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Yi script

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The Yi script (Yi:ꆈꌠꁱꂷ nuosu bburma ; Chinese:彝文; pinyin: Yí wén) is an umbrella term for two scripts used to write the Yi languages; Classical Yi (an ideogram script), and the later Yi Syllabary. The script is also historically known in Chinese as Cuan Wen (Chinese:爨文; pinyin: Cuàn wén) or Wei Shu (simplified Chinese:韪书; traditional Chinese:韙書; pinyin: Wéi shū) and various other names (夷字、倮語、倮倮文、畢摩文), among them "tadpole writing" (蝌蚪文).

Yi
nuosu bburma or Yi script
Script type
Syllabary in modern form;
Logographic in archaic variations
Time period
Since at least 15th century (earliest attestation) to present, syllabic version established in 1974
Directionleft-to-right
Languagesvarious Yi languages
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Yiii, 460, ​Yi
Unicode
Unicode alias
Yi
U+A000–U+A48F Yi Syllables,
U+A490–U+A4CF Yi Radicals
This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see . For the distinction between[ ],/ / and ⟨⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
You may need to display the uncommon Unicode characters in this article correctly.

This is to be distinguished from romanized Yi (彝文羅馬拼音 Yíwén Luómǎ pīnyīn) which was a system (or systems) invented by missionaries and intermittently used afterwards by some government institutions. There was also a Yi abugida or alphasyllabary devised by Sam Pollard, the Pollard script for the Miao language, which he adapted into "Nasu" as well. Present day traditional Yi writing can be sub-divided into five main varieties (Huáng Jiànmíng 1993); Nuosu (the prestige form of the Yi language centred on the Liangshan area), Nasu (including the Wusa), Nisu (Southern Yi), Sani (撒尼) and Azhe (阿哲).

Contents

A classical Yi manuscript.
A Yi manuscript from 1814

Classical Yi is a syllabic logographic system that was reputedly devised during the Tang dynasty (618–907) by someone called Aki (Chinese:阿畸; pinyin: Āqí). However, the earliest surviving examples of the Yi script only date back to the late 15th century and early 16th century, the earliest dated example being an inscription on a bronze bell dated to 1485. There are tens of thousands of manuscripts in the Yi script, dating back several centuries, although most are undated. In recent years a number of Yi manuscript texts written in traditional Yi script have been published.

The original script is said to have comprised 1,840 characters, but over the centuries widely divergent glyph forms have developed in different Yi-speaking areas, an extreme example being the character for "stomach" which exists in some forty glyph variants. Due to this regional variation as many as 90,000 different Yi glyphs are known from manuscripts and inscriptions. Although similar to Chinese in function, the glyphs are independent in form, with little to suggest that they are directly related. However, there are some borrowings from Chinese, such as the characters for numbers used in some Yi script traditions.

Languages written with the classical script included Nuosu, Nisu, Wusa Nasu, and Mantsi.

The Modern Yi script (ꆈꌠꁱꂷ nuosu bburma 'Nuosu script') is a standardized syllabary derived from the classic script in 1974 by the local Chinese government.

Liangshan Standard Yi Script

In 1980 it was made the official script of the Liangshan (Cool Mountain) dialect of the Nuosu Yi language of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, and consequently is known as Liangshan Standard Yi Script (涼山規範彝文 Liángshān guīfàn Yíwén). Other dialects of Yi do not yet have a standardized script. There are 756 basic glyphs based on the Liangshan dialect, plus 63 for syllables only used for words borrowed from Chinese.

The native syllabary represents vowel and consonant-vowel syllables, formed of 43 consonants and 8 vowels that can occur with any of three tones, plus two "buzzing" vowels that can only occur as mid tone. Not all combinations are possible.

Although the Liangshan dialect has four tones (and others have more), only three tones (high, mid, low) have separate glyphs. The fourth tone (rising) may sometimes occur as a grammatical inflection of the mid tone, so it is written with the mid-tone glyph plus a diacritic mark (a superscript arc). Counting syllables with this diacritic, the script represents 1,164 syllables. In addition there is a syllable iteration mark, ꀕ (represented as w in Yi pinyin) that is used to reduplicate a preceding syllable.

