Fabienne Buccio the prefect has issued a new prefecture decree banning all processions parades and gatherings on the streets of the inner city She is especially afraid that she will join these declared demonstrations of individuals who are openly hostile to the police and who want to create disturbances in the public order in the city center 312 Protests were also held in Nantes Toulouse Paris and Nancy where occasional incidents took place at the end of the procession 313 Vaccination obligation sanitary pass Edit This section may lend undue weight to only the use of yellow vests Please help to create a more balanced presentation Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message October 2021 Main article Protests over responses to the COVID 19 pandemic The announcement of president Macron on 12 July 2021 of a COVID 19 vaccination obligation for all health care workers by 15 September as well as the obligation for people older than twelve to show a sanitary pass as of August for admittance to cafes restaurants cinemas hospitals 314 senior citizens homes trains 315 shopping malls 316 and other public venues led to protests across France The sanitary pass should prove that someone is either vaccinated has recently tested negative 314 or has recovered from COVID 19 317 Macron s motivation was We are in a new race against time Vaccination is the only way to protect yourself and others 314 Marine Le Pen challenger of Macron in the 2022 French presidential election immediately condemned the vaccination obligation as indecent insolence attesting of ingratitude towards the health care workers 314 On Wednesday 14 July the French National day called Bastille Day in Paris some 2 250 people protested against these new corona restrictions Demonstrations were also held in Toulouse Bordeaux Montpellier Nantes and 48 other places totalling around 19 000 protesters Slogans chanted were Down with dictatorship Down with the health pass A demonstrator equated the health pass with segregation Objects and fireworks were thrown at the police who answered with tear gas and arrests 318 On Saturday 17 July nationwide some 114 000 people protested against the two new measures 319 On 24 July some 160 000 people around France protested against the measures Protesters chanted Liberty Liberty Projectiles including a chair were thrown at the police in Paris who reacted with tear gas and water cannons 320 On 25 July the French Senate nevertheless agreed to the measures except the pass obligation for children under 18 years old 321 On 31 July over 200 000 people nationwide protested against these plans Thousands around Place de la Bastille in Paris chanted Liberte Freedom Signs accused Macron of being a dictator 322 A bus driver motivated his protest as I m not an antivaxer But this is going to fast I want to wait and see A hospital worker said These vaccines are experimental there s no way I m gonna take it 319 A placard in Paris cited Macron Je ne rendrai pas la vaccination obligatoire Emmanuel Macron Novembre 2020 I will not make vaccination obligatory Macron Nov 2020 Another De la democratie a la dictature il n y a qu un lt lt PASS gt gt From democracy to dictatorship is only one step or one pass 323 Another VACCINE A LA LIBERTE VACCINATED FOR FREEDOM 324 On Saturday 7 August 237 000 people protested on 198 locations in France the authorities reported In Paris Lyon Toulouse rioters pelted the police with all sorts of things police reacted with tear gas and charges and arrests 325 The sanitary pass obligation came into effect on 9 August civilians risk a fine of 135 euro for disobedience business owners risk a 45 000 euro fine or one year prison and the closure of their business 317 On 14 August 2021 between 200 000 and 250 000 people according to the police and the organisers have again demonstrated on more than 200 locations in France against the pass sanitaire and the obligated vaccination of health care personnel Placards compared the sanitary pass with Apartheid people chanted slogans about the health dictatorship Police in Lyon used pepper spray against rioters 326 Thousands of people demonstrated again on the streets of France on Saturday August 21 against the government s policy of vaccination