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Yemeni Arabic

Yemeni Arabic is a cluster of varieties of Arabic spoken in Yemen, southwestern Saudi Arabia, Somaliland, and Djibouti. It is generally considered a very conservative dialect cluster, having many classical features not found across most of the Arabic-speaking world.

Yemeni Arabic
Native toYemen, southern Saudi Arabia, Djibouti and Somaliland.
Native speakers
15.1 million (2011)
Arabic alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
ayhHadhrami Arabic
aynSanaani Arabic
acqTa'izzi-Adeni Arabic
Glottologsana1295 Sanaani
hadr1236 Hadrami
taiz1242 Ta'izzi-Adeni
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see .

Yemeni Arabic can be divided roughly into several main dialect groups, each with its own distinctive vocabulary and phonology. The most important four groups are San'ani in the North and Center and Hadhrami in the East, where ⟨ق⟩ is pronounced[g] and ⟨ج⟩ is[d͡ʒ] or[ɟ] (except in coastal Hadhrami where ⟨ج⟩ is[j]), in addition to Ta'izzi-Adeni in the South and Tihami in the West, where ⟨ق⟩ is[q] and ⟨ج⟩ is[g]. Yemeni Arabic is used for daily communications and has no official status; Modern Standard Arabic is used in official purposes, education, commerce and media.

Non-Arabic South Semitic languages indigenous to the region include several Modern South Arabian languages, such as the Mehri and Soqotri languages, which are not Arabic languages, but members of an independent branch of the Semitic family. Another separate Semitic family once spoken in the region is Old South Arabian; these became extinct in the pre-Islamic period with the possible exceptions of Razihi and Faifi. Some of these share areal features with Yemeni Arabic due to influence from or on Yemeni Arabic.

Yemeni Arabic itself is influenced by Himyaritic, Modern South Arabian and Old South Arabian languages and possesses significant substratum from these languages.

Contents

Main article: San'ani Arabic
Main article: Ta'izzi-Adeni Arabic

Tihamiyya Arabic has many aspects which differentiate it from all other dialects in the Arab world. Phonologically Tihami is similar to the majority of Yemeni dialects, pronouncing the qāf (ق) as[q] and the ǧīm (ج) as a velar plosive[ɡ] (the ǧīm pronunciation is also shared with Egyptian Arabic). Grammatically, all Tihami dialects also share the unusual feature of replacing the definite article (al-) with the prefix (am-). The future tense, much like the dialects surrounding Sana'a, is indicated with the prefix (š-), for all persons, e.g. šabūk am-sūq "I will go to the Souq". Some Tihami dialects, such as that spoken in al Hudaydah, are otherwise fairly similar to other Yemeni dialects in grammar and syntax, differing mainly in vocabulary, while others can be so far from any other Arabic dialect that they are practically incomprehensible even to other Yemenis.

Zabidi dialect

Of all the dialects of the Tihama region, the dialect of Zabid displays the most innovations. It shares the transformed definite article of (am-) originally used in Himyaritic, with the rest of the Tihami dialects, but it is unique in retaining certain of the declensional suffixes in the nominative case. Indefinite masculine nouns in nominal sentences as well as the subjects of verbal sentences are suffixed with the sound (), which stems from the classical suffix (-un/-u). Likewise the phonology of the Zabidi sub-dialect is perhaps unique among all Arabic dialects in that it replaces the sound (ʿain)[ʕ] (ع) with the glottal stop ( ʾ )[ʔ] (ء). In terms of vocabulary, the Zabidi dialect shares very little with other Arabic dialects, in many respects it seems to be a different language. Zabidis use the verb bāka, yabūk to mean "to go." The word goh#d and goh#da mean man, and woman, respectively. And the word fiyān to mean "where", hence the phrase: fiyān bāyku? meaning "Where are you going?", which is grammatically parallel to the more familiar: wayn rāyih? of more mainstream dialects.