Syllabary

The syllabary of standard modern Yi is illustrated in the table below. The sound represented by the column comes first. ():

- b p bb nb hm m f v d t dd nd hn n hl l g k gg mg hx ng h w z c zz nz s ss zh ch rr nr sh r j q jj nj ny x y
[p] [pʰ] [b] [m͡b] [m̥] [m] [f] [v] [t] [tʰ] [d] [n͡d] [n̥] [n] [ɬ] [l] [k] [kʰ] [ɡ] [ŋ͡ɡ] [h] [ŋ] [x] [ɣ] [t͡s] [t͡sʰ] [d͡z] [nd͡z] [s] [z] [t͡ʂ] [t͡ʂʰ] [d͡ʐ] [nd͡ʐ] [ʂ] [ʐ] [t͡ɕ] [t͡ɕʰ] [d͡ʑ] [nd͡ʑ] [nʲ] [ɕ] [ʑ]
it [i̋] ꀀ
ix [ǐ]
i [ī]
ip [î]
iet [ɛ̋]
iex [ɛ̌]
ie [ɛ̄]
iep [ɛ̂]
at [a̋]
ax [ǎ]
a [ā]
ap [â]
uot [ɔ̋]
uox [ɔ̌]
uo [ɔ̄]
uop [ɔ̂]
ot [ő]
ox [ǒ]
o [ō]
op [ô]
et [ɯ̋]
ex [ɯ̌]
e [ɯ̄]
ep [ɯ̂]
ut [ű]
ux [ǔ]
u [ū]
up [û]
urx [ǔ̠]
ur [ū̠]
yt [ɿ̋]
yx [ɿ̌]
y [ɿ̄]
yp [ɿ̂]
yrx [ɿ̠̌]
yr [ɿ̠̄]
Trilingual signs, in Chinese, Yi (syllabic script), and Hani (alphabetic) on the Lihaozhai Township government office. Jianshui County, Yunnan. The Yi and Hani texts apparently have a syllable-to-syllable correspondence to the Chinese text.

The expanded pinyin letters used to write Yi are:

Consonants

The consonant series are tenuis stop, aspirate, voiced, prenasalized, voiceless nasal, voiced nasal, voiceless fricative, voiced fricative, respectively. In addition, hl, l are laterals, and hx is[h]. V, w, ss, r, y are the voiced fricatives. With stops and affricates, voicing is shown by doubling the letter.

Plosive series

Labial: b[p], p[pʰ], bb[b], nb[m͡b], hm[m̥], m[m], f[f], v[v]
Alveolar: d[t], t[tʰ], dd[d], nd[n͡d], hn[n̥], n[n], hl[ɬ], l[l]
Velar: g[k], k[kʰ], gg[ɡ], mg[ŋ͡ɡ], hx[h], ng[ŋ], h[x], w[ɣ]

Affricate series

Alveolar: z[t͡s], c[t͡sʰ], zz[d͡z], nz[nd͡z], s[s], ss[z]
Retroflex: zh[t͡ʂ], ch[t͡ʂʰ], rr[d͡ʐ], nr[nd͡ʐ], sh[ʂ], r[ʐ]
Palatal: j[t͡ɕ], q[t͡ɕʰ], jj[d͡ʑ], nj[nd͡ʑ], ny[nʲ], x[ɕ], y[ʑ]

Vowels

Vowels
Transliteration i ie a uo o e u ur y yr
IPA transcription i ɛ a ɔ o ɯ u ʐ̩

Tones

An unmarked syllable has mid level tone (33), e.g.ā (or alternatively). Other tones are shown by a final letter:

t : high level tone (55), e.g. (or alternatively)
x : high rising tone (34), e.g.ǎ (or alternativelya˧˦)
p : low falling tone (21), e.g.â (or alternativelya˨˩)

The Unicode block for Modern Yi is Yi syllables (U+A000 to U+A48C), and comprises 1,164 syllables (syllables with a diacritic mark are encoded separately, and are not decomposable into syllable plus combining diacritical mark) and one syllable iteration mark (U+A015, incorrectly named YI SYLLABLE WU). In addition, a set of 55 radicals for use in dictionary classification are encoded at U+A490 to U+A4C6 (Yi Radicals). Yi syllables and Yi radicals were added as new blocks to Unicode Standard with version 3.0.

Classical Yi - which is an ideographic script like the Chinese characters - has not yet been encoded in Unicode, but a proposal to encode 88,613 Classical Yi characters was made in 2007.

