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Yenisei Kyrgyz

The Yenisei Kyrgyz (Old Turkic:𐰶𐰃𐰺𐰴𐰕:𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣‎, romanized: Qırqız bodun; Chinese:葉尼塞吉爾吉斯人), were an ancient Turkic people who dwelled along the upper Yenisei River in the southern portion of the Minusinsk Depression from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE. The heart of their homeland was the forested Tannu-Ola mountain range (known in ancient times as the Lao or Kogmen mountains), in modern-day Tuva, just north of Mongolia. The Sayan mountains were also included in their territory at different times. The Kyrgyz Khaganate existed from 550 to 1219 CE; in 840, it took over the leadership of the Turkic Khaganate from the Uyghurs, expanding the state from the Yenisei territories into the Central Asia and the Tarim Basin.

Yenisei Kyrgyz
539 CE–1219 CE
GovernmentMonarchy
Yenisei Kirghiz
History
• Established
539 CE
• Disestablished
1219 CE
Preceded by
Succeeded by

Contents

According to recent historical findings, Kyrgyz history dates back to 201 BC.[citation needed] The Yenisei Kyrgyz correlated with Čaatas culture and may perhaps be correlated to the Tashtyk culture. Their endonym was variously transcribed in Chinese historical texts as Jiegu (結骨), Hegu (紇骨), Hegusi (紇扢斯), Hejiasi (紇戛斯), Hugu (護骨), Qigu (契骨), Juwu (居勿), and Xiajiasi (黠戛斯), but first appeared as Gekun (or Ko-kun; Chinese:鬲昆) or Jiankun (or Chien-kun; Chinese:堅昆) in Han period records. Peter Golden reconstructs underlying *Qïrğïz < *Qïrqïz< *Qïrqïŕ and suggests a derivation from Old Turkic qïr 'gray' (horse color) plus suffix -q(X)ŕ/ğ(X)ŕ ~ k(X)z/g(X)z.

Duan Chengshi wrote in Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang that the mythological ancestors of Kyrgyz tribe (Jiānkūn bù 堅昆部) were "a god and a cow" (神與牸牛), (unlike Göktürks, whose mythological ancestress was a she-wolf; or Gaoche, whose mythological ancestors were a he-wolf and a daughter of a Xiongnu chanyu), and that Kyrgyzes' point of origin was a cave north of the Quman mountains (曲漫山), which was identified with either the Sayan or the Tannu-Ola; additionally, Xin Tangshu mentioned that Kyrgyz army was stationed next to Qīngshān 青山 "Blue Mountains", calqued from Turkic Kögmän (> Ch. Quman) and the river Kem (> 劍 Jiàn). By the time the Gokturk Empire fell in the eighth century CE, the Yenisei Kirghiz had established their own thriving state based on the Gokturk model. They had adopted the Orkhon script of the Göktürks and established trading ties with China and the Abbasid Caliphate in Central Asia and the Middle East.

The Kyrgyz khagans of the Yenisei Kyrgyz Khaganate claimed descent from the Chinese general Li Ling, grandson of the famous Han dynasty general Li Guang. Li Ling was captured by the Xiongnu and defected in the first century BCE and since the Tang imperial Li family also claimed descent from Li Guang, the Kirghiz khagan was therefore recognized as a member of the Tang imperial family.: 394–395 Emperor Zhongzong of Tang had said to them that "Your nation and Ours are of the same ancestral clan (Zong). You are not like other foreigners.": 126

In 758, the Uyghurs killed the Kirghiz Khan and the Kirghiz came under the rule of the Uyghur Khaganate. However, the Yenisei Kyrghyz spent much of their time in a state of rebellion. In 840 they succeeded in sacking the Uyghur capital, Ordu-Baliq in Mongolia's Orkhon Valley and driving the Uyghurs out of Mongolia entirely. On February 13 843 at "Kill the Foreigners" Mountain, the Tang Chinese inflicted a devastating defeat on the Uyghur Qaghan's forces.: 114– But rather than replace the Uyghurs as the lords of Mongolia, the Yenisei Kirghiz continued to live in their traditional homeland and exist as they had for centuries. The defeat and collapse of the Uyghur Khaganate triggered a massive migration of Uyghurs from Mongolia into Turfan, Kumul and Gansu, where they founded the Kingdom of Qocho and Gansu Uyghur Kingdom.