Phonology

The Hadhrami dialect in many towns and villages in the Wādī (valley) and the coastal region is characterised by its pronunciation of the voiced palatal plosive (or affricate) (ج) as the semi-vowel (ي) (y) ([j]). In this it resembles some Eastern Arabian and Gulf dialects including the dialects of Basra in Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain and the dialects of the other Arab Emirates. In educated speech, (ج) is realised as a voiced palatal plosive ([ɟ]) or affricate ([dʒ]) in some lexical items.

The ق[q] reflex is pronounced as a voiced velar[ɡ] in all lexical items throughout the dialect. With the spread of literacy and contact with speakers of other Arabic dialects, future sociolinguistic research may reveal whether HA is going to witness innovation like using the uvular/q/ in certain lexemes while retaining the velar/ɡ/ for others.

Wādī HA makes ث / ت[t],[θ] (⟨t⟩, ⟨ṯ⟩) and ذ / د[d],[ð] (⟨d⟩, ⟨ḏ⟩) distinction but ض (Classical Arabic/ɮˤ/) ⟨ḍ⟩ and ظ[ðˤ] ⟨đ̣⟩ are both pronounced ظ[ðˤ] whereas Coastal HA merges all these pairs into the stops د , ت and ض (/t/, /d/ and /ḍ/) respectively.

In non-emphatic environments, (ā) is realised as an open front (slightly raised) unrounded vowel. Thus (θānī) “second; psn. name”, which is normally realised with an[ɑː]-like quality in the Gulf dialects, is realised with an[æː] quality in HA.

This dialect is characterised by not allowing final consonant clusters to occur in final position. Thus Classical Arabic bint “girl” is realised as binit. In initial positions, there is a difference between the Wādī and the coastal varieties of HA. Coastal HA has initial clusters in (bġā) “he wants”, (bṣal) “onions” and (brīd) “mail (n.)” while Wādī HA realises the second and third words as (baṣal) and (barīd) respectively.

Morphology

When the first person singular comes as an independent subject pronoun, it is marked for gender, thus (anā) for masculine and (anī) for feminine. As an object pronoun, it comes as a bound morpheme, thus (–nā) for masculine and (–nī) for feminine. The first person subject plural is (naḥnā).

The first person direct object plural is (naḥnā) rather than (–nā) which is the case in many dialects. Thus, the cognate of the Classical Arabic (ḍarabanā) “he hit us” is (đ̣arab naḥnā) in HA.

Stem VI, (tC1āC2aC3), can undergo a vowel stem shift to (tC1ēC2aC3), thus changing the pattern vowel (ā) to (ē). This leads to a semantic change as in (tšāradaw) “they ran away suddenly” and (tšēradaw) “they shirk, try to escape”

Intensive and frequentative verbs are common in the dialect. Thus /kasar/ “to break” is intensified to /kawsar/ as in (kōsar fi l - l‘ib) “he played rough”. It can be metathesized to become frequentative as (kaswar min iđ̣-đ̣aḥkāt) “he made a series (lit. breaks) of giggles or laughs”.

Syntax

The syntax of HA has many similarities to other Peninsular Arabic dialects. However, the dialect contains a number of unique particles used for coordination, negation and other sentence types. Examples in coordination include (kann, lākan) “but; nevertheless, though”, (mā) (Classical Arabic ammā) “as for…” and (walla) “or”.

Like many other dialects, apophonic or ablaut passive (as in /kutib/ "it was written") is not very common in HA and perhaps is confined to clichés and proverbs from other dialects including Classical Arabic.

The particle /qad/ developed semantically in HA into /kuð/ or /guð/ “yet, already, almost, nearly” and /gad/ or /gid/ “maybe, perhaps”.

Vocabulary

There are a few lexical items that are shared with Modern South Arabian languages, which perhaps distinguish this dialect from other neighbouring Arabian Peninsula dialects. The effect of Hadrami migration to Southeast Asia (see Arab Singaporeans), the Indian subcontinent and East Africa on HA is clear in the vocabulary especially in certain registers like types of food and dress, e.g. (ṣārūn) "sarong". Many loan words were listed in al-Saqqaf (2006):

While there is much about the Lower Yafa'i dialect that has not been thoroughly studied, it has a very interesting phonological shift. Along with the southern bedouin dialects, in Abyan and Lahej, with which it shares much in common, Yafi'i pronounces the classical jīm (ج) as gīm, but unlike all other dialects, Yafi'i systematically pronounces the classical sound ġayn (/ʁ/) as qain and qāf as ġāf, effectively switching the pronunciation of one letter for the other. An illustration of the phonemic interchange can be seen in the Yafi'i words baġar “cow” and qanam “goat”, which correspond to the classical words baqar “cow” and ġanam “goat”.