  1. 中国少数民族文化遗产集粹 2006- Page 9 "... 汉文史料中分别称彝文为"夷字"、"爨文"、"韪书"、"蝌蚪文"、"倮倮文"、"毕摩文"等,中华人民共和国成立后随族称的规范,统称为彝族文字,简称为彝文。"
  2. 秦和平 基督宗教在西南民族地区的传播史 2003 - Page 49 "另外,基督教之所以能够传播于民族地区,民族文字的创制及使用起到关键作用。据调查,传教士创制的文字有苗文、摆夷(傣)文、傈僳文、怒文、景颇文、佤文、彝文、拉祜文等等。它们利用罗马拼音字母系统对该民族语言或文字加以注音所产生,..."
  3. Benoît Vermander L'enclos à moutons: un village nuosu au sud-ouest de la Chine 2007 Page 8 "Si les Nuosu vivent sur le territoire chinois, s'ils sont citoyens chinois et gouvernés de fait par le Parti-État chinois, l'univers culturel dans lequel ... Par ailleurs, un système de transcription formé sur l'alphabet latin a été également mis au point ..."
  4. Miao abugida table
  5. -Annual report of the American Bible Society American Bible Society 1949- Volume 133 - Page 248 "In the Nasu New Testament the so-called "Pollard" Script is used. Its alphabet was invented by the late Mr. Pollard, a British missionary, who worked in Yunnan and Kweichow Provinces. Since the publication of the first edition of 5,000, more ..."
  6. Halina Wasilewska in ed. Nathan Hill Medieval Tibeto-Burman Languages IV 2012 Page 449 "... the writing as the basis and which corresponds to the classification of the Yi languages, present day traditional Yi writing can be sub-divided into five main varieties (Huáng Jiànmíng 1993), i.e. the Nuosu, Nasu, Nisu, Sani and Azhe varieties."
  7. 黄建明 Huáng Jiànmíng 彝族古籍文献概要 1993 Yizu guji wenxian gaiyao [Outline of classical literature of Yi nationality]. By Huang Jianming. Yunnan minzu chubanshe, 1993.
  8. Wu Zili 武自立, Chuantong Yiwen 传统彝文 (Traditional Yi Script); in Zhongguo Shaoshu Minzu Wenzi (Beijing, 1991)
  9. Ma Xueliang 马学良, Han Zang Yu Gailun 汉藏语概论 (A General Introduction to Sino-Tibetan Languages) (Beijing, 1991) page 568
  10. Liangshan Yiyu Yuyan Gailun 凉山彝语语言概论 (Chengdu, 1983)
  11. Unicode Demystified: A Practical Programmer's Guide 2003 Page 402 "The Yi language is related to Tibetan and Burmese and is written with its own script, called, not surprisingly, the Yi script, but sometimes known as Cuan or Wei.23 Classical Yi is an ideographic script, like the Chinese characters. 23. My sources for this section are the Unicode standard and Dingxu Shi, "The Yi Script," in The World's Writing Systems, pp. 239-243."
  12. Andy Deitsch, David Czarnecki Java Internationalization 2001 Page 352 "Table 12-1. Additional Blocks Added to the Unicode Standard Version 3.0 Block Name Description ... Yi syllables - The Yi syllabary used to write the Yi language spoken in Western China. Yi radicals - The radicals that make up the Yi syllabary."
  13. Preliminary Proposal to encode Classical Yi Characters (134 MB)