against Covid 19 amid concerns from human rights groups over the anti Semitic mood in the protest movement 327 328 Protesters in Toulouse Occitania 28 August 2021 More than 141 000 people marched the following Saturday September 4 against the health pass this weekend which is another drop in the number of the eighth consecutive Saturday of protests There were 215 marches across France five of them in Paris attracting 18 000 people to the capital according to the Interior Ministry The total number of people 141 655 is down from last weekend when nearly 160 000 people came out across the country 329 More than 120 000 people demonstrated on Saturday September 11 in France according to official data in protest against health passes 329 Since then these protests grew smaller on Saturday 18 September 2021 the demonstrators in France against the sanitary pass and obligated vaccination counted 80 000 330 About 20 000 people gathered on October 16 across France for the same reasons There were occasional clashes between police and protesters in Paris 331 About 800 people paraded on Saturday October 23 in Nantes in the afternoon 332 Other countries or regions Edit A gilets jaunes protest in London United Kingdom Locations of yellow vests protests The largest yellow vest protest outside France was held in Taipei with over 10 000 demonstrating on 19 December Their principal concern was tax justice 333 334 Some protests in other countries are related to the central concerns of the French movement taxation high living costs representation and income disparity Others are related primarily by the use of the readily available symbol Belgium Edit A gilets jaunes protest in Brussels Belgium Riot police in Brussels were pelted with billiard balls cobblestones and rocks on 30 November and responded with water cannons 60 arrests were made for disturbing the public order 335 Several oil depots had been blocked in Wallonia as of 16 November 2018 though protesters attempts to block the Russian Lukoil depot in Brussels were quickly thwarted by police 2 Some members of the movement began working to form a party for the Belgian federal elections in 2019 under the name Mouvement citoyen belge 2 336 On 8 December when protesters calling for the resignation of Prime Minister Charles Michel tried to breach a riot barricade police used tear gas and water cannons to disperse the demonstrators The protesters involved were throwing stones flares and other objects at police resulting in around 100 arrests 337 As of 12 January three people had died during gilets jaunes protests in Belgium two drivers were killed mid December by sudden traffic queues caused by roadblocks and one protester was fatally hit by a truck when his group tried to block the E25 highway between Liege and Maastricht on 11 January 338 Rest of the world Edit Australia Australian Liberty Alliance a minor far right political party rebranded itself as Yellow Vest Australia on 9 April 339 Bulgaria Anti government protesters in Bulgaria began wearing high visibility vests from 16 November 3 Canada In Canada the Yellow Vests is a far right and alt right movement 340 341 342 343 Starting in late 2018 after the France protests the Canadian Yellow Vests groups began to gain popularity The Canadian group incorporates a xenophobic message 341 is against the federal Greenhouse Gas Pollution Pricing Act and is pro petrochemical pipeline but is primarily focused on anti immigration anti Islam anti semitic and white supremacist rhetoric 340 344 Beginning in late December various yellow vest wearing protest movements have been seen across the country This protest movement known as Yellow Vests Canada does not follow the same goals as the French movement 345 Protests have had occasional outbreaks of violence 346 Groups of various protesters wearing yellow vests have taken place in at least a 30 cities and towns across Canada as of January 2019 A controversial event in February 2019 known as the United We Roll truck convoy attracted several Yellow Vest participants to the grounds of Parliament Hill in Ottawa 347 Prominent political officials such as federal Conservative Party leader Andrew Scheer and People s Party leader Maxime Bernier addressed the crowd 348 Scheer and