Although a similar phonological shift occurs in certain words in the Sudan, the similarities are rather misleading. Whereas the shift is systematic in Yafi', occurring at every instance of the relevant phonemes, in Sudan, it is usually a form of hypercorrection that takes place only in certain classical words. In Sudan, the phoneme[q] is systematically pronounced[ɡ] in all common words, with the pronunciation ġ[ʁ] occurring as a hypercorrection in words such as istiqlāl "independence", pronounced istighlāl (meaning "exploitation" in Standard Arabic).

  1. Hadhrami Arabic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Sanaani Arabic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Ta'izzi-Adeni Arabic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Dalby, Andrew (1999). Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to More Than 400 Languages. Bloomsbury Pub Ltd. p. 25. ISBN 978-0231115681.
  3. "Somalia". ethnologue.com. Retrieved16 April 2018.
  4. "Djibouti". ethnologue.com. Retrieved16 April 2018.
  5. http://usir.salford.ac.uk/17631/1/WP%20%282011%29_watson.pdf
  6. A. Al-Saqqaf (2006): Co-referential devices in Hadramî Arabic, pp. 75-93 Zeitschrift für Arabische Linguistik Issue 46. http://semitistik.uni-hd.de/zal/zal46.htm
  • []
  1. Shaghi, Abdullah and Imtiaz Hasanain (2009). Arabic Pausal Forms and Tihami Yemeni Arabic pausal /u/: History and Structure. In Hasnain S. Imtiaz (edt.) Aligarh Journal of linguistics. Department of Linguistics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. Vol. 1, January- December 2009, pp. 122-139