Yi script
Yi script Language Watch Edit This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Chinese December 2019 Click show for important translation instructions View a machine translated version of the Chinese article Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate rather than simply copy pasting machine translated text into the English Wikipedia Consider adding a topic to this template there are already 1 160 articles in the main category and specifying topic will aid in categorization Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low quality If possible verify the text with references provided in the foreign language article You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation A model attribution edit summary Content in this edit is translated from the existing Chinese Wikipedia article at zh 彝文 see its history for attribution You should also add the template Translated zh 彝文 to the talk page For more guidance see Wikipedia Translation The Yi script Yi ꆈꌠꁱꂷ nuosu bburma nɔ sb bʙma Chinese 彝文 pinyin Yi wen is an umbrella term for two scripts used to write the Yi languages Classical Yi an ideogram script and the later Yi Syllabary The script is also historically known in Chinese as Cuan Wen Chinese 爨文 pinyin Cuan wen or Wei Shu simplified Chinese 韪书 traditional Chinese 韙書 pinyin Wei shu and various other names 夷字 倮語 倮倮文 畢摩文 among them tadpole writing 蝌蚪文 1 Yinuosu bburma or Yi scriptScript typeSyllabary in modern form Logographic in archaic variationsTime periodSince at least 15th century earliest attestation to present syllabic version established in 1974Directionleft to right Languagesvarious Yi languagesISO 15924ISO 15924Yiii 460 YiUnicodeUnicode aliasYiUnicode rangeU A000 U A48F Yi Syllables U A490 U A4CF Yi Radicals This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet IPA For an introductory guide on IPA symbols see Help IPA For the distinction between and see IPA Brackets and transcription delimiters You may need rendering support to display the uncommon Unicode characters in this article correctly This is to be distinguished from romanized Yi 彝文羅馬拼音 Yiwen Luomǎ pinyin which was a system or systems invented by missionaries and intermittently used afterwards by some government institutions 2 3 There was also a Yi abugida or alphasyllabary devised by Sam Pollard the Pollard script for the Miao language which he adapted into Nasu as well 4 5 Present day traditional Yi writing can be sub divided into five main varieties Huang Jianming 1993 Nuosu the prestige form of the Yi language centred on the Liangshan area Nasu including the Wusa Nisu Southern Yi Sani 撒尼 and Azhe 阿哲 6 7 Contents 1 Classical Yi 2 Modern Yi 2 1 Syllabary 