Bernier drew criticism 349 350 351 352 for appearing at the United We Roll event when it was revealed that alt right personality Faith Goldy formerly of controversial Internet outlet Rebel Media was also in attendance 353 and made a presentation to the participants several of whom carried signs and chanted slogans accusing Prime Minister Justin Trudeau of treason 354 and demanding that Canada withdraw from the non binding United Nations Global Compact for Safe Orderly and Regular Migration GCM 350 Conservative Senator David Tkachuk was also at the rally and was criticized for his remarks calling upon truck drivers to roll over every Liberal left in the country 355 Liberal Minister of Natural Resources Amarjeet Sohi and NDP MP Nathan Cullen were among the members of Parliament who expressed concern that the presence of mainstream political leaders at the rally was lending legitimacy to the movement 355 Anti racism activist Evan Balgord director of the Canadian Anti Hate Network condemned Scheer for his support of an organization whose members have repeatedly promulgated conspiracy theories and made death threats against Muslims immigrants members of Parliament and Prime Minister Trudeau 350 A spokesperson for Scheer denied that the Conservative leader intended to lend support to racist and or violent groups telling columnist Martin Patriquin that We can t control who shows up to these events 351 On 15 June 2019 a number of Yellow Vests Canada protesters joined groups protesting LGBT individuals at a Pride Festival in Hamilton Ontario 356 357 and several people were injured 358 Croatia On 15 December 2018 Yellow Vests Croatia held demonstrations in Zagreb Pula and Rijeka 6 Egypt A lawyer was detained for 15 days after posting a picture of himself wearing a high visibility jacket in support of the protests in France 359 Sales restrictions on yellow reflective vests were introduced 360 361 causing backlash from human rights groups who stated that President Abdel Fattah al Sisi is attempting to suppress political opposition 362 363 Finland Anti immigration protesters who had begun demonstrations before the rise of the yellow vests movement have adopted the yellow vest symbol beginning with a demonstration on 17 December 8 Germany The yellow vests symbol was used both by the left and right wing groups including Pegida and Aufstehen who demonstrated at the Brandenburg Gate Dresden Munich and in Stuttgart 364 365 Iraq On 5 December 2018 yellow vest inspired protesters demonstrated in Basra Iraq for more job opportunities and better services They were reportedly fired upon with live ammunition 10 Ireland Initially at least three rival groups claimed the Yellow Vest name in Ireland and varied from general opposition to the government to far right alt right and xenophobic views 366 In December 2018 hundreds attended yellow vests protests in the centre of Dublin against the perceived failures of the Government 367 368 and also the use of fluoride in the public water supply 366 In January 2019 minor protests were held in Dublin Belfast 369 Galway Limerick Wicklow Waterford and Donegal 370 On 16 November and 14 December 2019 and on 12 September 2020 Yellow Vest Ireland participated in demonstrations in Dublin outside the Dail in opposition to proposed anti hate speech legislation and COVID lockdowns 371 By mid to late 2020 the group was protesting against COVID 19 prevention measures taken by the Irish government Violence erupted at the September protest and in October 2021 a Yellow Vest member Michael Quinn was sentenced to three years imprisonment with the final year suspended for assaulting a woman with a wooden pole at the protest 372 Israel Economic uncertainty and corruption led to a yellow vest rally at the Azrieli Centre Mall in Tel Aviv on 14 December 11 Italy The yellow vests symbol has been used by multiple protest groups in Italy In November 2018 a pro Italian government anti EU protest group launched a Facebook page with thousands of online supporters stating it was inspired by the French gilet jaunes 373 On 15 December several thousand people wearing yellow vests marched in Rome to protest against Italy s tough new anti migrant law 13 In January 2019 the leaders of Italy s ruling