Yemeni Arabic
Yemeni Arabic Language Watch Edit Yemeni Arabic is a cluster of varieties of Arabic spoken in Yemen southwestern Saudi Arabia Somaliland 2 3 and Djibouti 4 It is generally considered a very conservative dialect cluster having many classical features not found across most of the Arabic speaking world Yemeni ArabicNative toYemen southern Saudi Arabia Djibouti and Somaliland Native speakers15 1 million 2011 1 Language familyAfro Asiatic SemiticCentral SemiticArabicPeninsularYemeni ArabicWriting systemArabic alphabetLanguage codesISO 639 3Variously a href https iso639 3 sil org code ayh class extiw title iso639 3 ayh ayh a Hadhrami Arabic a href https iso639 3 sil org code ayn class extiw title iso639 3 ayn ayn a Sanaani Arabic a href https iso639 3 sil org code acq class extiw title iso639 3 acq acq a Ta izzi Adeni ArabicGlottolog a rel nofollow class external text href http glottolog org resource languoid id sana1295 sana1295 a Sanaani a rel nofollow class external text href http glottolog org resource languoid id hadr1236 hadr1236 a Hadrami a rel nofollow class external text href http glottolog org resource languoid id taiz1242 taiz1242 a Ta izzi AdeniThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols Without proper rendering support you may see question marks boxes or other symbols instead of Unicode characters For an introductory guide on IPA symbols see Help IPA Yemeni Arabic can be divided roughly into several main dialect groups each with its own distinctive vocabulary and phonology The most important four groups are San ani in the North and Center and Hadhrami in the East where ق is pronounced g and ج is d ʒ or ɟ except in coastal Hadhrami where ج is j in addition to Ta izzi Adeni in the South and Tihami in the West where ق is q and ج is g Yemeni Arabic is used for daily communications and has no official status Modern Standard Arabic is used in official purposes education commerce and media Non Arabic South Semitic languages indigenous to the region include several Modern South Arabian languages such as the Mehri and Soqotri languages which are not Arabic languages but members of an independent branch of the Semitic family Another separate Semitic family once spoken in the region is Old South Arabian these became extinct in the pre Islamic period with the possible exceptions of Razihi and Faifi Some of these share areal features with Yemeni Arabic due to influence from or on Yemeni Arabic Yemeni Arabic itself is influenced by Himyaritic Modern South Arabian and Old South Arabian languages and possesses significant substratum from these languages 5 Contents 1 San ani Arabic dialect 2 Ta izzi Ibb Arabic dialect 3 Tihamiyya Arabic 3 1 Zabidi dialect 4 Hadhrami Arabic dialect 4 1 Phonology 4 2 Morphology 4 3 Syntax 4 4 Vocabulary 5 Yafi i Arabic dialect 6 See also 7 Notes 8 External linksSan ani Arabic dialect EditMain article San ani ArabicTa izzi Ibb Arabic dialect EditMain article Ta izzi Adeni ArabicTihamiyya Arabic EditTihamiyya Arabic has many aspects which differentiate it from all other dialects in the Arab world Phonologically Tihami is similar to the majority of Yemeni dialects pronouncing the qaf ق as q and the ǧim ج as a velar plosive ɡ the ǧim pronunciation is also shared with Egyptian Arabic Grammatically all Tihami dialects also share the unusual feature of replacing the definite article al with the prefix am The future tense much like the dialects surrounding Sana a is indicated with the prefix s for all persons e g sabuk am suq I will go to the Souq Some Tihami dialects such as that spoken in al Hudaydah are otherwise fairly similar to other Yemeni dialects in grammar and syntax differing mainly in vocabulary while others can be so far from any other Arabic dialect that they are practically incomprehensible even to other Yemenis Zabidi dialect Edit Of all the dialects of the Tihama region the dialect of Zabid displays the most innovations It shares the transformed definite article of am originally used in Himyaritic with the rest of the Tihami dialects but it is unique in retaining certain of the declensional suffixes in the nominative case Indefinite masculine nouns in nominal sentences as well as the subjects of verbal sentences are suffixed with the sound u which stems from the classical suffix un u Likewise the phonology of the Zabidi sub dialect is perhaps unique among all Arabic dialects in that it replaces the sound ʿain ʕ ع with the glottal stop ʾ ʔ ء In terms of vocabulary the Zabidi dialect shares very little with other Arabic dialects in many respects it seems to be a different language Zabidis use the verb baka yabuk to mean to go The word goh d and goh da mean man and woman respectively And the word fiyan to mean where hence the phrase fiyan bayku meaning Where are you going which is grammatically parallel to the more familiar wayn rayih of more mainstream dialects Hadhrami Arabic dialect EditPhonology Edit The Hadhrami dialect in many towns and villages in the Wadi valley and the coastal region is characterised by its pronunciation of the voiced palatal plosive or affricate ج as the semi vowel ي y j In this it resembles some Eastern Arabian and Gulf dialects including the dialects of Basra in Iraq Kuwait Qatar Bahrain and the dialects of the other Arab Emirates In educated speech ج is realised as a voiced palatal plosive ɟ or affricate dʒ in some lexical items The ق q reflex is pronounced as a voiced velar ɡ in all lexical items throughout the dialect With the spread