3 Yi in pinyin 3 1 Consonants 3 1 1 Plosive series 3 1 2 Affricate series 3 2 Vowels 3 3 Tones 4 Unicode 5 See also 6 Further reading 7 References 8 External linksClassical Yi Edit A classical Yi manuscript A Yi manuscript from 1814 Classical Yi is a syllabic logographic system that was reputedly devised during the Tang dynasty 618 907 by someone called Aki Chinese 阿畸 pinyin Aqi 8 However the earliest surviving examples of the Yi script only date back to the late 15th century and early 16th century the earliest dated example being an inscription on a bronze bell dated to 1485 9 There are tens of thousands of manuscripts in the Yi script dating back several centuries although most are undated In recent years a number of Yi manuscript texts written in traditional Yi script have been published The original script is said to have comprised 1 840 characters but over the centuries widely divergent glyph forms have developed in different Yi speaking areas an extreme example being the character for stomach which exists in some forty glyph variants Due to this regional variation as many as 90 000 different Yi glyphs are known from manuscripts and inscriptions Although similar to Chinese in function the glyphs are independent in form with little to suggest that they are directly related However there are some borrowings from Chinese such as the characters for numbers used in some Yi script traditions Languages written with the classical script included Nuosu Nisu Wusa Nasu and Mantsi Modern Yi EditThe Modern Yi script ꆈꌠꁱꂷ nuosu bburma nɔ su bu ma Nuosu script is a standardized syllabary derived from the classic script in 1974 by the local Chinese government Liangshan Standard Yi Script In 1980 it was made the official script of the Liangshan Cool Mountain dialect of the Nuosu Yi language of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture and consequently is known as Liangshan Standard Yi Script 涼山規範彝文 Liangshan guifan Yiwen Other dialects of Yi do not yet have a standardized script There are 756 basic glyphs based on the Liangshan dialect plus 63 for syllables only used for words borrowed from Chinese The native syllabary represents vowel and consonant vowel syllables formed of 43 consonants and 8 vowels that can occur with any of three tones plus two buzzing vowels that can only occur as mid tone Not all combinations are possible Although the Liangshan dialect has four tones and others have more only three tones high mid low have separate glyphs The fourth tone rising may sometimes occur as a grammatical inflection of the mid tone so it is written with the mid tone glyph plus a diacritic mark a superscript arc Counting syllables with this diacritic the script