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Yodh

"Yudh" redirects here. For other uses, see Yudh (disambiguation).
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Yodh (also spelled jodh, yod, jod, or yud) is the tenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Yōd /𐤉, Hebrew Yōdי, Aramaic Yodh , Syriac Yōḏ ܝ, and Arabic Yāʾي. Its sound value is/j/ in all languages for which it is used; in many languages, it also serves as a long vowel, representing//.

Yodh
Phoenician
Hebrew
י
Aramaic
Syriac
ܝ
Arabic
ي‎[note]
j,i,e
Position in alphabet10
Numerical value10
Alphabetic derivatives of the Phoenician
GreekΙ
LatinI, J
CyrillicІ, Ї, Ы, Ю

The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Iota (Ι), Latin I and J, Cyrillic І, Coptic iauda (Ⲓ) and Gothic eis .

The term yod is often used to refer to the speech sound[j], a palatal approximant, even in discussions of languages not written in Semitic abjads, as in phonological phenomena such as English "yod-dropping".

Contents

Yodh is originated from a pictograph of a “hand” that ultimately derives from Proto-Semitic *yad-.

Orthographic variants
Various print fonts Cursive
Hebrew
Rashi
script
Serif Sans-serif Monospaced
י י י

Hebrew spelling: יוֹד; colloquial יוּד

Pronunciation

In both Biblical and modern Hebrew, Yod represents a palatal approximant ([j]). As a mater lectionis, it represents the vowel[i]. At the end of words with a vowel or when marked with a sh'va nach, it represents the formation of a diphthong, such as/ei/,/ai/, or/oi/.

Significance

In gematria, Yod represents the number ten.

As a prefix, it designates the third person singular (or plural, with a Vav as a suffix) in the future tense.

As a suffix, it indicates first person singular possessive; av (father) becomes avi (my father).

"Yod" in the Hebrew language signifies iodine. Iodine is also called يود yod in Arabic.

In religion

Two Yods in a row designate the name of God Adonai and in pointed texts are written with the vowels of Adonai; this is done as well with the Tetragrammaton.

As Yod is the smallest letter, much kabbalistic and mystical significance is attached to it. According to the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus mentioned it during the Antithesis of the Law, when he says: "One jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled." Jot, or iota, refers to the letter Yod; it was often overlooked by scribes because of its size and position as a mater lectionis. In modern Hebrew, the phrase "tip of the Yod" refers to a small and insignificant thing, and someone who "worries about the tip of a Yod" is someone who is picky and meticulous about small details.

Much kabbalistic and mystical significance is also attached to it because of its gematria value as ten, which is an important number in Judaism, and its place in the name of God.

Yiddish

In Yiddish, the letter yud is used for several orthographic purposes in native words:

  • Alone, a single yud י may represent the vowel[i] or the consonant[j]. When adjacent to another vowel, or another yud,[i] may be distinguished from[j] by the addition of a dot below. Thus the word Yidish 'Yiddish' is spelled ייִדיש. The first yud represents [j]; the second yud represents [i] and is distinguished from the adjacent [j] by a dot; the third yud represents [i] as well, but no dot is necessary.
  • The digraph יי, consisting of two yuds, represents the diphthong [ej].
  • A pair of yuds with a horizontal line (pasekh) under them, ײַ, represents the diphthong [aj] in standard Yiddish.
  • The digraph consisting of a vov followed by a yud, וי, represents the diphthong [oj].

Loanwords from Hebrew or Aramaic in Yiddish are spelled as they are in their language of origin.

Yāʾ
ي
Usage
Writing systemArabic script
TypeAbjad
Language of originArabic language
Phonetic usage[j],[]
Alphabetical position4
History
Development
  • ي
Other
This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see . For the distinction between[ ],/ / and ⟨⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

The letterي is named yāʼ (يَاء). It is written in several ways depending on its position in the word:

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial
Glyph form:
()
ي ـي ـيـ يـ

It is pronounced in four ways:

  • As a consonant, it is pronounced as a palatal approximant /j/, typically at the beginnings of words in front of short or long vowels.
  • A long /iː/ usually in the middle or end of words. In this case it has no diacritic, but could be marked with a kasra in the preceding letter in some traditions.
  • A long /eː/ In many dialects, as a result of the monophthongization that the diphthong/aj/ underwent in most words.
  • A part of a diphthong, /aj/. Then, it has no diacritic but could be marked with a sukun in some traditions. The preceding consonant could have no diacritic or have fatḥa sign, hinting to the first vowel in the diphthong, i.e./a/.