government coalition announced their support for the gilet jaunes protests in France AFP reported that it is extremely rare for European leaders to back anti government protesters in a fellow member state 374 Latvia Foundation Tautas varas fronte Front of the people power On 20 January leaders of this foundation started the campaign of yellow vests protesting against oil prices citation needed Libya During the 2019 Western Libya Offensive during which the capital city Tripoli was militarily attacked by the Libyan National Army under the command of Khalifa Haftar regular Friday street demonstrations against Haftar in Tripoli and Misrata included on 19 April and 3 May 2019 protestors wearing yellow vests to symbolise their opposition to perceived French support for Haftar s attack on Tripoli 375 376 377 Netherlands On 1 December a small number of yellow vest demonstrators protested in Dutch cities Further demonstrations occurred on 8 December where peaceful protesters marched through Rotterdam 17 337 Nigeria A yellow vest protester was seen in a protest demanding the release of Ibrahim Zakzaky 18 Pakistan Hundreds of engineers staged a day long protest at Lahore wearing yellow vests 19 378 Poland On 12 December a group of farmers blocked the A2 motorway 30 kilometers outside of Warsaw demanding compensation for pigs they were required to slaughter and protesting the importation of Ukrainian agricultural products unlabeled with respect to their country of origin The agricultural minister Jan Krzysztof Ardanowski met with the protesters to explain that their demands were met already 379 Portugal On 21 December 2018 a coletes amarelos yellow vest rally was held under the slogan Vamos Parar Portugal Let s Bring Portugal to a Halt 20 In spite of the 70 solidarity polled among the 10 million strong Portuguese public 20 less than one hundred demonstrators showed up for the rally for which authorities had 20 thousand uniformed police officers prepared for 380 Russia On 23 December 2018 Blue Bucket demonstrators at Sokolniki Park wore yellow vests at a rally against parking fee increases in Moscow 21 Yellow vests are also common in protests in the Arkhangelsk region against a plan to build landfill in Shiyes which is the smallest station and a village in the region 381 Serbia A civil rights organisation Zdruzena akcija Krov nad glavom started using yellow vests in its protests to oppose the eviction of a resident in the Mirijevo district of Belgrade and to show solidarity and common cause with French Yellow vest movement 22 Parallel to that on 4 December Bosko Obradovic the leader of the far right Dveri party called for demonstrations about high fuel prices in Serbia on 8 December 382 Spain During the taxi driver strike of January in Madrid and Barcelona many protesters used yellow vests citation needed Taiwan The Tax and Legal Reform League demonstrating for tax justice since December 2016 383 organized a yellow vests march on 19 December 333 Tunisia A derivative group the gilets rouges red vests emerged on Facebook calling for protests against the economic situation in the country 27 United Kingdom Pro Brexit groups involved in small scale protests in London and other UK cities have appropriated 384 or hijack ed 385 the yellow vests symbol 386 United States In Vermont a group called No Carbon Tax Vermont held a rally at the Vermont Statehouse on 9 January 2019 387 388 Notable members EditEtienne Chouard Laetitia Dewalle Priscillia LudoskySee also Edit2012 Sicilian protests 2013 Italian Pitchfork social protests Bonnets Rouges 2013 Indignados 2011 List of historical acts of tax resistance Nuit debout 2016 Protests against Emmanuel Macron Women in the yellow vests movementReferences Edit Yellow Vest movement has launched in Australia Courier Mail 2 January 2019 subscription required a b c Jean Pierre Stroobants En Belgique un mouvement de gilets jaunes se cherche un debouche politique Le Monde fr in French Archived from the original on 27 November 2018 Retrieved 27 November 2018 a b Gilets jaunes la Belgique et la Bulgarie ont elles aussi leurs Gilets jaunes LCI in French 20 November 2018 Archived from the original on 28 November 2018 Retrieved 2 December 2018 a b Remi Carlier 26 December 2018 Liban