represents 1 164 syllables In addition there is a syllable iteration mark ꀕ represented as w in Yi pinyin that is used to reduplicate a preceding syllable Syllabary Edit The syllabary of standard modern Yi is illustrated in the table below The sound represented by the column comes first view table as an image 10 b p bb nb hm m f v d t dd nd hn n hl l g k gg mg hx ng h w z c zz nz s ss zh ch rr nr sh r j q jj nj ny x y p pʰ b m b m m f v t tʰ d n d n n ɬ l k kʰ ɡ ŋ ɡ h ŋ x ɣ t s t sʰ d z nd z s z t ʂ t ʂʰ d ʐ nd ʐ ʂ ʐ t ɕ t ɕʰ d ʑ nd ʑ nʲ ɕ ʑ it i ꀀ ꀖ ꀸ ꁖ ꁶ ꂑ ꂮ ꃍ ꃢ ꄀ ꄚ ꄶ ꅑ ꅨ ꅽ ꆗ ꆷ ꇚ ꇸ ꈔ ꉆ ꉮ ꊍ ꊮ ꋐ ꋭ ꌉ ꌪ ꏠ ꏼ ꐘ ꐱ ꑊ ꑝ ꑱix ǐ ꀁ ꀗ ꀹ ꁗ ꁷ ꂒ ꂯ ꃎ ꃣ ꄁ ꄛ ꄷ ꅒ ꅩ ꅾ ꆘ ꆸ ꇛ ꇹ ꈕ ꉇ ꊎ ꊯ ꋑ ꋮ ꌊ ꌫ ꏡ ꏽ ꐙ ꐲ ꑋ ꑞ ꑲi i ꀂ ꀘ ꀺ ꁘ ꁸ ꂓ ꂰ ꃏ ꃤ ꄂ ꄜ ꄸ ꅓ ꅪ ꅿ ꆙ ꆹ ꇜ ꇺ ꈖ ꉈ ꊏ ꊰ ꋒ ꋯ ꌋ ꌬ ꏢ ꏾ ꐚ ꐳ ꑌ ꑟ ꑳip i ꀃ ꀙ ꀻ ꁙ ꁹ ꂔ ꂱ ꃐ ꃥ ꄃ ꄝ ꄹ ꅔ ꅫ ꆀ ꆚ ꆺ ꇝ ꇻ ꉉ ꊐ ꊱ ꋓ ꋰ ꌌ ꌭ ꏣ ꏿ ꐛ ꐴ ꑍ ꑠ ꑴiet ɛ ꀄ ꀚ ꁚ ꃦ ꅬ ꆻ ꇞ ꉊ ꊲ ꋔ ꏤ ꐀ ꐜ ꐵ ꑎ ꑡ ꑵiex ɛ ꀅ ꀛ ꀼ ꁛ ꁺ ꂕ ꂲ ꃧ ꄄ ꄞ ꄺ ꅕ ꅭ ꆁ ꆛ ꆼ ꇟ ꇼ ꈗ ꈰ ꉋ ꉝ ꉯ ꊑ ꊳ ꋕ ꋱ ꌍ ꌮ ꏥ ꐁ ꐝ ꐶ ꑏ ꑢ ꑶie ɛ ꀆ ꀜ ꀽ ꁜ ꁻ ꂖ ꂳ ꃨ ꄅ ꄟ ꄻ ꅖ ꅮ ꆂ ꆜ ꆽ ꇠ ꇽ ꈘ ꈱ ꉌ ꉞ ꉰ ꊒ ꊴ ꋖ ꋲ ꌎ ꌯ ꏦ ꐂ ꐞ ꐷ ꑐ ꑣ ꑷiep ɛ ꀇ ꀝ ꀾ ꁝ ꁼ ꂗ ꂴ ꃩ ꄆ ꄠ ꄼ ꅯ ꆃ ꆝ ꆾ ꇡ ꇾ ꈙ ꉍ ꉟ ꊓ ꊵ ꋗ ꋳ ꌏ ꌰ ꏧ ꐃ ꐟ ꐸ ꑑ ꑤ ꑸat a ꀈ ꀞ ꀿ ꁞ ꁽ ꂘ ꂵ ꃑ ꃪ ꄇ ꄡ ꄽ ꅗ ꅰ ꆞ ꆿ ꇢ ꇿ ꈚ ꈲ ꉎ ꉠ ꉱ ꊀ ꊔ ꊶ ꋘ ꋴ ꌐ ꌱ ꍆ ꍡ ꎔ ꎫ ꏆ ax ǎ ꀉ ꀟ ꁀ ꁟ ꁾ ꂙ ꂶ ꃒ ꃫ ꄈ ꄢ ꄾ ꅘ ꅱ ꆄ ꆟ ꇀ ꇣ ꈀ ꈛ ꈳ ꉏ ꉡ ꉲ ꊁ ꊕ ꊷ ꋙ ꋵ ꌑ ꌲ ꍇ ꍢ ꍼ ꎕ ꎬ ꏇ a a ꀊ ꀠ ꁁ ꁠ ꁿ ꂚ ꂷ ꃓ ꃬ ꄉ ꄣ ꄿ ꅙ ꅲ ꆅ ꆠ ꇁ ꇤ ꈁ ꈜ ꈴ ꉐ ꉢ ꉳ ꊂ ꊖ ꊸ ꋚ ꋶ ꌒ ꌳ ꍈ ꍣ ꍽ ꎖ ꎭ ꏈ ap a ꀋ ꀡ ꁂ ꁡ ꂀ ꂛ ꂸ ꃔ ꃭ ꄊ ꄤ ꅀ ꅚ ꅳ ꆆ ꆡ ꇂ ꇥ ꈂ ꈝ ꈵ ꉑ ꉣ ꉴ ꊃ ꊗ ꊹ ꋛ ꋷ ꌓ ꌴ ꍉ ꍤ ꎗ ꎮ ꏉ uot ɔ ꂹ ꄥ ꇃ ꇦ ꈞ ꉒ ꉤ ꉵ ꍥ ꏨ ꐄ ꑹuox ɔ ꀌ ꀢ ꁃ ꁢ ꂜ ꂺ ꄋ ꄦ ꅁ ꅴ ꆇ ꆢ ꇄ ꇧ ꈃ ꈟ ꈶ ꉓ ꉥ ꉶ ꊄ ꊘ ꊺ ꋸ ꌔ ꍊ ꍦ ꍾ ꎯ ꏊ ꏩ ꐅ ꐠ ꐹ ꑒ ꑥ ꑺuo ɔ ꀍ ꀣ ꁄ ꁣ ꂝ ꂻ ꄌ ꄧ ꅂ ꅵ ꆈ ꆣ ꇅ ꇨ ꈄ ꈠ ꈷ ꉔ ꉦ ꉷ ꊅ ꊙ ꊻ ꋹ ꌕ ꍋ ꍧ ꍿ ꎰ ꏋ ꏪ ꐆ ꐡ ꐺ ꑓ ꑦ ꑻuop ɔ ꀎ ꀤ ꁅ ꁤ ꂞ ꂼ ꄨ ꅃ ꆉ ꆤ ꇆ ꇩ ꈅ ꈡ ꈸ ꉕ ꉸ ꊆ ꊚ ꊼ ꌖ ꍌ ꍨ ꎱ ꏌ ꏫ ꐇ ꐢ ꑔ ꑼot o ꀏ ꀥ ꁆ ꁥ ꂁ ꂟ ꂽ ꃮ ꄍ ꄩ ꅄ ꅛ ꅶ ꆊ ꇇ ꇪ ꈆ ꈢ ꈹ ꉖ ꉧ ꉹ ꊛ ꊽ ꌗ ꌵ ꍍ ꍩ ꎀ ꎲ ꏍ ꏬ ꐈ ꐣ ꐻ ꑕ ꑧ ꑽox ǒ ꀐ ꀦ ꁇ ꁦ ꂂ ꂠ ꂾ ꃕ ꃯ ꄎ ꄪ ꅅ ꅜ ꅷ ꆋ ꆥ ꇈ ꇫ ꈇ ꈣ ꈺ ꉗ ꉨ ꉺ ꊇ ꊜ ꊾ ꋜ ꋺ ꌘ ꌶ ꍎ ꍪ ꎁ ꎘ ꎳ ꏎ ꏭ ꐉ ꐤ ꐼ ꑖ ꑨ ꑾo ō ꀑ ꀧ ꁈ ꁧ ꂃ ꂡ ꂿ ꃖ ꃰ ꄏ ꄫ ꅆ ꅝ ꆌ ꆦ ꇉ ꇬ ꈈ ꈤ ꈻ ꉘ ꉩ ꉻ ꊈ ꊝ ꊿ ꋝ ꌙ ꌷ ꍏ ꍫ ꎂ ꎙ ꎴ ꏏ ꏮ ꐊ ꐥ ꐽ ꑗ ꑩ ꑿop o ꀒ ꀨ ꁉ ꁨ ꂄ ꂢ ꃀ ꃗ ꃱ ꄐ ꄬ ꅇ ꅞ ꅸ ꆍ ꆧ ꇊ ꇭ ꈉ ꈥ ꈼ ꉙ ꉪ ꉼ ꊉ ꊞ ꋀ ꋞ ꋻ ꌚ ꌸ ꍐ ꍬ ꎃ ꎚ ꎵ ꏐ ꏯ ꐋ ꐦ ꐾ ꑘ ꑪ ꒀet ɯ ꇮ ꈊ ꈦ ꍑ ꍭ ꎄ ꎛ ꎶ ex ɯ ꀓ ꀩ ꁩ ꃁ ꃲ ꄑ ꄭ ꅈ ꅟ ꅹ ꆎ ꆨ ꇋ ꇯ ꈋ ꈧ ꈽ ꉚ ꉫ ꉽ ꊊ ꊟ ꋁ ꋟ ꋼ ꌛ ꌹ ꍒ ꍮ ꎅ ꎜ ꎷ ꏑ e ɯ ꀔ ꀪ ꁪ ꃂ ꄒ ꄮ ꅉ ꅠ ꅺ ꆏ ꆩ ꇌ ꇰ ꈌ ꈨ ꈾ ꉛ ꉬ ꉾ ꊋ ꊠ ꋂ ꋠ ꋽ ꌜ ꌺ ꍓ ꍯ ꎆ ꎝ ꎸ ꏒ ep ɯ ꀫ ꁫ ꃳ ꄓ ꄯ ꅊ ꅡ ꅻ ꆐ ꆪ ꇍ ꇱ ꈍ ꈩ ꈿ ꉜ ꉭ ꉿ ꊌ ꊡ ꋃ ꋡ ꌝ ꌻ ꍔ ꍰ ꎇ ꎞ ꎹ ꏓ ut u ꀬ ꁊ ꁬ ꂅ ꂣ ꃃ ꃘ ꃴ ꄔ ꄰ ꅋ ꅢ ꅼ ꆑ ꆫ ꇎ ꇲ ꈎ ꈪ ꉀ ꊢ ꋄ ꌞ ꌼ ꍕ ꎈ ꎟ ꎺ ꏔ ꏰ ꐌ ꐧ ꑙ ꒁux ǔ ꀭ ꁋ ꁭ ꂆ ꂤ ꃄ ꃙ ꃵ ꄕ ꄱ ꅌ ꅣ ꆒ ꆬ ꇏ ꇳ ꈏ ꈫ ꉁ ꊣ ꋅ ꋢ ꋾ ꌟ ꌽ ꍖ ꍱ ꎉ ꎠ ꎻ ꏕ ꏱ ꐍ ꐨ ꐿ ꑚ ꒂu u ꀮ ꁌ ꁮ ꂇ ꂥ ꃅ ꃚ ꃶ ꄖ ꄲ ꅍ ꅤ ꆓ ꆭ ꇐ ꇴ ꈐ ꈬ ꉂ ꊤ ꋆ ꋣ ꋿ ꌠ ꌾ ꍗ ꍲ ꎊ ꎡ ꎼ ꏖ ꏲ ꐎ ꐩ ꑀ ꑛ ꒃup u ꀯ ꁍ ꁯ ꂈ ꂦ ꃆ ꃛ ꃷ ꄗ ꄳ ꅎ ꅥ ꆔ ꆮ ꇑ ꇵ ꈑ ꈭ ꉃ ꊥ ꋇ ꋤ ꌀ ꌡ ꌿ ꍘ ꍳ ꎋ ꎢ ꎽ ꏗ ꏳ ꐏ ꐪ ꑁ ꑜ ꒄurx ǔ ꀰ ꁎ ꁰ ꂉ ꂧ ꃇ ꃜ ꃸ ꄘ ꄴ ꅏ ꅦ ꆕ ꆯ ꇒ ꇶ ꈒ ꈮ ꉄ ꊦ ꋈ ꋥ ꌁ ꌢ ꍙ ꍴ ꎌ ꎣ ꎾ ꏘ ꏴ ꐐ ꐫ ꑂ ꒅur u ꀱ ꁏ ꁱ ꂊ ꂨ ꃈ ꃝ ꃹ ꄙ ꄵ ꅐ ꅧ ꆖ ꆰ ꇓ ꇷ ꈓ ꈯ ꉅ ꊧ ꋉ ꋦ ꌂ ꌣ ꍚ ꍵ ꎍ ꎤ ꎿ ꏙ ꏵ ꐑ ꐬ ꑃ ꒆyt ɿ ꀲ ꁐ ꁲ ꂋ ꃉ ꃞ ꃺ ꆱ ꇔ ꊨ ꋊ ꋧ ꌃ ꌤ ꍀ ꍛ ꍶ ꎎ ꎥ ꏀ ꏚ ꏶ ꐒ ꐭ ꑄ ꑫ ꒇyx ɿ ꀳ ꁑ ꁳ ꂌ ꂩ ꃊ ꃟ ꃻ ꆲ ꇕ ꊩ ꋋ ꋨ ꌄ ꌥ ꍁ ꍜ ꍷ ꎏ ꎦ ꏁ ꏛ ꏷ ꐓ ꐮ ꑅ ꑬ ꒈy ɿ ꀴ ꁒ ꁴ ꂍ ꂪ ꃋ ꃠ ꃼ ꆳ ꇖ ꊪ ꋌ ꋩ ꌅ ꌦ ꍂ ꍝ ꍸ ꎐ ꎧ ꏂ ꏜ ꏸ ꐔ ꐯ ꑆ ꑭ ꒉyp ɿ ꀵ ꁓ ꁵ ꂎ ꂫ ꃌ ꃡ ꃽ ꆴ ꇗ ꊫ ꋍ ꋪ ꌆ ꌧ ꍃ ꍞ ꍹ ꎑ ꎨ ꏃ ꏝ ꏹ ꐕ ꐰ ꑇ ꑮ ꒊyrx ɿ ꀶ ꁔ ꂏ ꂬ ꃾ ꆵ ꇘ ꊬ ꋎ ꋫ ꌇ ꌨ ꍄ ꍟ ꍺ ꎒ ꎩ ꏄ ꏞ ꏺ ꐖ ꑈ ꑯ ꒋyr ɿ ꀷ ꁕ ꂐ ꂭ ꃿ ꆶ ꇙ ꊭ ꋏ ꋬ ꌈ ꌩ ꍅ ꍠ ꍻ ꎓ ꎪ ꏅ ꏟ ꏻ ꐗ ꑉ ꑰ ꒌYi in pinyin Edit Trilingual signs in Chinese Yi syllabic script and Hani alphabetic on the Lihaozhai Township government office Jianshui County Yunnan The Yi and Hani texts apparently have a syllable to syllable correspondence to the Chinese text The expanded pinyin letters used to write Yi are Consonants Edit The consonant series are tenuis stop aspirate voiced prenasalized voiceless nasal voiced nasal voiceless fricative voiced fricative respectively In addition hl l are laterals and hx is h V w ss r y are the voiced fricatives With stops and affricates voicing is shown by doubling the letter Plosive series Edit Labial b p p pʰ bb b nb m b hm m m m f f v v Alveolar d t t tʰ dd d nd n d hn n n n hl ɬ l l Velar g k k kʰ gg ɡ mg ŋ ɡ hx h ng ŋ h x w ɣ Affricate series Edit Alveolar z t s c t sʰ zz d z nz nd z s s ss z Retroflex zh t ʂ ch t ʂʰ rr d ʐ nr nd ʐ sh ʂ r ʐ Palatal j t ɕ q t ɕʰ jj d ʑ nj nd ʑ ny nʲ x ɕ y ʑ Vowels Edit VowelsTransliteration i ie a uo o e u ur y yrIPA transcription i ɛ a ɔ o ɯ u u z ʐ Tones Edit An unmarked syllable has mid level tone 33 e g a or alternatively a Other tones are shown by a final letter t high level tone 55 e g a or alternatively a x high rising tone 34 e g ǎ or alternatively a p low falling tone 21 e g a or alternatively a Unicode EditThe Unicode block for Modern Yi is Yi syllables U A000 to U A48C and comprises 1 164 syllables syllables with a diacritic mark are encoded separately and are not decomposable into syllable plus combining diacritical mark and one syllable iteration mark U A015 incorrectly named YI SYLLABLE WU In addition a set of 55 radicals for use in dictionary classification are encoded at U A490 to U A4C6 Yi Radicals 11 Yi syllables and Yi radicals were added as new blocks to Unicode Standard with version 3 0 12 Classical Yi which is an ideographic script like the Chinese characters has not yet been encoded in Unicode but a proposal to encode 88 613 Classical Yi characters was made in 2007 13 See also EditChinese family of scripts Mojikyo Nisoish languagesFurther reading EditMiyake Marc 2011 Yi romanization Parts 1 5 6 References Edit 中国少数民族文化遗产集粹 2006 Page 9 汉文史料中分别称彝文为 夷字 爨文 韪书 蝌蚪文 倮倮文 毕摩文 等 中华人民共和国成立后随族称的规范 统称为彝族文字 简称为彝文 秦和平 基督宗教在西南民族地区的传播史 2003 Page 49 另外 基督教之所以能够传播于民族地区 民族文字的创制及使用起到关键作用 据调查 传教士创制的文字有苗文 摆夷 傣 文 傈僳文 怒文 景颇文 佤文 彝文 拉祜文等等 它们利用罗马拼音字母系统对该民族语言或文字加以注音所产生 Benoit Vermander L enclos a moutons