When Genghis Khan came to power in the early 13th century, the Yenisei Kirghiz submitted peacefully to him and were absorbed into his Mongol Empire, putting an end to their independent state. During the time of the Mongol Empire, the territory of the Yenisei Kirghiz in northern Mongolia was turned into an agricultural colony called Kem-Kemchik. Kublai Khan, who founded the Yuan dynasty, also sent Mongol and Han officials (along with colonists) to serve as judges in the Kyrgyz and Tuva regions.

Some of the Yenisei Kirghiz were relocated into the Dzungar Khanate by the Dzungars. In 1761, after the Dzungars were defeated by the Qing dynasty, some Öelet, a tribe of Oirat-speaking Dzungars, were deported to the Nonni basin in northeastern China (Manchuria) and a group of Yenisei Kirghiz were also deported along with the Öelet. The Kirghiz moved to northeastern China became known as the Fuyu Kyrgyz, but they have now mostly merged with the Mongol and Chinese population.

The descendants of the Yenisei Kirghiz today are the Kyrgyz, Khakas and Altai peoples.

Yenisei Kyrgyz artefacts
Yenisei Kyrgyz tableware and altar
Yenisei Kyrgyz agricultural tools

Culturally and linguistically, the Yenisei Kirghiz were Turkic. According to the Tang Huiyao (961 CE), which very likely comes from the Xu Huiyao that Yang Shaofu and others completed in 852, citing Protector General of Anxi Ge Jiayun, the Kirghiz were described as having primarily Caucasian features, with some having East Asian features.

During the reign period of Kaiyuan of [emperor] Xuanzong, Ge Jiayun, composed A Record of the Western Regions, in which he said "the people of the Jiankun state all have red hair and green eyes. The ones with dark eyes were descendants of [the Chinese general] Li Ling [who was captured by the Xiongnu]... of Tiele tribe and called themselves Hegu. The change to Xiajiasi is probably because barbarian sounds are sometimes quick and sometimes slow so that the transcriptions of the words are not the same. When it is sometimes pronounced Xiajiasi, it is just that the word is quick. when I enquired from the translation clerk, he said that Xiajiasi had the meaning of 'yellow head and red face' and that this was what the Uighurs called them. Now the envoys say that they themselves have this name. I don't know which is right.

Tang Huiyao, Chapter 100:1785; translated by Pulleyblank

From Xiajiasi 黠戛斯, Soviet scientists reconstructed the ethnonym Khakass. Edwin G. Pulleyblank surmises that "red face and yellow head" meaning was possibly a folk etymology provided by an interpreter who explained the ethnonym based on Turkic qïzïl ~ qizqil, meaning 'red'. The description of the Kirghiz as tall, blue-eyed blonds excited the early interest of scholars, who assumed that Kyrgyz might not have originally been Turkic in language. Golden considered Kyrghyzes to be Palaeo-Siberians Turkicized under Turkic leadership. Ligeti cited the opinions of various scholars who had proposed to see them as Germanic, Slav, or Ket, while he himself, following Castrén and Schott, favoured a Samoyed origin on the basis of an etymology for a supposed Kirghiz word qaša or qaš for "iron". However Pulleyblank argued:

As far as I can see the only basis for the assumption that the Kirghiz were not originally Turkic in language is the fact that they are described as blonds, hardly an acceptable argument in the light of present day ideas about the independence of language and race. As Ligeti himself admitted, other evidence about the Kirghiz language in Tang sources shows clearly that at that time they were Turkic speaking and there is no earlier evidence at all about their language. Even the word qaša or qaš may, I think, be Turkic. The Tongdian says: "Whenever the sky rains iron, they gather it and use it. They call it jiasha (LMC kiaa-şaa). They make knives and swords with it that are very sharp." The Tang Huiyao is the same except that it leaves out the foreign word jiasha. "Raining iron" must surely refer to meteorites. The editor who copied the passage into the Xin Tangshu unfortunately misunderstood it and changed it to, "Whenever it rains, their custom is always to get iron," which is rather nonsensical. Ligeti unfortunately used only the Xin Tangshu passage without referring to the Tongdian. His restoration of qaša or qaš seems quite acceptable but I doubt that word simply meant "iron". It seems rather to refer specifically to "meteorite" or "meteoric iron".