As a vowel, yāʾ can serve as the "seat" of the hamza:ئ

Yāʾ serves several functions in the Arabic language. Yāʾ as a prefix is the marker for a singular imperfective verb, as inيَكْتُب yaktub "he writes" from the rootك-ت-ب K-T-B ("write, writing"). Yāʾ with a shadda is particularly used to turn a noun into an adjective, called a nisbah (نِسْبَة). For instance,مِصْر Miṣr (Egypt) →مِصْرِيّ Miṣriyy (Egyptian). The transformation can be more abstract; for instance,مَوْضَوع mawḍūʿ (matter, object) →مَوْضُوعِيّ mawḍūʿiyy (objective). Still other uses of this function can be a bit further from the root:إِشْتِرَاك ishtirāk (cooperation) →إِشْتِرَاكِيّ ishtirākiyy (socialist). The common pronunciation of the final/-ijj/ is most often pronounced as or .

A form similar to but distinguished from yāʾ is the ʾalif maqṣūrah (أَلِف مَقْصُورَة) "limited/restricted alif", with the formى. It indicates a final long/aː/.

In Egypt, Sudan and sometimes the Maghreb, the final form is alwaysى (without dots), both in handwriting and in print, representing both final/-iː/ and/-aː/.ى representing final/-aː/ (DIN 31635 transliteration: ā) is less likely to occur in Modern Standard Arabic. In this case, it is commonly known as, especially in Egypt,أَلِف لَيِّنَة ʾalif layyinah . In Egypt, it is always short[-æ, -ɑ] if used in Egyptian Arabic and most commonly short in Modern Standard Arabic, as well.

Alif maqṣūrah

The alif maqṣūrah (ألف مقصورة, 'limited/restricted alif'), commonly known in Egypt as alif layyinah (ألف لينة, 'flexible alif'), looks like a dotless yā’ ى (final ـى) and may appear only at the end of a word. Although it looks different from a regular alif, it represents the same sound/aː/, often realized as a short vowel. When it is written, alif maqṣūrah is indistinguishable from final Persian ye or Arabic yā’ as it is written in Egypt, Sudan and sometimes elsewhere. The letter is transliterated as y in Kazakh representing the vowel /ə/. Alif maqsurah is transliterated as á in ALA-LC, ā in DIN 31635, à in ISO 233-2, and in ISO 233.

In Arabic, alif maqsurahى is not used initially or medially, and it is not joinable initially or medially in all fonts. However, the letter is used initially and medially in the Uyghur Arabic alphabet and the Arabic-based Kyrgyz alphabet, representing the vowel /ɯ/: (ىـ ـىـ).

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial
Glyph form:
()
ى ـى ـىـ ىـ

Perso-Arabic ye

In the Persian alphabet, the letter is generally called ye following Persian-language custom. In its final form, the letter does not have dots (ی), much like the Arabic Alif maqṣūrah or, more to the point, much like the custom in Egypt, Sudan and sometimes Maghreb. On account of this difference, Perso-Arabic ye is located at a different Unicode code point than both of the standard Arabic letters. In computers, the Persian version of the letter automatically appears with two dots initially and medially: (یـ ـیـ ـی).

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial
Naskh glyph form:
()
ی ـی ـیـ یـ
Nastaʿlīq glyph form: ی ــــی ــــیــــ یــــ

In Kashmiri, it uses a ring instead of dots below (ؠ) (ؠ ؠـ ـؠـ ـؠ).

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial
Glyph form:
()
ؠ ـؠ ـؠـ ؠـ

Returned yāʾ

In different calligraphic styles like the Hijazi script, Kufic, and Nastaʿlīq script, a final yāʾ might have a particular shape with the descender turned to the right (ـے), called al-yāʾ al-mardūdah/al-rājiʿah ("returned, recurred yāʾ"), either with two dots or without them.