Tunisie Burkina Faso les Gilets jaunes font des emules a travers le monde France 24 in French Archived from the original on 27 December 2018 Retrieved 28 December 2018 Sarah Rieger 8 December 2018 Alberta yellow vest protests lack violence seen in Paris but anti immigration anger simmers CBC Archived from the original on 14 December 2018 Retrieved 15 December 2018 a b Hrvatski Zuti prsluci Nije iskljuceno da dođemo na adrese clanova vlade Index hr 15 December 2018 Archived from the original on 24 December 2018 Retrieved 24 December 2018 Zlute vesty v Praze KSCM svolala protest zucastnila se ho stovka lidi Yellow vests in Prague The KSCM convened a protest attended by a hundred people iDNES cz 26 January 2019 Retrieved 3 February 2021 a b Maanantaina tama on totta Suomessa Suomalaiset keltaliivit osoittavat mielta eduskuntatalon edessa meuhkataan havisi facebookin aanestyksen Talouselama in Finnish 13 December 2018 Archived from the original on 2 January 2019 Retrieved 1 January 2019 L Allemagne se connecte au phenomene des gilets jaunes RFI in French 28 November 2018 Archived from the original on 29 November 2018 Retrieved 2 December 2018 a b Linda Givetash 5 December 2018 France s Yellow Jackets inspire protesters in Iraq NBC News Archived from the original on 6 December 2018 Retrieved 5 December 2018 a b Hagay Hacohen 13 December 2018 Yellow Vest protest reach Israel rage against high living cost mounts The Jerusalem Post Archived from the original on 14 December 2018 Retrieved 13 December 2018 Dozens gather in Dublin for yellow vests protest Irish Times 15 December 2018 Archived from the original on 15 December 2018 Retrieved 16 December 2018 a b In Pictures Protesters march against Italy s tough new anti migrant law AFP via El Arabiya 16 December 2018 Archived from the original on 8 January 2019 Retrieved 7 January 2019 Several thousand people marched in Rome Saturday in protest at Italy s tough new anti migrant law which makes it easier to expel new arrivals The protesters waved flags and donned yellow vests emblazoned with the slogan Get up Stand Up for your right in a reference to the famous Bob Marley song The new law would only increase the number of people without papers in Italy and force people underground protester Kone Brahima originally from Ivory Coast told AFP Taylor Luck 13 December 2018 Jordanian protesters don yellow vests as demonstrations spread The National Archived from the original on 15 December 2018 Retrieved 15 December 2018 Sarah El Deeb 23 December 2018 Lebanese some in yellow vests protest political gridlock ABC News Archived from the original on 25 December 2018 Retrieved 8 January 2019 Libyan yellow vests accuse France and Macron of backing Tripoli assault The Local 20 April 2019 Retrieved 17 May 2019 a b Janene Pieters 10 December 2018 Limited turnout for yellow vests protests in Netherlands only three arrests NLtimes nl Retrieved 22 December 2018 a b El Zakzaky IMN Shiites protest in Lagos YouTube CoreTV News 22 July 2019 Retrieved 9 November 2019 a b Govt employed engineers block The Mall Pakistan Today 19 December 2018 Archived from the original on 22 December 2018 Retrieved 22 December 2018 a b c Portugal s yellow vests turn out for anti government protest Euronews 21 December 2018 Archived from the original on 24 December 2018 Retrieved 24 December 2018 a b Chernykh Alexander Buranov Ivan 23 December 2018 Zheltye zhilety doshli do Sokolnikov Yellow Vests reach Sokolniki Kommersant in Russian Archived from the original on 25 December 2018 Retrieved 25 December 2018 a b Neda Kurjacki 6 December 2018 Spreceno prinudno iseljenje u Mirijevu među aktivistima zuti prsluci N1info in Serbian Archived from the original on 15 December 2018 Retrieved 11 December 2018 translated title A forced eviction in Mirievo stopped by the yellow vest activists Obciansky Tribunal DOBYVATEĽKA OFFICIAL CLIP Civil Tribunal CONQUEROR OFFICIAL CLIP YouTube in Slovak 13 April 2019 Retrieved 3 February 2021 French yellow vests spark copycat protests worldwide Daily Sabah 17 December 2018 Archived from the original on 15 January 2019 Retrieved 15 January 2019 Oscan Yusuf Asiran Abdullah Altuntas Atila 2 February 2019 Yellow Vests continue protests across Europe Andalou Agency