American Turkologist Michael Drompp adheres to the same opinion:

A number of researchers have been tempted to see the early Kyrgyz as a non-Turkic people or, at the very least, an ethnically mixed people with a large non-Turkic component. Many scholars have supported this idea after identifying what they believe to be examples of non-Turkic (particularly Samoyed) words among the Kyrgyz words preserved in Chinese sources. It should be noted, however, that the connection between language and "race" is highly inconclusive. The physical appearance of the Kyrgyz can no more be considered as indicating that they were not a Turkic people than can the lexical appearance of a few possibly non-Turkic words, whose presence in the Kyrgyz language can be explained through the common practice of linguistic borrowing. The Kyrgyz inscriptions of the Yenisei (eighth century CE and later) are in fact written in a completely Turkic language, and T'ang Chinese sources state clearly that the Kyrgyz written and spoken language at that time was identical to that of the Turkic Uygurs (Chinese Hui-ho, Hui-hu). Most of the Kyrgyz words preserved in Chinese sources are, in fact, Turkic. There is no reason to assume a non-Turkic origin for the Kyrgyz, although that possibility cannot be discounted.

The Yenisei Kirghiz had a mixed economy based on traditional nomadic animal breeding (mostly horses and cattle) and agriculture. According to Chinese records, they grew Himalayan rye, barley, millet, and wheat.: 400–401 They were also skilled iron workers, jewelry makers, potters, and weavers. Their homes were traditional nomadic tents and, in the agricultural areas, wood and bark huts. Their farming settlements were protected by log palisades. The resources of their forested homeland (mainly fur) allowed the Yenisei Kirghiz to become prosperous merchants as well. They maintained trading ties with China, Tibet, the Abbasid Caliphate of the Middle east, and many local tribes.: 402 Kirghiz horses were also renowned for their large size and speed. The tenth-century Persian text Hudud al-'alam described the Kirgiz as people who "venerate the Fire and burn the dead", and that they were nomads who hunted.

The trisyllabic forms with Chinese -sz for Turkic final -z appear only from the end of 8th century onward. Before that time we have a series of Chinese transcriptions referring to the same people and stretching back to the 2nd century BCE, which end either in -n or -t:

  • Gekun (EMC kέrjk kwən), 2nd century BCE. Shiji 110, Hanshu 94a.
  • Jiankun (EMC khέn kwən), 1st century BCE onward. Hanshu 70.
  • Qigu (EMC kέt kwət), 6th century. Zhoushu 50.
  • Hegu (EMC γət kwət), 6th century. Suishu 84.
  • Jiegu (EMC kέt kwət), 6th–8th century. Tongdian 200, Old Book of Tang 194b, and Tang Huiyao 100.

Neither -n nor -t provides a good equivalent for -z. The most serious attempt to explain these forms seems still to be that of Paul Pelliot in 1920. Pelliot suggested that Middle Chinese -t stands for Turkic -z, which would be quite unusual and would need supporting evidence, but then his references to Mongol plurals in -t suggest that he thinks that the name of the Kirghiz, like that of the Turks, first became known to the Chinese through Mongol speaking intermediaries. There is still less plausibility in the suggestion that the Kirghiz, who first became known as a people conquered by that Xiongnu and then re-emerged associated with other Turkic peoples in the 6th century, should have had Mongol style suffixes attached to all the various forms of their name that were transcribed into Chinese up to the 9th century.

The change of r to z in Turkic which is implied by the Chinese forms of the name Kirghiz should not give any comfort to those who want to explain Mongolian and Tungusic cognates with r as Turkic loanwords. The peoples mentioned in sources of the Han period that can be identified as Turkic were the Dingling (later Tiele, from whom the Uyghurs emerged), the Jiankun (later Kirghiz), the Xinli (later Sir/Xue), and possibly also the Hujie or Wujie, were all, at that period, north and west of the Xiongnu in general area where we find the Kirghiz at the beginning of Tang.