In Urdu this is called baṛī ye ("big ye"), but is an independent letter used for /ɛː, eː/ and differs from the basic ye (choṭī ye, "little ye"). For this reason the letter has its own code point in Unicode. Nevertheless, its initial and medial forms are not different from the other ye (practically baṛī ye is not used in these positions).

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial
Naskh glyph form:
()
ے ـے ـے ے
Nastaʿlīq glyph form: ے ــــے ــــے ے
Character information
Preview י ي ی ܝ
Unicode name HEBREW LETTER YOD ARABIC LETTER YEH PERSIAN LETTER YE SYRIAC LETTER YUDH SAMARITAN LETTER YUT
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 1497 U+05D9 1610 U+064A 1740 U+06CC 1821 U+071D 2057 U+0809
UTF-8 215 153 D7 99 217 138 D9 8A 219 140 DB 8C 220 157 DC 9D 224 160 137 E0 A0 89
Numeric character reference י י ي ي ی ی ܝ ܝ ࠉ ࠉ


Character information
Preview 𐎊 𐡉 𐤉
Unicode name UGARITIC LETTER YOD IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER YODH PHOENICIAN LETTER YOD
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 66442 U+1038A 67657 U+10849 67849 U+10909
UTF-8 240 144 142 138 F0 90 8E 8A 240 144 161 137 F0 90 A1 89 240 144 164 137 F0 90 A4 89
UTF-16 55296 57226 D800 DF8A 55298 56393 D802 DC49 55298 56585 D802 DD09
Numeric character reference 𐎊 𐎊 𐡉 𐡉 𐤉 𐤉
  1. Victor Parker, A History of Greece, 1300 to 30 BC, (John Wiley & Sons, 2014), 67.
  2. Morfix.mako.co.il[permanent dead link]
  3. Fileformat.info
  4. Inner.org
  5. Weinreich, Uriel (1992). College Yiddish. New York: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. pp. 27–8.
  6. Gacek, Adam (2008). The Arabic manuscript tradition: a glossary of technical terms and bibliography: supplement. Leiden: Brill. p. 29. ISBN 978-9004165403.
  7. Yūsofī, Ḡolām-Ḥosayn (1990). "Calligraphy". Encyclopædia Iranica. IV. pp. 680–704.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toYodh (letter).