Retrieved 22 March 2019 Cheung Eric Yellow vest protest movement spreads to Taiwan CNN Archived from the original on 21 December 2018 Retrieved 22 December 2018 a b Trew Bel 11 December 2018 Egypt clamps down on yellow vest sales to avoid copycat protests as angry Tunisian activists launch red vest campaign The Independent Archived from the original on 12 December 2018 Retrieved 12 December 2018 Yellow vests reach Turkey as thousands protest cost of living Al Arabiya 17 December 2018 Archived from the original on 10 January 2019 Retrieved 10 January 2019 Are the Yellow Vests Spreading beyond France BBC 14 December 2018 Archived from the original on 14 December 2018 Retrieved 15 December 2018 Matamoros Cristina Abellan 16 November 2018 What are the gilets jaunes so upset about Euronews Retrieved 8 August 2019 A rise in crude oil prices in 2018 is the first reason why fuel prices have been high this year this increase has been strongly felt by motorists a b Furious French drivers to block roads in fuel price protest but are they right to The Local 30 October 2018 Archived from the original on 2 December 2018 Retrieved 2 December 2018 a b Jean Gabriel Bontinck les editions departementales 3 December 2018 Les radars cibles privilegiees des Gilets jaunes Radars privileged targets of yellow vests Le Parisien in French Archived from the original on 4 December 2018 Retrieved 5 December 2018 a b Spire Alexis December 2018 Aux sources de la colere contre l impot The sources of the anger against the tax Le Monde Diplomatique in French Archived from the original on 1 December 2018 Retrieved 1 December 2018 Lemarie Alexandre 4 December 2018 Les gilets jaunes ciblent la suppression de l ISF peche originel de Macron The yellow vests target the removal of the ISF original sin of Macron Le Monde in French Archived from the original on 5 December 2018 Retrieved 5 December 2018 Bourgeot Remi 26 November 2018 La mondialisation a enfante des gilets jaunes Globalization has given birth to the yellow vests Atlantico in French Archived from the original on 4 December 2018 Retrieved 4 December 2018 Same Old Elite Macron s Revolution Fails With Fed Up French The Globe Post 18 January 2019 Retrieved 21 March 2019 Durand Cedric 14 December 2018 A Movement With a Future Jacobin Retrieved 18 February 2019 The second path is that of the Left and the social movements a direction clearly developed in the critique of neoliberalism since the 1990s Among the gilets jaunes demands for social justice wage increases defense of public services and hostility to the oligarchy have been fueled by several decades of criticism of globalized and financialized capitalism The centrality of demands for the restoration of the wealth tax and the circulation of videos of Francois Ruffin or Olivier Besancenot testify to the strength of this left wing of the movement Trippenbach Ivanne Vigogne Ludovic 6 December 2018 Chez les Gilets jaunes la question de l immigration surgit apres celle de l impot L Opinion in French Retrieved 9 March 2021 Si le mouvement est ne du ras le bol fiscal et de la crise democratique un arriere fond identitaire transparait de plus en plus sur les reseaux sociaux Il se fixe desormais sur le pacte de Marrakech relatif aux migrations qu Emmanuel Macron doit valider lundi prochain In English If the movement was born of fiscal fed up and the democratic crisis an identity background is showing more and more on social networks It is now focused on the Marrakesh Pact on migration which Emmanuel Macron is due to validate next Monday CS1 maint postscript link a b Gregory Viscusi Helene Fouquet 4 December 2018 Macron Blinks as Yellow Vests Protest Forces Fuel Tax Climbdown Bloomberg Archived from the original on 4 December 2018 Retrieved 7 December 2018 a b c d e f g Gilets Jaunes 29 November 2018 Les revendication des gilets jaunes in French France Bleu Archived from the original on 12 December 2018 Retrieved 12 December 2018 a b c France 24 Yellow Vests open a new front in the battle Popular referendums 17 12 2018 Archived from the original on 2 January 2019 Retrieved 15 January 2019 Yellow vest protesters clash with police in Paris in pictures The Telegraph 1 December 2018 Archived from the original on 3 December 2018 