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Yenisei Kyrgyz
Yenisei Kyrgyz Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Yenisei Kirghiz The Yenisei Kyrgyz Old Turkic 𐰶𐰃𐰺𐰴𐰕 𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣 romanized Qirqiz bodun Chinese 葉尼塞吉爾吉斯人 were an ancient Turkic people who dwelled along the upper Yenisei River in the southern portion of the Minusinsk Depression from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE The heart of their homeland was the forested Tannu Ola mountain range known in ancient times as the Lao or Kogmen mountains in modern day Tuva just north of Mongolia The Sayan mountains were also included in their territory at different times The Kyrgyz Khaganate existed from 550 to 1219 CE in 840 it took over the leadership of the Turkic Khaganate from the Uyghurs expanding the state from the Yenisei territories into the Central Asia and the Tarim Basin Yenisei Kyrgyz539 CE 1219 CEGovernmentMonarchyYenisei Kirghiz History Established539 CE Disestablished1219 CEPreceded by Succeeded byUyghur Khaganate Liao Dynasty Contents 1 History 2 Ethnicity and language 3 Lifestyle 4 Etymology and names 5 Further reading 6 ReferencesHistory EditAccording to recent historical findings Kyrgyz history dates back to 201 BC citation needed The Yenisei Kyrgyz correlated with Caatas culture and may perhaps be correlated to the Tashtyk culture 1 2 3 Their endonym was variously transcribed in Chinese historical texts as Jiegu 結骨 Hegu 紇骨 Hegusi 紇扢斯 Hejiasi 紇戛斯 Hugu 護骨 Qigu 契骨 Juwu 居勿 and Xiajiasi 黠戛斯 4 but first appeared as Gekun or Ko kun Chinese 鬲昆 or Jiankun or Chien kun Chinese 堅昆 in Han period records 5 Peter Golden reconstructs underlying Qirgiz lt Qirqiz lt Qirqiŕ and suggests a derivation from Old Turkic qir gray horse color plus suffix q X ŕ g X ŕ k X z g X z 6 7 Duan Chengshi wrote in Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang that the mythological ancestors of Kyrgyz tribe Jiankun bu 堅昆部 were a god and a cow 神與牸牛 unlike Gokturks whose mythological ancestress was a she wolf or Gaoche whose mythological ancestors were a he wolf and a daughter of a Xiongnu chanyu and that Kyrgyzes point of origin was a cave north of the Quman mountains 曲漫山 8 9 10 which was identified with either the Sayan or the Tannu Ola additionally Xin Tangshu mentioned that Kyrgyz army was stationed next to Qingshan 青山 Blue Mountains calqued from Turkic Kogman gt Ch Quman and the river Kem gt 劍 Jian 11 By the time the Gokturk Empire fell in the eighth century CE the Yenisei Kirghiz had established their own thriving state based on the Gokturk model They had adopted the Orkhon script of the Gokturks and established trading ties with China and the Abbasid Caliphate in Central Asia and the Middle East The Kyrgyz khagans of the Yenisei Kyrgyz Khaganate claimed descent from the Chinese general Li Ling grandson of the famous Han dynasty general Li Guang 12 13 14 Li Ling was captured by the Xiongnu and defected in the first century BCE and since the Tang imperial Li family also claimed descent from Li Guang the Kirghiz khagan was therefore recognized as a member of the Tang imperial family 15 16 394 395 Emperor Zhongzong of Tang had said to them that Your nation and Ours are of the same ancestral clan Zong You are not like other foreigners 17 126 In 758 the Uyghurs killed the Kirghiz Khan and the Kirghiz came under the rule of the Uyghur Khaganate However the Yenisei Kyrghyz spent much of their time in a state of rebellion In 840 they succeeded in sacking the Uyghur capital Ordu Baliq in Mongolia s Orkhon Valley and driving the Uyghurs out of Mongolia entirely 18 19 On February 13 843 at Kill the Foreigners Mountain the Tang Chinese inflicted a devastating defeat on the Uyghur Qaghan s forces 17 114 But rather than replace the Uyghurs as the lords of Mongolia the Yenisei Kirghiz continued to live in their traditional homeland and exist as they had for centuries The defeat and collapse of the Uyghur Khaganate triggered a massive migration of Uyghurs from Mongolia into Turfan Kumul and Gansu where they founded the Kingdom of Qocho and Gansu Uyghur Kingdom When Genghis Khan came to power in the early 13th century the Yenisei Kirghiz submitted peacefully to him and were absorbed into his Mongol Empire putting an end to their independent state During the time of the Mongol Empire the territory of the Yenisei Kirghiz in northern Mongolia was turned into an