Yodh
Yodh Language Watch Edit Yudh redirects here For other uses see Yudh disambiguation This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Yodh news newspapers books scholar JSTOR March 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message Yodh also spelled jodh yod jod or yud is the tenth letter of the Semitic abjads including Phoenician Yōd 𐤉 Hebrew Yōd י Aramaic Yodh Syriac Yōḏ ܝ and Arabic Yaʾ ي Its sound value is j in all languages for which it is used in many languages it also serves as a long vowel representing iː Teth Yodh Kaph PhoenicianHebrewי AramaicSyriacܝArabicي note Phonemic representationj i ePosition in alphabet10Numerical value10Alphabetic derivatives of the PhoenicianGreekILatinI JCyrillicI Yi Y Yu The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek Iota I 1 Latin I and J Cyrillic I Coptic iauda Ⲓ and Gothic eis The term yod is often used to refer to the speech sound j a palatal approximant even in discussions of languages not written in Semitic abjads as in phonological phenomena such as English yod dropping Contents 1 Origins 2 Hebrew Yod 2 1 Pronunciation 2 2 Significance 2 2 1 In religion 2 3 Yiddish 3 Arabic yaʼ 3 1 Alif maqṣurah 3 2 Perso Arabic ye 3 3 Returned yaʾ 4 Character encodings 5 References 6 External linksOrigins EditYodh is originated from a pictograph of a hand that ultimately derives from Proto Semitic yad Hebrew Yod EditOrthographic variantsVarious print fonts Cursive Hebrew Rashi scriptSerif Sans serif Monospacedי י י Hebrew spelling יו ד 2 3 colloquial יו ד Pronunciation Edit In both Biblical and modern Hebrew Yod represents a palatal approximant j As a mater lectionis it represents the vowel i At the end of words with a vowel or when marked with a sh va nach it represents the formation of a diphthong such as ei ai or oi Significance Edit In gematria Yod represents the number ten As a prefix it designates the third person singular or plural with a Vav as a suffix in the future tense As a suffix it indicates first person singular possessive av father becomes avi my father Yod in the Hebrew language signifies iodine Iodine is also called يود yod in Arabic In religion Edit Two Yods in a row designate the name of God Adonai and in pointed texts are written with the vowels of Adonai this is done as well with the Tetragrammaton As Yod is the smallest letter much kabbalistic and mystical significance is attached to it According to the Gospel of Matthew Jesus mentioned it during the Antithesis of the Law when he says One jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law till all be fulfilled Jot or iota refers to the letter Yod it was often overlooked by scribes because of its size and position as a mater lectionis In modern Hebrew the phrase tip of the Yod refers to a small and insignificant thing and someone who worries about the tip of a Yod is someone who is picky and meticulous about small details Much kabbalistic and mystical significance is also attached to it because of its gematria value as ten which is an important number in Judaism and its place in the name of God 4 Yiddish Edit In Yiddish 5 the letter yud is used for several orthographic purposes in native words Alone a single yud י may represent the vowel i or the consonant j When adjacent to another vowel or another yud i may be distinguished from j by the addition of a dot below Thus the word Yidish Yiddish is spelled יי דיש The first yud represents j the second yud represents i and is distinguished from the adjacent j by a dot the third yud represents i as well but no dot is necessary The digraph יי consisting of two yuds represents the diphthong ej A pair of yuds with a horizontal line pasekh under them ײ represents the diphthong aj in standard Yiddish The digraph consisting of a vov followed by a yud וי represents the diphthong oj Loanwords from Hebrew or Aramaic in Yiddish are spelled as they are in their language of origin Arabic yaʼ EditYaʾيUsageWriting systemArabic scriptTypeAbjadLanguage of originArabic languagePhonetic usage j iː Alphabetical position4HistoryDevelopmentيOtherThis article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet IPA For an introductory guide on IPA symbols see Help IPA For the distinction between and see IPA Brackets and transcription delimiters The letter ي is named yaʼ ي اء It is written in several ways depending on its position in the word Position in word Isolated Final Medial InitialGlyph form Help ي ـي ـيـ يـ It is pronounced in four ways As a consonant it is pronounced as a palatal approximant j typically at the beginnings of words in front of short or long vowels A long iː usually in the middle or end of words In this case it has no diacritic but could be marked with a kasra in the preceding letter in some traditions A long eː In many dialects as a result of the monophthongization that the diphthong aj underwent in most words A part of a diphthong aj Then it has no diacritic but could be marked with a sukun in some traditions The preceding consonant could have no diacritic or have fatḥa sign hinting to the first vowel in the diphthong i e a As a vowel yaʾ can serve as the seat of the hamza ئ Yaʾ serves several functions in the Arabic language Yaʾ as a prefix is the marker for a singular imperfective verb as in ي ك ت ب yaktub he writes from the root ك ت ب K T B write writing Yaʾ with a shadda is particularly used to