Retrieved 4 December 2018 Anarchists butchers and finance workers A look at the Paris rioters The Local 5 December 2018 Retrieved 10 March 2019 a b The Yellow Vests Who they are and why their tax protest is a big deal The Mercury News Associated Press 20 November 2018 Archived from the original on 21 November 2018 Retrieved 21 November 2018 a b c Rodriguez Cecilia 2 December 2018 Riots In Paris Yellow Vests Violence Vandalism And Chaos Hitting Tourism Forbes Archived from the original on 3 December 2018 Retrieved 3 December 2018 Marlowe Lara 17 March 2019 Gilets jaunes protests cause extensive damage on Champs Elysees The Irish Times Retrieved 24 March 2019 The orgy of violence was carried out by a hard core of 1 500 hooligans wearing masks black gloves and in some cases yellow vests The most violent vandals are believed to be black bloc anarchists Almost 100 injured during French fuel protests Irish Times 2 December 2018 Archived from the original on 4 December 2018 Retrieved 3 December 2018 Nossiter Adam 2 December 2018 Yellow Vests Riot in Paris but Their Anger Is Rooted Deep in France The New York Times Archived from the original on 3 December 2018 Retrieved 3 December 2018 Hundreds arrested as police clash with Yellow Vest protesters in Paris France24 AP Reuters 2 December 2018 Archived from the original on 3 December 2018 Retrieved 3 December 2018 The violence burning and looting wasn t just in Paris on Saturday The Local 3 December 2018 Archived from the original on 3 December 2018 Retrieved 4 December 2018 Willsher Kim 4 December 2018 Gilets Jaunes protests in France to continue despite fuel tax U turn The Guardian Archived from the original on 4 December 2018 Retrieved 5 December 2018 a b Durand Anne Ael 5 December 2018 Pourquoi il est complique de geler les tarifs reglementes de l electricite Le Monde Archived from the original on 9 December 2018 Retrieved 10 December 2018 Macron Promises Minimum Wage Hike And Tax Cuts To End Yellow Vest Protests NPR Archived from the original on 11 December 2018 Retrieved 11 December 2018 a b Damien Durand 11 December 2018 Macron 100 de plus pour le Smic Pourquoi c est faux France Soir in French Archived from the original on 11 December 2018 Retrieved 12 December 2018 Mazoue Aude 22 March 2019 Yellow Vest protests Macron s risky plan to put army on streets France 24 Retrieved 23 March 2019 Nordstrom Louise 27 January 2019 Red Scarves and Blue Vests launch counter protest against Yellow Vests Archived from the original on 27 January 2019 Retrieved 27 January 2019 LutonsContreLeFn 9 January 2015 Qui est vraiment Etienne Chouard Le Club de Mediapart in French Retrieved 1 August 2019 Gilets jaunes Qui est Fly Rider dont les videos douteuses font un tabac sur Facebook Ouest France in French 6 December 2018 Retrieved 1 August 2019 Qui est Jerome Rodrigues blesse a l œil lors de la mobilisation de Gilets jaunes a Paris Ouest France in French 27 January 2019 Retrieved 7 June 2019 a b c Willsher Kim 27 January 2019 Gilets jaunes leader hit in eye during protest will be disabled for life The Guardian Retrieved 17 March 2019 Houel Jean Charles 15 February 2019 Christophe Chalencon gilet jaune aspire a une dictature militaire en France Le Club de Mediapart in French Retrieved 1 August 2019 lepoint fr 6 January 2019 Qui est Francois Boulo l avocat porte parole des Gilets jaunes a Rouen in French Retrieved 30 January 2020 dead link Gilets jaunes Le ministre de l Interieur indique que le pics de manifestants s est eleve a 282710 manifestants atteint vers 17 heures France Info in French Retrieved 20 November 2018 Coquaz Vincent 30 January 2019 Qui sont les 11 morts du mouvement des gilets jaunes mentionnes par Emmanuel Macron Checknews Archived from the original on 30 January 2019 Retrieved 5 July 2019 Mobilisations blessures arrestations un an de gilets jaunes en chiffres CNews in French 15 November 2019 Retrieved 20 November 2020 a b c Fareed Zakaria 13 December 2018 The new dividing line in Western politics The Washington Post Archived from the original on 17 December 2018 Retrieved 17 December 2018 Lucy Williamson 14 December 2018 The gilets jaunes BBC News Archived from the original on 19 December 2018 Retrieved 20 December 2018 Bell Melissa 14 January 