un village nuosu au sud ouest de la Chine 2007 Page 8 Si les Nuosu vivent sur le territoire chinois s ils sont citoyens chinois et gouvernes de fait par le Parti Etat chinois l univers culturel dans lequel Par ailleurs un systeme de transcription forme sur l alphabet latin a ete egalement mis au point Miao abugida table Annual report of the American Bible Society American Bible Society 1949 Volume 133 Page 248 In the Nasu New Testament the so called Pollard Script is used Its alphabet was invented by the late Mr Pollard a British missionary who worked in Yunnan and Kweichow Provinces Since the publication of the first edition of 5 000 more Halina Wasilewska in ed Nathan Hill Medieval Tibeto Burman Languages IV 2012 Page 449 the writing as the basis and which corresponds to the classification of the Yi languages present day traditional Yi writing can be sub divided into five main varieties Huang Jianming 1993 i e the Nuosu Nasu Nisu Sani and Azhe varieties 黄建明 Huang Jianming 彝族古籍文献概要 1993 Yizu guji wenxian gaiyao Outline of classical literature of Yi nationality By Huang Jianming Yunnan minzu chubanshe 1993 Wu Zili 武自立 Chuantong Yiwen 传统彝文 Traditional Yi Script in Zhongguo Shaoshu Minzu Wenzi Beijing 1991 Ma Xueliang 马学良 Han Zang Yu Gailun 汉藏语概论 A General Introduction to Sino Tibetan Languages Beijing 1991 page 568 Liangshan Yiyu Yuyan Gailun 凉山彝语语言概论 Chengdu 1983 Unicode Demystified A Practical Programmer s Guide 2003 Page 402 The Yi language is related to Tibetan and Burmese and is written with its own script called not surprisingly the Yi script but sometimes known as Cuan or Wei 23 Classical Yi is an ideographic script like the Chinese characters 23 My sources for this section are the Unicode standard and Dingxu Shi The Yi Script in The World s Writing Systems pp 239 243 Andy Deitsch David Czarnecki Java Internationalization 2001 Page 352 Table 12 1 Additional Blocks Added to the Unicode Standard Version 3 0 Block Name Description Yi syllables The Yi syllabary used to write the Yi language spoken in Western China Yi radicals The radicals that make up the Yi syllabary Preliminary Proposal to encode Classical Yi Characters 134 MB External links EditDr Halina Wasilewska The Yi writing system and its position among the scripts of East Asia Dr Kazue Iwasa Geolinguistical approach to the analysis of Yi characters and current findings Yi script and language at Omniglot Pronunciation of Yi Consonant and Vowel Yi People com Official Yi language version of the People s Daily website Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yi script amp oldid 1026505666, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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