turn a noun into an adjective called a nisbah ن س ب ة For instance م ص ر Miṣr Egypt م ص ر ي Miṣriyy Egyptian The transformation can be more abstract for instance م و ض وع mawḍuʿ matter object م و ض وع ي mawḍuʿiyy objective Still other uses of this function can be a bit further from the root إ ش ت ر اك ishtirak cooperation إ ش ت ر اك ي ishtirakiyy socialist The common pronunciation of the final ijj is most often pronounced as i or iː A form similar to but distinguished from yaʾ is the ʾalif maqṣurah أ ل ف م ق ص ور ة limited restricted alif with the form ى It indicates a final long aː In Egypt Sudan and sometimes the Maghreb the final form is always ى without dots both in handwriting and in print representing both final iː and aː ى representing final aː DIN 31635 transliteration a is less likely to occur in Modern Standard Arabic In this case it is commonly known as especially in Egypt أ ل ف ل ي ن ة ʾalif layyinah ˈʔaelef laejˈjenae In Egypt it is always short ae ɑ if used in Egyptian Arabic and most commonly short in Modern Standard Arabic as well Alif maqṣurah Edit The alif maqṣurah ألف مقصورة limited restricted alif commonly known in Egypt as alif layyinah ألف لينة flexible alif looks like a dotless ya ى final ـى and may appear only at the end of a word Although it looks different from a regular alif it represents the same sound aː often realized as a short vowel When it is written alif maqṣurah is indistinguishable from final Persian ye or Arabic ya as it is written in Egypt Sudan and sometimes elsewhere The letter is transliterated as y in Kazakh representing the vowel e Alif maqsurah is transliterated as a in ALA LC a in DIN 31635 a in ISO 233 2 and ỳ in ISO 233 In Arabic alif maqsurah ى is not used initially or medially and it is not joinable initially or medially in all fonts However the letter is used initially and medially in the Uyghur Arabic alphabet and the Arabic based Kyrgyz alphabet representing the vowel ɯ ىـ ـىـ Position in word Isolated Final Medial InitialGlyph form Help ى ـى ـىـ ىـ Perso Arabic ye Edit In the Persian alphabet the letter is generally called ye following Persian language custom In its final form the letter does not have dots ی much like the Arabic Alif maqṣurah or more to the point much like the custom in Egypt Sudan and sometimes Maghreb On account of this difference Perso Arabic ye is located at a different Unicode code point than both of the standard Arabic letters In computers the Persian version of the letter automatically appears with two dots initially and medially یـ ـیـ ـی Position in word Isolated Final Medial InitialNaskh glyph form Help ی ـی ـیـ یـ Nastaʿliq glyph form ی ــــی ــــیــــ یــــ In Kashmiri it uses a ring instead of dots below ؠ ؠ ؠـ ـؠـ ـؠ Position in word Isolated Final Medial InitialGlyph form Help ؠ ـؠ ـؠـ ؠـ Returned yaʾ Edit In different calligraphic styles like the Hijazi script Kufic and Nastaʿliq script a final yaʾ might have a particular shape with the descender turned to the right ـے called al yaʾ al mardudah al rajiʿah returned recurred yaʾ 6 either with two dots or without them 7 In Urdu this is called baṛi ye big ye but is an independent letter used for ɛː eː and differs from the basic ye choṭi ye little ye For this reason the letter has its own code point in Unicode Nevertheless its initial and medial forms are not different from the other ye practically baṛi ye is not used in these positions Position in word Isolated Final Medial InitialNaskh glyph form Help ے ـے ـے ے Nastaʿliq glyph form ے ــــے ــــے ےCharacter encodings EditCharacter information Preview י ي ی ܝ ࠉUnicode name HEBREW LETTER YOD ARABIC LETTER YEH PERSIAN LETTER YE SYRIAC LETTER YUDH SAMARITAN LETTER YUTEncodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hexUnicode 1497 U 05D9 1610 U 064A 1740 U 06CC 1821 U 071D 2057 U 0809UTF 8 215 153 D7 99 217 138 D9 8A 219 140 DB 8C 220 157 DC 9D 224 160 137 E0 A0 89Numeric character reference amp 1497 wbr amp x5D9 wbr amp 1610 wbr amp x64A wbr amp 1740 wbr amp x6CC wbr amp 1821 wbr amp x71D wbr amp 2057 wbr amp x809 wbr Character information Preview 𐎊 𐡉 𐤉Unicode name UGARITIC LETTER YOD IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER YODH PHOENICIAN LETTER YODEncodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hexUnicode 66442 U 1038A 67657 U 10849 67849 U 10909UTF 8 240 144 142 138 F0 90 8E 8A 240 144 161 137 F0 90 A1 89 240 144 164 137 F0 90 A4 89UTF 16 55296 57226 D800 DF8A 55298 56393 D802 DC49 55298 56585 D802 DD09Numeric character reference amp 66442 wbr amp x1038A wbr amp 67657 wbr amp x10849 wbr amp 67849 wbr amp x10909 wbr References Edit Victor Parker A History of Greece 1300 to 30 BC John Wiley amp Sons 2014 67 Morfix mako co il permanent dead link Fileformat info Inner org Weinreich Uriel 1992 College Yiddish New York YIVO Institute for Jewish Research pp 27 8 Gacek Adam 2008 The Arabic manuscript tradition a glossary of technical terms and bibliography supplement Leiden Brill p 29 ISBN 978 9004165403 Yusofi Ḡolam Ḥosayn 1990 Calligraphy Encyclopaedia Iranica IV pp 680 704 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Yodh letter Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Yodh amp oldid 1052381378, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

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, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.