agricultural colony called Kem Kemchik Kublai Khan who founded the Yuan dynasty also sent Mongol and Han officials along with colonists to serve as judges in the Kyrgyz and Tuva regions Some of the Yenisei Kirghiz were relocated into the Dzungar Khanate by the Dzungars In 1761 after the Dzungars were defeated by the Qing dynasty some Oelet a tribe of Oirat speaking Dzungars were deported to the Nonni basin in northeastern China Manchuria and a group of Yenisei Kirghiz were also deported along with the Oelet 20 21 The Kirghiz moved to northeastern China became known as the Fuyu Kyrgyz but they have now mostly merged with the Mongol and Chinese population 22 23 24 The descendants of the Yenisei Kirghiz today are the Kyrgyz Khakas and Altai peoples Ethnicity and language Edit Yenisei Kyrgyz artefacts Yenisei Kyrgyz tableware and altar Yenisei Kyrgyz agricultural tools Elegest inscription Culturally and linguistically the Yenisei Kirghiz were Turkic According to the Tang Huiyao 961 CE which very likely comes from the Xu Huiyao that Yang Shaofu and others completed in 852 citing Protector General of Anxi Ge Jiayun the Kirghiz were described as having primarily Caucasian features with some having East Asian features 25 During the reign period of Kaiyuan of emperor Xuanzong Ge Jiayun composed A Record of the Western Regions in which he said the people of the Jiankun state all have red hair and green eyes The ones with dark eyes were descendants of the Chinese general Li Ling who was captured by the Xiongnu of Tiele tribe and called themselves Hegu The change to Xiajiasi is probably because barbarian sounds are sometimes quick and sometimes slow so that the transcriptions of the words are not the same When it is sometimes pronounced Xiajiasi it is just that the word is quick when I enquired from the translation clerk he said that Xiajiasi had the meaning of yellow head and red face and that this was what the Uighurs called them Now the envoys say that they themselves have this name I don t know which is right Tang Huiyao Chapter 100 1785 translated by Pulleyblank From Xiajiasi 黠戛斯 Soviet scientists reconstructed the ethnonym Khakass 26 Edwin G Pulleyblank surmises that red face and yellow head meaning was possibly a folk etymology provided by an interpreter who explained the ethnonym based on Turkic qizil qizqil meaning red 27 The description of the Kirghiz as tall blue eyed blonds excited the early interest of scholars who assumed that Kyrgyz might not have originally been Turkic in language Golden considered Kyrghyzes to be Palaeo Siberians Turkicized under Turkic leadership 28 Ligeti cited the opinions of various scholars who had proposed to see them as Germanic Slav or Ket while he himself following Castren and Schott favoured a Samoyed origin on the basis of an etymology for a supposed Kirghiz word qasa or qas for iron However Pulleyblank argued 29 As far as I can see the only basis for the assumption that the Kirghiz were not originally Turkic in language is the fact that they are described as blonds hardly an acceptable argument in the light of present day ideas about the independence of language and race As Ligeti himself admitted other evidence about the Kirghiz language in Tang sources shows clearly that at that time they were Turkic speaking and there is no earlier evidence at all about their language Even the word qasa or qas may I think be Turkic The Tongdian says Whenever the sky rains iron they gather it and use it They call it jiasha LMC kiaa saa They make knives and swords with it that are very sharp The Tang Huiyao is the same except that it leaves out the foreign word jiasha Raining iron must surely refer to meteorites The editor who copied the passage into the Xin Tangshu unfortunately misunderstood it and changed it to Whenever it rains their custom is always to get iron which is rather nonsensical Ligeti unfortunately used only the Xin Tangshu passage without referring to the Tongdian His restoration of qasa or qas seems quite acceptable but I doubt that word simply meant iron It seems rather to refer specifically to meteorite or meteoric iron American Turkologist Michael Drompp adheres to the same opinion 30 A number of researchers have been tempted to see the early Kyrgyz as a non Turkic people or at the very least an ethnically mixed people with a large non Turkic component Many scholars have supported this idea after identifying what they believe to be examples of non Turkic particularly Samoyed words among the Kyrgyz words preserved in Chinese sources It should be noted however that the connection between language and race is highly inconclusive The physical appearance of the Kyrgyz can no more be considered as indicating that they were not a Turkic people than can the lexical appearance of a few possibly non Turkic words whose presence in the Kyrgyz language can be explained through the common practice of linguistic borrowing The Kyrgyz inscriptions of the Yenisei eighth century CE and later are in fact written in a completely Turkic language and T ang Chinese sources state clearly that the Kyrgyz written and spoken language at that time was identical to that of the Turkic Uygurs Chinese Hui ho Hui hu Most of the Kyrgyz words preserved in Chinese sources are in fact Turkic There is no reason to assume a non Turkic origin for the Kyrgyz although that possibility cannot be discounted Lifestyle EditThe Yenisei Kirghiz had a mixed economy based on traditional nomadic animal breeding mostly horses and cattle and agriculture According to Chinese records they grew Himalayan rye barley millet and wheat 16 400 401 They were also skilled iron workers jewelry makers potters and weavers Their homes were traditional nomadic tents and in the agricultural areas wood and bark huts Their farming settlements were protected by log palisades The resources of their forested homeland mainly fur allowed the Yenisei Kirghiz to become prosperous merchants as well They maintained trading ties with China Tibet the Abbasid Caliphate of the Middle east and many local tribes 16 402 Kirghiz horses were also renowned for their large size and speed The tenth century Persian text Hudud al alam described the Kirgiz as people who venerate the Fire and burn the dead and that they were nomads who hunted 31 Etymology and names EditThe trisyllabic forms with Chinese sz for Turkic final z appear only from the end of 8th century onward Before that time we have a series of Chinese transcriptions referring to the same people and stretching back to the 2nd century BCE which end either in n or t Gekun EMC kerjk kwen 2nd century BCE Shiji 110 Hanshu 94a Jiankun EMC khen kwen 1st century BCE onward Hanshu 70 Qigu EMC ket kwet 6th century Zhoushu 50 Hegu EMC get kwet 6th century Suishu 84 Jiegu EMC ket kwet 6th 8th century Tongdian 200 Old Book of Tang 194b and Tang Huiyao 100 Neither n nor t provides a good equivalent for z The most serious attempt to explain these forms seems still to be that of Paul Pelliot in 1920 Pelliot suggested that Middle Chinese t stands for Turkic z which would be quite unusual and would need supporting evidence but then his references to Mongol plurals in t suggest that he thinks that the name of the Kirghiz like that of the Turks first became known to the Chinese through Mongol speaking intermediaries There is still less plausibility in the suggestion that the Kirghiz who first became known as a people conquered by that Xiongnu and then re emerged associated with other Turkic peoples in the 6th century should have had Mongol style suffixes attached to all the various forms of their name that were transcribed into Chinese up to the 9th century The change of r to z in Turkic which is implied by the Chinese forms of the name Kirghiz should not give any comfort to those who want to explain Mongolian and Tungusic cognates with r as Turkic loanwords The peoples mentioned in sources of the Han period that can be identified as Turkic were the Dingling later Tiele from whom the Uyghurs emerged the Jiankun later Kirghiz the Xinli later Sir Xue and possibly also the Hujie or Wujie were all at that period north and west of the Xiongnu in general area where we find the Kirghiz at the beginning of Tang Further reading EditChavannes Edouard Documents sur les Tou kiue Turcs occidentaux Documents on the Western Tujue 1904 Mambetaliev Askar Nestorianism among ancient Kirghiz tribes References Edit Xipoliya Yanke Suo Jian Xiajiesi Monijiao Siberian Rock Arts and Xiajiesi s Manicheism 1998 Gansu Mingzu Yanjiu A J Haywood Siberia A Cultural History Oxford University Press 2010 p 203 Christoph Baumer The History of Central Asia The Age of the Steppe Warriors I B Tauris 2012 p 171 Theobald Ulrich 2012 Xiajiasi 黠戛斯 Qirqiz for ChinaKnowledge de An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History Literature and Art Pulleyblank Edwin G The Name of