of literacy and contact with speakers of other Arabic dialects future sociolinguistic research may reveal whether HA is going to witness innovation like using the uvular q in certain lexemes while retaining the velar ɡ for others Wadi HA makes ث ت t 8 t ṯ and ذ د d d d ḏ distinction but ض Classical Arabic ɮˤ ḍ and ظ dˤ đ are both pronounced ظ dˤ whereas Coastal HA merges all these pairs into the stops د ت and ض t d and ḍ respectively In non emphatic environments a is realised as an open front slightly raised unrounded vowel Thus 8ani second psn name which is normally realised with an ɑː like quality in the Gulf dialects is realised with an aeː quality in HA This dialect is characterised by not allowing final consonant clusters to occur in final position Thus Classical Arabic bint girl is realised as binit In initial positions there is a difference between the Wadi and the coastal varieties of HA Coastal HA has initial clusters in bġa he wants bṣal onions and brid mail n while Wadi HA realises the second and third words as baṣal and barid respectively Morphology Edit When the first person singular comes as an independent subject pronoun it is marked for gender thus ana for masculine and ani for feminine As an object pronoun it comes as a bound morpheme thus na for masculine and ni for feminine The first person subject plural is naḥna The first person direct object plural is naḥna rather than na which is the case in many dialects Thus the cognate of the Classical Arabic ḍarabana he hit us is đ arab naḥna in HA Stem VI tC1aC2aC3 can undergo a vowel stem shift to tC1eC2aC3 thus changing the pattern vowel a to e This leads to a semantic change as in tsaradaw they ran away suddenly and tseradaw they shirk try to escape Intensive and frequentative verbs are common in the dialect Thus kasar to break is intensified to kawsar as in kōsar fi l l ib he played rough It can be metathesized to become frequentative as kaswar min iđ đ aḥkat he made a series lit breaks of giggles or laughs Syntax Edit The syntax of HA has many similarities to other Peninsular Arabic dialects However the dialect contains a number of unique particles used for coordination negation and other sentence types Examples in coordination include kann lakan but nevertheless though ma Classical Arabic amma as for and walla or Like many other dialects apophonic or ablaut passive as in kutib it was written is not very common in HA and perhaps is confined to cliches and proverbs from other dialects including Classical Arabic The particle qad developed semantically in HA into kud or gud yet already almost nearly and gad or gid maybe perhaps Vocabulary Edit There are a few lexical items that are shared with Modern South Arabian languages which perhaps distinguish this dialect from other neighbouring Arabian Peninsula dialects The effect of Hadrami migration to Southeast Asia see Arab Singaporeans the Indian subcontinent and East Africa on HA is clear in the vocabulary especially in certain registers like types of food and dress e g ṣarun sarong Many loan words were listed in al Saqqaf 2006 6 Yafi i Arabic dialect EditWhile there is much about the Lower Yafa i dialect that has not been thoroughly studied it has a very interesting phonological shift Along with the southern bedouin dialects in Abyan and Lahej with which it shares much in common Yafi i pronounces the classical jim ج as gim but unlike all other dialects Yafi i systematically pronounces the classical sound ġayn ʁ as qain and qaf as ġaf effectively switching the pronunciation of one letter for the other An illustration of the phonemic interchange can be seen in the Yafi i words baġar cow and qanam goat which correspond to the classical words baqar cow and ġanam goat Although a similar phonological shift occurs in certain words in the Sudan the similarities are rather misleading Whereas the shift is systematic in Yafi occurring at every instance of the relevant phonemes in Sudan it is usually a form of hypercorrection that takes place only in certain classical words In Sudan the phoneme q is systematically pronounced ɡ in all common words with the pronunciation ġ ʁ occurring as a hypercorrection in words such as istiqlal independence pronounced istighlal meaning exploitation in Standard Arabic See also EditHugariyyah ArabicNotes Edit Hadhrami Arabic at Ethnologue 18th ed 2015 Sanaani Arabic at Ethnologue 18th ed 2015 Ta izzi Adeni Arabic at Ethnologue 18th ed 2015 Dalby Andrew 1999 Dictionary of Languages The Definitive Reference to More Than 400 Languages Bloomsbury Pub Ltd p 25 ISBN 978 0231115681 Somalia ethnologue com Retrieved 16 April 2018 Djibouti ethnologue com Retrieved 16 April 2018 http usir salford ac uk 17631 1 WP 20 282011 29 watson pdf A Al Saqqaf 2006 Co referential devices in Hadrami Arabic pp 75 93 Zeitschrift fur Arabische Linguistik Issue 46 http semitistik uni hd de zal zal46 htmExternal links EditYemeni Arabic test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia IncubatorRecording of Yemeni Arabic 1 Shaghi Abdullah and Imtiaz Hasanain 2009 Arabic Pausal Forms and Tihami Yemeni Arabic pausal u History and Structure In Hasnain S Imtiaz edt Aligarh Journal of linguistics Department of Linguistics Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh India Vol 1 January December 2009 pp 122 139 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yemeni Arabic amp oldid 1019317091, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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