2019 Macron vowed to fight the populists Now he s being engulfed by them CNN Archived from the original on 17 January 2019 Retrieved 17 January 2019 a b c d e Nossiter Adam 24 November 2018 Tear Gas and Water Cannons in Paris as Grass Roots Protest Takes Aim at Macron The New York Times ISSN 0362 4331 Archived from the original on 29 December 2018 Retrieved 28 December 2018 Rascouet Angelina Viscusi Gregory 22 December 2018 France s Yellow Vest Protests Abate as Fewer Take to Streets www bloomberg com Archived from the original on 29 December 2018 Retrieved 28 December 2018 Protests led by the grassroots Yellow Vest movement abated across France on Saturday a signal that a call to mobilize for a sixth straight weekend failed to maintain the momentum Viscusi Gregory 10 December 2018 Why People in Yellow Vests Are Blocking French Roads The Washington Post Archived from the original on 29 December 2018 Retrieved 28 December 2018 What started in November as a grassroots movement against plans to hike gas taxes has spiraled into widespread anger about the rising cost of living and discontent with French President Emmanuel Macron a b Driscoll Daniel 18 August 2021 Populism and Carbon Tax Justice The Yellow Vest Movement in France Social Problems spab036 doi 10 1093 socpro spab036 ISSN 0037 7791 Retrieved 28 August 2021 a b Petrequin Samuel 16 December 2018 Yellow vest protesters still block French traffic circles AP News Archived from the original on 29 December 2018 Retrieved 28 December 2018 Yellow vest protesters occupied dozens of traffic roundabouts across France on Sunday even as their movement for economic justice appeared to be losing momentum on the fifth straight weekend of protests McKay Hollie 16 December 2018 France s yellow vest protesters rage on for fifth weekend Fox News Archived from the original on 29 December 2018 Retrieved 28 December 2018 The movement which is largely seen as a rallying cry for economic justice from France s working class takes its name from the yellow safety vests French motorists are mandated to keep in their vehicles a b c Priscillia Ludosky une Martiniquaise derriere les gilets jaunes France Antilles in French 20 November 2017 Archived from the original on 10 January 2019 Retrieved 13 January 2019 Ce mardi soir cette derniere comptabilisait plus de 938 325 signataires sur internet Aline Leclerc Gilets jaunes anatomie d une journee de colere Le Monde Archived from the original on 19 November 2018 Retrieved 19 November 2018 Willsher Kim 16 November 2018 Gilets jaunes protesters threaten to bring France to a standstill the Guardian Archived from the original on 18 November 2018 Retrieved 19 November 2018 Smith Saphora 27 November 2018 The Champs Elysees in Paris became a blazing battleground Here s why NBC News Archived from the original on 1 December 2018 Retrieved 2 December 2018 Aurelie Dianara 30 November 2018 We re With the Rebels The Jacobin Archived from the original on 2 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incomes and who do not have the same mass transportation options as urban residents Lichfield John 9 February 2019 Just who are the gilets jaunes The Guardian ISSN 0261 3077 Retrieved 9 February 2019 Priscillia Ludosky la force tranquille des gilets jaunes L Obs in French 15 January 2019 Retrieved 9 February 2019 a b Leonardo Bianchi 20 November 2018 Chi sono i gilet gialli la versione francese dei Forcone Vice in Italian Archived from the original on 2 December 2018 Retrieved 1 December 2018 a b c John Lichfield 3 December 2018 Never before have I seen blind anger like this on the streets of Paris The Guardian Archived from the original on 7 December 2018 Retrieved 8 December 2018 Henry Mance 6 December 2018 Barricades in Paris make Brexit bankers think again Financial Times Archived from the original on 7 December 2018 Retrieved 8 December 2018 a b Walt Vivienne 30 November 2018 There Is an Atmosphere of Civil War France s Yellow Jackets Are Driving Fury at Macron Time Archived from 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2018 Archived from the original on 7 December 2018 Retrieved 7 December 2018 span, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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