the Kirghiz in Central Asiatic Journal Vol 34 No 1 2 1990 Harrassowitz Verlag page 98 99 of 98 108 Golden Peter B 2017 The Turkic World in Mahmud al Kashgari PDF Turkologiya 4 16 Golden Peter B August 2018 The Ethnogonic Tales of the Turks The Medieval History Journal 21 2 302 Youzang Zazu vol 4 Lee amp Kuang 2017 A Comparative Analysis of Chinese Historical Sources and Y DNA Studies with Regard to the Early and Medieval Turkic Peoples Inner Asia 19 p 204 205 of 197 239 Golden Peter B August 2018 The Ethnogonic Tales of the Turks The Medieval History Journal 21 2 297 304 Kenzheakhmet Nurlan 2014 Ethnonyms and Toponyms of the Old Turkic Inscriptions in Chinese sources Studia et Documenta Turcologica II p 299 of 287 316 Veronika Veit ed 2007 The role of women in the Altaic world Permanent International Altaistic Conference 44th meeting Walberberg 26 31 August 2001 Volume 152 of Asiatische Forschungen illustrated ed Otto Harrassowitz Verlag p 61 ISBN 978 3447055376 Retrieved February 8 2012 volume has extra text help Michael Robert Drompp 2005 Tang China and the collapse of the Uighur Empire a documentary history Volume 13 of Brill s Inner Asian library illustrated ed BRILL p 126 ISBN 9004141294 Retrieved February 8 2012 volume has extra text help Kyzlasov Leonid R 2010 The Urban Civilization of Northern and Innermost Asia Historical and Archaeological Research PDF Curatores seriei VICTOR SPINEI et IONEL CANDEA VII The Urban Civilization of Northern and Innermost Asia Historical and Archaeological Research ROMANIAN ACADEMY INSTITUTE OF ARCHAEOLOGY OF IAȘI Editura Academiei Romane Editura Istros p 245 ISBN 978 973 27 1962 6 Florilegium magistrorum historiae archaeologiaeque Antiqutatis et Medii Aevi Veronika Veit ed 2007 The role of women in the Altaic world Permanent International Altaistic Conference 44th meeting Walberberg 26 31 August 2001 Volume 152 of Asiatische Forschungen illustrated ed Otto Harrassowitz Verlag p 61 ISBN 978 3447055376 Retrieved February 8 2012 volume has extra text help a b c Michael R Drompp 1999 Breaking the Orkhon tradition Kirghiz adherence to the Yenisei region after A D 840 Journal of the American Oriental Society 119 3 390 403 doi 10 2307 605932 JSTOR 605932 a b Michael Robert Drompp 2005 Tang China and the collapse of the Uighur Empire a documentary history Brill s Inner Asian library 13 Brill ISBN 9004141294 Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World Elsevier April 6 2010 pp 610 ISBN 978 0 08 087775 4 Pal Nyiri Joana Breidenbach 2005 China Inside Out Contemporary Chinese Nationalism and Transnationalism Central European University Press pp 275 ISBN 978 963 7326 14 1 Juha Janhunen 1996 Manchuria An Ethnic History Finno Ugrian Society pp 111 112 ISBN 978 951 9403 84 7 Stephen A Wurm Peter Muhlhausler Darrell T Tryon eds February 11 2011 Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific Asia and the Americas de Gruyter p 831 ISBN 9783110819724 Tchoroev Chorotegin 2003 p 110 Pozzi amp Janhunen amp Weiers 2006 p 113 Giovanni Stary Alessandra Pozzi Juha Antero Janhunen Michael Weiers 2006 Tumen Jalafun Jecen Aku Manchu Studies in Honour of Giovanni Stary Otto Harrassowitz Verlag pp 112 ISBN 978 3 447 05378 5 Lung Rachel 2011 Interpreters in Early Imperial China John Benjamins Publishing Company p 108 ISBN 978 9027224446 Retrieved February 8 2012 Lee amp Kuang 2017 A Comparative Analysis of Chinese Historical Sources and Y DNA Studies with Regard to the Early and Medieval Turkic Peoples Inner Asia 19 p 216 of 197 239 Pulleyblank Edwin G The Name of the Kirghiz in Central Asiatic Journal Vol 34 No 1 2 1990 Harrassowitz Verlag page 105 of 98 108 Golden Peter B The Stateless Nomads of Central Eurasia in Empires and Exchanges in Eurasian Late Antiquity Edited by DiCosmo Maas p 347 348 doi https doi org 10 1017 9781316146040 024 Pulleyblank Edwin G 2002 Central Asia and Non Chinese Peoples of Ancient China Ashgate Publishing ISBN 0 86078 859 8 Drompp Michael 2002 THE YENISEI KYRGYZ FROM EARLY TIMES TO THE MONGOL CONQUEST Academia Retrieved December 13 2016 Scott Cameron Levi Ron Sela 2010 Chapter 4 Discourse on the Qirghiz Country Islamic Central Asia An Anthology of Historical Sources Indiana University Press p 30 ISBN 978 0 253 35385 6 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yenisei Kyrgyz amp oldid 1054545663, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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